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DESIGN CALCULATION

FOR
National Aluminium

PROPOSED GLAZING SYSTEM for CURTAIN WALL CW

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DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR THE ALUMINIUM PROFILES


I.

General
1. Design Philosophy
The purpose of this calculation is to design Aluminium Glazing Structure for its
integrity, strength and stability verification. The result of this conclusion is that the
structure considered adequate in meeting the required of design criteria.
2. Unit of Measurement
Unit of measurement in design shall be in Metric system.

II.

Design Calculations
1. Design Code and reference:
BS 8118 Part 1:1991: Structural use of Aluminium. Code of practice for design
Wind loads as per CP3 chapter V - 1972
2. Materials
Aluminium Alloy profile Sec No. 13794 of Alloy 6063 T6 for both Mullion &
Transom panels
The modulus of elasticity of Aluminium E = 70000 MPa
Ultimate Bending stress Po - = 160 MPa = 160 N/mm2
Ultimate Tensile Stress Pa = 185 MPa = 185 N/mm2
Ultimate Shear Stress Pv = 0.6X Po = 0.6X160 = 96 MPa = 96 N/mm2
3. Loading
Dead Load Self weight is considered
Wind loads (WL) calculated as per CP3: ch.V
Basic wind speed assumed as 45 m/s.
Basic wind speed V = 45.0 m/sec
4. Load Combinations
Ultimate load factors are considered.
5. Design Method
The wind load calculations are done prior to check the aluminium profiles against the
wind loads.
Wind load calculations:
Wind loads (WL) calculated as per CP3: ch.V
Basic wind speed V = 45.0 m/sec
Design wind speed Vs = V x S1 x S2 x S3

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Where,
Topography factor, S1 = 1.0
For the calculation of S2, ground roughness, building size and height above ground,
factor S2 = 0.52, as per CP3: Chapter V: Part 2, Clause 4 (Surface with large and
frequent obstructions; i.e. City Centre), class B for 3m average height as per the
attached sheets for the wind loads see appendix A.
Statistical factor, S3 = 1.0
Design wind speed Vs = 45.0 x 1.0 x 0.52 x 1.0
Design wind speed Vs = 23.40 m/sec
Wind pressure q = k Vs2
K constant = 0.613
Wind pressure q = 0.613 x (23.40)2
Wind pressure q = 336 N/m2 or 0.336 KN/m2
The maximum and minimum pressure co-efficients are,
Cp = +0.7, and -0.8, Since 0.7 is less than 0.8 and considering the large co-efficients
to calculate the maximum wind pressure acting on the surface either upwards or
downwards to resist the ultimate wind load by the structure.
Maximum Wind Pressure (suction) = Cp X q
Maximum Wind Pressure (suction) = -0.80 X 0.336
Maximum Wind Pressure (suction) = 0.269 KN/m2

DESIGN CALCULATIONS FOR THE MULLION ALUMINIUM PROFILE


SECTION 13794
Design of Aluminium Sections (Mullions panels):
The Aluminium profile used for Mullion and Transom panels are same i.e. 13794
aluminium profile used but only the difference is the transom panels are of maximum
length of 1.250 m connected between the Mullions, where as the Mullion is
considered to be supported at slabs 2.60m.

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Hence, only the Mullion is to be checked for the moment of resistance, shear
resistance and deflection.
Spacing between the Mullions = 1.250 m c/c
Maximum wind load on Mullion = 1.250 X 0.269
Maximum wind load on Mullion = 0.336 KN/m
Maximum Bending Moment due to wind load for a span of 2.60 m
B.M (max) = w l2 /8
B.M (max) = 0.336 X (2.60)2 /8
B.M (max) = 0.284KNm
The section used is 13794 from Gulf Extrusions (attached sheet)
The Moment of resistance of the Mullion section must be larger than above value.
Calculation of Moment of Resistance (MR)
MR = Z X P o
Z = Sectional Modulus
The section used is 13794 from Gulf Extrusions and the sectional modulus
Zxx = 15.145 cm3,
Z = 15145 mm3
MR = 15145 X 160
MR = 2.42KNm which is greater than the 0.284KNm
The Moment of Resistance is greater than the Maximum Bending moment.
Check for shear resistance
d/t < 49 for section to be compact
d/t = 99 / 3 = 33
49 = 49 X 1.508 = 73.8
Hence the section used is compact.
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Maximum Shear force Vmax = wl/2


Maximum Shear force Vmax = 0.336 X 2.60 / 2
Maximum Shear force Vmax = 0.437 KN
Shear resistance = Av X Pv / Ym
Shear resistance = (2X3X55) X 96 / 1.2
stress

- Surface area is considered under shear

Shear resistance = 26.4 KN and it is greater than the maximum shear force.
Hence the above section is safe to use as Mullions
Check for Deflection:
= 5 WL4 / (384 EI)
Note: for long term deflection un-factored load is considered.
< L / 175
E = 70000 MPa
W = 0.8 X 1.250 X 0.269 = 0.269 KN/m
Since the Mullion is supported at a distance of 2.60m,
Span = 2600mm
I xx = 730300 mm4 as per the attached data for Profile 13794 section.
= 5 X (0.269) X (2600)4 /(384 X 70000 X 730300)
= 3.13 mm
L/175 = 2600 / 175
L/175 = 14.85 mm
< 14.85mm
Hence the deflection is less than the permissible values.

