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Cultural dimensions:

1. USA:
If we explore the US culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we can get a
good overview of the deep driving factors of American culture relative to
other cultures in our world. By supplying you with this information please
realize that culture describes a central tendency in society. Everybody is
unique, yet social control ensures that most people will not deviate too much
from the norm. Moreover, within every country regional cultural differences
exist, also in the States. Americans, however, dont need to go to a cultural
briefing before moving to another state successfully.
Power Distance
The fact that everybody is unique implies that we are all unequal. One of the
most salient aspects of inequality is the degree of power each person exerts
or can exert over other persons; power being defined as the degree to which
a person is able to influence other peoples ideas and behavior.
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal, and it expresses the attitude of the culture toward these power
inequalities amongst us. Power distance is defined as the extent to which
the less powerful members of institutions and organizations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. It has to do with the
fact that a societys inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the
leaders.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do
with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are only supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups that
take care of them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty.
The fairly low score on Power Distance(40) in combination with one of the the
most Individualist (91) cultures in the world reflects itself in the following:
The American premise of liberty and justice for all. This is
evidenced by an explicit emphasis on equal rights in all aspects of
American society and government.
Within American organisations, hierarchy is established for
convenience, superiors are accessible and managers rely on
individual employees and teams for their expertise.

Both managers and employees expect to be consulted and


information is shared frequently. At the same time, communication
is informal, direct and participative to a degree.
The society is loosely-knit in which the expectation is that people
look after themselves and their immediate families only and should
not rely (too much) on authorities for support.
There is also a high degree of geographical mobility in the United
States. Americans are the best joiners in the world; however it is
often difficult, especially among men, to develop deep friendships.
Americans are accustomed to doing business or interacting with
people they dont know well. Consequently, Americans are not shy
about approaching their prospective counterparts in order to obtain
or seek information. In the business world, employees are expected
to be self-reliant and display initiative. Also, within the exchangebased world of work we see that hiring, promotion and decisions are
based on merit or evidence of what one has done or can do.

Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will be
driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being defined
by the winner or best-in-the-field. This value system starts in childhood
and continues throughout ones life both in work and leisure pursuits.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values in
society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd is
not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,
wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
The score of the US on Masculinity is high at 62, and this can be seen in the
typical American behavioral patterns. This can be explained by the the
combination of a high Masculinity drive together with the most Individualist
drive in the world. In other words, Americans, so to speak, all show their
Masculine drive individually. The British, however, have the same culture in
this respect. The question, therefore, should be: is the same drive not
normally to be seen on the surface? This difference is a reflection of the
higher score of the US on Uncertainty Avoidance than of the UK. In other
words, in both societies we find the same drive, but Americans show it upfront whereas the British will take you by surprise.
This American combination reflects itself in the following:

Behavior in school, work, and play are based on the shared values
that people should strive to be the best they can be and that the

winner takes all. As a result, Americans will tend to display and talk
freely about their successes and achievements in life. Being
successful per se is not the great motivator in American society, but
being able to show ones success
Many American assessment systems are based on precise target

setting, by which American employees can show how well a job they
did.
There exists a can-do mentality which creates a lot of dynamism in
the society, as it is believed that there is always the possibility to do
things in a better way
Typically, Americans live to work so that they can obtain monetary

rewards and as a consequence attain higher status based on how


good one can be. Many white collar workers will move to a more
fancy neighborhood after each and every substantial promotion.
It is believed that a certain degree of conflict will bring out the best

of people, as it is the goal to be the winner. As a consequence, we


see a lot of polarisation and court cases. This mentality nowadays
undermines the American premise of liberty and justice for all.
Rising inequality is endangering democracy, because a widening gap
among the classes may slowly push Power Distance up and
Individualism down.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a society
deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we try
to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it anxiety
and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in different ways.
The extent to which the members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous
or unknown situations and have created beliefs and institutions that try to
avoid these is reflected in the score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
The US scores below average, with a low score of 46, on the Uncertainty
Avoidance dimension. . As a consequence, the perceived context in which
Americans find themselves will impact their behaviour more than if the
culture would have either scored higher or lower. Thus, this cultural pattern
reflects itself as follows:
There is a fair degree of acceptance for new ideas, innovative
products and a willingness to try something new or different,
whether it pertains to technology, business practices or food.
Americans tend to be more tolerant of ideas or opinions from anyone
and allow the freedom of expression. At the same time, Americans
do not require a lot of rules and are less emotionally expressive than
higher-scoring cultures.

At the same time, 9/11 has created a lot of fear in the American
society culminating in the efforts of government to monitor
everybody through the NSA and other security organizations

Long Term Orientation


This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present
and future, and societies priorities these two existential goals differently.
Normative societies which score low on this dimension, for example, prefer to
maintain time-honored traditions and norms while viewing societal change
with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on the other hand,
take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift and efforts in modern
education as a way to prepare for the future.
The United States scores normative on the fifth dimension with a low score of
26. This is reflected by the following:
Americans are prone to analyze new information to check whether it
is true. Thus, the culture doesnt make most Americans pragmatic,
but this should not be confused with the fact that Americans are
very practical, being reflected by the can-do mentality mentioned
above.

The polarisation mentioned above is, so to speak, strengthened by


the fact that many Americans have very strong ideas about what is
good and evil. This may concern issues such as abortion, use of
drugs, euthanasia, weapons or the size and rights of the government
versus the States and versus citizens.
The US is the one of the only Caucasian countries in the world

where, since the beginning of the 20 th century, visiting church has


increased. This increase is also evident in some post-Soviet republics
such as Russia.
American businesses measure their performance on a short-term
basis, with profit and loss statements being issued on a quarterly
basis. This also drives individuals to strive for quick results within
the work place.

Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree to
which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not become
human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people try to
control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were raised. A

tendency toward a relatively weak control over their impulses is called


Indulgence, whereas a relatively strong control over their urges is called
Restraint. Cultures can be described as Indulgent or Restrained.
The United States scores as an Indulgent (68) society on the sixth dimension.
This, in combination with a normative score, is reflected by the following
contradictory attitudes and behavior:
Work hard and play hard.
The States has waged a war against drugs and is still very busy in
doing so, yet drug addiction in the States is higher than in many
other wealthy countries.
It is a prudish society yet even some well-known televangelists
appear to be immoral.

2. Australia:
If we explore the Australian culture through the lens of the 6-D Model,
we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Australian culture
relative to other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country

expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. It has to do with the
fact that a societys inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by
the leaders.
Australia scores low on this dimension (36). Within Australian
organizations, hierarchy is established for convenience, superiors are
always accessible and managers rely on individual employees and teams
for their expertise. Both managers and employees expect to be consulted
and information is shared frequently. At the same time, communication is
informal, direct and participative.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with
whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Australia, with a score of 90 on this dimension, is a highly Individualist
culture. This translates into a loosely-knit society in which the expectation
is that people look after themselves and their immediate families. In the
business world, employees are expected to be self-reliant and display
initiative. Also, within the exchange-based world of work, hiring and
promotion decisions are based on merit or evidence of what one has done
or can do.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner or best-in-the-field. This value system starts in
school and continues throughout ones life both in work and leisure
pursuits.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,
wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
Australia scores 61 on this dimension and is considered a Masculine
society. Behavior in school, work, and play are based on the shared values
that people should strive to be the best they can be and that the
winner takes all. Australians are proud of their successes and

achievements in life, and it offers a basis for hiring and promotion


decisions in the workplace. Conflicts are resolved at the individual level
and the goal is to win.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs
and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on
Uncertainty Avoidance.
Australia scores a very intermediate 51 on this dimension.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and
future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently.
Normative societies which score low on this dimension, for example, prefer
to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal
change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on the
other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift and
efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Australia scores 21 on this dimension and therefore has a normative
culture. People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing
the absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great
respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future,
and a focus on achieving quick results.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people
try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were
raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong
control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be described as
Indulgent or Restrained.
With a high score of 71, Australia is an Indulgent country. People in
societies classified by a high score in Indulgence generally exhibit a
willingness to realise their impulses and desires with regard to enjoying life

and having fun. They possess a positive attitude and have a tendency
towards optimism. In addition, they place a higher degree of importance
on leisure time, act as they please and spend money as they wish.

