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Tel: 1 408 363 8000

Technology Series:
Introduction to Access Technology,
V5.1 and V5.2

Fax: 1 408 363 8313


Email: info@sunrisetelecom.com
www.sunrisetelecom.com
Publication Number TEC-V5x-001 Rev. A

1 OVERVIEW

the interface can be checked. Individual links can be


blocked for maintenance or when the performance of
the link is below satisfactory. In addition, this interface
consists of protection protocols for the protection of

V5 is an access network technology. The V5 standards


(V5.1-ETS 300 324-1 and V5.2 ETS 300 347-1) are to
provide a common interface between
an access network and the local
V5.1
exchange for support of narrowband
telecommunications services. The V5
Bearer channels
ISDN D channel info
interface defines the requirements
PSTN signaling info
(electrical, physical, procedural, and
LE
AN
Control
protocol) for interconnections of the
Timing
AN (access network) and the LE (local
exchange). The AN is a system
between the LE and the user, replacing
V5.2
part or whole of the local line distriBearer channels
bution network. It provides a common
ISDN D channel info
interface for devices such as a PSTN
PSTN signaling info
telephone, analog or ISDN PBX,
Control
broadband ISDN or ISDN terminal
Link
Control info
LE
AN
equipment (ISDN BRA and ISDN PRA),
Protection info
Bearer channel connection
Local Area Network terminating
Timing info
equipment, and leased line equipment.
It may also consist of functions such
as multiplexing, cross-connect, and
transmission. AN is responsible for
accessing recognition tones of
Figure 1 V5.1 and V5.2
analogue signals, duration, voltage and
frequency of meter pulses, ringing current or the
the signaling time slots, by switching a faulty line over
specific details of a signaling sequence. The LE is a
to another available line. This interface supports ISDN
serving site and is responsible for call control by
PRI in addition to all the services that are supported by
providing circuit switch, DTMF tone generation/
V5.1.
decoding, etc.
There are two forms of V5: V5.1 and V5.2. The V5.1
protocol operates on a single E1 circuit, while the V5.2
protocol operates on a group (up to 16 E1 lines) of E1
circuits. Both of these interfaces may utilize time slots
15,16, and 31 for signaling (with constraints, of course,
on the allocation of the signaling to the time slots).
V5.1 interface operates on a single E1 link for bearer
channels and signaling channels. It supports the
following services: PSTN, ISDN basic access, and leased
line. Bearer channels are preassigned. Therefore, this
interface can support only up to 30 PSTN ports or 15
ISDN basic access ports.
V5.2 interface can operate on up to 16 E1 links. It is
therefore capable of supporting up to several thousand
ports. The reason for this is that bearer channels are
allocated dynamically on a per call basis, and concentration is supported on this interface. The concentration factor is normally around 8. Because of the
possible existence of multiple links, V5.2 allows its
individual links to be identified so that the integrity of

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The major differences between V5.1 and V5.2 are as


follows:
V5.2 consists of more housekeeping protocols, i.e.
BCC, Protection Protocol, and link control protocol.
V5.2 utilizes additional backup time slots to improve
the security of the communication.
V5.2 is able to support up to 16 E1 links.

2 PROTOCOL ARCHITECTURE
The V5 interface is structured as a three layer protocol:
Layer 1, Layer 2, and Layer 3 (refer to Figure 2).
Layer 1 is known as the physical layer. This layer
determines the electrical interface, line coding, line
rate, etc. ETSI ETS 300 166 or ITU-T G.703 standards
are followed for defining these electrical and
physical characteristics.
Layer 2 is known as the data link layer. This layer
delivers the digital data across a physical line and
conveys information between layer 3 entities across
the V5 interface. LAPV5, a LAPD version of ETSI ETS
300 125 or ITU-T Q.920 and Q.921, governs the Data

Introduction to V5.1 and V5.2

Link Layer to allow for flexible multiplexing of


different information streams. For ISDN messages,
ISDN D-channel information is multiplexed at the
Data Link Layer and frame relayed on the V5 interface. A mapping function is used when frames are
received by the LAPV5-EF sublayer from the LE, and
if the LAPV5-DL address lies within the range
reserved for sublayer peer-to-peer data as defined in
the LAPV5-EF address shall be passed to the LAPV5DL sublayer.