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Mullion Connection Design


Bracket and Connection to Mullion at Bottom
The bracket at bottom of the Mullion has to resist shear force or reaction coming from
the Mullion design calculations.
Bracket consists of two Angles 120X100X10mm thick and 150mm wide is
connected with the concrete support with 2 Nos M10 Anchor Bolt and with 2 Nos
M10 thorough bolt the profile section.
Maximum Reaction at the end = 0.437 KN
The maximum reaction has to be resisted by the bracket which shall be in turn
supported by the thorough and Anchor Bolts.
The Bracket will resist the shear force acting at the connection which shall be
checked for bending stresses.
The Sectional Modulus is calculated as mentioned below:
Zxx = Ixx / y
Ixx = Moment of Inertia
Ixx = bd3/12
Ixx = 5X1203 / 12
Ixx =720000 mm4
Zxx = 720000 / 60 = 12000 mm3
Sectional Modulus for two Angles = 12000 X 2 = 24000 mm3
Flexural stresses for Steel = 275 N/mm2
Flexural Strength of the member = Sectional Modulus X Flexural stresses
Moment acting on the each bracket = Load X distance
Moment = 437 X 90/2 = 19665Nmm
The above moment has to be resisted by the resisting moment as mentioned below
MR = Zxx X Fy
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MR = 24000 X 275
MR = 6600000Nmm
Hence, the moment of resistance is more than the required.
Design of Thorough Bolt 2 Nos - M10:
The thorough bolts are designed to resist the maximum shear force acting at the
bottom joint with the maximum loading condition as per the drawing; this force has to
be resisted by the shear capacity of the bolt.
Maximum Shear force at the Mullion end = 0.437 KN
Using 2 10mm dia bolt,
Shear capacity of each bolt = 0.40 X 0.785 X 100 X 375/1000 = 11.78 KN
Hence, 2- 10mm dia thorough bolt used are safe against Shear.
Check the anchor bolt design:
Maximum Shear force at the Mullion end = 0.377 KN
Using 2 M10mm dia bolt,
Shear capacity of each bolt = 0.40 X 0.785 X 100 X 375/1000 = 11.78 KN
Hence, 2- 10mm dia anchor bolts used are safe against Shear.

Bracket and Connection to Mullion at Top


The bracket at top of the Mullion has to resist shear force or reaction coming from the
Mullion design calculations.
Mullion is connected with a bracket consists of two Angles 120X100X10mm thick
and 150mm wide is connected with 2 Nos M10 thorough bolt the profile section. This
angle brackets are connected with a Horizontal Plate of 240mm length, 150mm wide
of 10mm thick welded to a Vertical SHS Tube 100X100X4mm thick supported to the
soffit of the concrete slab by a base plate of 200X100X10mm thick with 2 Nos M10
Anchor Bolt and welded with the SHS Tube section.
The maximum reaction has to be resisted by the above connection is 0.437 KN.

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The Connection is being carried out for the following items:


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.

Bracket Angles 120X100X10mm thick and 150mm wide connected to


Mullion
Thorough Bolts between Bracket Angles and Mullion Profile 2 Nos M10
Bolts
Horizontal Plate of 240mm length, 150mm wide and 10mm thick
Thorough Bolts between Horizontal Plate and Bracket Angles 2 Nos M10
Check for Weld between Horizontal Plate and SHS Tube 100X100X4mm
thick
Strength and Stability check for SHS Tube 100X100X4mm thick
Check for Weld between Base Plate and SHS Tube 100X100X4mm thick
Check for Base Plate
Check for Anchor Bolt 2 Nos M10

50

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0
10
50

10
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24
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75

Bracket Angles 120X100X10mm thick and 150mm wide connected to Mullion


The Bracket will resist the shear force acting at the connection which shall be
checked for bending stresses.
The Sectional Modulus is calculated as mentioned below:
Zxx = Ixx / y
Ixx = Moment of Inertia

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Ixx = bd3/12
Ixx = 5X1203 / 12
Ixx =720000 mm4
Zxx = 720000 / 60 = 12000 mm3
Sectional Modulus for two Angles = 12000 X 2 = 24000 mm3
Flexural stresses for Steel = 275 N/mm2
Flexural Strength of the member = Sectional Modulus X Flexural stresses
Moment acting on the each bracket = Load X distance
Moment = 437 X 90/2 = 32775Nmm
The above moment has to be resisted by the resisting moment as mentioned below
MR = Zxx X Fy
MR = 24000 X 275
MR = 6600000Nmm
Hence, the moment of resistance is more than the required.
Thorough Bolts between Bracket Angles and Mullion Profile 2 Nos M10 Bolts
Design of Thorough Bolt 2 Nos - M10:
The thorough bolts are designed to resist the maximum shear force acting at the joint
with the maximum loading condition as per the drawing; this force has to be resisted
by the shear capacity of the bolt.
Maximum Shear force at the Mullion end = 0.437 KN
Using 2 10mm dia bolt,
Shear capacity of each bolt = 0.40 X 0.785 X 100 X 375/1000 = 11.78 KN
Hence, 2- 10mm dia thorough bolt used are safe against Shear.
Check for Horizontal Plate of 240mm length, 150mm wide and 10mm thick

