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Prepare for Corrupt Greedy Corporate Oil police in Dakota, How to

Build Mirror Shields for Standing Rock Water Protectors and Shame
the Police
ARTICLE 5 of THE TREATY OF FORT LARAMIE, 1851-The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby recognize & acknowledge
the following tracts of country, included within...


The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby recognize &

acknowledge the following tracts of country, included
within the metes & boundaries hereinafter designated, as
their respective territories:
The territory of the Sioux or Dahcotah Nation,
commencing the mouth of the White Earth River, on the
Missouri River: thence in a southwesterly direction to the
forks of the Platte River: thence up the north fork of the
Platte River to a point known as the Red Butte, or where
the road leaves the river; thence along the range of
mountains known as the Black Hills, to the head-waters of
Heart River; thence down Heart River to its mouth; &
thence down the Missouri River to the place of
It is, however, understood that, in making this recognition
and acknowledgement, the aforesaid Indian nations do not
hereby abandon or prejudice any rights or claims they
may have to other lands; & further, that they do not
surrender the privilege of hunting, fishing, or passing over
any of the tracts of country heretofore described.
Article VI of The Constitution of The United States:
"This Constitution, & the laws of the United States which
shall be made in pursuance thereof; & all treaties made, or
which shall be made, under the authority of the United
States, shall be the supreme law of the land; & the judges
in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the
Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary

The Senators & Representatives before mentioned, and

the members of the several state legislatures, and all
executive and judicial officers, both of the United States
and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or
affirmation, to support this Constitution"
"I, _____, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support
and defend the Constitution of the United States against
all enemies, foreign and domestic"
"EXTORTION", Black's Law Dictionary: "Extortion consists
in any public officer unlawfully taking, by color of his
office, fromany person any money or thing of value that is
not due to him. or more than his due.Code Ga. 1882,":
DECLARATION: "United States Officials: We Hereby Call
Upon Your Constitutional Oaths!":
Map of 1851 Agreed Treaty Boundaries



There are approximately 1,300

professional Army Civilians and military
service members within The Army Corps of
Engineers Omaha District[1] brave young
men & women who set aside their political
opinions- their differences with each other
and with the people with whom they were
about to swear to protect- before affirming
their Constitutional Oaths of Enlistment:
I, _____, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will
support and defend the Constitution of the United
States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that
I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; and
that I will obey the orders of the President of the

United States and the orders of the officers appointed

over me, according to regulations and the Uniform
Code of Military Justice. So help me God.[2]

Now, it is likely that many of those young

men & women did not fully comprehend- at
the time they affirmed such Oath what,
exactly, they were about to swear
to uphold, when swearing- for instance- to
defend The Constitution of The United States
against all enemies, foreign & domestic
nor did they, perhaps, know where in The
Constitution their Oath was
derived from- Article VI of The Constitution of
The United States, which reads as follows:
This Constitution, & the laws of the United
States which shall be made in pursuance
thereof; & all treaties made, or which shall be
made, under the authority of the United
States, shall be the supreme law of the land;
& the judges in every state shall be bound
thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws
of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.
The Senators & Representatives before
mentioned, and the members of the several
state legislatures, and all executive and
judicial officers, both of the United States and

of the several states, shall be bound by oath

or affirmation, to support this Constitution[3]
And so which treaty is it in which shall
be the supreme law of the land, with
anything in the Constituiton or laws of any
State to the contrary notwithstanding in
which the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe lays
claim to The Missouri River? Such
lawful claim is inarguably asserted within
ARTICLE 5 of The Treaty of Fort Laramie of
1851, which reads as follows:
The territory of the Sioux or Dahcotah
Nation, commencing the mouth of the White
Earth River, on the Missouri River: thence in
a southwesterly direction to the forks of the
Platte River: thence up the north fork of the
Platte River to a point known as the Red Bute,
or where the road leaves the river; thence
along the range of mountains known as the
Black Hills, to the head-waters of Heart River;
thence down Heart River to its mouth; and
thence down the Missouri River to the place
of beginning.[4]
But the Dakotah & Sioux Nations
are not the only nations listed within The

Treaty of Fort Larmie of 1851: so are several

other Tribes & Tribal Nations as well:

Map of The Treaty of Fort

(from The Official Portal of The
North Dakota State Government website)
From The History and Culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sahnish from
Official Portal of The north Dakota State Government website:

Which Bears The Question:

Where did this Treaty of Fort
Laramie come from? Why was it made, &
how was sacred trust gained between the
people of Europe, & with our recent
ancestors- the Dakota, Lakota, Nakota, &
other Great Plains Nations?

Here is an answer:

Much of the trust in which our ancestors

placed in your ancestors came from a young
leader among your people- a 32 year old
man named Thomas Jefferson a 32 year old
man who put the people of his country before
everything else- just like each of you did
when you all swore to uphold your
Constituional Oaths. In 1776, Jefferson wrote

the following within the opening section of

The Declaration of Independence:
We hold these truths to be self-evident:
that all men are created equal, that they are
endowed by their Creator with certain
unalienable Rights, that among these are
Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.
That to secure these rights, Governments are
instituted among Men, deriving their just
powers from the consent of the governed,
That whenever any Form of Government
becomes destructive of these ends, it is the
Right of the People to alter or to abolish it,
and to institute new Government, laying its
foundation on such principles and organizing
its powers in such form, as to them shall
seem most likely to effect their Safety and
Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate
that Governments long established should
not be changed for light and transient
causes; and accordingly all experience hath
shewn that mankind are more disposed to
suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right
themselves by abolishing the forms to which
they are accustomed. But when a long train

of abuses and usurpations, pursuing

invariably the same Object evinces a design
to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it
is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such
Government, and to provide new Guards for
their future security. Such has been the
patient sufferance of these Colonies.[5]
Jefferson- despite popular belief- was
an ardent abolitionist (anti-slavery
advocate) even though he was born into an
unjust paradigm of slavery. When Jefferson
included a passage which attacked &
denounced slavery in his original draft of the
Declaration of Independence, it initiated the
most intense debate among the delegates
gathered at Philadelphia in the spring and
early summer of 1776. Jeffersons passage
on slavery was the most important section
removed from the final document, & it was
replaced with a more ambiguous passage
about King Georges incitement of domestic
insurrections among us. Decades later
Jefferson blamed the removal of the passage
on delegates from South Carolina, Georgia, &
also Northern delegates who represented

merchants who were at the time actively

involved in the Trans-Atlantic slave trade.

Jeffersons original passage on


He has waged cruel war against human

nature itself, violating its most sacred rights
of life and liberty in the persons of a distant
people who never offended him, captivating &
carrying them into slavery in another
hemisphere or to incur miserable death in
their transportation thither. This piratical
warfare, the opprobrium of infidel powers, is
the warfare of the Christian King of Great
Britain. Determined to keep open a market
where Men should be bought & sold, he has
prostituted his negative for suppressing
every legislative attempt to prohibit or
restrain this execrable commerce. And that
this assemblage of horrors might want no
fact of distinguished die, he is now exciting
those very people to rise in arms among us,
and to purchase that liberty of which he has
deprived them, by murdering the people on
whom he has obtruded them: thus paying off
former crimes committed again the Liberties

of one people, with crimes which he urges

them to commit against the lives of
This Declaration, a founding
document for what would become The United
States of America, of which the principles
within The Constitution of The United States,
The Emancipation Proclamation, glorious
speeches by Martin Luther King, jr., &
inspirations for research regarding what
unalienable rights would come to mean for
human dignity among a future to come, was
written years before this Third President of
The United States (Jefferson), would
state the following to the Miami, Potawatamie,
& Weeauh tribes in a speech on January 7th,
I receive with great satisfaction the visit
you have been so kind as to make us at this
place, & I thank the great spirit who has
conducted you to us in health & safety, it is
well that friends should sometimes meet,
open their minds mutually, & renew the chain
of affection, made by the same great spirit, &
living in the same land with our brothers the

red men. We consider ourselves as of the

same family; we wish to live with them as one
people, & to cherish their interests as our
own. The evils which of necessity
encompass the life of man are sufficiently
numerous; why should we add to them by
voluntarily distressing & destroying one
another? Peace, brothers, is better than war.
In a long & bloody war, we lose many friends,
& gain nothing; let us then live in peace &
friendship together, doing to each other all
the good we can; the wise & good on both
sides desire this, & we must take care that
the foolish & wicked among us shall not
prevent it. On our part, we shall endeavor in
all things to be just & generous towards you,
& to aid you in meeting those difficulties
which a change of circumstances is bringing
on I consider it as fortunate that you have
made your visit at this time when our wise
men form the sixteen states are collected
together in council, who being equally
disposed to befriend you can strengthen our
hands in the good we all wish to render you.
The several matters you opened to us in your

speech the other day, & those on which you

have since conversed with the Secretary at
war, have been duly considered by us, he will
now deliver answers, & you are to consider
what he says, as if said by myself, & that what
we promise we shall faithfully perform.[7]
Two years after delivering the
aforementioned speech, Jefferson
commissioned the famed Corps. of
Discovery to explore northward from St.
Louis, Missouri along The Missouri River, to
where the renown
explorers Captain Meriwether Lewis
& Second Lieutenant William Clark, as well
as a young childhood friend of Clarks,
an African American man named York
(whom our people named Big Medicine),
would come to meet our people, & we would
begin to earn one anothers trust in the same
way that any lifelong friends gain trust- a
sacred bond which is never given lightly by
anyone, nor re-gained overnight when such
sacred bond of trust has been dishonored.

Before continuing, please read the

following sections we have

assembled from a place of love &

understanding, & to grab the hand
of a friend who has lost their way:
Pre-Contact Lakota
First Contact with Europeans
The Two Treaties of Fort Laramie
All Major Treaty
(& the laws
that were violated at those times)
Note: Please contact us if there are any amendments
which ought be considered; some sections of thie
website are still being assembled, but releasing to the
public is, at this time, an urgent matter.

Now, it is difficult to trust someone who

has hurt you again & again, & we
have trusted your people for generations, but
for generations, now, things have not
been made right, & instead have continued to
decline. Today- our friendship- is wounded.
Our friendship- is in many ways beyond
repair- for today we can relate more to the
words of Thomas Jefferson, than we can with
the America of today. Our treaty has been

violated time & time again, & today it appears

as if government officials act as if The Treaty
of Fort Larmie, Article VI of The Constitution,
or our well-being in general- does not exist or
matter- & it has been going on like this now
for decades- going back to the days of
Andrew Jackson when our Dakota neighborsas well as many other tribes- came fleeing
westward to escape the horrors caused by
The Indian Removal Act of 1830 but we
forgave & gave another chance years later,
when signing the aforementioned Treaty of
Fort Laramie of 1851.

FAQ: Is The 1851 Treaty of Fort

Laramie still in effect?
Yes. Though countless treaty violations
against the treaty have occurred, there has
been no lawful negation of the original treaty
contract. When violations have
occurred, they have been color of law crimes,
wherein the appearance of law has been
used in order to deprive the BODY POLITIC
known as (among other names) The Great
Sioux Nation, of our Constitutional Rights,
both as a tribe and as individuals: such

violations have been in direct violation

of United States Code Title 18-CRIMES AND
Deprivation of rights under color of law.[8]

The location of the Dakota Access Pipeline
Project is Illegal
The Dakota Access Pipeline Project was
Illegally approved via Acts of EXTORTION
The Approval of DAPL is in violation of U.S.C.
Title 42 Conspiracy to Interfere w/ Civil
(2 or more persons acting in collusion for the
purpose of depriving- either directly or
indirectly- another person or class of persons
of their Constitutional Rights)

652. Statute of Limitations for

Conspiracy is a continuing offense. For
statutes such as 18 U.S.C. 371, which
require an overt act in furtherance of the
conspiracy, the statute of limitations begins
to run on the date of the last overt act.[9]
Section 3282 of Title 18, United States
Code states that, prosecution for a noncapital offense shall be instituted within five
years after the offense was committed.[10]
Whereas unconstitutional violations upon
the Treaty of Fort Laramie of 1851 have been
comprised of overt acts of furtherance by
2 or more persons as part of a continuing
offense, the approval of the construction of
the Dakota Access Pipeline Project, through
Extortion has merely extended the statute of
limitations going back all the way to the
very first treaty violation upon the Treaty of
Fort Laramie- the so-called Grattan

Massacre.; the Treaty of Fort Laramie of

1851 is in full effect.


When a long train of abuses and

usurpations, pursuing invariably the same
Object evinces a design to reduce them
under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it
is their duty, to throw off such Government,
and to provide new Guards for their future
security. Such has been the patient
sufferance of these Tribes. Recent abuses

Civil Rights Violations Against

Water Protectors
The Destruction & Desecration of
Federally-Protected, Sacred Ancestr
al Burial Sites
Constant FAA
Violations, harassment by aircraft
Failure of Officers to Identify
Themselves; Evasion of Federal
Law & Public Endangerment

Violations of The American Indian

Religious Freedom Act
The Destruction & Theft of Drones
being used for First Amendment
Purposes (to monitor our sacred
sites to gather evidence so we are
not abused in court through lack of
Officers Operating Outside Their
Jurisdiction (Diversity of
Countless Cases of Media Slander
Against Our Character as
Individuals and As People
Treaty Violation After Treaty
Violation After Treaty Violation

We have gathered a significant number of
Petition signatures for our cause (thank you
Water Protectors!!)

We, The People of The Great Plains Tribal

Nations, & Our Allies Who Come From Many
Races, Classes, & Creeds from Around the
World aka Water Protectors, do hereby
assume & exert our inalienable right
to peaceably to assemble, & to Petition the
Government for a

Redress of

Source Links:
[1]: From Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha
Districts Colonel John W. Henderson,
Commander and District Engineerpage:
[2]: Army Values; Oath of Enlistment:

[3]: Library of Congress, Transcript fo The

Constitution of The United States:
[4]: Government Printing Office: INDIAN
[5]: Transcript of The Declaration of
[6]: Removed section of The Declaration of
Independence: Thomas Jefferson, The
Writings of Thomas Jefferson: Being His
Autobiography, Correspondence, Reports,
Messages, Addresses, and other Writings,
Official and Private (Washington, D.C.: Taylor
& Maury, 1853-1854):

[7]: Barbara B. Oberg, ed.; The Papers of

Thomas Jefferson (Princeton University
Press, 2009), Vol. 36 p 286-282:
[8]: United States Code Title 18-CRIMES AND
Deprivation of rights under color of law:
[9]: Offices of the United States Attorneys:

U.S. Attorneys Resources U.S. Attorneys

Manual Criminal Resource Manual CRM
500-999 Criminal Resource Manual 601-699:
652. Statute of Limitations for Conspiracy:
[10]: Offices of the United States
Attorneys: U.S. Attorneys Resources
U.S. Attorneys Manual Criminal Resource
Manual CRM 500-999 Criminal Resource
Manual 601-699: 650. Length of Limitations



This page is continued from First Contact w/



The below section provides information as

to what led up to the signing of The Treaty of
Fort Laramie with Sioux, etc., signed on
September 17th, 1851, & also the 1868
version of The Treaty of Fort Laramie. There
are also maps of each of the treaties, as well
as additional need-to-know information
regarding the text of each each of these
treaties, and their relation to this particular

Pt. 1: First Encounter Between U.S.