3. Canada:

If we explore the Canadian culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Canadian culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal. it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally. It has to do with the
fact that a societys inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by
the leaders.
With a score of 39 on this dimension, Canadian culture is marked by
interdependence among its inhabitants and there is value placed on
egalitarianism. This is also reflected by the lack of overt status and/or
class distinctions in society. Typical of other cultures with a low score on
this dimension, hierarchy in Canadian organisations is established for
convenience, superiors are always accessible and managers rely on
individual employees and teams for their expertise. It is customary for
managers and staff members to consult one another and to share
information freely. With respect to communication, Canadians value a
straightforward exchange of information.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with
whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Canada scores 80 on this dimension (its highest dimension score) and can
be characterized as an
Individualist culture. Similar to its American
neighbor to the south, this translates into a loosely-knit society in which
the expectation is that people look after themselves and their immediate
families. Similarly, in the business world, employees are expected to be
self-reliant and display initiative. Also, within the exchange-based world of
work, hiring and promotion decisions are based merit or evidence of what
one has done or can do.
Masculinity

A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner or best-in-the-field. This value system starts in
school and continues throughout ones life both in work and leisure
pursuits.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,
wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
Canada scores 52 on this dimension and can be characterized as a
moderately Masculine society. While Canadians strive to attain high
standards of performance in both work and play (sports), the overall
cultural tone is more subdued with respect to achievement, success and
winning, when compared to the US. Similarly, Canadians also tend to have
a work-life balance and are likely to take time to enjoy personal pursuits,
family gatherings and life in general. This is not to say that Canadians are
not hard workers. As a general rule, Canadians strive to attain high
standards of performance in all endeavors.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs
and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on
Uncertainty Avoidance.
The Canadian score on this dimension is 48 and Canadian culture is more
uncertainty accepting. This is indicative of the easy acceptance of new
ideas, innovative products and a willingness to try something new or
different, whether it pertains to technology, business practices, or
consumer products. Canadians are also tolerant of ideas or opinions from
anyone and allow the freedom of expression. At the same time, Canadian
culture is not rules-oriented and Canadians tend to be less emotionally
expressive than cultures scoring higher on this dimension.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and

future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently.


Normative societies which score low on this dimension, for example, prefer
to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal
change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on the
other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift and
efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Canada scores 36 in this dimension, marking it as a normative society.
People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing the
absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great
respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future,
and a focus on achieving quick results.

Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people
try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were
raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong
control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be described as
Indulgent or Restrained.
The high score of 68 in this dimension means that Canadian culture is
classified as Indulgent. People in societies classified by a high score in
Indulgence generally exhibit a willingness to realise their impulses and
desires with regard to enjoying life and having fun. They possess a positive
attitude and have a tendency towards optimism. In addition, they place a
higher degree of importance on leisure time, act as they please and spend
money as they wish.
NOTE: While the above descriptions apply to Canadian culture
overall, one will likely find subtle differences between Anglophone
Canadians and Francophone Canadians (the Province of Quebec.)
Compared with their Anglophone counterparts, French-Canadians
can be more formal, hierarchical, moderately relationship
focused, and more emotionally expressive. The scores for Quebec
are as follows: pdi 54; idv 73; mas 45; uai 60

4. China:
If we explore the Chinese culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Chinese culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
At 80 China sits in the higher rankings of PDI i.e. a society that believes
that inequalities amongst people are acceptable. The subordinate-superior
relationship tends to be polarized and there is no defense against power
abuse by superiors. Individuals are influenced by formal authority and
sanctions and are in general optimistic about peoples capacity for
leadership and initiative. People should not have aspirations beyond their
rank.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with
whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In

Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and


their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
At a score of 20 China is a highly collectivist culture where people act in
the interests of the group and not necessarily of themselves. In-group
considerations affect hiring and promotions with closer in-groups (such as
family) are getting preferential treatment. Employee commitment to the
organization (but not necessarily to the people in the organization) is low.
Whereas relationships with colleagues are cooperative for in-groups they
are cold or even hostile to out-groups. Personal relationships prevail over
task and company.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organizational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life.
A Feminine society is one where quality of life is the sign of success and
standing out from the crowd is not admirable. The fundamental issue here
is what motivates people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what
you do (Feminine).
At 66 China is a Masculine society success oriented and driven. The need
to ensure success can be exemplified by the fact that many Chinese will
sacrifice family and leisure priorities to work. Service people (such as
hairdressers) will provide services until very late at night. Leisure time is
not so important. The migrated farmer workers will leave their families
behind in faraway places in order to obtain better work and pay in the
cities. Another example is that Chinese students care very much about
their exam scores and ranking as this is the main criteria to achieve
success or not.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs

and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on


Uncertainty Avoidance.
At 30 China has a low score on Uncertainty Avoidance. Truth may be
relative though in the immediate social circles there is concern for Truth
with a capital T and rules (but not necessarily laws) abound. None the
less, adherence to laws and rules may be flexible to suit the actual
situation and pragmatism is a fact of life. The Chinese are comfortable
with ambiguity; the Chinese language is full of ambiguous meanings that
can be difficult for Western people to follow. Chinese are adaptable and
entrepreneurial. At the time of writing the majority (70% -80%) of Chinese
businesses tend to be small to medium sized and family owned.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and
future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently.
Normative societies which score low on this dimension, for example, prefer
to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing societal
change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on the
other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift and
efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
China scores 87 in this dimension, which means that it is a very pragmatic
culture. In societies with a pragmatic orientation, people believe that truth
depends very much on situation, context and time. They show an ability to
adapt traditions easily to changed conditions, a strong propensity to save
and invest thriftiness, and perseverance in achieving results.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people
try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were
raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong
control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be described as
Indulgent or Restrained.
China is a restrained society as can be seen in its low score of 24 in this
dimension. Societies with a low score in this dimension have a tendency to
cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent societies, restrained
societies do not put much emphasis on leisure time and control the
gratification of their desires. People with this orientation have the

perception that their actions are restrained by social norms and feel that
indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.

5. Egypt:
If we explore the Egyptian culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of its culture relative to other
world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Egypt scores high on this dimension (score of 70) which means that people
accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which
needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as

reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates


expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with
whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.

Egypt, with a score of 25 is considered a collectivistic society. This is


manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.

A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,
wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
Egypt scores 45 on this dimension and is thus considered a relatively
Feminine society. In Feminine countries the focus is on working in order to
live, managers strive for consensus, people value equality, solidarity and
quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and
negotiation. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. Focus
is on well-being, status is not shown. An effective manager is a supportive
one, and decision making is achieved through involvement.

Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs
and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on
Uncertainty Avoidance.
Egypt scores 80 on this dimension and thus has a high preference for
avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance
maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of
unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional
need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is money,
people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and
punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an
important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and
future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently.
Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example,
prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing
societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on
the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift
and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.

Egypt's very low score of 7 indicated that its culture is very normative.
People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing the
absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great
respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future,
and a focus on achieving quick results
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people
try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were
raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong

control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be described as


Indulgent or Restrained.
With a very low score of 4, Egypt is shown to be a very restrained country.
Societies with a low score in this dimension have a tendency to cynicism
and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent societies, restrained societies
do not put much emphasis on leisure time and control the gratification of
their desires. People with this orientation have the perception that their
actions are restrained by social norms and feel that indulging themselves
is somewhat wrong.

6. Morocco:
If we explore Moroccan culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we can
get a good overview of the deep drivers of Moroccan culture relative to
other world cultures.

Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
At a score of 70, Morocco is a hierarchical society. This means that people
accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which
needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as
reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates
expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with
whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Morocco, with a score of 46 is considered a collectivistic society. This is
manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.