2.1.1 Frame Components


Flag: The beginning and end of a V5 frame is marked
with a flag (01111110).
Envelope Function Address: EF address determines the
frames Layer 3 protocol. Thirteen bits in 2 octets are
used for this purpose, while the remaining 3 bits are
allocated to the Extension Address and Command/
Response bit. Zero to 8175 indicates an ISDN
message while 8176 identifies a PSTN message (refer
to Figure 4 on next page for more details).

AN

Physical
Layer

Prot Link C Control


(V5.2) (V5.2)

BCC
(V5.2)

PSTN

LAPV5-DL

ETS 300 125

Data Link
Layer

PSTN

Other protocols conforming


to ETS 300 125

Network
Layer

LE

Prot Link C Control


(V5.2) (V5.2)

BCC
(V5.2)

LAPV5-DL

Mapping function

ETS 300 125

Mapping function

AN Frame
Relay
Function

LAPV5-EF

LAPV5-EF

D16/64

C64

C64

D16/64

V5.1/(V5.2)

Figure 2 V5 Interface Structure

Layer 3 is the Network Layer


governed by the ETSI ETS 300
324-1(for V5.1 interfaces)
and ETSI ETS 300 347-1 (for
V5.2 interfaces) standards.
This layer establishes,
terminates, and maintains the
connections across the
network, between communication application entities
(refer to Figure 2 above, for
protocols involved in the
layer for V5 interfaces).

V5 frame
01111110
Envelope Function address
(high order octet)

V5 ISDN LAPD frame


If V5 ISDN LAPD frame,
then replace V5 Link
address by SAPI & TEI

01111110
Envelope Function address
(high order octet)

Envelope Function address


(low order octet)

Envelope Function address


(low order octet)

V.5 Link address

SAPI

V.5 Link address

TEI

Control field

Control field

Control field

Control field

Protocol discriminator
Layer 3 address

Information

Layer 3 address

2.1 Frame Structure


V5 frame structure consists of
either a standard V5 frame or a
modified V5 frame - V5 ISDN
LAP frame, for ISDN messages
only (see Figure 3).

Information
FCS (first octet)

FCS (first octet)

FCS (second octet)

FCS (second octet)

01111110

01111110

Figure 3 V5 Frame Structure

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Introduction to V5.1 and V5.2