Govt Officials & The Lakota Oyate
The Lewis & Clark Expedition:

Great Plains tribal people did not come

across a United States government
spokesperson until the Lewis & Clark
Expedition, called The Corps. of
Discovery, in 1804 near the Missouri River.
Lewis and Clark at Three Forks by E. S. Paxson, 1912.
York is depicted second from the left.Courtesy Montana
Historical Society:

The third President of the United States

author of The Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson, commissioned the Corps.
of Discovery shortly after the Louisiana
Purchase (purchased from France in order to
release their claim) in 1803.
Map of The Louisiana Purchase:

The expedition comprised a selected group

of U.S. Army volunteers as well as an African
American slave named York, under the
command of Captain Meriwether Lewis & his
close friend, Second Lieutenant William
Clark. York was a childhood companion of
Clark[2], & together their perilous journey
lasted from May 1804 to September 1806.
The primary objective was to explore & map
the newly-acquired territory, to find a
practical riverine route across the western
half of the continent to secure a western
trade route, & to establish an American
presence in this territory before Britain or
other European powers tried to claim it.
The campaigns secondary objectives were
scientific & economic: to study the areas
plants, animal life, & geography & to

establish trade with local tribes. The

expedition was also charged with observing
& recording the whereabouts, lives, activities,
& cultures of the various tribes who lived
there. They encountered many tribes along
the way many of whom offered
assistance providing the expedition with
their knowledge of the wilderness, & also
with provisions of food. They carried with
them weapons, powder, tools, & cooking
utensils, & also blank leather-bound journals
& ink for record-keeping purposes. They
also brought various gifts of medals, ribbons,
needles, mirrors, & other artifacts intended to
ease tensions when negotiating passage with
the various tribal chiefs theyd encounter
along the way.
As many tribes had had friendly
experiences with British and French fur
traders during various isolated encounters
along the Missouri & Columbia Rivers, the
expedition subsequently did not encounter
any hostilities with the exception of the TetonSioux tribe under Waglula aka Black
Buffalo & also the Partisan tribe on

September 25, 1804. These two tribes were

rivals & hoped to use the expedition to their
own advantage each demanding tribute
(offering) for passage over the river at that
particular juncture. Captain Lewis made his
first mistake by offering the Sioux chief gifts
first, which insulted & angered the Partisan
chief. Communication was difficult since the
expeditions only Sioux interpreter, Pierre
Dorion, had stayed behind with the other
party for the purpose of negotiating
diplomatic affairs with another tribe.
Consequently, both chiefs were offered a few
gifts, but neither were satisfied. At that point,
some of the warriors from the Partisan tribe
then took hold of their boat & one of the oars.
Lewis took a firm stand, ordering a display of
force, presenting arms; Captain Clark, by
gesture of brandishing his sword, threatened
violent reprisal. Just before the situation
erupted into a violent confrontation, Waglula
ordered his warriors to back off. After the
ensuing diplomacy & with the aid of better
gifts including a bottle of whiskey, the
captains were able to negotiate their passage

through without further incident. During the

next two days, the expedition made camp not
far from Waglulas tribe. When they
attempted to leave, similar incidents
occurred, but they were averted with still
more gifts, this time, of tobacco.[3] [4] The
expedition refrained from entering the Black
Hills because they lacked governmental
jurisdiction, and they feared deadly
consequences of entering the sacred land
the oldest mountain range within the
contiguous United States.[5] With maps,
sketches, & journals in hand, the expedition
eventually returned to St. Louis to report their
findings to Jefferson.[6]
Lewis & Clarks Outbound Route Shown in
Red, Inbound in Blue:
Inside the Corps. PBS:

Lesser Known Facts About The Lewis, Clark,

York, & Sacagawea (Hidaltsa word for Bird
Woman) Expedition
The tall African American manservant York
was a hit with frontier tribes, many of whom
had never seen a person with dark skin. The
Arikara people of North Dakota referred to

York as Big Medicine, & speculated that he

had spiritual powers. Though not an official
member of the Corps of Discovery, York
made the entire journey from St. Louis to the
Pacific & back, & became a valued member of
the expedition, including as a skilled hunter.
One of the most legendary members of the
Lewis & Clark expedition was Sacagawea, a
Shoshone native who had been kidnapped
from her tribe as an adolescent. Lewis &
Clark first met her while spending the winter
among the Mandan tribe along the Upper
Missouri River, not far from present-day
Bismarck, North Dakota. Still only a teenager,
Sacagawea was the wife of a FrenchCanadian fur trapper, Toussaint
Charbonneau, who had purchased her from
Hidatsa kidnappers the year before. The
Hidatsa had taken Sacagawea from her
homeland along the Continental Divide in
modern-day southwestern Montana &
southeastern Idaho, where she was the
daughter of a prominent Shoshone chief.
Viewing such captives as little more than
slaves, the Hidatsa were happy to sell her

and another woman to Charbonneau.

Sacagawea & her son Pomp:

Sacajawea and Pomp by Agnes Vincens Talbot:

That winter, Lewis & Clark hired

Charbonneau as an interpreter for their
projected expedition to the Pacific & back.
On February 11th, 1805, Sacagawea went into
labor. Lewis, who would often act as the
expeditions doctor in the months to come,
was called on for the first & only time during
the journey to assist in a delivery. Lewis was
anxious to insure his new Shoshone
interpreter was in good shape for the arduous
journey to come, & he later worriedly
reported her labour was tedious, & the pain
violent. Told that a small amount of the rattle
of rattlesnake might speed the delivery, Lewis
broke up a rattler tail & mixed it with water.
She had not taken [the mixture] more than
ten minutes before she brought forth, Lewis
happily reported.
Named Jean Baptiste Charbonneau, the
cries of the healthy young boy announced the
arrival of a new member of the Corps of

Discovery. No one, it seemed, contemplated

leaving Sacagawea & her infant son behind
when the party set out up the Missouri in
April 1805, Sacagawea carried Jean Baptiste
on her back in a traditional cradleboard.
Sacagawea served as an interpreter &
occasional & invaluable guide on their
journey to the Pacific. During a run-in with a
band of Shoshone in the summer of 1805,
she famously discovered the tribes chief was
none other than her long lost brother, whom
she had not seen since her abduction five
years earlier. The tearful reunion helped
facilitate peaceful relations between the
explorers & the Shoshone, allowing Lewis to
procure much-needed horses for his trek
over the Rockies.
During her time with the Corps of
Discovery, William Clark took a shine to
Sacagaweas son (whom he nicknamed
Pomp), & when Sacagawea left the
expedition in August 1806, he offered to
adopt him & raise him as my own child.
Sacagawea initially turned down the offer, but
later allowed Clark to provide for her sons

education in St. Louis. Following

Sacagaweas death in 1812, Clark became the
legal guardian of both Jean Baptiste and her
other child, a daughter named Lisette. Little
is known about what became of Lisette, but
Jean-Baptiste later traveled to Europe before
returning to the American frontier to work as
a trapper & wilderness guide.[7]

Pt. 2: The U.S. Indian Agency

Designed to Domesticate &
Assimilate Native Americans into
European Culture, 1820 1853

Along with building Fort Snelling at the

junction of the Mississippi & Minnesota
Rivers, the U.S. government established the
St. Peters Indian Agency on the military
property. The agency was supervised by an
Indian Agent, a civilian appointed by the
President of the United States to serve as an
ambassador to American Indian nations
living in the region. Agents were responsible
for being the eyes, ears, & mouth of the U.S.
Bureau of Indian Affairs to American Indian

Indian agencies were created as part of

the U.S. governments efforts to control
commerce (international or interstate trade)
between the U.S. & American Indian
nations. In 1806 the Federal office of the
Superintendent of Indian Trade was created,
specifically to monitor & control economic
activity between American Indian nations &
the U.S. Government. In March 1824 Secretary
of War John C. Calhoun created the Bureau
of Indian Affairs to replace the Indian Trade
Office, officially placing responsibility for
working with American Indian
communities under the control of the U.S.
War Department. In addition to controlling
commerce, the Bureau was responsible for
settling disputes between American Indians &
European Americans, as well as for
appropriating funds from
Congress to fund efforts by the Indian agents
to acculturate American Indians into
European American society.
The Indian came into reservation life
reluctantly. He was practically a prisoner, to
be fed & treated as such; & what resources

were left him must be controlled by the Indian

Bureau through its resident agent.
Charles A. Eastman, The Indian Today,
Indian Agency Council House, 1835-37.Painting by David Geister,
2012.Historic Fort Snelling collections:

Agents were ordered to report any

violations of U.S. trade & laws by European
or U.S. fur traders to the
Bureaus superintendents, local U.S. military
personnel, & to the U.S. War Department.
Agents were also responsible for resolving
disputes between American Indians &
European American emigrants within their
jurisdictions, or any conflicts between
different American Indian nations, in order to
prevent disruptions in the fur trade & ensure
that U.S. interests in their jurisdictions were
not jeopardized.
During the early 1800s the U.S. government
adopted policies aimed at acculturating &
assimilating American Indians into European
American society. Agents at the St. Peters
Agency encouraged Dakota people to give up

hunting as a primary method of subsistence,

educate their children according to
European-American standards, give up their
traditional religion to become practicing
Christians, & adopt European-American
agricultural methods. The agents also
encouraged a change in traditional Dakota
gender roles; traditionally, Dakota women &
children had worked the fields, gardens, &
wildharvesting, but the agents wanted men to
give up hunting & take over the agricultural
work. Agents as well as missionaries
encouraged the Dakota to adopt farming on a
larger scale so it could serve as the main
form of subsistence for their communities, &
to utilize European-American cultivation
methods (such as the use of plows drawn by
draft animals) as a response to their
difficulties in hunting at that time. However,
most Dakota were not willing to do so, as
they considered farming the way of the white
men. The policy of assimilation would
effectively destroy traditional cultural
identities of many native people. Many
historians have argued that the U.S.

government believed that if American Indians

did not adopt European-American culture
they would become extinct as a people. This
paternalistic attitude influenced interactions
between American Indian nations & the U.S.
government throughout the first half of the
1800s, & its effects continue to be felt today.
Throughout its more than 30 year history,
the St. Peters Agency was administered by
several individuals: Lawrence Taliaferro
(1820-39); Amos Bruce (1840-48); Richard G.
Murphy (1848-49); and Nathaniel
McLean (1850-53).
How to get rid of me at this Post seems now
the main object of Tom, Dick, and Harry so
that those who may come after me can the
more easily be bribed or threatened into
silence and acquiesce in the plans on foot to
cheat & destroy the Indians.
Lawrence Taliaferro[10]

Pt. 3: Indian Removal Act 1830 & The

Trail of Tears
Although journal entries by Lawrence
Taliaferro prove he hoped the election of

Andrew Jackson as the seventh President of

the United States would result in
improvement in affairs at the agency
including a more enlightened government
policy toward Native Americans (still called
Indians at the time), quite the opposite would
prove true.[11]
On December 6, 1830, in a message to
Congress, President Jackson called for the
forced relocation of all eastern tribes to lands
west of the Mississippi River in order to open
up land for settlement by citizens of the
United States.
With the onset of westward expansion &
increased contact with local tribes, President
Jackson set the tone for his position on
Indian affairs, which sought to justify the
passing of the Indian Removal Act which had
happened earlier that year on May 28.
The Indian Removal Act was passed to
open up for settlement those lands still held
by natives in states east of the Mississippi
River, primarily Georgia, Tennessee,
Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, &
others. Jackson declared the removal would

incalculably strengthen the southwestern

frontier. Clearing Alabama & Mississippi of
their Indian populations, he said, would
enable those states to advance rapidly in
population, wealth, & power.
Senators Daniel Webster & Henry Clay
spoke out against removal. The Reverend
Samuel Worcester, missionary to the
Cherokees, challenged Georgias attempt to
extinguish Indian title to land in the state,
actually winning his case before the Supreme
Court. Worcester vs. Georgia (1832) and
Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia (1831) are
considered the two most influential legal
decisions in Indian law. The U.S. Supreme
Court ruled for Georgia in the 1831 case, but
in Worcester vs. Georgia, the court affirmed
Cherokee sovereignty. Jackson defied the
ruling & ordered the removal anyway, an act
that established the U.S. governments
precedent for the future removal of many
Native Americans from their ancestral
The U.S. government used the Treaty of
New Echota in 1835 to justify the removal.

The treaty, signed by about 100 Cherokees

known as the Treaty Party, relinquished all
lands east of the Mississippi River in
exchange for land in Indian Territory and the
promise of money, livestock, various
provisions, tools & other benefits.
When these pro-removal Cherokee leaders
signed the Treaty of New Echota, they also
signed their own death warrants, since the
Cherokee Nation Council had earlier passed a
law calling for the death of anyone agreeing
to give up tribal land. The signing & removal
led to bitter factionalism & ultimately to the
deaths of most of the Treaty Party leaders
once the Cherokee arrived in Indian Territory.
Opposition to the removal was led by Chief
John Ross, a mixed-blood of Scottish & oneeighth Cherokee descent. The Ross party &
most Cherokees opposed the New Echota
Treaty, but Georgia & the U.S. government
prevailed & used it as justification to force
almost all of the 17,000 Cherokees from their
southeastern homeland.
White inhabitants of Georgia were
particularly anxious to have the Cherokees

removed from the state because gold had

been discovered on tribal lands. Race &
religious-based violence was commonplace
in Georgia, and, in all likelihood, a portion of
the tribe would have been decimated if they
had not been removed.
This discovery of gold came just after the
creation & passage of the original Cherokee
Nation constitution and establishment of a
Cherokee Supreme Court. Possessed by
gold fever & a thirst for expansion, many
white communities turned on their Cherokee
neighbors. The U.S. government ultimately
decided it was time for the Cherokees to be
removed; leaving behind their farms, land,
& homes.
Jacksons military command, & almost
certainly his life, were saved thanks to the aid
of 500 Cherokee allies at the Battle of
Horseshoe Bend in 1814. It therefore came as
a complete shock & betrayal to the Cherokee
people when Jackson authorized the Indian
Removal Act following the recommendation
of President James Monroe in his final
address to Congress in 1825. Jackson, as

president, sanctioned an attitude that had

persisted for many years among many white
Removal of the tribes continued beyond
Jacksons tenure as President. The most
infamous of the removals took place in 1838,
two years after the end of Jacksons final
term, when the Cherokee people were forcibly
removed by the military & marched men,
women, & children from the mountains of
North Carolina & surrounding states to the
plains of Oklahoma, into foreign ecosystems,
& onto Indian reservations where they
would no longer be able to access many of
the plants they had traditionally used for
survival, but instead would become
dependent upon commerce & what many
elders would call white man ways in order
to survive. Their journey west became known
as the Trail of Tears because of the
thousands of deaths which occurred along
the way.[13]

Back At The Indian Agency, Lawrence

Taliaferro, 1837 Treaty
At the St. Peters Agency, agent Lawrence

Taliaferro worked frequently with both Dakota

and Ojibwe communities to prevent conflicts
& maintain peace in the region. Chief Little
Crow of the Mdewakanton Dakota named
Taliaferro No-Sugar-in-Your-Mouth for his
ability to deal candidly & for his record of not
making promises that he could not keep.
Taliaferro built a council house just west of
the fort in 1823, where he received Native
American visitors & mediated in the affairs of
the area. Both the Dakota and the Ojibwa
would travel along the Minnesota &
Mississippi Rivers to the fort to seek advice &
to ask for charity & favors. Taliaferro was
able to exert his influence by carefully
distributing supplies such as food,
gunpowder, tobacco, & whiskey. The
agencys blacksmith also was on hand to
repair native peoples guns & traps. Since
they relied on these supplies & services, &
since those services could be stopped at any
time, this promoted peaceful relations
between all parties involved.
Taliaferro presided over the drafting of a
treaty in 1837. He brought Dakota leaders

to Washington, D.C., & negotiated what he

thought were fair terms for Dakota lands east
of the Mississippi River..[14] [15]
Minnesota Historical Society, painting of Lawrence Taliaferro :

Articles of a treaty, made at the City of

Washington, between Joel R.Poinsett, thereto
specially authorized by the President of the
United States, & certain chiefs and braves of
the Sioux nation of Indians.
The chiefs & braves representing the
parties having an interest therein, cede to the
United States all their land east of the
Mississippi river, & all their islands in the
said river.
In consideration of the cession contained
in the preceding article, the United States
agree to the following stipulations on their
First. To invest the sum of $300,000 in such
safe & profitable State stocks as the
President may direct, & to pay to the chiefs &

braves as aforesaid, annually, forever, an

income of not less than five per cent.
thereon; a portion of said interest, not
exceeding one third, to be applied in such
manner as the President may direct, & the
residue to be paid in specie, or in such other
manner, & for such objects, as the proper
authorities of the tribe may designate.
Second. To pay to the relatives & friends of
the chiefs & braves, as aforesaid, having not
less than one quarter of Sioux blood,
$110,000 to be distributed by the proper
authorities of the tribe, upon principles to be
determined by the chiefs and braves signing
this treaty, & the War Department.
Third. To apply the sum of $90,000 to
the payment of just debts of the Sioux
Indians, interested in the lands herewith
Fourth. To pay to the chiefs and braves as
aforesaid an annuity for twenty years of
$10,000 in goods, to be purchased under the
direction of the President, and delivered at
the expense of the United States.

Fifth. To expend annually for twenty years, for

the benefit of Sioux Indians, parties to this
treaty, the sum of $8,250 in the purchase of
medicines, agricultural implements and
stock, and for the support of a physician,
farmers, and blacksmiths, and for other
beneficial objects.
Sixth. In order to enable the Indians aforesaid
to break up and improve their lands, the
United States will supply, as soon as
practicable, after the ratification of this treaty,
agricultural implements, mechanics tools,
cattle, and such other articles as may be
useful to them, to an amount not exceeding
Seventh. To expend annually, for twenty
years, the sum of $5,500 in the purchase
of provisions, to be delivered at the expense
of the United States.
Eighth. To deliver to the chiefs and braves
signing this treaty, upon their arrival at St.
Louis, $6,000 in goods.
ARTICLE 3. [Stricken out by Senate.]
This treaty shall be binding on the

contracting parties as soon as it shall be

ratified by the United States.[16]


The United States government did not keep

up its end of the bargain. The native people
ended up debt-ridden & desperate for their
means of survival, & Taliaferro became
increasingly critical of the United States
inability to make good on their promises. In
poor health, he resigned his position & left
the Army.[17] [18] It is also worthy to note,
WHEREAS Mr. Taliaferro did not have any of
the money that was being promised to tribes
& tribal members- to be paid to them
forever, as promised under the first
section of this treaty, he thereby promised
the money of taxpayers, and as there was
no vote by the people for such tax to take
place, his Authorization of such Terms &
Conditions were both unconstitutional
and were indeed acts of EXTORTION:

Any oppression by color or pretense of right, and
particularly the exactionby an officer of money, by color

of his office, either when none at all is due, ornot so

much is due. or wyhen it Is not yet due. Preston v.
Bacon, 4 Conn. 4S0.Extortion consists in any public
officer unlawfully taking, by color Continue reading
The Law Dictionary

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By todays standards, Mr. Taliaferro would

have violated the following statute
found within the United States Code:
Title 18 U.S.Code

872. Extortion by officers or

employees of the United States:

Whoever, being an officer, or employee of

the United States or any department or
agency thereof, or representing himself to be
or assuming to act as such, under color or
pretense of office or employment commits or
attempts an act of extortion, shall be fined
under this title or imprisoned not more than

three years, or both; but if the amount so

extorted or demanded does not exceed
$1,000, he shall be fined under this title or
imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 740; Oct. 31, 1951, ch.
655, 24(b), 65 Stat. 720; Pub. L. 103322, title XXXIII,
330016(1)(G), (K), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2147; Pub.
L. 104294, title VI, 606(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat.