A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd

is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,


wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
Morocco gets an intermediate score of 53 on this dimension and this in
inconclusive.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs
and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on
Uncertainty Avoidance.
Morocco scores 68 on this dimension and thus has a very high preference
for avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance
maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of
unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional
need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is money,
people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and
punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an
important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and
future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently.
Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example,
prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing
societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on
the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift
and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
With the very low score of 14, Moroccan culture is clearly normative.
People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing the
absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great
respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future,
and a focus on achieving quick results.

Indulgence

One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people
try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were
raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong
control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be described as
Indulgent or Restrained.
Morocco's low score on this dimension (25) indicates that is has a culture
of Restraint. Societies with a low score in this dimension have a tendency
to cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent societies,
Restrained societies do not put much emphasis on leisure time and control
the gratification of their desires. People with this orientation have the
perception that their actions are Restrained by social norms and feel that
indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.

7. Netherlands:
If we explore the Dutch culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Dutch culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
The Netherlands scores low on this dimension (score of 38) which means
that the following characterises the Dutch style: Being independent,
hierarchy for convenience only, equal rights, superiors accessible,
coaching leader, management facilitates and empowers. Power is
decentralized and managers count on the experience of their team
members. Employees expect to be consulted. Control is disliked and
attitude towards managers are informal and on first name basis.
Communication is direct and participative.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with
whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
The Netherlands, with the very high score of 80 is an Individualist society.
This means there is a high preference for a loosely-knit social framework in
which individuals are expected to take care of themselves and their
immediate families only. In Individualist societies offence causes guilt and
a loss of self-esteem, the employer/employee relationship is a contract
based on mutual advantage, hiring and promotion decisions are supposed
to be based on merit only, management is the management of individuals.

Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.

A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,
wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
The Netherlands scores 14 on this dimension and is therefore a Feminine
society. In Feminine countries it is important to keep the life/work balance
and you make sure that all are included. An effective manager is
supportive to his/her people, and decision making is achieved through
involvement. Managers strive for consensus and people value equality,
solidarity and quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by
compromise and negotiation and Dutch are known for their long
discussions until consensus has been reached.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs
and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on
Uncertainty Avoidance.
The Netherlands scores 53 on this dimension and thus exhibits a slight
preference for avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty
Avoidance maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant
of unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional
need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is money,
people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and
punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an
important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation

This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and
future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently.
Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example,
prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing
societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on
the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift
and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
The Netherlands receives a high score of 67 in this dimension, which
means that it has a pragmatic nature. In societies with a pragmatic
orientation, people believe that truth depends very much on the situation,
context and time. They show an ability to easily adapt traditions to
changed conditions, a strong propensity to save and invest, thriftiness and
perseverance in achieving results.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people
try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were
raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong
control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be described as
Indulgent or Restrained.
With a high score of 68, the culture of the Netherlands is clearly one of
Indulgence. People in societies classified by a high score in Indulgence
generally exhibit a willingness to realise their impulses and desires with
regard to enjoying life and having fun. They possess a positive attitude
and have a tendency towards optimism. In addition, they place a higher
degree of importance on leisure time, act as they please and spend money
as they wish.

8. United Kingdom:
If we explore the British culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of British culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
At 35 Britain sits in the lower rankings of PDI i.e. a society that believes
that inequalities amongst people should be minimized. Interestingly is that
research shows PD index lower amongst the higher class in Britain than
amongst the working classes. The PDI score at first seems incongruent
with the well established and historical British class system and its
exposes one of the inherent tensions in the British culture between the
importance of birth rank on the one hand and a deep seated belief that
where you are born should not limit how far you can travel in life. A sense
of fair play drives a belief that people should be treated in some way as
equals.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with

whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In


Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
At a score of 89 the UK is amongst the highest of the Individualist scores,
beaten only by some of the commonwealth countries it spawned i.e.
Australia and the USA. The British are a highly Individualist and private
people. Children are taught from an early age to think for themselves and
to find out what their unique purpose in life is and how they uniquely can
contribute to society. The route to happiness is through personal
fulfillment. As the affluence of Britain has increased throughout the last
decade, with wealth
also spreading North, a much discussed
phenomenon is the rise of what has been seen as rampant consumerism
and a strengthening of the ME culture.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,
wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
At 66, Britain is a Masculine society highly success oriented and driven. A
key point of confusion for the foreigner lies in the apparent contradiction
between the British culture of modesty and understatement which is at
odds with the underlying success driven value system in the culture.
Critical to understanding the British is being able to read between the
lines What is said is not always what is meant. In comparison to Feminine
cultures such as the Scandinavian countries, people in the UK live in order
to work and have a clear performance ambition.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs

and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on


Uncertainty Avoidance.
At 35 the UK has a low score on Uncertainty Avoidance which means that
as a nation they are quite happy to wake up not knowing what the day
brings and they are happy to make it up as they go along changing plans
as new information comes to light. As a low UAI country the British are
comfortable in ambiguous situations - the term muddling through is a
very British way of expressing this. There are generally not too many rules
in British society, but those that are there are adhered to (the most
famous of which of of course the British love of queuing which has also to
do with the values of fair play).
In work terms this results in planning that is not detail oriented the end
goal will be clear (due to high MAS) but the detail of how we get there will
be light and the actual process fluid and flexible to emerging and changing
environment. Planning horizons will also be shorter. Most importantly the
combination of a highly Individualist and curious nation is a high level of
creativity and strong need for innovation. What is different is attractive!
This emerges throughout the society in both its humour, heavy
consumerism for new and innovative products and the fast highly creative
industries it thrives in advertising, marketing, financial engineering.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and
future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently.
Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example,
prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing
societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on
the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift
and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
With an intermediate score of 51 in this dimension, a dominant preference
in British culture cannot be determined.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people
try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were
raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong
control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be described as
Indulgent or Restrained.

A high score of 69 indicates that the British culture is one that is classified
as Indulgent. People in societies classified by a high score in Indulgence
generally exhibit a willingness to realise their impulses and desires with
regard to enjoying life and having fun. They possess a positive attitude
and have a tendency towards optimism. In addition, they place a higher
degree of importance on leisure time, act as they please and spend money
as they wish.

9. South Korea:
If we explore South Korean culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of South Korean culture
relative to other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.

At an intermediate score of 60, South Korea is a slightly hierarchical


society. This means that people accept a hierarchical order in which
everybody has a place and which needs no further justification. Hierarchy
in an organization is seen as reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization
is popular, subordinates expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is
a benevolent autocrat
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with
whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
South Korea, with a score of 18 is considered a collectivistic society. This is
manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.

A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,
wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
South Korea scores 39 on this dimension and is thus considered a Feminine
society. In Feminine countries the focus is on working in order to live,
managers strive for consensus, people value equality, solidarity and
quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and

negotiation. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. Focus
is on well-being, status is not shown. An effective manager is a supportive
one, and decision making is achieved through involvement.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs
and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on
Uncertainty Avoidance.
At 85 South Korea is one of the most uncertainty avoiding countries in the
world. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance maintain rigid
codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour
and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional need for rules (even if
the rules never seem to work) time is money, people have an inner urge to
be busy and work hard, precision and punctuality are the norm, innovation
may be resisted, security is an important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and
future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently.
Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example,
prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing
societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on
the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift
and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
At 100, South Korea scores as one of the most pragmatic, long-term
oriented societies. Notion of the one and only almighty God is not familiar
to South Koreans. People live their lives guided by virtues and practical
good examples. In corporate South Korea, you see long term orientation in
the, higher own capital rate, priority to steady growth of market share
rather than to a quarterly profit, and so on. They all serve the durability of
the companies. The idea behind it is that the companies are not here to
make money every quarter for the share holders, but to serve the stake
holders and society at large for many generations to come.
Indulgence

One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people
try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were
raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong
control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be described as
Indulgent or Restrained.
With a low score of 29, South Korean society is shown to be one of
Restraint. Societies with a low score in this dimension have a tendency to
cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent societies,
Restrained societies do not put much emphasis on leisure time and control
the gratification of their desires. People with this orientation have the
perception that their actions are Restrained by social norms and feel that
indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.