Link Address: This field


repeats the EF address if
it applies to a PSTN
01111110
message. If it is an ISDN
EF address determines the frame's layer 3 protocol.
Envelope
Function address
message, then the Link
(high order octet)
Address will be replaced
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Envelope Function address
with SAPI and TEI (as
(low order octet)
0 EA
EF address (higher)
indicated in Figure 3 on
0
V.5 Link address
previous page).
EA
EF address (lower)
V.5 Link address
1
Control Field: This works as
Control
field
defined in Q.921 standard
EF address: 13 bit numbers
EF = 0-8175 >> ISDN port
control field (I, RR,
Control field
EF = 8176 (11111100
RNR, REJ, SABME, DISC,
11100001) >> PSTN Signaling
Protocol discriminator
EF = 8177 (11111100
UI, etc.).
11100011) >> Control
Layer 3 address
Protocol Discriminator:
EF = 8178 (11111100
11100101) >> BCC
Layer 3 address
Used to distinguish
EF = 8179 (11111100
messages corresponding
Information
11100111) >> Protection protocol
EF = 8180 (11111100
to the protocols defined
FCS (first octet)
11101001) >> Link Control
in this ETS from those
FCS (second octet)
corresponding to other
protocols making use of
01111110
the same data link
connection (01001000 is
used for this purpose).
Figure 4 Envelope Function address
Layer 3 Address: This address
is protocol dependent. It identifies the layer 3 entity
diversion. It manages dialing information, ringing
to which the transmitted or received messages
and pulsed events, etc. The different messages in
applies. For PSTN protocol, this will indicate the user
this protocol are shown in Figure 5. Note that (Bits)
port I.D. For Control protocol, this is to identify the
are used to identify a particular message type in the
ISDN or PSTN user port or indicate a common V5
Information field of a V5 frame.
control function. For BCC protocol, this will indicate
ISDN: The AN is transparent to the ISDN signaling,
the call reference number, which identifies the BCC
since the ISDN D-channel frames are frame relayed
protocol process. For Protection protocol, this field is
within the access network. The frames are termifor the logical C-channel I.D. (0-44). And for the
nated at the CPE and LE.
Link Control protocol, this indicates the link I.D.
Control: Control Protocol contains two parts: User Port
Information: This field contains an octet for the
Control and Common Control. The Port Control
message type, identifying both the protocol the
protocol performs the blocking and unblocking
message belongs to and the function of the message
functions of the individual ports, when faults occur
being sent, as well as the message itself
(the payload information).
FCS: Frame Check Sequence is a check to
MESSAGE TYPE
(Bits)
verify if frames are in proper order and
Establish
00000000
of correct number.
Establish Ack
00000001
2.2 Protocols
The following protocols exist in V5.1
interfaces:
PSTN: The Public Switched Telephone
Network protocol defines a host of useful
messages for call initiation and progress
in both directions. This protocol sets up
and clears down connections, and carries
the information on the condition of the
line that can be used for necessary call

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00000010
00000011
00001000
00001001
00001100
00001101
00001110

Signal
Signal Ack
Disconnect
Disconnect Ack
Status Enquiry
Status
Protocol Parameter

MESSAGE CONTENT
Protocol Discrimination
Layer 3 Address
Message Type
Line-information
Autonomous-signaling-sequence
Cadenced-ringing
Pulsed-signal
Steady-signal

Figure 5 PSTN Protocol

Introduction to V5.1 and V5.2

or for maintenance purposes. In addition, it also


supports functions that are specific to ISDN ports
only, such as activation and deactivation, fault and
performance indications, and flow control for

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

(Bits)
0100
0100
0100
0100

Bearer Channel Connection (BCC): This protocol


governs the dynamical assignments of the E1 links.
Allocation of bearer channels on V5.1 interfaces is
static. Therefore, BCC protocol does not exist in this

MESSAGE TYPE
0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

Port Control
Port Control Ack
Common Control
Common Control Ack

ISDN

PSTN

0
1

MESSAGE CONTENT
Protocol Discrimination
Layer 3 Address
Message Type
Control-function-element
Performance-grading

Figure 6 Control Protocol

signaling on ISDN ports. The Common Control


protocol is responsible for checking the identity of
the V5 interface, to ensure interconnection accuracy,
and the consistency in the configuration of both
sides of the interface. Each side of the interface can
inform or request the other side of its interface ID
and configuration. If consistency does not occur, the
protocol allows changes in the configuration on both
sides of the interface to be coordinated. It can also
coordinate a reset of the PSTN protocol. Figure 6
shows the different messages in this protocol.

form of the V5 interface. As mentioned previously,


V5.2 can consist of up to 16 E1 links, which provides
up to more than 400 time slots. Due to the supports
of concentration and dynamical allocation of the
time slots, the several hundred time slots can support
up to thousands of user ports. Concentration allows
the time slots to be shared by a large number of user
ports. BCC protocol controls the allocation and
deallocation of the bearer time slots to the user
ports. In addition, BCC allows the exchange to check
the allocation and allows the access network to

MESSAGE TYPE
(Bits)
Allocation
00100000
Allocation Complete
00100001
Allocation Reject
00100010
De-Allocation
00100011
De-Allocation Complete
00100100
De-Allocation Reject
00100101
Audit
00100110
Audit Complete
00100111
AN Fault
00101000
AN Fault Ack
00101001
Protocol Error
00101010

MESSAGE CONTENT
Protocol Discrimination
Layer 3 Address
Message Type
User Port I.D.
ISDN Port Channel I.D.
Cadenced-ringing
V5 Time Slot I.D.
Multi-Slot Map

Figure 7 BCC Protocol

In addition to these three protocols, the following 3


protocols are also important and are only in the V5.2
interfaces:

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inform the exchange of any problems that may


affect the allocation. Figures 7 and 8 are the
different messages in this protocol.