In 1849, The Discovery of Gold in The

West Created Demand for U.S. Officials
to Negotiate Passage Through The
Black Hills
The young U.S. government considered the
west a permanent Indian frontier an
inhospitable land with little economic value,
as it was inhabited by Indians who were
known for raiding trespassing settlers.

1850s photo of a Covered Wagon



The discovery of gold in California in 1849,

however, created a high demand for settlers
to travel west. In the early 1850s, overland

travelers en route to gold fields began to

cross through Lakota territory. This in turn
set off a series of confrontations between
European setters & native tribes concerned
about the new masses encroaching on their
already pushed-back homelands.[19]
Frederic Remingtons painting called The Emigrants:

Fortune seekers moving along the Platte

River Road trespassed right through Lakota
territory, & although generally left alone,
Europeans immigrants were frightened by the
turmoil & commotion caused by tribal raids,
& thereby demanded government protection.

1934Re-Enactment of Government
Intervention to Covered Wagon
Indians Attacks Covered Wagons (1934)


As a result, in 1851 the federal government

brought many of the Plains tribes together at
Fort Laramie, including Lakota & Dakota
bands, in order to establish not only peace
between the interwarring tribes, but also
between the tribes & the U.S. Government &
thus the settlers so that they they would no
longer have to fear for their safety including
being robbed. The government solution was
to assign each tribe a defined territory where
they were to remain. Government negotiators
had the various tribal nations appoint head
chiefs so they could deal with a small group
of men rather than entire nations. This sort
of negotiation was meaningless to the
Lakota, Dakota, & other tribes, however, as
traditional decision-making was based on
participation of all until consensus was
reached, & in this form of democracy a few
men could not speak for all or bind all people
to treaty promises. Nonetheless, the
government insisted on negotiating with
appointed chiefs, & through the treaty
process sought to define its relationship with
the various tribes. The 1851 Fort Laramie

Treaty defined territory for each tribal group

in order to end intertribal rivalry. and it
permitted travelers & railroad workers to
traverse & work along the Platte River Road.
The Yanktonai, covered by an earlier 1825
treaty, were omitted from the treaty because
their traditional areas were far removed from
the overland route to the Pacific Coast which
the treaty aimed to safeguard. Fort Laramie
was located in present day Wyoming.[20]

Old Fort Laramie, circa 1840:


Historic Stories and Travel Ideas, The Grattan Memorial:

Note: The below treaty was much more fairly

& lawfully written than the
aforementioned treaty authorized by
Lawrence Tell

Excerpted Articles from The Treaty

of Fort Laramie with Sioux, etc.,

Excerpted articles of the treaty made &

concluded at Fort Laramie, on tribal grounds,
between D. D. Mitchell, superintendent of

Indian affairs, & Thomas Fitzpatrick, Indian

agent, commissioners specially appointed &
authorized by the 13th President of the United
States, Millard Fillmore, & the chiefs,
headmen, & braves of the following Indian
nations, residing south of the Missouri River,
east of the Rocky Mountains, & north of the
lines of Texas & New Mexico: the Sioux or
Dahcotahs, Cheyennes, Arrapahoes, Crows.
Assinaboines, Gros-Ventre Mandans, &
Arrickaras, on September 17th, 1851.
The aforesaid nations, parties to this treaty.
having assembled for the purpose of
establishing & confirming peaceful relations
amongst themselves, do hereby covenant &
agree to abstain in future from all hostilities
whatever against each other, to maintain
good faith & friendship in all their mutual
intercourse (international or interstate trade
aka commerce), & to make an effective &
lasting peace.
The aforesaid nations do hereby recognize
the right of the United States Government

to establish roads, military, & other posts,

within their respective territories.
In consideration of the rights & privileges
acknowledged in the preceding article, the
United States bind themselves to protect the
aforesaid Indian nations against the
commission of all depredations by the people
of the said United States, after the ratification
of this treaty.
The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby
agree & bind themselves to make restitution
or satisfaction for any wrongs committed,
after the ratification of this treaty, by any
band or individual of their people, on the
people of the United States, whilst lawfully
residing in or passing through their
respective territories.
ARTICLE 5. (description of agreed
The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby
recognize & acknowledge the following tracts
of country, included within the metes &
boundaries hereinafter designated, as their

respective territories:
The territory of the Sioux or Dahcotah
Nation, commencing the mouth of the White
Earth River, on the Missouri River: thence in a
southwesterly direction to the forks of the
Platte River: thence up the north fork of the
Platte River to a point known as the Red
Butte, or where the road leaves the river;
thence along the range of mountains known
as the Black Hills, to the head-waters of Heart
River; thence down Heart River to its mouth;
& thence down the Missouri River to the
place of beginning.
The territory of the Gros Ventre, Mandans, &
Arrickaras Nations, commencing at the
mouth of Heart River; thence up the Missouri
River to the mouth of the Yellowstone River;
thence up the Yellowstone River to the mouth
of Powder River in a southeasterly direction,
to the head-waters of the Little Missouri
River; thence along the Black Hills to the
head of Heart River, and thence down Heart
River to the place of beginning.The territory
of the Assinaboin Nation, commencing at the
mouth of Yellowstone River; thence up the

Missouri River to the mouth of the Muscleshell River; thence from the mouth of the
Muscle-shell River in a southeasterly
direction until it strikes the head-waters of
Big Dry Creek; thence down that creek to
where it empties into the Yellowstone River,
nearly opposite the mouth of Powder River,
and thence down the Yellowstone River to the
place of beginning.The territory of
the Blackfoot Nation, commencing at the
mouth of Muscle-shell River; thence up the
Missouri River to its source; thence along the
main range of the Rocky Mountains, in a
southerly direction, to the head-waters of the
northern source of the Yellowstone River;
thence down the Yellowstone River to the
mouth of Twenty-five Yard Creek; thence
across to the head-waters of the Muscle-shell
River, and thence down the Muscle-shell
River to the place of beginning.The territory
of the Crow Nation, commencing at the
mouth of Powder River on the Yellowstone;
thence up Powder River to its source; thence
along the main range of the Black Hills and
Wind River Mountains to the head-waters of

the Yellowstone River; thence down the

Yellowstone River to the mouth of Twenty-five
Yard Creek; thence to the head waters of the
Muscle-shell River; thence down the Muscleshell River to its mouth; thence to the headwaters of Big Dry Creek, and thence to its
mouth.The territory of the Cheyennes and
Arrapahoes, commencing at the Red Bute, or
the place where the road leaves the north fork
of the Platte River; thence up the north fork of
the Platte River to its source; thence along
the main range of the Rocky Mountains to the
head-waters of the Arkansas River; thence
down the Arkansas River to the crossing of
the Santa F road; thence in a northwesterly
direction to the forks of the Platte River, and
thence up the Platte River to the place of
It is, however, understood that, in making
this recognition and acknowledgement, the
aforesaid Indian nations do not hereby
abandon or prejudice any rights or claims
they may have to other lands; & further, that
they do not surrender the privilege of
hunting, fishing, or passing over any of the

tracts of country heretofore described.[20]

Map of 1851 Agreed Treaty Boundaries

From The History and Culture of the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Sahnish from
Official Portal of The north Dakota State Government website:

Complications Enforcing The Treaty

Occurred from All Sides
Ultimately, many Lakota & Dakota never knew
of the existence of the 1851 Treaty, &
continued their intertribal raiding. The U.S.
regarded this as a breach of treaty, however,
even though the young government was also
unable to compel its own countrymen to
respect the treaty boundaries. Travelers
continuously passed through defined native
territories & ignored the treaty, though no
major incidents occurred until the numbers of
travelers increased.

Treaty Violation #1:

The Grattan Massacre, 1854
The Grattan Massacre as it became to be
known was the opening engagement of what
later would become publicized as the First
Sioux War. The massacre occurred east
of Fort Laramie in the newly-formed

incorporated territory founded on May 30,

1854 formed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act,
called the Nebraska Territory; the location of
the infamous first treaty violation against the
Sioux occurred in present-day Goshen
County, Wyoming on August 19, 1854.
SOURCE: Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: War, 2008; U.S. History in
Context, Oak Park & River Forest High Schools website:

Scenario: A small detachment of soldiers

entered a large Sioux encampment to arrest a
man accused of taking a migrants cow,
although such matters by treaty were
supposed to be handled by the US Indian
Agent. This treaty violation occurred under
the 14th President of the United States,
Franklin Pierce, a northern Democrat who
saw the abolitionist (anti-slavery)
movement as a fundamental threat to the
unity of the nation; yep- you guessed it- a

QUOTE SOURCE: Inaugural Address of Franklin Pierce, FRIDAY, MARCH 4,


After one of the soldiers shot & killed

Chief Conquering Bear, the Brul Lakotas
returned fire & killed a total of 29 soldiers:
Lieutenant John Grattan, & also a civilian
interpreter. The massacre as it was
slandered by local presses, is considered an
early, significant event in what became later
glorified as the Plains Indian Wars.
In the late summer of 1854, about 4,000
Brul & Oglala were camped near Fort
Laramie in accordance with the terms of
the Treaty of 1851. On August 17, a cow
belonging to a Mormon traveling on the
nearby Oregon Trail strayed & was killed by a
visiting Miniconjou named High Forehead.
Lt. Hugh Fleming, the senior officer of the
small garrison, consulted with the chief,
Conquering Bear, to discuss the loss of
livestock. Lt. Fleming was evidently unaware,
or chose to ignore, that such matters were,
by the terms of the Treaty of 1851, to be
handled by the local Indian Agent, in this

case John Whitfield, who was due to arrive

within days with annuities with which
restitution could be made.
Aware that the matter did not really
concern the military, Conquering Bear
attempted to negotiate, offering a horse from
his personal herd. Grattan said that the
Sioux should arrest the guilty party & turn
him over. Conquering Bear refused, & shortly
after Grattan began walking back to his
column, a soldier fired his gun, shooting a
Sioux warrior.
A commander at Laramie later recalled,
There is no doubt that Lt. Grattan left this
post with a desire to have a fight with the
Indians, & that he had determined to take the
man at all hazards.[21] The Lakota warriors
started shooting arrows while leaders tried to
take control. Conquering Bear was mortally
wounded & died nine days later near
the Niobrara River.
Chief Conquering Bear, 1899, SOURCE: RootsWeb, An
Community, Tiyospaye, Person Page 83, originally sourced from Western
History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library. :

The warriors also killed Grattan, 11 of his

men, & the interpreter. A group of some 18
soldiers retreated on foot trying to reach
some rocks for defense, but they were cut off
and killed by warriors led by Red Cloud who
was then a rising War chief within the Lakota.
One soldier survived the massacre but later
died of his wounds. The 28 killed soldiers are
buried at Fort McPherson, Nebraska, while Lt.
Grattan is buried in Fort Leavenworth,
The enraged warriors rampaged
throughout the night, swearing to attack
other whites.[22] They rode against Fort
Laramie the next morning but withdrew,
instead looting the trading post. On the third
day after the US attack, the Brule & Oglala
abandoned the camp on the North Platte
River & returned to their hunting grounds.
The local media called the event the
Grattan Massacre. Accounts generally
ignored the US soldiers instigation of the
event by shooting Conquering Bear in the
back, & Grattans violation of the treaty

provisions. When news of the fight reached

the War Department, officials started
planning retaliation to punish the Sioux.
Secretary of War Jefferson
Davis characterized the incident as the
result of a deliberately formed plan.
That same year that under President
Franklin Pierce, the aforementioned
detachment of soldiers illegally invaded
promised-Lakota territory which led up to the
needless & horrific battles & rising racial
tensions which followed, Chief Seattle of the
Nez Pierce tribe, would assert one of the
most famous & compelling speeches ever
presented, which began to open the eyes of
the world as to who the Native Americans
truly are as a people, as followed:
The speech and song of Chief Seattle


Col. William S. Harney was recalled from

Paris in April 1855 & sent to Fort Kearny,
where he assembled a command of 600
troops, who set out on August 24, 1855 to
find & exact retribution on the Sioux. Harney
was quoted as saying, By God, Im for battle
no peace.
Maj. Gen. William Selby Harney:

Harney engaged them in the Battle of Ash

Hollow (also known as the Battle of
Bluewater Creek) on September 3, 1855, in
which U.S. soldiers killed a number of Brul
Lakota in present-day Garden
County, Nebraska. The village of 230
persons was caught between an assault by
the infantry & a blocking force by the cavalry.
Harney returned to Fort Laramie with 70
prisoners. Harney ordered the tribes to send
representatives to a treaty council at Fort
Pierre in March 1856, where a treaty was
signed on terms dictated by the War
Department. However Twiss tried to
undermine the treaty & Harney had him

removed from office without possessing the

legal authority to do so. Commissioner of
Indian Affairs George W. Manypenny then
successfully lobbied the Senate to reject the
treaty & Twiss was reinstated. Nevertheless,
the specter Harney left remained. A number
of events which occurred in 1861 directly
impacted both the Dakota and Lakota who
would later to become part of what is today
known as the Standing Rock Reservation. In
1861 when Dakota Territory was established,
the Yanktonai & Hunkpatina occupied much
of the area east of the Missouri River, & in
1861, when gold was discovered at the
headwater of the Missouri River, this had an
immediate impact on the Lakota living on the
west side of the river bank.[23]

U.S.-Dakota War, 1862, aka The

Minnesota Indian War

Between 1805 & 1858, treaties made between

the U.S. government & the Dakota nation
reduced Dakota lands, & significantly altered
Minnesotas physical, cultural, & political
landscape. These treaties had significant impact

on the lives of the Dakota people and EuropeanAmericans flooding into Minnesota during the
first half of the 1800s; many historians agree
that major factors in the lead-up to the U.S.Dakota War of 1862 lie in those treaties. In 1851
the treaties of Traverse des Sioux & Mendota (in
which the largest amount of land was ceded by
the Dakota) established that the Dakota would
be paid by the U.S. government for the land they
ceded in yearly installments called annuities.
Provisions in the treaties stated that portions of
the money paid to the Dakota would go to fund
trade shops (such as blacksmiths), purchase
agricultural tools & supplies, as well as to pay
off debts claimed by traders. Many Dakota
claimed these debts had been inflated or were
falsified, & were opposed to the traders being
paid directly by the U.S. government. As a result
resentment grew within many Dakota
communities towards the traders and the U.S.

In addition, U.S. government policies

toward the acculturation of native people
helped create divisions within the Dakota
community at large. Dakota individuals who
cut their hair & adopted European American

agricultural methods received supplies, tools,

& housing at the expense of the U.S.
Government. Many Dakota who maintained
their traditional life-ways resented what was
perceived as preferential treatment of one
group over another by the U.S. Government.
The Santee, located on an ever-shrinking
homeland in Minnesota, were dissatisfied
with federal policies, & when they received no
redress of their grievances, some men
precipitated a confrontation in 1862; they
raided settlements, attacked a military
installation, & ultimately caused 40,000
settlers to flee. Federal response to the
trouble was quick, & all Indians in the area
were considered potentially dangerous, so
many who had no connection to the troubles
were then punished under President
Abraham Lincoln. Fearful of retribution, many
Santees fled into Dakota Territory & Canada.
Settlers on the Dakota frontier, fearful of
trouble, demanded government protection.
Generals Henry Sibley & Alfred Sully were
assigned to round up hostiles in the
Dakotas. Though they found no hostiles,

they instead found several hunting bands.