10.

South Africa:

If we explore the culture of South Africa through the lens of the 6-D
Model, we can get a good overview of the deep driving factors of its
culture relative to other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
South Africa scores 49 on this dimension which means that people to a
larger extent accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place
and which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is
seen as reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular,
subordinates expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a
benevolent autocrat
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with
whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
South Africa, with a score of 65 is an Individualist society. This means there
is a high preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals
are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only.
In Individualist societies offence causes guilt and a loss of self-esteem, the
employer/employee relationship is a contract based on mutual advantage,
hiring and promotion decisions are supposed to be based on merit only,
management is the management of individuals.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd

is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,


wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
South Africa scores 63 on this dimension and is thus a Masculine society. In
Masculine countries people live in order to work, managers are expected
to be decisive and assertive, the emphasis is on equity, competition and
performance and conflicts are resolved by fighting them out.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs
and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on
Uncertainty Avoidance.
South Africa scores 49 on this dimension and thus has a low preference for
avoiding uncertainty. Low UAI societies maintain a more relaxed attitude in
which practice counts more than principles and deviance from the norm is
more easily tolerated. In societies exhibiting low UAI, people believe there
should be no more rules than are necessary and if they are ambiguous or
do not work they should be abandoned or changed. Schedules are flexible,
hard work is undertaken when necessary but not for its own sake,
precision and punctuality do not come naturally, innovation is not seen as
threatening.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and
future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently.
Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example,
prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing
societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on
the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift
and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
A low score of 34 on this dimension means that in South Africa the culture
is more normative than pragmatic. People in such societies have a strong
concern with establishing the absolute Truth; they are normative in their
thinking. They exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small
propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results.

Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people
try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were
raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong
control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be described as
Indulgent or Restrained.
With a high score of 63 it is clear that South Africa has a culture of
Indulgence. People in societies classified by a high score in Indulgence
generally exhibit a willingness to realise their impulses and desires with
regard to enjoying life and having fun. They possess a positive attitude
and have a tendency towards optimism. In addition, they place a higher
degree of importance on leisure time, act as they please and spend money
as they wish.
NOTE: The scores here are for the white population of South Africa. The
majority of the population is Black African, and their scores may be very
different from those presented above.

11.

Greece:

If we explore the Greek culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Greek culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a country
expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
At 60 Greece has an intermediate score, but it indicates a slight tendency
to the higher side of PDI i.e. a society that believes hierarchy should be
respected and inequalities amongst people are acceptable. The different
distribution of power justifies the fact that power holders have more
benefits than the less powerful in society. In Greece it is important to show
respect to the elderly (and children take care for their elderly parents). In
companies there is one boss who takes complete responsibility. One
should never forget that in the mind of a Greek all other cultures in the
Western world inherited something from the ancient Greek culture. Status
symbols of power are very important in order to indicate social position
and communicate the respect that could be shown.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to do with
whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
At a score of 35 Greece is a collectivist culture, we defined, which
means that in this country people from birth onwards are integrated into
the strong, cohesive in-group (especially represented by the extended
family; including uncles, aunts, grandparents and cousins) which continues

protecting its members in exchange for loyalty. This is an important aspect


in the working environment too, where for instance an older and powerful
member of a family is expected to help a younger nephew to be hired
for a job in his own company. From an Individualist culture this could be
perceived as nepotism (= negative perception) but in collectivistic
societies is a normal behaviour. In business it is important to build up
trustworthy and long lasting relationships: a meeting usually starts with
general conversations in order to get to know each other before doing
business.

Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates people,
wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do (Feminine).
At 57 Greece is a medium ranking Masculine society success oriented
and driven. Men consider it a personal honor to take care for their family.
In Collectivistic and Masculine cultures the success of a member of a
family gives social value to the whole in-group; when meeting a new
person a foreigner should not be surprised by Greeks speaking of the
important and successful people they knows in town. Aristoteles Onassis,
the Greek tycoon, well known all over the world, was and still is an
example of a successful Greek whose status symbols speak of the
excellent achievements in a Masculine society.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created beliefs
and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the score on
Uncertainty Avoidance.

At 100 Greece has the highest score on Uncertainty Avoidance which


means that as a nation Greeks are not at all comfortable in ambiguous
situations: the unforeseen is always there ready to lay an ambush. The
sword of Damocles, impending over the head of all of us, can illustrate
this anxious and stressing feeling about life. In Greece, as in all high
Uncertainty Avoidance societies, bureaucracy, laws and rules are very
important to make the world a safer place to live in. Greeks need to have
good and relaxing moments in their everyday life, chatting with
colleagues, enjoying a long meal or dancing with guests and friends. Due
to their high score in this dimension Greeks are very passionate and
demonstrative people: emotions are easily shown in their body language.
The Greek myth about the birth of the world tells us a lot about high
Uncertainty Avoidance: at the very beginning there was only Chaos but
then Cronos (Time) came in to organize life and make it easier to manage.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some links
with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the present and
future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals differently.
Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for example,
prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while viewing
societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores high, on
the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage thrift
and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Greece has an intermediate score of 45 on this dimension.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which people
try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way they were
raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and relatively strong
control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be described as
Indulgent or Restrained.
Greece has an intermediate score of 50 on this dimension, so no clear
preference between Indulgence and Restraint can be established.

12.

BRAZIL

If we explore Brazils culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we can
get a good overview of the deep drivers of Brazilian culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance:

This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
With a score of 69, Brazil reflects a society that believes hierarchy should
be respected and inequalities amongst people are acceptable. The
different distribution of power justifies the fact that power holders have
more benefits than the less powerful in society. In Brazil it is important to

show respect to the elderly (and children take care for their elderly
parents). In companies there is one boss who takes complete
responsibility. Status symbols of power are very important in order to
indicate social position and communicate the respect that could be
shown.
Individualism:

The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of


interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Brazil has a score of 38 which means that in this country people from birth
onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive groups (especially
represented by the extended family; including uncles, aunts, grandparents
and cousins) which continues protecting its members in exchange for
loyalty. This is an important aspect in the working environment too, where
for instance an older and powerful member of a family is expected to
help a younger nephew to be hired for a job in his own company. In
business it is important to build up trustworthy and long lasting
relationships: a meeting usually starts with general conversations in order
to get to know each other before doing business. The preferred
communication style is context-rich, so people will often speak profusely
and write in an elaborate fashion.

Masculinity:

A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).

Brazil scores 49, a very intermediate score on this dimension.


Uncertainty Avoidance:

The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a


society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
At 76 Brazil scores high on UAI and so do the majority of Latin American
countries. These societies show a strong need for rules and elaborate legal
systems in order to structure life. The individuals need to obey these laws,
however, is weak. If rules however cannot be kept, additional rules are
dictated. In Brazil, as in all high Uncertainty Avoidance societies,
bureaucracy, laws and rules are very important to make the world a safer
place to live in. Brazilians need to have good and relaxing moments in
their everyday life, chatting with colleagues, enjoying a long meal or
dancing with guests and friends. Due to their high score in this dimension
Brazilians are very passionate and demonstrative people: emotions are
easily shown in their body language.
Long Term Orientation:

This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some


links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies priorities these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honored traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
At 44, Brazil scores as intermediate in this dimension.
Indulgence:

One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
Brazil's high score of 59 marks it as an Indulgent society. People in
societies classified by a high score in Indulgence generally exhibit a
willingness to realise their impulses and desires with regard to enjoying life
and having fun. They possess a positive attitude and have a tendency
towards optimism. In addition, they place a higher degree of importance
on leisure time, act as they please and spend money as they wish.

13.