Introduction to V5.1 and V5.2

Link Control: This assigns an


ID to each link at each
side of the interface and
allows each side to check
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
the link ID at the opposite
Information element identifier
side. Either side of the
Length of the information element content
interface can request the
ISDN T.S.
1
0
0
(PRI = 1-31; BRI = 1-2)
opposite side to tag the
MESSAGE CONTENT
link identified in the
message address field. It
Protocol Discrimination
also has the capability to
Layer 3 Address
take the link in and out of
Message Type
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
Information element identifier
service, in cases when a
User Port I.D.
Length of the information element content
ISDN Port Channel I.D.
link has become faulty or
V5
2048
kbit/s
link
I.D.
(1-16
links)
V5 Time Slot I.D.
for maintenance purposes.
Multi-Slot Map
override
V5
time
slot
#
1
0
This is commonly referred
to as blocking and
unblocking of a link.
There are two priorities of
Figure 8 BCC Protocol
blocking requests. The
high-priority request only
allows the communication channels to be switched,
protocols, i.e. Control, BCC, and Link Control protoand many result in the loss of ongoing calls. A lowcols), initially occupies, is known as the primary link.
priority request allows the LE to both switch the
The secondary link is the other link used by the

MESSAGE TYPE
(Bits)
Link Control
00110000
Link Control Ack
00110001
MESSAGE CONTENT
Protocol Discrimination
Layer 3 Address
Message Type
Link Control Function

Figure 9 Link Protocol

communication channels on to other links and to


wait until the ongoing calls are completed. Figure 9
shows the different messages in this protocol.
Protection: This protocol is to protect the communications channels against failures. To improve the
reliability of V5.2 interfaces, protection procedures
for the switch-over of the communication paths
under failure, are provided. When failure occurs on a
physical time slot, the logical channel shall be
reallocated to another time slot. This does not
protect the bearer channels. This protection protocol
is carried on time slot 16 of both the primary and
secondary links of the V5.2 interface. The link where
the protection protocol (along with housekeeping

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protection protocol. These two time slots (time slot


16s of primary and secondary link), are considered as
Protection Group 1. The protection protocol in time
slot 16 of the secondary link monitors time slot 16
on both the primary and secondary links. This
ensures that degradation on the primary link is
detected and that the availability of the secondary
link is ensured. Protection Group 2 is utilized if more
time slots are needed. Any number of active
communication time slots, which are not otherwise
protected, may be assigned to this protection group.
The allocation of the physical C-channels in this
protection group is as follows: Time slot 16 of the
remaining E1 links should be allocated; if more are

Introduction to V5.1 and V5.2

required, then time slot 15 of an E1 link is next; if


still more are required, time slot 31 of the same E1
link should be allocated. If still more C-channels are
required, continue the allocation by allocating time
slots 15 and then 31 of the next link. N2 logical Cchannels can be provisioned, and a group of K2
standby C-channels can be provisioned with
1<=K2<=3 and 1<=N2<=(3xL-2-K2); where L equals
the number of E1 links and K2 equals the number of
protection channels. Figure 10 shows the different
messages in this protocol.

MESSAGE TYPE
(Bits)
Switch-over Req
00011000
Switch-over Com
00011001
OS-Switch-over Com
00011010
Switch-over Ack
00011011
Switch-over Reject
00011100
Protocol Error
00011101
Reset SN Com
00011110
Reset SN Ack
00011111

MESSAGE CONTENT
Protocol Discrimination
Layer 3 Address
Message Type
Sequence Number
Physical C-channel identification

Figure 10 Protection Protocol

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Introduction to V5.1 and V5.2

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