Despite the apparent peace in the Dakotas,
wild rumors of dangerous Indians continued,
& the military became under great political
pressure to keep up its campaign.[24]
By the summer of 1862 the situation for many
Dakota families had become desperate; annuity
payments were late due to the U.S.
governments priority in financing the Civil War.
Some traders & officials at the Indian Agencies
refused to extend credit for food & supplies until
the Dakota had cash to pay their debts, & crop
failures & poor hunting had left many Dakota
families hungry. Due to these & other factors,
tensions within Minnesotas Dakota community
reached a breaking point.
On Aug. 17, 1862 four Dakota men killed five
people living at the farms of Robinson Jones &
Howard Baker in Acton Township. When word
of the killings spread to the Lower Sioux
Reservation, a group of Dakota men argued that
it was time to go to war with Minnesotas
European-American population to reclaim their
ancestral land. Without consensus from the
Dakota community at large, these men went
directly to Taoyateduta, His Scarlet Nation

(Little Crow), an influential Dakota leader, to

convince him to lead a military effort. After
intense debate, Taoyateduta reluctantly agreed,
even though he feared the war would end
disastrously for their nation. You will die like
rabbits when the hungry wolves hunt them in
the Hard Moon, he is quoted as having said,
but added Taoyateduta is not a coward: he will
die with you.
The following day a group of Dakota under
the command of Taoyateduta attacked the
Lower Sioux Agency, killing many of civilians.
Over the next several weeks, groups of Dakota
soldiers attacked European American
communities throughout the Minnesota River
Valley, including New Ulm, as well as launching
attacks on U.S. military posts. The war lasted
nearly six weeks, during which more than 600
civilians & U.S. soldiers, as well as an estimated
75-100 Dakota, lost their lives.
The war fractured Minnesotas Dakota
community. It was fought primarily by a
relatively small group of Dakota, & there was not
universal support for the war within the Dakota
community at large. Throughout the war, many
Dakota as well as individuals of both Dakota &
European ancestry (often referred to as mixed-

bloods during that period) protected prisoners

& worked to secure their release to U.S.
soldiers. For a tense period of time it seemed
as though a civil war might erupt between the
Dakota on both reservations over the war.
Fort Snelling played an important role in the
war. Soldiers were organized at the fort
under Col. Henry H. Sibley for a military
response to the Dakota. After the Battle of Wood
Lake (Sept. 23), the last major battle of the war
in Minnesota, many Dakota left the state,
while others surrendered to U.S. military forces
at Camp Release (near present-day
Montevideo). Col. Sibley established a military
commission to try Dakota men suspected of
killing or assaulting civilians, & by the end of
the process 303 men were convicted &
sentenced to death. However, upon further
review of the evidence, the number was reduced
to 39 by President Abraham Lincoln, who
wanted to distinguish between Dakota men who
had only fought in battles, & those accused of
killing & assaulting civilians. Just prior to the
execution, a man named Tatemina (Round Wind)
was reprieved (canceled or postponed) because
his conviction had been based on questionable
testimony. The remaining 38 men were hanged

simultaneously in Mankato on Dec. 26 in the

largest mass execution in U.S. history.
The rest of the approximately 1,600 Dakota &
mixed-bloods who surrendered at Camp
Release (mostly women, children & the elderly)
were removed to Fort Snelling where they spent
the winter of 1862-63 in a stockaded
concentration camp, below the fort (located in
the present-day Fort Snelling State Park) to
await their exile to western reservations.
According to reports in local newspapers &
Dakota oral histories, some of the prisoners
endured assaults & violence at the hands of
soldiers & local civilians. Amid all this
sickness & these great tribulations,
remembered Tiwakan (Gabriel Renville), a
mixed-blood man who was held in the
stockade along with his family, it seemed
doubtful at night whether a person would be
alive in the morning.
Many detainees sold personal possessions in
order to purchase food to supplement the
military-issue rations they were given. Some of
the mixed-blood families owned land
vouchers (called scrip) that had been granted
them in treaties with the U.S. government.
These vouchers granted each head-of-

household up to 640 acres of any unsurveyed,

non-federal land in exchange for giving up claim
to land in Minnesota. Many sold these vouchers
to local businessmen at deflated prices in order
to have cash in hand to provide for their families
while in the stockade. Businessmen, such
as Franklin Steele, profited by purchasing these
vouchers & later selling them to land
developers for large profits.
It is estimated that 130 300 people died
within the camp over that winter, mostly due to
disease. Those remaining were taken by
steamboat to the Crow Creek reservation in May
1863. By summer of 1863 the vast majority of
Dakota had left Minnesota, heading into the
western territories, or north into Canada. As a
result of the war, approximately 6,000 Dakota &
mixed-blood people were displaced from their
Minnesota homes. Today, Dakota communities
remain spread throughout Minnesota, Nebraska,
North & South Dakota, Montana, & Canada.
After the war, many Dakota were captured &
imprisoned by the U.S. military, among them
Sakpedan (Little Six) & Wakanozhanzhan
(Medicine Bottle). The two men fled to Canada
after the war, but were kidnapped & delivered to
U.S. authorities by British agents in Jan. 1864.

Both men were subsequently imprisoned at Fort

Snelling. They were charged & convicted by a
military commission for their participation in the
war, & were sentenced to death. Their execution
took place at Fort Snelling on Nov. 11, 1865 in
the presence of the forts garrison & numerous
civilians. A local newspaper reported that as
they climbed the scaffold, a steam train whistle
blew in the distance, prompting Sakpedan to
say, As the white man comes in, the Indian
goes out.
Little Six & Medicine Bottle, photo source:

The Battle of Whitestone Hill, 1863

Two military expeditions entered Dakota
Territory during the summer of 1863. One
column of soldiers from Minnesota was led
by General Henry H. Sibley. The other
expedition, commanded by General Alfred
Sully, followed the Missouri River north from
Iowa. Sullys campaign culminated in the
Battle of Whitestone Hill.
In early September 1863, General Sully
discovered a large hunting camp of Yanktonai
at Whitestone Hill. These people had nothing

to do with the Minnesota problems & were

not posing a threat to homesteaders in
Dakota Territory (for one they knew there
would be retribution if they tried to defend
themselves against encroachment). The
Yanktonai people at Whitestone Hill were
preparing food for the winter months ahead.
Sullys troops never determined who these
people were, & on September 3, 1863, 650
soldiers attacked the Yanktonai, killing at
least 300, including many women & children.
Twenty soldiers were killed, many caught in
army crossfire. The Yanktonai who were able
fled the area, abandoning all their household
goods & stores of food. The scene of the
battlefield & Indian camp the next day was
recorded by F.E. Caldwell, a soldier with the
Second Nebraska Cavalry:
Tepees, some standing, some torn down,
somesquaws that were dead, some that were
wounded& still alive, young children of all ages
fromyoung infants to eight or ten years old, who
hadlost their parents, dead soldiers, dead
Indians,dead horses, hundreds of dogs howling
for theirmasters. Some of the dogs were packed

with smallpoles fastened to a collar & dragging

behind them.On the poles was a platform
(travois) on which allkinds of articles were
fastened on in one instancea young baby.
Sully ordered all the property destroyed,
buffalo skins, & all their things, including tons &
tons of dried buffalo meat & tallow. It was
gatheredin wagons, piled in a hollow & burned, &
the meltedtallow ran down the valley into a
stream. Hatchets,camp kettles, & all things that
would sink were thrown into a small lake.
Photo source link:

Sullys men were congratulated by the U.S.

for their distinguished conduct, & the native
peoples side of the story never came out
publicly except by their own poeple. In
November 1863, Sam Brown, a 19-year-old
interpreter at Crow Creek, presented the
Indian side of Sullys battle at Whitestone Hill
in a letter to his father:
I hope you will not believe all that is said of
Sullys Successful Expedition against the Sioux.
I dont think he aught to brag of it at all, because

itwas, what no decent man would have done. He

pitched into their camp & just slaughtered them,
worse a great deal than what the Indians did in
1862. He killed very few men & no hostile ones
prisoners& now he returns saying that we need
fear no more,for he has wiped out all hostile
Indians from Dakota.If he had killed men instead
of women & children, then it would have been a
success, & the worse of it, they had no hostile
intention whatever. The Nebraska Second
pitched into them without orders, while the Iowa
Sixth were shaking hands with them on the other
side. They even shot their own men.

I believe I can safely say I gave

them one of the most severe
punishments that the Indians
have ever received.
General Aflred Sully, war criminal[25]
Note: General Sullys indiscriminate,
premeditated massacres are considered
international war crimes by todays standards
Rule 156. Serious violations of international
humanitarian law constitute war crimes.
Australia, Military Court at Rabaul, Ohashi

case (cited in Vol. II, Ch. 32, 2957); United

States, Military Commission at
Shanghai, Sawada case (ibid., 2961); United
States, Military Tribunal at
Nuremberg, Altsttter (The Justice Trial)
case (ibid., 2964); see also ICC Statute,
Article 8(2)(a)(vi) and (c)(iv).
Sullys actions violated the right to fair
trial (5th Amendment) of all victims, targeting
entire populations instead of seeking justice
against individuals.

The Battle of Killdeer Mountains, 1864

In 1864 Sibley remained in Minnesota while
a second expedition was launched. Sully
commanded the operation & defeated a large,
combined group of Dakota, Lakota &
Yanktonai at the Battle of Tahchakuty, or
Killdeer Mountain (July 28). Eventually, the
U.S. military forcibly removed many Dakota to
reservations in North & South Dakota.
Sully & his troops wintered in the newly
constructed Fort Rice while plans were being
launched to force the natives to cede large
areas of their territory. In July 1864, Sully set
out for the Killdeer Mountains where

Yanktonai, Sihasapa, Hunkpapa, & other

Dakota were in a large hunting camp. On July
23, 1864, Sullys troops, aided by artillery,
killed about 100 native people at their camp &
forced them to abandon all their food &
household goods. Again, all their property
was destroyed. This is known as the Battle
of Killdeer Mountains. Sully chased down
some of the stragglers from the battle along
the Yellowstone River in the Badlands, & in
August 1864, soldiers attacked some of the
survivors of the Killdeer Mountains. By fall,
1864, the commander at Fort Sully assessed
the situation of the Yanktonai, Hunkpatina, &

Their severe punishment in life &

property for the last two years is an
excellent groundwork for a peace I
believe would be lasting[26]
With little other recourse, under coercion,
the Yanktonai signed a treaty with the U.S.
government at Fort Sully in October 1865. The
tribes agreed to be at peace with the U.S. &
other tribes, withdraw from overland routes

through their territory, & in return for these

concessions the U.S. provided monetary
reparation & agricultural implements.

Be It Hereby Recognized:

The 1865 Treaty signed by tribes was signed

as a direct result of the unconstitutional
slaughter, war crimes, & civil rights violations
by U.S. Government Official General Alfred
Sully, whose actions came following several
cases of trespassing upon Native American
lands; though no civil action was filed at the
time in regards to such treaty being signed
under coercion & duress, officials acting on
behalf of The Untied States Government
violated U.S.C. Title 15 6307b.
In 1861 the Union was desperate for gold &
silver to fund the Civil War effort. Indian
rights were not a consideration when the
destiny of the Union was at stake, so when
gold was discovered in Montana, little was
done to hold back the flood of fortuneseekers who overran Sioux treaty lands along
the Bozeman Trail.
Continued traffic through Sioux lands
(trespassing) caused disruption in the

lifeways of the people & cut through the heart

of the Sioux buffalo ranges in the Powder
River area. The Sioux repeatedly objected to
intrusions in their territory & demanded
government recognition of the 1851 Fort
Laramie Treaty. Ultimately their protests fell
on deaf ears. With no peaceful solution in
sight the Sioux began to retaliate against
trespass in their country. The governments
need for gold coupled with demands for
protection by travelers along the Bozeman
Trail increased, so the army moved in to
protect non-Indian people, property, & rightsof-way through Dakota-Lakota territory. Thus
began the era commonly referred to as the
Plains or Sioux Wars of 18651876.
The Bozeman Trail and its Forts, 18661868. (Map by Cassie Theurer,
adapted from Prucha, Atlas of American Indian Affairs, 1990, page 128)

The Re-Negotiated Treaty of Fort

Laramie, 1868
During the 1860s the American frontier was
filled with wars between trespassing settlers
& American Indians defending their land
rights. On December 21, 1866 a supply train
traveling on Bozeman Trail was attacked by

Sioux natives who were exhausted &

infuriated by continued treaty abuses.
Soldiers under the command of Lieutenant
Colonel William Fetterman at Fort Kearny
then retaliated but were all killed by a small
Sioux army led by Red Cloud.[27] In 1867, a
newly-formed congressional committee
drafted a Report on the Condition of the
Indian Tribes, which led to the establishment
of an Indian Peace Commission, who sought
to re-negotiate the original treaty & establish
peace between settlers & native people.
In the spring of 1868 a conference was held
at Fort Laramie resulting a second Treaty of
Fort Laramie, wherein the U.S. recognized the
Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux
Reservation, to be set aside for their
exclusive use this treaty also reduced the
original treaty boundaries from the 1851
version. Native leaders conceded, hoping
this time the government would honor the
contract & secure the borders.[28] This
second version of the treaty was signed by
Lieutenant General Sherman, General William
S. Harney, General Alfred H. Terry, General O.

O. Augur, J. B. Henderson, Nathaniel G.

Taylor, John G. Sanborn, & Samuel F. Tappan
on behalf of the United States, & by many
chiefs & headmen of the Sioux.
From Letter to James E. Yeatman of St. Louis, Vice-President of the Western
Sanitary Commission (21 May 1865). As quoted on p. 358, & footnoted on p.
562, in Sherman: A Soldiers Passion For Order (2007), John F. Marszalek,
Southern Illinois University Press, Chapter 15 (Fame Tarnished). Graphic
source link:

Excerpts from Treaty of Fort

Laramie, 1868

From this day forward all war between the

parties to this agreement shall for ever
cease. The government of the United States
desires peace, & its honor is hereby pledged
to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they
now pledge their honor to maintain it.
If bad men among the whites, or among
other people subject to the authority of the
United States, shall commit any wrong upon
the person or property of the Indians, the
United States will, upon proof made to the
agent, & forwarded to the Commissioner of
Indian Affairs at Washington city, proceed at

once to cause the offender to be arrested &

punished according to the laws of the United
States, & also reimburse the injured person
for the loss sustained.
The United States agrees that the following
district of country [location described]
shall be set apart for the absolute &
undisturbed use & occupation of the Indians
herein named, & for such other friendly tribes
or individual Indians as from time to time they
may be willing, with the consent of the United
States, to admit amongst them; & the United
States now solemnly agrees that no persons,
except those herein designated & authorized
so to do, & except such officers, agents, &
employees of the government as may be
authorized to enter upon Indian reservations
in discharge of duties enjoined by law, shall
ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or
reside in the territory described in this article,
or in such territory as may be added to this
reservation for the use of said Indians, &
henceforth they will & do hereby relinquish
all claims or right in & to any portion of the

United States or Territories, except such as is

embraced within the limits aforesaid, &
except as hereinafter provided.
In consideration of the advantages &
benefits conferred by this treaty & the many
pledges of friendship by the United States,
the tribes who are parties to this agreement
hereby stipulate that they will relinquish all
right to occupy permanently the territory
outside their reservations as herein defined,
but yet reserve the right to hunt on any lands
north of North Platte, & on the Republican
Fork of the Smoky Hill river, so long as the
buffalo may range thereon in such numbers
as to justify the chase.
And they, the said Indians, further expressly
1st. That they will withdraw all opposition to
the construction of the railroads now being
built on the plains.
2nd. That they will permit the peaceful
construction of any railroad not passing over
their reservation as herein defined.

3rd. That they will not attack any persons at

home, or traveling, nor molest or disturb any
wagon trains, coaches, mules, or cattle
belonging to the people of the United States,
or to persons friendly therewith.
4th. They will never capture, or carry off from
the settlements, white women or children.
5th. They will never kill or scalp white men,
nor attempt to do them harm.
6th. They withdraw all pretense of opposition
to the construction of the railroad now being
built along the Platte river & westward to the
Pacific ocean, & they will not in future object
to the construction of railroads, wagon roads,
mail stations, or other works of utility or
necessity, which may be ordered or permitted
by the laws of the United States. But should
such roads or other works be constructed on
the lands of their reservation, the government
will pay the tribe whatever amount of damage
may be assessed by three disinterested
commissioners to be appointed by the
President for that purpose, one of the said
commissioners to be a chief or headman of
the tribe.

7th. They agree to withdraw all opposition to

the military posts or roads now established
south of the North Platte river, or that may be
established, not in violation of treaties
heretofore made or hereafter to be made with
any of the Indian tribes.
No treaty for the cession of any portion or
part of the reservation herein described
which may be held in common, shall be of
any validity or force as against the said
Indians unless executed & signed by at least
three-fourths of all the adult male Indians
occupying or interested in the same, and no
cession by the tribe shall be understood or
construed in such manner as to deprive,
without his consent, any individual member
of the tribe of his rights to any tract of land
selected by him as provided in Article VI of
this treaty.[29]
United States Code
6307b. Protection from coercive contracts

Note: Whereas The 14th Amendment

guarantees equal protection of the laws
to all persons, though the below
statute references boxers, it
must therefore also provide equal
protection to Native American Tribes.