Denmark:

If we explore the Danish culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Danish culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
With a score of 18 points, Denmark is at the very low end of this dimension
compared to other countries. This matches perfectly with what many
foreigners in Denmark express: Danes do not lead, they coach and
employee autonomy is required. In fact, Denmark ranks highest amongst
the EU27 countries in terms of employee autonomy. With a very
egalitarian mind-set the Danes believe in independency, equal rights,
accessible superiors and that management facilitates and empowers.
Power is decentralized and managers count on the experience of their
team members. Respect among the Danes is something, which you earn
by proving your hands-on expertise. Workplaces have a very informal
atmosphere with direct and involving communication and works on a first
name basis. Employees expect to be consulted.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Denmark, with a score of 74 is an Individualist society. This means there is
a high preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals
are expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only.
It is relatively easy to start doing business with the Danes. Small talk is
kept at a minimum and you do not need to create relationships first. Danes
are also known for using a very direct form of communication.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being

defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Denmark scores 16 on this dimension and is therefore considered a
Feminine society. In Feminine countries,i it is important to keep the
life/work balance and you make sure that all are included. An effective
manager is supportive to his/her people, and decision making is achieved
through involvement. Managers strive for consensus and people value
equality, solidarity and quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved
by compromise and negotiation and Danes are known for their long
discussions until consensus has been reached. Incentives such as free
time and flexible work hours and place are favoured.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
With a score of 23 Denmark scores low on this dimension. This means that
that Danes do not need a lot of structure and predictability in their work
life. Plans can change overnight, new things pop up and the Danes are fine
with it. It is a natural part of their work life. Curiosity is natural and is
encouraged from a very young age. This combination of a highly
Individualist and curious nation is also the driving force for Denmarks
reputation within innovation and design. What is different is attractive!
This also emerges throughout the society in both its humour, heavy
consumerism for new and innovative products and the fast highly creative
industries it thrives in advertising, marketing, financial engineering.
At the workplace, the low score on Uncertainty Avoidance is also reflected
in the fact that the Danes tell you if you are in doubt or do not know

something. It is ok to say I do not know and the Danes are comfortable


in ambiguous situations in the workplace.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies, which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture, which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
A low score of 35 indicates that Danish culture is normative. People in such
societies have a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth; they
are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great respect for traditions, a
relatively small propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving
quick results.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization, we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
Denmark has a high score of 70 in this dimension, meaning that Denmark
is an Indulgent country. People in societies classified by a high score in
Indulgence generally exhibit a willingness to realise their impulses and
desires with regard to enjoying life and having fun. They possess a positive
attitude and have a tendency towards optimism. In addition, they place a
higher degree of importance on leisure time, act as they please and spend
money as they wish.

14.

Finland:

If we explore the Finnish culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Finnish culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Finland scores low on this dimension (score of 33) which means that the
following characterises the Finnish style: Being independent, hierarchy for
convenience only, equal rights, superiors accessible, coaching leader,
management facilitates and empowers. Power is decentralized and
managers count on the experience of their team members. Employees
expect to be consulted. Control is disliked and attitude towards managers
are informal and on first name basis. Communication is direct and
participative.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.

Finland, with a score of 63 is an Individualist society. This means there is a


high preference for a loosely-knit social framework in which individuals are
expected to take care of themselves and their immediate families only. In
Individualist societies offence causes guilt and a loss of self-esteem, the
employer/employee relationship is a contract based on mutual advantage,
hiring and promotion decisions are supposed to be based on merit only,
management is the management of individuals.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Finland scores 26 on this dimension and is thus considered a Feminine
society. In Feminine countries the focus is on working in order to live,
managers strive for consensus, people value equality, solidarity and
quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and
negotiation. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. Focus
is on well-being, status is not shown. An effective manager is a supportive
one, and decision making is achieved through involvement.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Finland scores 59 on this dimension and thus has a high preference for
avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance
maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of
unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional
need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work), time is money,

people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and
punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted and security is an
important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
With a low score of 38, Finnish culture can be classified as normative.
People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing the
absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great
respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future,
and a focus on achieving quick results.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
The relatively high score of 57 indicates that Finland is an Indulgent
country. People in societies classified by a high score in Indulgence
generally exhibit a willingness to realise their impulses and desires with
regard to enjoying life and having fun. They possess a positive attitude
and have a tendency towards optimism. In addition, they place a higher
degree of importance on leisure time, act as they please and spend money
as they wish.

15.

India:

If we explore the Indian culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we can
get a good overview of the deep drivers of Indian culture relative to other
world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
India scores high on this dimension, 77, indicating an appreciation for
hierarchy and a top-down structure in society and organizations. If one
were to encapsulate the Indian attitude, one could use the following words
and phrases : dependent on the boss or the power holder for direction,
acceptance of un-equal rights between the power-privileged and those

who are lesser down in the pecking order, immediate superiors accessible
but one layer above less so, paternalistic leader, management directs,
gives reason / meaning to ones work life and rewards in exchange for
loyalty from employees. Real Power is centralized even though it may not
appear to be and managers count on the obedience of their team
members. Employees expect to be directed clearly as to their functions
and what is expected of them. Control is familiar, even a psychological
security, and attitude towards managers are formal even if one is on first
name basis. Communication is top down and directive in its style and often
feedback which is negative is never offered up the ladder.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
India, with a rather intermediate score of 48, is a society with both
collectivistic and Individualist traits. The collectivist side means that there
is a high preference for belonging to a larger social framework in which
individuals are expected to act in accordance to the greater good of ones
defined in-group(s). In such situations, the actions of the individual are
influenced by various concepts such as the opinion of ones family,
extended family, neighbours, work group and other such wider social
networks that one has some affiliation toward. For a collectivist, to be
rejected by ones peers or to be thought lowly of by ones extended and
immediate in-groups, leaves him or her rudderless and with a sense of
intense emptiness. The employer/employee relationship is one of
expectations based on expectations Loyalty by the employee and almost
familial protection by the Employer. Hiring and promotion decisions are
often made based on relationships which are the key to everything in a
Collectivist society.
The Individualist aspect of Indian society is seen as a result of its dominant
religion/philosophy - Hinduism. The Hindus believe in a cycle of death and
rebirth, with the manner of each rebirth being dependent upon how the
individual lived the preceding life. People are, therefore, individually
responsible for the way they lead their lives and the impact it will have
upon their rebirth. This focus on individualism interacts with the otherwise
collectivist tendencies of the Indian society which leads to its intermediate
score on this dimension.
Masculinity

A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
India scores 56 on this dimension and is thus considered a Masculine
society. India is actually very Masculine in terms of visual display of
success and power. The designer brand label, the flash and ostentation
that goes with advertising ones success, is widely
practiced.However, India is also a spiritual country with millions of deities
and various religious philosophies. It is also an ancient country with one of
the longest surviving cultures which gives it ample lessons in the value of
humility and abstinence. This often reigns in people from indulging in
Masculine displays to the extent that they might be naturally inclined to. In
more Masculine countries the focus is on success and achievements,
validated by material gains. Work is the center of ones life and visible
symbols of success in the work place are ery important.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
India scores 40 on this dimension and thus has a medium low preference
for avoiding uncertainty. In India, there is acceptance of
imperfection; nothing has to be perfect nor has to go exactly as
planned. India is traditionally a patient country where tolerance for the
unexpected is high ; even welcomed as a break from monotony. People
generally do not feel driven and compelled to take action-initiatives and
comfortably settle into established rolls and routines without
questioning. Rules are often in place just to be circumvented and one
relies on innovative methods to bypass the system. A word used often is
adjust and means a wide range of things, from turning a blind eye

to rules being flouted to finding a unique and inventive solution to a


seemingly insurmountable problem. It is this attitude that is both the
cause of misery as well as the most empowering aspect of the
country. There is a saying that nothing is impossible in India, so long as
one knows how to adjust.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
With an intermediate score of 51 in this dimension, a dominant preference
in Indian culture cannot be determined. In India the concept ofkarma
dominates religious and philosophical thought. Time is not linear, and thus
is not as important as to western societies which typically score low on this
dimension. Countries like India have a great tolerance for religious views
from all over the world. Hinduism is often considered a philosophy more
than even a religion; an amalgamation of ideas, views, practices and
esoteric beliefs. In India there is an acceptance that there are many truths
and often depends on the seeker. Societies that have a high score on
pragmatism typically forgive a lack of punctuality, a changing game-plan
based on changing reality and a general comfort with discovering the
fated path as one goes along rather than playing to an exact plan.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
India receives a low score of 26 in this dimension, meaning that it is a
culture of Restraint. Societies with a low score in this dimension have a
tendency to cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent
societies, Restrained societies do not put much emphasis on leisure time
and control the gratification of their desires. People with this orientation

have the perception that their actions are Restrained by social norms and
feel that indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.