(a) General rule

(1)(A) A contract provision shall be considered
to be in restraint of trade, contrary to public
policy, & unenforceable against any boxer to the
extent that it
(i) is a coercive provision described in
subparagraph (B) and is for a period greater
than 12 months; or
(ii) is a coercive provision described in
subparagraph (B) & the other boxer under
contract to the promoter came under that
contract pursuant to a coercive provision
described in subparagraph (B).
(B) A coercive provision described in this
subparagraph is a contract provision that grants
any rights between a boxer & a promoter, or
between promoters with respect to a boxer, if
the boxer is required to grant such rights, or a
boxers promoter is required to grant such
rights with respect to a boxer to another

promoter, as a condition precedent to the

boxers participation in a professional boxing
match against another boxer who is under
contract to the promoter.
(2) This subsection shall only apply to contracts
entered into after May 26, 2000.
(3) No subsequent contract provision extending
any rights or compensation covered in
paragraph (1) shall be enforceable against a
boxer if the effective date of the contract
containing such provision is earlier than 3
months before the expiration of the relevant
time period set forth in paragraph (1).
(b) Promotional rights under mandatory bout
No boxing service provider may require a boxer
to grant any future promotional rights as a
requirement of competing in a professional
boxing match that is a mandatory bout under
the rules of a sanctioning organization.
(c) Protection from coercive contracts with
Subsection (a) of this section applies to any
contract between a commercial broadcaster and
a boxer, or granting any rights with respect to
that boxer, involving a broadcast in or affecting
interstate commerce, regardless of the

broadcast medium. For the purpose of this

subsection, any reference in subsection (a)(1)
(B) of this section to promoter shall be
considered a reference to commercial

In regards to Article 1 of The Treaty of

Fort Laramie of 1868, the Bureau of
Indian Affairs can be reached at:
Mailing Address: Bureau of Indian Affairs
MS-46061849 C Street, N.W.Washington,
D.C. 20240
Telephone: (202) 208-5116 or (800) 246-8101

Telefax: (202) 208-6334

Mission Statement:
The Bureau of Indian Affairs mission is
to enhance the quality of life, to promote
economic opportunity, and to carry out the
responsibility to protect and improve the
trust assets of American Indians, Indian
tribes and Alaska Natives.[31]

Next Section: All Major

Treaty Violations

[1]: Linea Sundstrom, Cross-Cultural

Transference of the Sacred Geography of the
Black Hills, World Archaeology 28, no. 2
(Oct. 1996): 177.
[2]: Nebraska Studies, The Louisiana
Purchase Opens the West, The Voyage of
Discovery:An African American in the
[3]: Allen, Paul; Clark, William; Lewis,
Meriwether (1916). Meriwether Lewis and
William Clarke, Volume 1. Elliott-Madison
Company. p. 366.

[4]: Woodger, Elin; Toropov, Brandon

(2009). Encyclopedia of the Lewis and Clark
Expedition. Infobase Publishing.
p. 438. ISBN 0-8160-4781-2.
[5]: Linea Sundstrom, Cross-Cultural
Transference of the Sacred Geography of the
Black Hills, World Archaeology 28, no. 2
(Oct. 1996): 177.
[6]: Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996). Undaunted
Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas
Jefferson, and the Opening of the American
West. Simon and Schuster, New York.
p. 511.ISBN 9780684811079.
[7]: 10 Little-Known Facts About the Lewis
and Clark Expedition:
[8]: Minnesota Historical Society: The U.S.Dakota War of 1862, Indian Agencies:
[9]: Minnesota Historical Society, Historic
Fort Snelling; The U.S. Indian Agency 18201853:
[10]: Gilman, Rhoda R. (1991). The Story of
Minnesotas Past. St. Paul, Minnesota:
Minnesota Historical Society.
of His Papers at the Minnesota Historical
[12]: Cherokee Nation Cultural Resource
Center, A Brief History of The Trail of Tears,
Cherokee Nation official website:
[13]: President Andrew Jacksons Message
to Congress On Indian Removal (1830):
[14]: Gilman, Rhoda R. (1991). The Story of
Minnesotas Past. St. Paul, Minnesota:
Minnesota Historical Society.
[15]: Hall, Steve (1987). Fort Snelling:
Colossus of the Wilderness. St. Paul, MN:

Minnesota Historical Society Press.

[16]: Produced by the Oklahoma State
University Library:
[17]: Gilman, Rhoda R. (1991). The Story of
Minnesotas Past. St. Paul, Minnesota:
Minnesota Historical Society.
[18]: Hall, Steve (1987). Fort Snelling:
Colossus of the Wilderness. St. Paul, MN:
Minnesota Historical Society Press.
[19]: Official Portal for North Dakota State
Government, The History & Culture of The
Standing Rock Oyate:
[20]: The Treaty of Fort Laramie With Sioux,
etc. 1851: Revisiting The Document Found in
Kapplers Indian Affairs: Laws & Treaties:
[21]: George Emory Fay, Military
Engagements Between United States Troops
and Plains Indians: Report of the Secretary of
War on the inquiry into the Sand Creek
Massacre, Museum of Anthropology,

University of Northern Colorado, 1980, pp. 20,

43, 45
[22]: Griske, Michael (2005). The Diaries of
John Hunton. Heritage Books. pp. 62,
63. ISBN 0-7884-3804-2.
[23]: Jacobson, Clair. 1991. The UnCivil War
at Whitestone Hill. LaCrosse, WI: Pine Tree
Publishing. ISBN-13: 978-0578018065
[24]: Jacobson, Clair. 1991. The UnCivil War
at Whitestone Hill. LaCrosse, WI: Pine Tree
Publishing. ISBN-13: 978-0578018065
[25]: Minnesota Historical Society, General
Alfred Sully:
[26]: Jacobson, Clair. 1991. The UnCivil War
at Whitestone Hill, pages 99-111, LaCrosse,
WI: Pine Tree Publishing. ISBN-13: 9780578018065
[27]: Lazarus, Edward. Black Hills/White
Justice: The Sioux Nation versus the United
States, 1775 to the Present. New York:
HarperCollins, 1991. ISBN 978-0-8032-7987-2,
page 38
[28]: National Archives, Teaching With

Documents Sioux Treaty of 1868:
[29]: Transcript of Treaty of Fort Laramie
[30]: Government Publishing Office,
Protection from Coercive Contracts:
[31]: Bureau of Indian Affairs Official





How to Build Mirror

Shields for Standing
Rock Water
Morton County Oil Sheriffs are all Fat Liars on the True Stories of
the Corporate greed of the Rich oil Takers on of the Land grabbers
who Steal , THE NAKED TRUTH OF Dakota pipeline
All is true, still holds true! That's your land and it's occupied the
rightful owners. Unceeded land is a Territory not a reservation
owned by the US Government! A treaty is a contract, like any other
contract when one side does not uphold their side of the agreement
its then null and void. The natives NEVER stated go ahead and take
our land! According to all laws this proves its native land. The Army
Corps, the EPA and the BIA should have never allowed the Dakota
Access Pipeline to build upon these lands in the first place according

to their duty of their own laws especially pertaining to

environmental, native burial site preservation, health and safety.
Cannot stress enough the DAPL will poison the largest aquifer in
North America, 3rd largest aquifer in the world! The police violations
of the constitution, human rights, civil rights, religious rights,
discrimination laws and continued actions are completely
disgusting! And the lies the police recently stated one officer injured
hit in head by a rock, video footage shows all police heavily armed
are all wearing HELMETS and riot gear! You have the people and
support, on every level the world see's the protection for a oil
company by police, USA goverment actions are in the spotlight!
Natives fighting for what little lands we have left and for wanting
clean water, North Dakota residents and the United States
Departments should be ashamed for allowing the inhumane
treatment to continue. Natives are not a conquered people, we are
very much alive still living within our homelands despite the current
education system mentioning native people in the past tense.
Standing Rock Souix said 'No ,and No means No! No Dakota Access
#civilrightsmovement #FreeSpeech

Rubber bullet? Where are the broken blood vessles? The bruising?

21 November
SHARE] UPDATED (We will continue to update this post as new
information from the frontlines comes in) You will not see this on
MSM! Tonight, in Standing Rock the worst assault on our water
protectors to date. 167 injured, 7 hospitalized with head injuries, 1
elder in critical condition after going into cardiac arrest. Water
protectors were assaulted by militarized police blasted with water
cannons for hours (it was 26 degrees there), tear gas, rubber
bullets, stinger grenades. This month is Native American Heritage
Month, and Thursday many across the US will be celebrating a
holiday that falsely represents the trajectory of our nation all while
our Native brothers and sisters are still to this date being abused
and oppressed in the worst possible ways. ENOUGH IS ENOUGH.
#whereareyouObama #Bernieweneedyou[PICTURE 1: His name is
Israel, he was shot in the back and head tonight for defending the
water of millions. The bullet to his head ripped off part of his scalp,
he had to have staples on his head. He was only 12 feet away from
police.] [
PICTURES 4,5,6,7: Sophia's family asked media sources to please
remove the graphic images. Water protector Sophia Wilansky was
taken to a hospital in Minnesota, where her arm was amputated]
Official statement from medics that were on the ground:
(Screenshot and SHARE this post)
Pull your money out of the banks that are funding this, head to a
local credit union instead. Organize a march or peaceful protest in

your city. Wear a Standing Rock shirt to generate awareness, we

have two available here:
Donate to the Standing Rock legal defense fund. Organize a supply
drive. Call your congressmen. HEAD TO STANDING ROCK!
Contact the banks funding DAPL:
The White House: 202-456-1111
ND Office of the Governor: 701-328-2200
Morton County Sheriff's Department: 701-328-8118 & 701-667-3330
ND National Guard: 701-333-2000
****Call the White House situation room: they are the only ones
answering their phone 202-456-1111****
Demand that they have law enforcement STAND DOWN on Highway
1806. There is no room in a democracy to firehose, tear gas or use
rubber bullets on peaceful, unarmed water protectors.
live drone footage

Look at those proud Oil men Hired in uniforms.. Maybe they'll learn
the hard way when their descendants and the rest of us suffer from
possible contamination.



If they were black, then Obama would be on tv calling to stop the

violence and BLM would on the streets throwing rocks at the police.
Makes me sick. Where are all the coverage of this on CNN NBC CBS
MSNBC all major news papers?! Oh, everybody is discussing a
fashion designer, recount of the fucking votes, and other shit no one
should care about. Where are the so called journalists?! God Damn

A blow to the head causing a traumatic brain injury IS lethal. Stop


With thick layers of clothing on, battling the cold in ND,

this water protector was hit with a rubber bullet by police
and had to check in to the hospital for internal bleeding.
These are the same rubber bullets police claim to say are

The pain of oppression two races share through history,

and mutually understand. In solidarity we stand, with all
our brothers and sisters.

Banks Funding the Dakota

Access Pipeline
November 26, 16

The Dakota Access pipeline is funded directly by 17 banks,

many of whichCitibank, Wells Fargoare ones youve
probably heard of or do business with.

Banks are more susceptible to public

pressure than the oil and gas giants.

Researchers with the nonprofit Food & Water Watch found

that 38 banking institutions are involved in funding the
proposed Bakken pipeline, which would stretch from
Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. A section of this project is
the Dakota Access pipeline, where the Standing Rock
Sioux and thousands of allies have physically put

themselves in the path of the pipeline to protect their

reservation and a stretch of the Missouri River.
Bill McKibben, founder of, recently wrote an article
for YES! suggesting that banks are more susceptible to
public pressure than the oil and gas giants, which depend
on bank loans and lines of credit to build their pipelines.
Its probably sustained public pressure that will do the
most good, he wrote.
Wondering what to say to a bank executive?
Food & Water Watch researcher Hugh MacMillan: Ask
these banks to clarify whether funds they are providing
are being used, in any amount, to pay for the heavily
militarized response to the Standing Rock Sioux, including
the attack dogs, sound-cannon trucks, heavily armed
People should also ask these institutions why they are
sinking so much money into maximizing the amounts of oil
and gas that can be brought to the surface and burned at
a time when climate science is clear we have to maximize
what we keep in the ground instead, said MacMillan.
Like what you're reading? We're nonprofit and ad-freewe
depend on readers like you. Subscribe or donate today to
keep YES! going strong.
The organizations deputy communications director, Seth
Gladstone, suggests saying: As a customer of your
financial institution, I reject the notion of my money
helping to support your investment in the Dakota Access
pipeline, an inherently dangerous and unjust oil pipeline
that threatens air and water quality in many states, and
violates sacred lands of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe. I
urge you to give up your financial stake in the
Dakota Access pipeline immediately.
Here are names of CEOs and other bank executives
involved in these decisionsalong with their phone
numbers and email addresses. The first 17 banks (*) are
directly funding the Dakota Access pipeline:

Wells Fargo*
CEO Timothy J. Sloan

Corporate Office:
Wells Fargo
420 Montgomery Street
San Francisco, CA 94104

BNP Paribas*
CEO Jean-Laurent Bonnafe
Corporate Office:
3 rue dAntin
75002 Paris, France
U.S. Office:
787 Seventh Avenue - The Equitable Tower
New York, NY 10019


CEO William H. Rodgers Jr.

Corporate Office:
303 Peachtree Street NE
Atlanta, GA 30308
Chief Communications Officer:
Sue Mallino

The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ*

Chairman Nobuyuki Hirano
CEO and President Takashi Oyamada
Corporate Office:
2-7-1, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo, Japan
U.S. Office:
1251 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10020-1104

Mizuho Bank*

President and CEO Nobuhide Hayashi

Corporate Office:
Otemachi Tower
1-5-5, Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 100-8176, Japan
U.S. Office:
1251 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10020

Citibank (CitiGroup)*
CEO Michael Corbat
Corporate Office:
388 Greenwich Street
New York, NY 10013
Phone: 800-285-3000 and 212-793-0710

TD Securities*

Chairman, CEO, and President Bob Dorrance

Corporate Office:
P.O. Box 1, TD Bank Tower
66 Wellington Street W
Toronto, Ontario
M5K 1A2
Investment Banking: 416-307-8500
Equity Research: 416-307-9360
Trading Floor Enquiries: 416-944-6978
U.S. Office:
31 West 52nd Street
New York, NY 10019-6101

Credit Agricole*
CEO Jean-Paul Chifflet
12, Place des Etats-Unis
Montrouge, France 92545

U.S. Office:
1301 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, NY 10019

Intesa SanPaolo*
CEO Carlo Messina
Corporate Office:
Piazza San Carlo, 156
10121 Torino, Italy
Corporate Social Responsibility Unit:

ING Bank*

CEO and Executive Board Chairman Ralph A.J.G Hamers

Wholesale Banking, Operations & IT, Sustainability,
Corporate Governance:
Carolien van der Giessen
Head of Media Relations:
Raymond Vermuelen
Corporate Office:
Amsterdamse Poort
Bijlmerplein 888
1102 MG Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Mailing Address:
ING Bank N.V.
P.O. Box 1800
1000 BV Amsterdam
The Netherlands
U.S. Office:
ING Financial Holdings LLC
1325 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10019


CEO Pierre Servant
Corporate Office:
Natixis Global Asset Management, S.A.
21 quai dAusterlitz
75634 Paris Cedex 13, France
U.S. Office:
Natixis Global Asset Management, L.P.
399 Boylston Street
Boston, MA


CEO Johannes-Jorg Riegler

Head of Communications:
Matthias Priwitzer
Corporate Office:
Brienner Strae 18
80333 Munich
U.S. Office:
560 Lexington Avenue
New York City, NY 10022

BBVA Securities*
CEO Carlos Torres Villa
Executive Chairman Francisco Gonzalez Rodriguez
Corporate Office:
Calle Azul, 4
28050 Madrid, Spain

DNB Capital*

U.S. office:
200 Park Avenue, 31st Floor New York, N.Y. 10166-0396


ICBC London*
CEO and Managing Director Jin Chen
Corporate Office:
20 Gresham Street
London EC2V 7JE, United Kingdom
U.S. Office:
520 Madison Avenue 28th Floor
New York, NY 10022

SMBC Nikko Securities*

President and CEO Yoshihiko Shimizu

Corporate Office:
3-1, Marunouchi 3-chome, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo 100-8325, Japan

Societe General*
CEO Frederic Oudea
Chiarman of the Board Lorenzo Bini Smaghi
Corporate Office:
29 boulevard Haussmann 75009
Paris, France
U.S. Office:
245 Park Avenue
New York City, NY 10167
The following banks are involved in funding for the entire
Bakken pipeline:

Royal Bank of Scotland

CEO Ross McEwan

Director of Media Relations:

Chris Turner
Corporate Office:
175 Glasgow Road
Edinburgh, United Kingdom
U.S. Office:
600 Washington Boulevard
Stamford, CT 06901

ABN Amro Capital

Chairman of the Board Gerrit Zalm
Corporate Office:
Gustav Mahlerlaan 10
1082 PP Amsterdam
The Netherlands
U.S. Office:
100 Park Avenue, 17th floor
New York, NY 10017

Bank of Nova Scotia (Scotiabank)

CEO and President Brian J. Porter

Corporate Office:
Scotia Plaza
44 King Street W
Toronto, Ontario
Canada M5H 1H1
U.S. Office:
250 Vesey Street,
23rd and 24th floors
New York, NY 10281
Scotia Howard Weil (Energy Investment Boutique):
Energy Centre

1100 Poydras Street Suite 3500

New Orleans, LA 70163
504-582-2500 and 800-322-3005

Citizens Bank
Chairman and CEO Bruce Van Saun
Head of Media Relations:
Peter Lucht
Consumer Lending, Business Banking, Wealth
Management, Corporate:
Lauren DiGeronimo
Corporate Office:
1 Citizens Plaza
Providence, RI 02903

Comerica Bank

Chairman and CEO Ralph W. Babb Jr.

Investor Relations:
Corporate Contacts:
Wendy Bridges
Wayne Mielke
Corporate Office:
Comerica Bank Tower
1717 Main Street
Dallas, TX 75201

U.S. Bank
Chairman and CEO Richard K. Davis

Senior Vice President of Corporate Communications Dana

Brand, Corporate Social Responsibility, Sponsorships:
Susan Beatty
Corporate Office:
U.S. Bancorp Center
800 Nicollet Mall
Minneapolis, MN 55402
800-685-5065 and 651-466-3000

PNC Bank
Chairman, President, and CEO William S. Demchak
Media Relations:
Fred Solomon
Investor Relations:
Bryan K. Gill
Corporate Office:
300 Fifth Avenue
The Tower at PNC Plaza
Pittsburgh, PA 15222


Chairman John McFarlane
CEO Jes Staley
Corporate Office:
Barclays Bank PLC
1 Churchill Place
London E14 5HP, United Kingdom
U.S. Office:
745 7th Avenue

New York, NY 10019

Press Office:

JPMorgan Chase
Chairman and CEO Jamie Dimon
Corporate Contacts:
Andrew Gray
Jennifer Lavoie
Brian Marchiony
Corporate Office:
270 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10017-2014

Bank of America

President, CEO, and Chairman Brian Moynihan
Executive Relations, Office of the CEO:
Matthew Task
Corporate Office:
100 N Tryon Street
Charlotte, NC 28255

Deutsche Bank
CEO John Cryan
Corporate Contact:
Renee Calabro
Corporate Address:
Deutsche Bank AG
Taunusanlage 12
60325 Frankfurt Am Main (for letters and postcards:

U.S. Office:
Deutsche Bank AG
60 Wall Street
New York, NY 10005

Compass Bank
Chairman and CEO Manolo Sanchez
Director of External Communications:
Christina Anderson
Al Ortiz
Corporate Office:
15 S 20th Street
Birmingham, AL 35233

Credit Suisse

CEO Tidjane Thiam

Board Chairman Urs Rohner
Suisse Banking Ombudsman:
Bahnhofplatz 9
P.O. Box 1818
CH 8021 Zurich, Switzerland
Corporate Office:
Uetlibergstrasse 231
P.O. Box 700
CH 8070 Zurich, Switzerland
U.S. Office:
650 California Street
San Francisco, CA 94108
Phone: 415-249-2100

DNB Capital/ASA

CEO Rune Bjerke
Chairwoman of the Board Anne Carine Tanum
Executive Vice President Communications Even
Corporate Address:
Dronning Eufemias Gate 30
0191 Oslo, Norway

Sumitomo Mitsui Bank

President and CEO Takeshi Kunibe
Corporate Office:
1-1-2, Marunouchi, Chiyoda-ku
Tokyo, Japan
U.S. Office:
277 Park Avenue
New York, NY 10172

Royal Bank of Canada

CEO David I. McKay

CEO and Board Communications:
Paul French
Corporate Media Relations:
Catherine Hudon
Corporate Address:
200 Bay Street P.O. Box 1
Royal Bank Plaza
Toronto, Canada
416-974-5151 and 416-842-2000

CEO Sergio Ermotti

Head Group External Communications:

Mark Hengel
mark.hengel@ubs.comPhone: 41-44-234-32-21
Chief Communication Officer-Americas:
Marsha Askins
212-713-6151 office and 917-226-4743 cell
Corporate Office:
Bahnhofstrasse 45, CH-8098
8001 Zurich, Switzerland
U.S. Office:
1285 Avenue of the Americas
New York, NY 10019

Goldman Sachs
Chairman and CEO Lloyd C. Blankfein
917-743-0939 and 212-902-0593
Media Contacts Americas:
Corporate Address:
Goldman, Sachs & Co.
200 West Street
New York, NY 10282

Morgan Stanley

CEO James P. Gorman
Corporate Office:
Morgan Stanley
1585 Broadway
New York, NY 10036

Origin Bank (formerly Community Trust)

Chairman, President, and CEO Drake Mills
Corporate Office:
3921 Elm St.
Choudrant, LA 71227


Chairman Douglas Flint

Group Chief Executive Stuart Gulliver
Corporate Address:
8 Canada Square
London E14 5HQ, United Kingdom

U.S. Office:
HSBC Headquarters
425 5th Avenue
New York, NY 10018
Head of Media Relations, HSBC USA:
Rob Sherman
Energy Transfer Partners CEO Kelcey Warren stated November 1116-16. I really wish for the Standing Rock Sioux that they had
engaged in discussions way before they did, he said. I dont think
we would have been having this discussion if they did. We could
have changed the route, Mr. Warren added. It could have been
done, but its too late.
The audio file below is from a Standing Rock Tribal Council meeting
with ETP/DAPL representatives that occurred September 30th 2014.
A meeting that occurred before permits were submitted and more
than a year before the Draft Environmental Assessment was
released. A document prepared by DAPL that never mentions any of
the concerns stated in this meeting, nor does it mention Standing
Rock. Energy Transfer Partners assertion that they "didn't know" of
our concerns is false.


Remember the fed militarised the police in case of terrorism. By law

if the president know for sure you constitutional right is being
trampled he must intervien as a protector of that constitution. Do
you have protest laws in your state are you following them.

Interesting meeting last night, wica omniciye. Last night a

wounded warrior spoke. A man who fought in Iraq and
Afghanistan and was wounded in combat. He served in
both the Army and Marines and spoke in a quiet, humble
way of what combat was like. He reminded us that our
warriors who are still fighting and dying don't do so for a
political agenda, they fight and die for each other. He told
us that most soldiers want peace.
He went on to say that there has to be veterans among
the Morton County Sheriff's Department who understand
this but are just following orders. He said that even though
people are getting shot with rubber bullets, tear gas and
sound cannons, it's not the same as combat because
they're not trying to kill us, not yet. His greatest concern
was that agitators from the outside were going to give
Morton County Sheriff's the justification they need to come
into camp. He said that would be a terrible thing because
of the unity he witnessed when the camp first began and
the power of the prayers that each of those tribal nations
who came brought with them.
As we spoke a Naca from the Oglala told us that the
protectors are facing what feels like combat experiences
to them. We all agreed that because of this the protectors
were forming strong bonds because they're facing this
together. In the end we all agreed that we didn't want to
disregard their sacrifices because we see their courage.
What Morton County Sheriffs Department and DAPL
Security don't understand is that we're descendants of a
people who have been resisting since point of contact.

Dawes Dec 1885

Standing Rock
Then came the clash between the
representatives of UKIP and the
Scottish National Party

Solidarity Direct Action with Water Protectors at Standing Rock in

Baltimore, Maryland against Wells Fargo
Army Corp threatens all protectors at StandingRock Oceti Sakowin
camp with "TRESPASS" after Dec.5, 2016.

Jane Fonda was asked a pertinent question by our media

team: how would you and the world feel if Standing Rock
Sioux Tribe got money from dapl and let the pipeline thru?
leaving the Warriors and Water Protectors out in the cold?
watch the whole interview

DAPL and the ND Public Service Commission

came to us with this route. We have released
the audio recording from that meeting.
November 26, 16

We Will Stand like a Rock! We will protect the water! Share the
words of Cheryl Angel!
Follow Johnny Dangers and Johnny K. Dangers for more on the
ground updates on defeating the Dakota Access Pipeline! Share
#NoDAPL #WaterisLife #DefundDAPL #KeepitintheGround

10 hours ago

This Angel could lose her eye

Another casualty of war in | Eventually someone's gonna

Vanessa has been on the front lines fighting DAPL and

working security for Oceti Sakowin since September 11.
During the action on November 20 at the Backwater
bridge, she was shot in the eye with a tear gas canister 6
feet away. It was aimed directly at her face by a Morton
County officer. She was seen at Bismark Sanford hospital
and released because she had no insurance. She has a
detached retina and needs surgery to ensure her vision.
She is now seeking medical attention in Fargo. Donations
will be used for the cost of the 2 ER visits, surgery,
medications, and recovery.

If anyone can get in touch with Vanessa, please have her

call her IHS area director or get in touch with me. IHS
should be able to help.
Vanessa, the sacrifice you have made is far more than was
asked of you and yet you stood there and took that
uncalled for abuse! I am SO proud of you as are millions s
of people worldwide!! Keep strong in knowing you did
what is right for the right reasons! We You! We You! We
You! (I made a donation but forgot to leave a comment
with it. And I am spreading the word!)
I am so ashamed of my country. As a veteran, I swore to
protect every citizen from enemies foreign and domestic.
It saddens me that this has happened to you. I am
heartened by the prayers and love I have seen in support
of native peoples. You are not alone, allies, veterans and
volunteers are helping, information is getting out. May
you heal and be well. Thank you for your courage.
You are STRONG woman! You are brave. You are a Hera
for ALL of our people. Your sight is Strong, your body is
brave. Thank you for your service in defense of the Good
Earth, the Clean Water and the place where the people
pray. May you heal beautifully and know that the world
has witnessed this terrible thing. We are watching. We
are proud of your courage. We send you our prayers from
all directions. May you be held in the good healing hands
and know we see this. We see you. Prayers of good
healing on you.

US army orders eviction

of Dakota pipeline
protesters' camp, tribe

Engineer corps says the main encampment must be

cleared in nine days because of the onset of winter

The US Army has ordered the closure of the main

encampment established by activists opposing the Dakota
Access pipeline, according to a letter released by the

Standing Rock Sioux tribe.

Citing federal regulations governing public lands, Colonel
John W. Henderson of the army corps of engineers wrote
to Standing Rock Sioux tribal chairman Dave Archambault
that he was ordering the closure by 5 December.
The order was to protect the general public from the
violent confrontations between protestors and law
enforcement officials that have occurred in this area, and
to prevent death, illness, or serious injury from the winter

The Standing Rock protests are a taste of

things to come

Henderson added that the corps would establish a free

speech zone south of the Cannonball river, but that any
individuals found on army land north of the river after 5
December would be considered trespassing and could be
Our tribe is deeply disappointed in this decision by the
United States, but our resolve to protect our water is
stronger than ever, Archambault said in a statement.
The best way to protect people during the winter, and
reduce the risk of conflict between water protectors and
militarized police, is to deny the easement for the Oahe
crossing, and deny it now, he added.
The pipeline lacks a final permit to drill under the Missouri
river. The army has twice delayed issuing the permit,
known as an easement. On 15 November, the pipeline
company, Energy Transfer Partners, filed court papers
asking a judge to force the army to allow drilling to

The army did not immediately respond to a request for
comment from the Guardian.
The move to evict the main Standing Rock encampment,
known as Oceti Sakowin, comes at the end of a tense
week for the indigenous and environmental activists
opposing the construction of the oil pipeline, which is
slated to cross under the Missouri river just north of the
Standing Rock Sioux reservation.
On Sunday, local law enforcement deployed tear gas,
less-than-lethal munitions, and water cannons on
hundreds of peaceful demonstrators amid sub-freezing
Twenty-six people were hospitalized, and hundreds more
were injured, according to the Standing Rock Medic &
Healer Council.
The activists, who refer to themselves as water
protectors, have continued to hold demonstrations and
prayer ceremonies since Sundays incident.
At least 33 people were arrested Friday after they entered
a shopping mall in Bismarck, North Dakota and formed a
circle to pray, according to Reuters. More than 500 have
been arrested since August.
Members of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe established the
first of several spiritual camps, known as Sacred Stone,
near the site of the proposed river crossing in April. The
tribe fears that the pipeline will contaminate their water
and objects to the fact that construction has disturbed
sacred burial grounds and is taking place on land they say
belongs to them under the 1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie.

The movement to stop the pipeline has drawn thousands

of supporters, including members of hundreds of
indigenous groups. As more people arrived in North
Dakota, new camps were established north of the
Cannonball River, on land owned by the Army.
One of those camps was forcibly cleared in late October,
with law enforcement in armored vehicles deploying
pepper spray and arresting 141 people.
Fridays letter sets the stage for a confrontation over the
largest encampment, which is home to as many as
thousands of people at any given time.
It is both unfortunate and disrespectful that this
announcement comes the day after this country celebrates
Thanksgivinga historic exchange of goodwill between
Native Americans and the first immigrants from Europe,
Archambault said in a statement.
Water protectors at Standing Rock held numerous events
Thursday to mark the Thanksgiving holiday, which many
consider a day of mourning for the genocide of indigenous
peoples by European colonizers.
Although the news is saddening, Archambault added, it
is not at all surprising given the last 500 years of the
mistreatment of our people.

Dakota pipeline
operator goes to court
after government
delays construction

Tuesday 15 November 2016

Energy Transfer Partners accused the Obama

administration of being motivated purely by
politics and said it would pursue rights to
build controversial oil line
The operator of the Dakota Access pipeline has
asked a federal judge to approve immediate
construction under the Missouri river just one day
after the US government delayed the oil project
that has faced international opposition from
indigenous groups and environmental activists.
Energy Transfer Partners, the owner of the $3.7bn
pipeline, accused President Barack Obamas
administration of being motivated purely by
politics and said it would vigorously pursue its
legal rights to build under the river that provides
the Standing Rock Sioux tribes water supply.
Dakota Access Pipeline has waited long enough to
complete this pipeline, CEO Kelcy Warren said in a
statement. It is time for the Courts to end this
political interference and remove whatever legal
cloud that may exist over the right-of-way beneath
federal land at Lake Oahe.

The company said in court filings that the armys

intransigence in completing its review has already
cost Dakota Access hundreds of millions of dollars
and that additional delays will result in further
On Monday, the US army corps of engineers
announced that it needed additional discussion
and analysis including consultations with the
Standing Rock Sioux tribe before it would issue a
final permit for the DAPL to drill on army land
under the river, striking a blow to the oil company.
Further construction on army corps property is not
allowed until the final permit is issued.
The company had been emboldened by the
election of Donald Trump, who is invested in
Energy Transfer Partners and Phillips 66, which will
have a 25% stake in the pipeline once it is
completed. Trump has indicated that he will favor
fossil fuels over clean energy and has a history of
conflict with Native American tribes, motivated by
competition over casinos.
Im 100% sure that the pipeline will be approved
by a Trump administration, Warren told NBC News
on Saturday. I believe we will have a government
in place that believes in energy infrastructure.
Dakota Access is so desperate to get this project
in the ground that it is now suing the federal
government on the novel theory that it doesnt
need an easement to cross federal lands, the
Standing Rock Sioux tribal chair, Dave Archambault
II, said in a statement.
He also pointed out that the corporation has
previously said in court that if it were not delivering
oil by 1 January 2017, its shipper contracts would
expire and the project would be in jeopardy.
So they are rushing to get the pipeline in the
ground hastily to meet that deadline, Archambault

said. The only urgency here was created by their

own reckless choice to build the pipeline before it
had all the permits to do so.
The army corps and the US Department of Justice
declined to comment on the new court filings. A
spokeswoman for the army declined to speculate
on the impact that the transition to a new
presidential administration might have on its
planned consultation with the tribe.
LaDonna Brave Bull Allard, a Standing Rock Sioux
tribe member and founder of the Sacred Stone
camp, said she wasnt surprised the company went
to court to try to bypass the federal government.
They are grasping at straws now. It is just a power
play, Allard said. They forgot that the people
have the power.
The litigation comes on an international day of
action against the pipeline. Demonstrations have
been planned in hundreds of cities around the
world in solidarity with the Native American
activists opposing the pipeline, who refer to
themselves as water protectors.
The Dakota Access pipeline became an
international symbol of the impacts of climate
change on indigenous people in April, when
members of the Standing Rock Sioux tribe in
Cannon Ball, North Dakota, established a spiritual
camp on the banks of the Missouri river near
where the pipeline is planned to cross.
Members of the tribe fear that the pipeline will
threaten their water source and that construction
will destroy sacred sites, including burial grounds.
Members of hundreds of Native American nations,
as well as environmental activists, have joined the
original band of water protectors in what are now
sprawling encampments near the construction site.
More than 400 have been arrested during

demonstrations in North Dakota that sought to halt

or delay construction of the pipeline. On Tuesday,
the Morton County sheriffs office made 25 arrests
as hundreds of activists attempted to block a local
railroad track.
Officers used pepper spray, beanbags and Tasers
against the demonstrators.
The United Nations office of the high commissioner
for human rights released a statement on Tuesday
accusing law enforcement of using excessive
force against protesters and citing the inhuman
and degrading conditions in detention for those
This is a troubling response to people who are
taking action to protect natural resources and
ancestral territory in the face of profit-seeking
activity, said Maina Kiai, the UN special rapporteur
on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and
Allard, who traveled to Washington DC this week
for Tuesdays demonstrations, said she wants to
see the government block the pipeline altogether.
They really need to have done this from the
beginning and listened to us and consulted us,
she said. I wont take anything unless than they
end the project. There is no compromise. There is
no negotiation. Water has to come first.