16.

Israel:

If we explore the Israeli culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Israelian culture relative to
other world cultures.
NOTE: Israel takes a unique position in the database of countries with
scores on the 6 dimensions. Israel is the only country in the world where
the size of the immigrant groups are so large that they influence the
dominant values to the extent that new citizens of Israel change the
existing values. The below mentioned scores might not reflect the values
of the whole population of Israel. Further research should be done to
express the values of all of the current Israelis.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
With a score of 13 points Israel is at the very low end of this dimension
compared to other countries. With an egalitarian mindset the Israelis
believe in independency, equal rights, accessible superiors and that
management facilitates and empowers. Power is decentralized and
managers count on the experience of their team members. Respect
among the Israelis is something, which you earn by proving your hands-on
expertise. Workplaces have an informal atmosphere with direct and
involving communication and on a first name basis. Employees expect to
be consulted.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
The Israeli society is a blend of Individualist and collectivistic cultures (54).
Small families with a focus on the parent-children relationship rather than
aunts and uncles are common. And at the same time extended families,

with many children and close ties to all other family members are a part of
society as well. There is a strong belief in the ideal of self-actualization.
Loyalty is based on personal preferences for people as well as a sense of
duty and responsibility. Communication is direct and expressive.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
With a score of 47 Israel is neither a clear Masculine nor Feminine society.
Some elements point at more Masculine features. Performance is highly
valued. Managers are expected to be decisive and assertive. Status is
often shown, especially by cars, watches and technical devices.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Israel is among the stronger uncertainty avoidant countries (81). In these
cultures there is an emotional need for rules (even if the rules never seem
to work), time is money, people have an inner urge to be busy and work
hard, precision and punctuality are the norm, security is an important
element in individual motivation. Cultures with a high score on this
dimension are often very expressive. Something the Israelis clearly show
while talking with their hands, gesticulating and vocal aggressiveness.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the

present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
A low score of 38 on this dimension indicates that Israeli culture has a
preference for normative thought. People in such societies have a strong
concern with establishing the absolute Truth; they are normative in their
thinking. They exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small
propensity to save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
There is currently no score for Israel on this dimension.

17.

Pakistan:

If we explore Pakistani culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we can
get a good overview of the deep drivers of Pakistani culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
With an intermediate score of 55, it is not possible to determine a
preference for Pakistan in this dimension.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We.In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Pakistan, with a very low score of 14, is considered a collectivistic society.
This is manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group',
be that a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,

management is the management of groups.


Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Pakistan scores 50 on this dimension, and as this is an exactly
intermediate score it cannot be said if Pakistan has a preference to
Masculinity of femininity.
Uncertainty avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the UAI
score.
Pakistan scores 70 on this dimension and thus has a high preference for
avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance
maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of
unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional
need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is money,
people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and
punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an
important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores

high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
With an intermediate score of 50, the culture of Pakistan cannot be said to
indicate a preference.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
Pakistan, with an extremely low score of 0 on this dimension, can be said
to be a very Restrained society. Societies with a low score in this
dimension have a tendency to cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to
Indulgent societies, Restrained societies do not put much emphasis on
leisure time and control the gratification of their desires. People with this
orientation have the perception that their actions are Restrained by social
norms and feel that indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.

18.

Romania:

If we explore the Romanian culture through the lens of the 6-D Model,
we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of the Romanian culture
relative to other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed inequally.
Romania scores high on this dimension (score of 90) which means that
people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and
which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as
reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates
expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of

interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to


do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Romania, with a score of 30 is considered a collectivistic society. This is
manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Romania scores 42 on this dimension and is thus considered a relatively
Feminine society. In Feminine countries the focus is on working in order to
live, managers strive for consensus, people value equality, solidarity and
quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and
negotiation. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. Focus
is on well-being, status is not shown.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created

beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the


score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Romania scores 90 on this dimension and thus has a very high preference
for avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance
maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of
unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional
need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is money,
people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and
punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an
important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Romania has an intermediate score of 52 on this dimension.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.With a very low score of 20,
Romanian culture is one of Restraint. Societies with a low score in this
dimension have a tendency to cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to
Indulgent societies, Restrained societies do not put much emphasis on
leisure time and control the gratification of their desires.

19.

Iran:

If we explore the Iranian culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of the Iranian culture relative
to other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities

amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Iran receives an intermediate score of 58 on this dimension so it is
a hierarchical society. This means that people accept a hierarchical order
in which everybody has a place and which needs no further justification.
Hierarchy in an organisation is seen as reflecting inherent inequalities,
centralisation is popular, subordinates expect to be told what to do and
the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Iran, with a score of 41 is considered a collectivistic society. This is
manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Iran scores 43 on this dimension and is thus considered a relatively
Feminine society. In Feminine countries the focus is on working in order to
live, managers strive for consensus, people value equality, solidarity and

quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and


negotiation. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. Focus
is on well-being, status is not shown.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Iran scores 59 on this dimension, and thus has a high preference for
avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high uncertainty avoidance
maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of
unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional
need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work), time is money,
people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and
punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted and security is an
important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Iran's very low score of 14 indicates that it has a strongly normative
cultural orientation. People in such societies have a strong concern with
establishing the absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking. They
exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for
the future, and a focus on achieving quick results.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which

people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
The low score of 40 in this dimension means that Iran has a culture of
Restraint. Societies with a low score in this dimension have a tendency to
cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent societies,
Restrained societies do not put much emphasis on leisure time and control
the gratification of their desires. People with this orientation have the
perception that their actions are Restrained by social norms and feel that
indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.

20.

Tanzania:

If we explore the culture of Tanzania through the lens of the 6-D Model,
we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of its culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Tanzania scores high on this dimension (score of 70) which means that
people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and
which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as
reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates
expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Tanzania, with a score of 25 is considered a collectivistic society. This is
manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.

A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).Tanzania scores 40 on this dimension and is thus considered a
Feminine society. In Feminine countries the focus is on working in order to
live, managers strive for consensus, people value equality, solidarity and
quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and
negotiation. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. Focus
is on well-being, status is not shown. An effective manager is a supportive
one, and decision making is achieved through involvement.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Tanzania scores 50 on this dimension and thus no preference is indicated.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Tanzania scores 34 on this dimension, making it a normative, short-term
oriented culture. Societies with a this orientation generally exhibit great
respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save, impatience for
achieving quick results and a strong concern with establishing the absolute
Truth i.e. normative.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not

become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which


people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
With a low score of 38, Tanzanian culture is one characterized by Restraint.
Societies with a low score in this dimension have a tendency to cynicism
and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent societies, Restrained
societies do not put much emphasis on leisure time and control the
gratification of their desires. People with this orientation have the
perception that their actions are Restrained by social norms and feel that
indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.

21.