We are aware of the information about the woman on

social media who has claimed she sustained injuries to her
arm due to law enforcement tactics. The injuries sustained

are inconsistent with any resources utilized by law

enforcement and are not a direct result of any tools or
weapons used by law enforcement." - Lt. Tom Iverson, ND
Highway Patrol. Below is a picture of a propane tank found
on the bridge following an explosion early Monday
morning. Officers witnessed protesters rolling the cylinder
on the bridge, saw the explosion and then witnessed
protesters running on the bridge to carry a woman from
the scene.

yet you guys blow up a ladies arm with a concussion grenade.

Empty propane tank for warming up stuff

Law enforcement is currently involved in an ongoing riot

on the Backwater Bridge, north of a protest camp in
Morton County. Protesters in mass amounts, estimated to
be around 400, are on the bridge and attempting to
breach the bridge to go north on highway 1806. Protesters
have started a dozen fires near the bridge.

What happens when you start killing people?

Anyone else notice they never have any proof?

Omg this is dumb. Anyone could have wrote that lol

What is this?

DAPL's Worst Nightmare: Big Oil

EXPOSED By Whistleblower
Nov 21, 2016

Protesters using improvised explosive devices caused an

explosion on the Backwater Bridge around 3:00 a.m.
Monday morning. Law enforcement witnessed protesters
rolling cylinders on the bridge and witnessed an explosion,
shortly after they saw several protesters run to that area
of the bridge and carried a woman off the bridge. Once the
scene was clear, investigators examined the bridge and
found one pound coleman propane tanks that were rigged
to explode on the bridge. Pictures of the IED and rocks
thrown at officers are seen here.
shows warnings given by law enforcement and protesters
engaging in riot throwing a rock at officers. "We're just not
going to let people or protesters in large groups come in
and threaten officers, that's not happening." - Morton Co.
Sheriff Kyle Kirchmeier

21 Dakota Access Pipeline Protesters Arrested

Mandan, N.D. Law enforcement officers assigned to
the Dakota Access Pipeline protest arrested 21
protesters at two construction sites along the DAPL
south and west of St. Anthony. Officers arrested the
protesters for various crimes including resisting arrest,
criminal trespass on private property and possession of
stolen property. Tow trucks were called to transport 5
impounded vehicles.
When officers responded they witnessed numerous
people and horses on private property. A protester on
horseback charged at an officer in what was viewed as
an act of aggression. The officer responded with an
appropriate show of force by raising his weapon
containing less-lethal ammunition.
Our officers are trained to respond to the threats they
perceive and to take appropriate action. A charging

horse combined with totality of the situation presented

an imminent threat to the officer, said Morton County
Sheriff Kyle Kirchmeier.
Due to the current threat to public safety, law
enforcement responded with specialized equipment
and weapons to include armored vehicles and less
lethal ammunition using bean-bag rounds.
With continued illegal activity in the area, Sheriff
Kirchmeier has increased patrols and visibility in
southern Morton County.
The safety of our citizens is paramount. Our number
one priority is and always will be public safety for the
residents of Morton County and our visitors, said
Throughout this incident there have been numerous
rumors circulating in the protest camps and social
media about law enforcement tactics and response.
There were reports today of an airplane flying over the
protesters and dropping mustard or tear gas.
Investigations into this rumor determined it was a crop
duster spraying a field.
After todays arrests, there have been 95 arrested for
protest activities since the start of the Dakota Access
Pipeline protests.
Please report any suspicious activity you observe, no
matter how insignificant it may seem, to the Morton
County Sheriffs Office at 701-667-3330.

Mayor: Out-ofstate protesters
go home
Wednesday, November 23, 2016 6:46 a.m. CST

Multiple images/videos with thumbnails

DAPL protesters and law enforcement clash on November 2, 2016.

Photo: Morton County Sheriff's Office

Bismarck, N.D. (KCND) - Bismarck Mayor Mike

Seminary has a message for out of state people
who are protesting the Dakota Access Pipeline.
"It's time to go home to your families," Seminary
Seminary said most of the more than 500 people
arrested during the protest come from out of state.
"Which means most of you, really, probably don't
care what's left when you leave, and we understand
that," Seminary said. "You've come here to make a
point and you've done so effectively, but it is now
time to go home. Enough is enough."
Seminary says he believes the event has caused
some damaged relationships, which will need to be
Protesters have marched on the state Capitol
building, the William Guy Federal Building and the
Wells Fargo Bank in Bismarck and have blocked
Seminary also says a story that Bismarck-Mandan
rejected a proposed northern route for the Dakota
Access Pipeline is a fabrication.
Pipeline opponents have often said the northern
route was rejected because Bismarck-Mandan was
concerned about potential harm to the cities
drinking water supply. Seminary says when the
pipeline was planned, the Corps of Engineers

looked at a number of different routes for that

"Bismarck has never, ever been involved in that
discussion," Seminary said. "Not one policy maker,
not one department head, not one city employee
has ever been involved in a discussion with regards
to a route north of Bismarck, period."
He went on to call that story nonsense.

Authorities policing protests over the Dakota Access Pipeline on

November 6, 2016. Photo: Morton County Sheriff's Office

BISMARCK, N.D. (AP) - An official says North

Dakota likely will have to borrow more money to
police protests against the Dakota Access oil
pipeline now that the costs have exceeded the $10
million in emergency spending authorized by the

State Emergency Services spokeswoman Cecily
Fong says law enforcement costs related to the
protests that have been ongoing since August
reached $10.9 million last week.
She says it's ''very likely'' that officials will need to
request more money from the state's Emergency
Commission, which earlier approved borrowing $10
million from the state-owned Bank of North Dakota.
The CEO of pipeline developer Energy Transfer
Partners says he made a verbal offer to Gov. Jack
Dalrymple to reimburse the state. Dalrymple's
spokesman says no formal offer has been made.

State Senator Tom Campbell-Dist.19 Grafton

Republican Senator Tom Campbell says he'll

seek U.S. Representative Kevin Cramer's seat
"immediately" should Cramer be appointed
to a position in the Trump administration.
Campbell says there are other options in
2018. He says he will run for the U.S. Senate
seat held by Democrat Heidi Heitkamp if
Cramer doesn't. If Cramer seeks the senate
spot, Campbell will run his house seat.
He won't challenge Cramer who he says is
doing a "great job."
Republican Congressman Cramer says
Campbell has the right idea, positioning

himself early. He says it puts people on

notice, informs party activists, donors and
potential rivals.
Cramer says he has made no decision about
a cabinent position or a U.S. Senate seat

Robert F. Kennedy Jr. On Obama's "No

Brainer" DAPL Choice
Nov 17, 2016
Energy Transfer Partners: (214) 981-0700
U.S. Army Corps Of Engineers: (202) 761-0010; (202) 761-0014
Department of Justice: (202)-353-1555; (202)-514-2000
White House: (202)-456-1414; (202)-456-1111
#NoDAPL Playlist:
TYT Politics Reporter Jordan Chariton
( spoke with Robert F.
Kennedy Jr., an environmental lawyer and president of the
Waterkeeper Alliance, who is using his family name for good:
helping protect our water. He weighed in on the dangers of the
Dakota Access Pipeline, as well as the easy decision President
Obama has regarding the pipeline.
For more, subscribe to TYT Politics:

Minot Police Chief Says

Feds Need To Help End

begin: authors and publish date

Published 11/18

Police officers, sheriff's deputies, highway patrol troopers, National
Guard soldiers...they've all been part of the force that's been called
on to deal with protests against the Dakota Access Pipeline.
Jim Olson reports on one agency that's been pitching in for several
Minot's police chief is happy to help out in keeping the peace as
the protests wear on, but Jason Olson wishes the situation would
come to a peaceful end.
(Jason Olson, Minot Police Chief) "We have a responsibility as
fellow officers to help our brothers down there."
That's why Minot Police Chief Jason Olson says he doesn't
hesitate sending local officers to help out in policing the protests
surrounding the Dakota Access Pipeline.
(Jason Olson, Minot Police Chief) "We have officers on scene this
week and will have them every week that they're needed."
Chief Olson says whether he sends two or 20 officers in a given
week, it's something he feels compelled to do.
(Jason Olson, Minot Police Chief) "What it means is that we have
to do more work around here with less, just like law enforcement

throughout North Dakota is - pressed into a really tense situation."

The chief believes leadership at the highest level is falling short in
resolving that tense situation
(Jason Olson, Minot Police Chief) "I would love to see some
leadership on the federal government's part to bring this to an end,
it's gone on way too long in my opinion. We would love to safely
bring this to an end for law enforcement, protesters, and the
company. That's our primary concern."
Chief Olson says for the safety of protesters, workers, and law
enforcement, he's hoping for a quick end to the situation.
Jim Olson, KX News.
Chief Olson says police officers who stay on duty in Minot are
having to work longer shifts to make sure local policing needs are

Standing Rock Protector's Arm Mangled

By Oil Police
Nov 22, 2016
Sophia Wilansky's GoFundMe:
Donate to medics:
Energy Transfer Partners: (214) 981-0700
U.S. Army Corps Of Engineers: (202) 761-0010; (202) 761-0014
Department of Justice: (202)-353-1555; (202)-514-2000
White House: (202)-456-1414; (202)-456-1111
#NoDAPL Playlist:
TYT Politics Reporter Jordan Chariton
( did a Facebook Live report
on his way to Standing Rock, where news has just broken that
a water protector is facing a potential amputation because of
the brutality of the police protecting the oil company in North

For more, subscribe to TYT Politics:

Water Protector Arm Blown Appart by

DAPL Police Granade | Sophia Wilansky
Nov 21, 2016

This shows Wayne Wilansky speaking to the press about

his daughter's condition, yesturday (Nov 22nd) at
Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis. He spoke
of Sophia's injuries suffered as a result of a concussion

grenade thrown at her by one of the law enforcement

personnel occupying the area near the Backwater Bridge.

Father Dakota Access Pipeline Protest

victim speaks from hospital about
daughters injuries
Nov 22, 2016
Sophia Wilansky's father Wayne Wilansky spoke about his
daughter who was injured by a concussion grenade police
allegedly threw while protesting the Dakota Access Pipeline.
Whoopi Goldberg & ABC's "The View" Stands With Standing Rock!

Morton County acting like they are

testing weaponry on us Standing Rock
Nov 22, 2016
More details are emerging about Sunday's violent
confrontation between police and pipeline protesters at the
Standing Rock reservation in North Dakota. Activist Sophia
Wilansky was so severely injured by a concussion grenade she
may need to have her arm amputated. Law enforcement said
that no grenades were used. However, they also previously
said that they had not used water cannon, which video
evidence calls into dispute. For more on this, RT America's

Anya Parampil is joined by Linda Black Elk, a medic at Standing

Rock who serves on the Medicine and Healer Council.
Find RT America in your area:
Or watch us online:
Like us on Facebook
Follow us on Twitter

Sophia Wilansky's Father's Statement |

Nov 22, 2016
Sophia Wilansky's GoFundMe:
Donate to medics:
Energy Transfer Partners: (214) 981-0700
U.S. Army Corps Of Engineers: (202) 761-0010; (202) 761-0014
Department of Justice: (202)-353-1555; (202)-514-2000
White House: (202)-456-1414; (202)-456-1111
Follow Us Below!

400 DAPL protesters trapped on bridge

as police fire tear gas, water cannon
Nov 20, 2016
Demonstrators protesting against Dakota Access Pipeline say
they are trapped on a bridge as North Dakota police fire tear

gas, water cannon and concussion grenades at them,

according to live reports on social media.
The demonstration is taking place on Highway 1806, just north
of the main protest camp against the pipeline.
Officers have deployed water cannon on the protesters in
below-freezing temperatures, and are using LRAD sound
devices. Earlier, there were reports of rubber bullets fired.
Vehicles which appear to be armored humvees have arrived at
the scene.
Subscribe for latest Update:
Follow us on Twitter:

Drone dodges water cannon to capture

Dakota pipeline protest
Nov 21, 2016
Police fired a water cannon at protesters rallying against the
Dakota Access Pipeline, and a drone filming the demonstration,
in Cannon Ball, North Dakota, on Sunday.
Find RT America in your area:
Or watch us online:
Like us on Facebook
Follow us on Twitter

Again cops willing to possibly kill people to protect their

corporate master's profits. Do Americans realize that pigs were
created to keep the rich safe from the poor? Since the dawn of
civilization this was why cops were made. It hasn't changed.
These cops and security should be prosecuted by the ICC for
crimes against humanity. I hope this woman pulls through and
can save her arm. Pigs are terrorist scum.

The activists tell an emotionally charged tale of greed,

racism and misbehavior by corporate and government
officials. But the real story of the Dakota Access Pipeline
was revealed in court documents in September, and it is

nothing like the activists' tale. In fact, it is the complete


1868 Fort Laramie Treaty:

Article 1: If bad men subject to the authority of the
United States commit any wrong upon the person or
property of the Indians, the United States will cause the
offender to be arrested and punished.
Article 2: The United States agrees that the 1868 Treaty
Territory (outlined in yellow below) shall be set apart for
the absolute and undisturbed use and occupation of
the Indians herein named.
Article 12: No treaty for the cessation of any portion or
part of the 1868 Treaty Territory shall be valid unless
executed and signed by at least three-fourths (3/4) of all
adult male Indians occupying or interested in the same.
United States Constitution:
Article VI: This Constitution, and the Laws of the
United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof;
and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under
the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme
Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be
bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws
of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. (Bold
emphasis added)
The Constitution does not contain any provision
authorizing the President, Congress, or the Supreme
Court to abrogate a treaty, so long as the treaty does
not violate the Constitution.

This war was brought upon us by the

children of the Great Father who
came to take our land from us
without price."
--Spotted Tail
Written Comments Submitted by
Vice President Tom Poor Bear, Oglala
Sioux Tribe

Nebraska Department of Environmental

Public Hearing - Albion, Nebraska
As Vice President for the Oglala Sioux Tribe, I wish to
express my opposition to the proposed Keystone XL
pipeline, including the Nebraska Re-route. I speak now
for my people and in support of our Indigenous brothers
and sisters who join us in this struggle to protect life and
what is sacred. Our Tribal Council has passed Resolutions
opposing this dangerous proposed project not only
because of the risks it entails, but because of the certain
violations of natural and federal law that would
accompany it.
Pursuant to Article 16 of the 1968 Treaty at Fort Laramie,
much of the land through which the proposed pipeline has
been routed is held and considered to be unceded Indian
territory. Although the United States has since violated
this and most of the provisions of that Treaty, courts of the
United States have held that such unilateral actions are
TransCanada did not even have the respect to approach
the Oglala Sioux Tribe and other treaty tribes directly
about their activities that will affect sacred ground and
treaty lands. Sadly, even the state of Nebraska failed to
show this basic degree of respect. The basis for Nebraskas
decision on this pipeline must include tribal input because
the indigenous people who occupied and utilized these
lands long before statehood still hold these lands and the
sites and burials they contain to be sacred. The state of
Nebraska simply cannot assess the threat to cultural
interests, as it claims in its report to have done, without
first consulting with those whose cultures have existed
here the longest. My people cannot control the geography
imposed on them that created the -boundaries of the state

of Nebraska, but they should not suffer further cultural

and spiritual annihilation because of it. The same must be
said for each and every Indian tribe with traditional,
historic, or treaty claims to this land. At the same time,
state and federal agencies must recognize that each of
these tribes is unique. Each tribe must be able to provide
input to ensure protection of what is sacred according to
its own specific history and spirituality.
Indigenous people in Nebraska contribute to the states
revenue and its economy. Many of them live outside of
Indian country and are thus subjected to the states
jurisdiction. Indigenous interests are not just of concern
to federal agencies. They are entitled to consideration and
protection by state agencies as well. Until the state
engages in meaningful consultation with interested tribal
nations, the environmental report from NDEQ cannot be
Like many indigenous people, to the Oglalas, water is
sacred. It is without doubt that the proposed Keystone XL
pipeline will spill. Due to the number of water body
crossings, there is a very good chance that this pipeline
will contaminate and desecrate the water we hold sacred.
I therefore implore you to recommend the rejection of the
proposed Nebraska Re-route and of any future route that
trespasses through Lakota treaty territory.
Tom Poor Bear
Vice President
Oglala Sioux Tribe

The precious drinking water supply of the Oglala

Lakota people will be overlapped more than a few
times if TransCanada gets its way and the US State
Department approves its second attempt to get a
permit to build the Keystone XL pipeline. The
pipeline will enter this big land in Montana, come
south and skirt the Cheyenne River, Pine Ridge,
Lower Brule, and Rosebud Reservations before it
enters Nebraska.
Recently, TransCanada revealed its new route
through the sandhills of Nebraska, keeping their
budget in mind, they diverted a total of 20 miles.
There is sandhills land on the Pine Ridge in the
LaCreek District. The KXL pipeline will be buried
into the Ogallala Aquifer, in numerous places when
one digs a few feet down, water rises.
Our Lakota people, and people all over South
Dakota, depend on the Rural Water Pipeline, or
Lyman Jones as it is called off-reservation. It

crosses the Lyman Jones in 43 places. It crosses

our water pipeline to the Pine Ridge at least twice.
The KXL will carry dirty crude tarsands oil from
the mines near the Ft McMurray area of Alberta,
Canada. Much of the pristine Boreal Forest has
been totally decimated, strip mined to bare dirt, to
get at the tarsands oil deep in Mother Earth. The
oil miners use 3 to 4 barrels of drinking water to
produce one barrel of oil, and stores billions of
gallons of waste water in huge waste water ponds.
It is a secret what chemicals they use to dilute the
heavy crude! However, a VietNam Veteran knew
that some of the chemicals are the same as what
was used in Agent Orange, revealed in a meeting
with the US State Dept I attended last spring in
Washington, DC. That VietNam Veteran is from
here on the Pine Ridge. Maybe he will come and
speak out!
Owe Aku is hosting a series of Sacred Water
Protection Teach Ins across Lakota Territory, the
first will be held at our own famous Billy Mills Hall
in Pine Ridge Village on September 26, 2012 and
at Kyle on September 27, 2012 at the Church Hall,
both begin at 1pm. On both dates, there will be
guest speakers and a lot of handouts to share
FACTS on the tarsands oil mine, the KXL oil
pipeline, and the historical and cultural Lakota land
sites that TransCanada plans to cross. Tribal
officials will be speak on these significant landsites,
allied organizations who also work to protect
drinking water and Mother Earth will be speaking,
and we will have slideshows to share images from
the tarsands oil mine and other water destruction

mining and mining-related activities.