Singapore:

If we explore Singaporean culture through the lens of the 6-D Model


(Singapore is a multi-ethnic society with Chinese around 77%, Indian
around 6%, Malay around 15% and expatriates around 2%), we can get a
good overview of the deep driving factors of Singaporean culture relative
to other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Singapore scores high on this dimension (score of 74). With a Confucian
background (the Chinese) they normally have a syncretic approach to
religion, which is also the dominant approach in Singapore. One of the key
principles of Confucian teaching is the stability of society, which is based
on unequal relationships between people. Confucius distinguished five
basic relationships: ruler-subject; father-son; older brother-younger
brother; husband-wife; and senior friend-junior friend. These relationships
are based on mutual and complementary obligations. Here we can see the
high PDI as a consequence.
Power is centralized and managers rely on their bosses and on rules.
Employees expect to be told what to do. Control is expected and attitude
towards managers is formal. Communication is indirect and the
information flow is selective. We can see the high PDI also in the
governments defined five shared values: 1) Nation before community
and society above self.
Individualism

The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of


interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We.
In Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Singapore, with a score of 20 is a collectivistic society. This means that the
We is important, people belong to in-groups (families, clans or
organisations) who look after each other in exchange for loyalty. Here we
can also see the second key principle of the Confucian teaching: The
family is the prototype of all social organizations. A person is not primarily
an individual; rather, he or she is a member of a family. Children should
learn to restrain themselves, to overcome their individuality so as to
maintain the harmony in the family. Harmony is found when everybody
saves face in the sense of dignity, self-respect, and prestige. Social
relations should be conducted in such a way that everybody's face is
saved. Paying respect to someone is called giving face.
Communication is indirect and the harmony of the group has to be
maintained, open conflicts are avoided. A yes doesnt necessarily mean
yes; politeness takes precedence over honest feedback. The relationship
has a moral basis and this always has priority over task fulfilment. The
face of others has to be respected and especially as a manager calmness
and respectability is very important.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Singapore scores 48 and is in the middle of the scale but more on the
Feminine side. This means that the softer aspects of culture such as
leveling with others, consensus, sympathy for the underdog are valued
and encouraged. Being modest and humble is seen as very important;
thus showing that one knows it all and therefore has come to educate the
counterparts is not liked. Conflicts are avoided in private and work life and

consensus at the end is important. During discussions being cautious is


important, not to being too persistent. We can also see the feminism in the
governments defined five shared values again: 3) Community support
and respect for the individual.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Singapore scores 8 on this dimension and thus scores very low on this
dimension. In Singapore people abide to many rules not because they
have need for structure but because of high PDI. Singaporeans call their
society a Fine country. Youll get a fine for everything.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes howevery society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Singapore scores 72, this high score is refelcted in Singapore which shows
cultural qualities supporting long-term investment such as perseverance,
sustained efforts, slow results, thrift; being sparse with resources, ordering
relationship by status and having a sense of shame (see also again the
Confucian teaching). Singapore has also become one of the five dragons
with an immense economic success.
Whereas westerners have been looking for the truth, the Singaporeans are
emphasizing virtue and the way you do things. They are always keeping
their options open as there are many ways to skin a cat. Westerners
believe that if A is right, B must be wrong, whereas people from East and
Southeast Asian countries see that both A and B combined produce
something superior. This mindset allows for a more pragmatic approach to
business.

Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
Is it not possible to determine a preference on this dimension because of
Singapore's intermediate score of 46.

22.

Iraq:

If we explore the culture of Iraq through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of its culture relative to other
world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Iraq scores high on this dimension (score of 95) which means that people
accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and which
needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as
reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates
expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat

Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Iraq, with a score of 30 is considered a collectivistic society. This is
manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Iraq scores 70 on this dimension and is thus a Masculine society. In
Masculine countries people live in order to work, managers are expected
to be decisive and assertive, the emphasis is on equity, competition and
performance and conflicts are resolved by fighting them out.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created

beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the


score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Iraq scores 85 on this dimension and thus has a high preference for
avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance
maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of
unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional
need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is money,
people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and
punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an
important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Iraq's low score of 25 reveals that it has a normative culture. People in
such societies have a strong concern with establishing the absolute Truth;
they are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great respect for
traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future, and a focus
on achieving quick results
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
The very low score of 17 in this dimensions means that Iraqi society is one
of Restraint. Societies with a low score in this dimension have a tendency
to cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent societies,
Restrained societies do not put much emphasis on leisure time and control
the gratification of their desires. People with this orientation have the
perception that their actions are Restrained by social norms and feel that
indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.

23.

Saudi Arabia:

If we explore the culture of Saudi Arabia through the lens of the 6-D
Model, we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of its culture
relative to other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a

country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.


Saudi Arabia scores high on this dimension (score of 95) which means that
people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and
which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as
reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates
expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Saudi Arabia, with a score of 25 is considered a collectivistic society. This is
manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Saudi Arabia scores 60 on this dimension and is thus a Masculine society.
In Masculine countries people live in order to work, managers are
expected to be decisive and assertive, the emphasis is on equity,
competition and performance and conflicts are resolved by fighting them

out.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Saudi Arabia scores 80 on this dimension and thus has a preference for
avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance
maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of
unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional
need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is money,
people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and
punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an
important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
The normative nature of Saudi Arabian society can be seen in its low score
of 36 on this dimension. People in such societies have a strong concern
with establishing the absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking.
They exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to
save for the future, and a focus on achieving quick results.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.

Saudi Arabia's intermediate score of 52 does not point to a clear


preference on this dimension.

24.

Kuwait:

If we explore the culture of Kuwait through the lens of the 6-D Model, we
can get a good overview of the deep drivers of its culture relative to other
world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Kuwait scores high on this dimension (score of 90) which means that
people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and
which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as
reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates
expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Kuwait, with a score of 25 is considered a collectivistic society. This is
manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being

defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school


and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Kuwait scores 40 on this dimension and is thus considered a relatively
Feminine society. In Feminine countries the focus is on working in order to
live, managers strive for consensus, people value equality, solidarity and
quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and
negotiation. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. Focus
is on well-being, status is not shown. An effective manager is a supportive
one, and decision making is achieved through involvement.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Kuwait scores 80 on this dimension and thus has a preference for avoiding
uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance maintain rigid
codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of unorthodox behaviour
and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional need for rules (even if
the rules never seem to work) time is money, people have an inner urge to
be busy and work hard, precision and punctuality are the norm, innovation
may be resisted, security is an important element in individual motivation.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes howevery society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores

high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
There is currently no score for Kuwait on this dimension.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
There is currently no score for Kuwait on this dimension.

25.

Lebanon:

If we explore the culture of Lebanon through the lens of the 6-D Model,
we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of its culture relative to
other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Lebanon scores high on this dimension (score of 75) which means that
people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and
which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as
reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates
expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Lebanon, with a score of 40 is considered a collectivistic society. This is
manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a

collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules


and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Lebanon scores 65 on this dimension and is thus a Masculine society. In
Masculine countries people live in order to work, managers are expected
to be decisive and assertive, the emphasis is on equity, competition and
performance and conflicts are resolved by fighting them out.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Lebanon scores 50 on this dimension and there shows no clear preference.
Pragmatic
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while

viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
The very low score of 14 on this dimension shows that Lebanese culture is
normative. People in such societies have a strong concern with
establishing the absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking. They
exhibit great respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for
the future, and a focus on achieving quick results.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
The score for this dimension is 25 which means that the culture of
Lebanon is one of Restraint. Societies with a low score in this dimension
have a tendency to cynicism and pessimism. Also, in contrast to Indulgent
societies, Restrained societies do not put much emphasis on leisure time
and control the gratification of their desires. People with this orientation
have the perception that their actions are Restrained by social norms and
feel that indulging themselves is somewhat wrong.

26.

Argentina:

If we explore Argentinas culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we


can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Argentinean culture
relative to other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
At a score of 49 Argentina sits on the low end of PDI rankings of and thus
far from the much higher values that characterizes all other Latin
American countries (leaving aside Costa Rica). The sources of Argentinas
low score on this dimension is rooted in the migration waves that reached
the Rio de la Plata around the turn of the last century. Around 1900,
approximately 6.5 M. European immigrants entered Argentina. At about
that time over 30 % of its inhabitants (and every second in Buenos Aires)

had been born abroad.