We will have handouts that describe how each
Tribal Government plans to protect their
Homelands, and we want to generate a discussion
on how we can all work together to protect our
sacred water, Mother Earth, and coming
generations. We will share images of how people
in Texas are protecting their ranches, farms and
neighborhoods from TransCanadas KXL oil
pipeline, and from heavy haul trucks carrying
equipment across our Homelands, as well the river
hauls in BC Canada.
Info will be available regarding the impacts of oil
mining using the hydrofracturing (fracking)
method, a technique that is being banned around
the world, yet is being practiced all over this big
land. There is recent discussion on the Pine Ridge
regarding fracking near our northern border and
on the Reservation as well. Several tribal
candidates are already discussing how the Oglala
Sioux Tribe must prepare for oil fracking. We want
to give folks an opportunity to voice their opinion
on this crucial topic.
An update on the uranium case against Cameco,
Inc. In Situ Leach uranium mine in Crawford
Nebraska, as well Camecos plans for three new
uranium mines will be discussed.
There will be time for Traditional Headsmen to
speak regarding these mining issues and to lead
the discussion on a statement from all those in
attendance regarding the protection of our sacred

water, Mother Earth and coming generations, after

all, we protect this sacred water for them, it is
their water. Mni wicozani, through water there is
Oglala musicians Scatter Their Own will share
their awesome indigenous music, and a drum
group will share their songs. A feed will follow,
and there will be beverages and snacks all
afternoon. The Sacred Water Protection Teach In
is open to all people, everyone is encouraged to
attend, learn what you can, share what you know,
be part of the statement made on these dates!
Bring your friends, relatives and neighbors.

Dear President Obama:

Do not endorse further transgressions against
treaties and the rights of Native peoples. I implore
you to read the 1851 and 1868 Treaties of Fort
Laramie. As President, Commander in Chief, and
primary leader of these United States, you have an
absolute duty to familiarize yourself with legally
binding agreements entered into by your

predecessors before you consider actions which

may (and in this case, will) violate them.
If you perform even minimal due diligence on this
issue by reading the Fort Laramie Treaties, you will
instantly recognize the injustices of current law
and feel appalled at the modern state of affairs
relating to the Great Sioux Nation and its lands.
Legal fictions fabricated by the Supreme Court of
the United States, including the plenary power of
Congress over Indian nations, have been around
since the inception of this country; the miscarriage
of justice-turned-legal dogma is no more evident
than in the so-called "Doctrine of Discovery"
formally christened by the Marshall Court in
Johnson v. M'Intosh.
While I recognize the unfortunate truth that your
office has no authority to overturn Supreme Court
precedent, nothing under the law prevents you
from making the right decision on the proposed
Keystone XL pipeline. Take a stand against the
nearly 200 years of judicial injustice inflicted upon
Indian tribes and embrace the principles of truth,
liberty, and justice on which this very nation was
founded. Laws which shock the conscience today
have not always done so in the eyes of the courts,
but that fact does not make those laws right or
just. Inadequately funded services and contracts
can never restore what has been taken from a
people whose only crime was subsistence (a crime
which the United States has taken significant
strides towards eradicating, through smallpox
blankets, starvation, sterilization, cold blooded
murder, and countless other forms of genocidal

Take your first step towards truly restoring justice
and harmony to a people who have not seen such
fundamental and inherent human rights for
centuries. Recognize the Fort Laramie Treaties.
Unless and until such time as the Great Sioux
Nation consents to a pipeline through lands
secured to it by treaty, you must prohibit any such

Open Letter to the President

Main -

Keystone XL Threat

1. Backgrounder
2. Project Overview with Treaty
3. 1868 Ft. Laramie Treaty
4. Lakota Treaty Lands & KXL

5. Mni Wiconi and KXL Pipeline

6. 10/26/11 Statement by Vice

Pres. Poor Bear
7. 1/24/12 Statement by Vice
Pres. Poor Bear
8. 3/13/12 Statement by Vice
Pres. Poor Bear
9. Mother Earth Accord
10. OST Resolution 10-109
11. OST Resolution 11-137
12. RST Resolution 2011-308
13. GPTCA Resolution
14. Int'l Indigenous Treaty Council
15. NCAI Resolution
16. United Tribes of ND
17. Commentary on KXL

Kendrick Eagle Message to Obama

Nov 20, 2016
Kendrick Eagle, 23, raises his 4 brothers on his own. In 2014 he
met President Obama on the Standing Rock reservation where
he lives. Listen to the beautiful, heartfelt message he has for
Obama as Standing Rock and the world fight to secure clean
water for his generation and all those to follow.

Standing Rock Chair: Obama Could Stop

the Dakota Pipeline Today & Preserve
Indigenous Sacred Sites
Nov 4, 2016 - President Obama says the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers is considering rerouting the $3.8
billion Dakota Access pipeline, amid months of resistance from
the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and members of more than 200
other Native American nations and tribes from across the
Americas. "My view is that there is a way for us to
accommodate sacred lands of Native Americans," Obama said.
"And I think that right now the Army Corps is examining
whether there are ways to reroute this pipeline in a way."
Meanwhile, on Wednesday, police deployed pepper spray and
tear gas against dozens of Native American water protectors
during a standoff at Cantapeta Creek, north of the main
resistance camp. At least two people were shot with nonlethal
projectiles. Video and photos show police firing the pepper
spray and tear gas at the water protectors, who were
peacefully standing in the creek. The U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers had ordered police to arrest the Native Americans
and destroy a bridge that members of the camp had
constructed over the creek in order to protect a sacred burial
ground they say is being destroyed by construction and law
enforcement activity.
Democracy Now! is an independent global news hour that airs

weekdays on nearly 1,400 TV and radio stations Monday

through Friday. Watch our livestream 8-9AM ET:
Please consider supporting independent media by making a
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Young woman who may lose

her arm after Standing Rock
police brutality was a strong
divestment campaigner. Med.
Medical Fund for Sophia Wilansky
Sophia Wilansky is a water protector from New York. She
left New York City several weeks ago to help with the
struggle at Standing Rock. She been

Water protectors battling the controversial

Dakota Access Pipeline are grappling with
terrible injuries and even more arrests in the
wake of Sunday's police onslaught, in which law
enforcement bombarded the peaceful activists
with concussion grenades, rubber bullets, mace,
and water cannons in sub-zero temperatures.
One woman is even facing the potential
amputation of an arm, after it was torn apart by
a concussion grenade. Supporters shared
shocking images of her extensive injuries and a
link to a fundraiser for her hospital costs:
Amnesty International echoed such calls in a
letter sent Monday to the Morton County
Sheriff's Department. "[T]he use of those water

cannons against the protesters themselves risks

potential injury and hypothermia for the
protesters who were sprayed with water in
below freezing temperatures," wrote Amnesty
International USA executive director Margaret
Huang, according to Indian Country Today. "Also
alarming are videos of the use of tear gas, and
reports of rubber bullets used to disperse the
crowd of protesters."
The violence Sunday came in response to
Indigenous activists' efforts to clear the public
road that leads to their protest camp near
Cannon Ball, North Dakota. And the standoff
lasted for six hours, despite medics' pleas that
the police stop endangering activists' lives. As
the Intercept reported:
Linda Black Elk, a member of the Standing Rock
Medic and Healer Council, was helping care for
injured demonstrators [during the attack]. The
council estimated that 300 people were treated
for injuries, including 26 who were taken to area
"What it was like was people walking through
the dark of a winter North Dakota night, some of
them so cold, and sprayed with water for so
long, that their clothes were frozen to their body
and crunching as they walked. So you could
hear this crunching sound and this pop-pop-pop,
and people yelling [to the police], 'We'll pray for
you! We love you!'" Black Elk said, describing
the scene as police sprayed protesters with
water and fired tear gas and rubber bullets
during the more than six-hour standoff.
[...] In the midst of the clash, the Medic and
Healer Council, which was set up to provide

health support to those fighting the pipeline,

released a statement pleading with police to
halt the use of water cannons. "As medical
professionals, we are concerned for the real risk
of loss of life due to severe hypothermia under
these conditions," the statement said.
But the oversized police response didn't end
there: the New York Times reports that law
enforcement returned on Monday to arrest 16
water protectors.
Video footage, testimony, and photos of the
violence are galvanizing global support for the
activists, even as the battle against the pipeline
feels more dire than ever in the wake of
President-elect Donald Trump's victory. Indeed,
a group of U.S. military veterans is planning a
"deployment" to the Oceti Sakowin protest
camp to support the water protectors' fight in
early December.
"This country is repressing our people," said
Michael A. Wood Jr., a Marine Corps veteran and
"former Baltimore police officer who retired his
badge in 2014 to become an advocate for
national police reform," according to the
veterans outlet Task & Purpose.
"If we're going to be heroes, if were really going
to be those veterans that this country praises,
well, then we need to do the things that we
actually said we're going to do when we took
the oath to defend the Constitution from
enemies foreign and domestic," Wood Jr. added.
And members of the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe
are also issuing urgent pleas to President
Barack Obama, seeking decisive action to
protect their drinking water and sacred sites

before the president leaves office.

"Help us stop this pipeline. Stay true to your
words, because you said you had our backs,"
said tribal member Kendrick Eagle, who met
President Obama in 2014. "I believe that you
can make this happen."
Watch Eagle's full statement here:



Bill McKibben

Pls share this. Kendrick Eagle from Standing Rock directly

addressing , who must stop the brutality.


1:28 PM - 22 Nov 2016

2,004 2,004 Retweets1,717 1,717 likes

Ritas comments

Where did you Corrupt lying Crook Police Find Your cylinders, You
Couldn't Make this Up, The Oil Police Force are lying to there Teeth
to Save There rich mans Oill, Ah" it Looks like You had Found an Old
Gadget beneath the Ground from Years ago, and had it Engraved
with the Name Wiconi, by your Antique Experts to Make it Look like
A Peaceful protester Had It, your All Bare Face liars, Just Looking at
You all on Video" Says it All, The Truth is Already Revealed That The
Oil Police Protecters brutally and In Humanely Beat and shoot to kill
Peaceful Protesters, your all a bunch of Mafia, and Attempt to
Murder innocent Peaceful unarmed protesters, The Morton Police
and Norway Pipeline Company Should all be Ashamed of Yourself
Your A Disgrace using In Uniform and to your People your suppose to
Protect not Try and Start a War , Every police Here And media like
CNN and Fox news are All A bunch Of liars and Corrupt Media and
Cover up, and Fully Armoured and Armed Police who Prey Cowardly
on Unarmed Peaceful Protester Civilians, Targeting Women and
Children and Animals, and men The Problem with the Cowardly
Morton Or Minot Police Force or The Trump Clump" of the Mafia
pipeline, is you cannot Handle Peaceful protests, So you grenade
them, gun them Down, and water cannon Them, Your All Despicable
and Traitors to Your native Country, You Have to Act in Violence
Thats What You Bunch Of Morton Or Minot Police Force or The Trump
Clump Mafia Knows Best, Your all a Bunch of Morton and minot
Police Force Cowards, The Irish People are Watching Every Day,
Following up on the truth by watching truth Evidence on Videos and
we all Have Downloaded Them To Save Them all for The Standing
Rock Hero's in Dakota American Native Heroes, Come On Standing
rock in Dakota US native , you Can Win Against Terroist police Force
and Trump clump mafia Force, May The force be With you All Dakota
Standing Rock American natives, Ireland are Rooting for you All, We
are proud of Standing Rock Hero's Not The Terroist police Force or
Trump clump mafia Force, God Bless all Standing Rock People of US
Native Dakota and Sophia Wilansky's Get Well Soon and i Hope you
sue the Police and Government and The State in general and
Pipeline and i wish you every success to you and your Family and All
The People and Children who were injured in Standing Rock, Again
cops willing to possibly kill people to protect their corporate

master's profits. Do Americans realize that pigs were created to

keep the rich safe from the poor? Since the dawn of civilization this
was why cops were made. It hasn't changed. These cops and
security should be prosecuted by the ICC for crimes against
humanity. I hope this woman pulls through and can save her arm.
bless you all and Take care, Sue The law and the States and Pipeline,
Ireland are With you all Always and Everyone of us Send our love
and Blessings, Cheers standing Rock,

Listen To This
A Woman called North Dakota Speaker of the State Legislature
Wesley Belter
This is what the people of Standing Rock are up against.
I asked him to provide sources for his information multiple times. He
claimed the National Guard told him the protestors were paid...then
denied saying that.
He said protestors are 'violating ranchers rights' and being dealt
with 'weapons of no consequence'
I never heard him mention the National Guard in this phone call.

jeezes,the ignorance is unbarable

Understand your opponents weapons to counter them
We have a president that wants it to play out awhile. For
how long. Until they start using real bullets? We have a
president elect, that in all honesty is not concerned for the
people... But for his investment. They are having riots in
the streets, black lives matter. They get media coverage.
Where's native lives matter?? Where's the media? Native
lives matter. Clean water matters. This hurts my soul. It's
unacceptable to be treated like we have no rights. No say.
I stand with Standing Rock.
NORTH DAKOTA Prospective Oil and Gas Industry and
Economic Consultants


Oil Tax Revenue Collections and Allocations Summary (November
Biennium Distributions to Political Subdivisions - Oil and Gas Gross
Production Tax Collections (November 2016)
Water Topics Overview Committee
Native American Tribal Citizens' Task Force to the North Dakota Tribal Governments'
Then this should have been part of the post:

Wesley R. Belter | North Dakota Legislative Branch


The property rights of the Standing Rock Sioux have been violated,
as well as their civil and human rights, by the Pipeline Company
desecrating burial grounds and by them building the Pipeline on
treaty lands. The extremely violent militarized police have also been
violating their human rights, civil rights, rights to free speech and
their right to peaceably assemble by using rubber bullets,
concussion grenades, sound cannons, water cannons in

below zero temperatures.

Planning to flood the Morton County Sheriff's Department

with THOUSANDS of "Stand-down" postcards at around the
same time the Veteran Contingent reaches the field
Postcard Avalanche to denounce DAPL and Law
Enforcement brutality against Standing Rock Protectors
Join in and send a postcard directly to the Morton County
Here are the basic instructions to participate:
** IMPORTANT - DO NOT mail your card until Dec-1st **
1. Get a postcard from your state - any picture that
represents your state.
2. In the message section, write this simple message:
STOP the Abuse of Police Powers!
STOP Brutality Against the Protectors!
3. Sign your name if you wish
4. Address it as follows:
Morton County Sheriff's Department
205 1ST AVE NW
MANDAN, ND 58554

5. Affix a stamp - you can use a 35 cent postcard stamp,

or a normal letter stamp.
6. Take a picture of your postcard that you can share on
social media using the hashtag #NoDAPLAvalanche.
7. Drop it in the mail between Dec-1 and Dec 3rd!
We are aiming to get these mailed between Dec-1st and
Dec-3rd to create a concentrated avalanche of postcards.
But if you can't send yours until later, don't let that stop
The more voices we can get in the mail, from the more
states, the better. Feel free to copy and paste the details
or even post your own event. The more the merrier!
If you are unfamiliar with events taking place at Standing
Rock, please review some of the coverage provided by