In this society status should be underlined. Appearance is very important:
the (dark) attire or sober tailleur, the valuable watch, an expensive hotel,
these elements allow inferring about power and facilitating the entre.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We.In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
With a score of 46, also in this dimension Argentina sits in the middle
rankings. As a consequence of the aforementioned migration waves and
the early emergence of wide middle classes, Argentina is, by far, the most
Individualist of all Latin countries. However, many collectivistic traits
prevail: the opinion of and obligations towards the (extended) family or ingroup, for example, still count. This notwithstanding, more modern,
Individualist traits can also be found, particularly in the large urban
conglomerates. There, the employer-employee link is rather calculative
and there is a strict division between private and work life.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner / best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Argentina scores 56 on this dimension, reflecting the presence of slightly
more Masculine than Feminine elements. Among the former it is important
to note a strong achievement orientation and assertiveness, the Masculine
behavior of female managers and politicians, and the equally strong ego
needs. The need to excel and stand out has been noted by many experts.
According to Carmo and Yanakiew, former Brazilian chancellor da Silveira
admonished his young team members that during negotiations, you have

to fear if there is only one Argentine. If there are two, the best practice is
to be patient and relax. They are all so brilliant that one will destroy the
other.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
At 86 Argentina scores very high on UAI and so do the majority of Latin
American countries that belonged to the Spanish kingdom. These societies
show a strong need for rules and elaborate legal systems in order to
structure life. The individuals need to obey these laws, however, is weak.
Corruption is widespread, the black market sizeable and, in general, youll
see a deep split between the pays rel and the pays lgal.
To compound the issue, in these societies, if rules cannot be kept,
additional rules are dictated. According to recent Nobel Prize winner
Vargas Llosa, A logical consequence of such abundance is that each legal
disposition has another that corrects, denies or mitigates it. That means, in
other words, that those who are immersed in such a sea of juridical
contradictions like transgressing the law, or that perhaps even more
demoralizing within such a structure, any abuse or transgression may
find a legal loophole that redeems or justifies it.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
Argentina, with a very low score of 20, is shown to have a very normative
culture. People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing
the absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great
respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future,
and a focus on achieving quick results.

Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
Argentina's high score of 62 in the dimension means that it is a country
that falls under the category of Indulgence. People in societies classified
by a high score in Indulgence generally exhibit a willingness to realise their
impulses and desires with regard to enjoying life and having fun. They
possess a positive attitude and have a tendency towards optimism. In
addition, they place a higher degree of importance on leisure time, act as
they please and spend money as they wish.

27.

Malaysia:

If we explore the Malaysian culture through the lens of the 6-D Model,
we can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Malaysian culture
relative to other world cultures.
Power Distance

This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
Malaysia scores very high on this dimension (score of 100) which means
that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and
which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organisation is seen as
reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates
expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat.
Challenges to the leadership are not well-received.
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Malaysia, with a score of 26 is a collectivistic society. This is manifest in a
close long-term commitment to the member group, be that a family,
extended family or extended relationships. Loyalty in a collectivist culture
is paramount and overrides most other societal rules and regulations. Such
a society fosters strong relationships, where everyone takes responsibility
for fellow members of their group. In collectivistic societies, offence leads
to shame and loss of face. Employer/employee relationships are perceived
in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and promotion take account of the
employees in-group. Management is the management of groups.
Masculinity
A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine). With an intermediate score of 50, a prefence for this
dimension cannot be determined.

Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance. Malaysia scores 36 on this dimension and
thus has a low preference for avoiding uncertainty. Low UAI societies
maintain a more relaxed attitude in which practice counts more than
principles and deviance from the norm is more easily tolerated. In
societies exhibiting low UAI, people believe there should be no more rules
than are necessary and if they are ambiguous or do not work, they should
be abolished or changed. Schedules are flexible, hard work is undertaken
when necessary but not for its own sake. Precision and punctuality do not
come naturally, innovation is not seen as threatening.
Long Term Orientation
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while
viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
The low score of 41 in this dimension means that Malaysia has a normative
culture. People in such societies have a strong concern with establishing
the absolute Truth; they are normative in their thinking. They exhibit great
respect for traditions, a relatively small propensity to save for the future,
and a focus on achieving quick results.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
Malaysia's high score of 57 indicates that the culture is one of Indulgence.
People in societies classified by a high score in Indulgence generally

exhibit a willingness to realise their impulses and desires with regard to


enjoying life and having fun. They possess a positive attitude and have a
tendency towards optimism. In addition, they place a higher degree of
importance on leisure time, act as they please and spend money as they
wish.

28.

Panama:

If we explore Panamas culture through the lens of the 6-D Model, we


can get a good overview of the deep drivers of Panamas culture relative
to other world cultures.
Power Distance
This dimension deals with the fact that all individuals in societies are not
equal it expresses the attitude of the culture towards these inequalities
amongst us. Power Distance is defined as the extent to which the less
powerful members of institutions and organisations within a
country expect and accept that power is distributed unequally.
At a very high score of 95, Panama is a hierarchical society. This means
that people accept a hierarchical order in which everybody has a place and
which needs no further justification. Hierarchy in an organization is seen as
reflecting inherent inequalities, centralization is popular, subordinates
expect to be told what to do and the ideal boss is a benevolent autocrat
Individualism
The fundamental issue addressed by this dimension is the degree of
interdependence a society maintains among its members. It has to
do with whether peoples self-image is defined in terms of I or We. In
Individualist societies people are supposed to look after themselves and
their direct family only. In Collectivist societies people belong to in groups
that take care of them in exchange for loyalty.
Panama, with a score of 11, is considered a collectivistic society. This is
manifest in a close long-term commitment to the member 'group', be that
a family, extended family, or extended relationships. Loyalty in a
collectivist culture is paramount, and over-rides most other societal rules
and regulations. The society fosters strong relationships where everyone
takes responsibility for fellow members of their group. In collectivist
societies offence leads to shame and loss of face, employer/employee
relationships are perceived in moral terms (like a family link), hiring and
promotion decisions take account of the employees in-group,
management is the management of groups.
Masculinity

A high score (Masculine) on this dimension indicates that the society will
be driven by competition, achievement and success, with success being
defined by the winner/best in field a value system that starts in school
and continues throughout organisational life.
A low score (Feminine) on the dimension means that the dominant values
in society are caring for others and quality of life. A Feminine society is one
where quality of life is the sign of success and standing out from the crowd
is not admirable. The fundamental issue here is what motivates
people, wanting to be the best (Masculine) or liking what you do
(Feminine).
Panama scores 44 on this dimension and is thus considered a relatively
Feminine society. In Feminine countries the focus is on working in order to
live, managers strive for consensus, people value equality, solidarity and
quality in their working lives. Conflicts are resolved by compromise and
negotiation. Incentives such as free time and flexibility are favoured. Focus
is on well-being, status is not shown.
Uncertainty Avoidance
The dimension Uncertainty Avoidance has to do with the way that a
society deals with the fact that the future can never be known: should we
try to control the future or just let it happen? This ambiguity brings with it
anxiety and different cultures have learnt to deal with this anxiety in
different ways. The extent to which the members of a culture feel
threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations and have created
beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these is reflected in the
score on Uncertainty Avoidance.
Panama scores 86 on this dimension and thus has a high preference for
avoiding uncertainty. Countries exhibiting high Uncertainty Avoidance
maintain rigid codes of belief and behaviour and are intolerant of
unorthodox behaviour and ideas. In these cultures there is an emotional
need for rules (even if the rules never seem to work) time is money,
people have an inner urge to be busy and work hard, precision and
punctuality are the norm, innovation may be resisted, security is an
important element in individual motivation.
Pragmatism
This dimension describes how every society has to maintain some
links with its own past while dealing with the challenges of the
present and future, and societies prioritise these two existential goals
differently. Normative societies. which score low on this dimension, for
example, prefer to maintain time-honoured traditions and norms while

viewing societal change with suspicion. Those with a culture which scores
high, on the other hand, take a more pragmatic approach: they encourage
thrift and efforts in modern education as a way to prepare for the future.
There is currently no score for Panama on this dimension.
Indulgence
One challenge that confronts humanity, now and in the past, is the degree
to which small children are socialized. Without socialization we do not
become human. This dimension is defined as the extent to which
people try to control their desires and impulses, based on the way
they were raised. Relatively weak control is called Indulgence and
relatively strong control is called Restraint. Cultures can, therefore, be
described as Indulgent or Restrained.
There is currently no score for Panama on this dimension.