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The Horizontal Plate will resist the bending stress developed by Shear force acting at
the joint.
The Sectional Modulus is calculated as mentioned below:
Zxx = Ixx / y
Ixx = Moment of Inertia
Ixx = bd3/12
Ixx = 150X103 / 12
Ixx =12500 mm4
Zxx = 12500 / 5 = 2500 mm3
Sectional Modulus = 2500 mm3
Flexural stresses for Steel = 275 N/mm2
Flexural Strength of the member = Sectional Modulus X Flexural stresses
Moment acting on the each bracket = Load X distance
Moment = 437 X 90 = 9425Nmm
The above moment has to be resisted by the resisting moment as mentioned below
MR = Zxx X Fy
MR = 2500 X 275
MR = 687500Nmm
Hence, the moment of resistance is more than the required.
Thorough Bolts between Horizontal Plate and Bracket Angles 2 Nos M10
Design of Thorough Bolt 2 Nos - M10:
The thorough bolts are designed to resist the maximum shear force acting at the joint
with the maximum loading condition as per the drawing; this force has to be resisted
by the shear capacity of the bolt.
Maximum Shear force at the Mullion end = 0.437 KN

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Using 2 10mm dia bolt,


Shear capacity of each bolt = 0.40 X 0.785 X 100 X 375/1000 = 11.78 KN
Hence, 2- 10mm dia thorough bolt used are safe against Shear.
Check for Weld between Horizontal Plate and SHS Tube 100X100X4mm thick
Check for weld:
Allowable Shear Stress in Weld = 220 N/mm2
Assuming 4mm thick weld,
Strength of Weld per mm length of Weld = 0.707 X 4 X 220 = 622 N
Strength of Weld per mm length of Weld = 622 N
Total Strength of the Welded Length = Length X Strength of Weld per mm
Referring to shop drawing,
The length of weld available as per the shop drawings
L = 2X100 = 200 mm
Hence, the Total Strength of the Welded Length = 622 X 200 = 124.40 KN
The Maximum Shear force acting on the same position is less than the Strength of
Weld at that position which is safe.
Resisting Moment developed by the Weld = Weld Capacity X lever arm
Weld Capacity = 622 X 100 = 62200N
Lever Arm Distance = 75mm
Resisting Moment developed by the Weld = 62200 X 75 = 4.665KNm
Moment caused by the Shear force acting at a distance of 75mm on the Horizontal
Plate = 437 X 75 = 32775Nmm
Hence, the 4mm thick weld around the SHS Tube is safe against both Shear and
Moment.
Strength and Stability check for SHS Tube 100X100X4mm thick

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The SHS Tube will resist the bending stress developed by Shear force acting at the
joint.
The Sectional Modulus is calculated as mentioned below:
Zxx = Ixx / y
Ixx = Moment of Inertia
Ixx = bd3/12
Ixx = (100X1003 96 X 963) / 12
Ixx =1255445.33 mm4
Zxx = 1255445.33 / 50 = 25108.9067 mm3
Sectional Modulus = 25108 mm3
Flexural stresses for Steel = 275 N/mm2
Flexural Strength of the member = Sectional Modulus X Flexural stresses
Moment acting on the each bracket = Load X distance
Moment = 437 X 300 = 131100Nmm
The above moment has to be resisted by the resisting moment as mentioned below
MR = Zxx X Fy
MR = 25108 X 275
MR = 6.904KNm
Hence, the moment of resistance is more than the required.
Check for Base Plate 100X200X10mm thick
The Base plate will resist the bending stress developed by Shear force acting at the
joint.
The Sectional Modulus is calculated as mentioned below:
Zxx = Ixx / y

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Ixx = Moment of Inertia


Ixx = bd3/12
Ixx = 100X103 / 12
Ixx =8333.33 mm4
Zxx = 8333.33 / 5 = 166.67 mm3
Sectional Modulus = 1666.67 mm3
Flexural stresses for Steel = 275 N/mm2
Flexural Strength of the member = Sectional Modulus X Flexural stresses
Moment acting on the each bracket = Load X distance
Moment = 437 X 125 = 54625Nmm
The above moment has to be resisted by the resisting moment as mentioned below
MR = Zxx X Fy
MR = 1666.67 X 275
MR = 458,333.33Nmm
Hence, the moment of resistance is more than the required.
Check for Weld between Base Plate and SHS Tube 100X100X4mm thick
Check for weld:
Allowable Shear Stress in Weld = 220 N/mm2
Assuming 4mm thick weld,
Strength of Weld per mm length of Weld = 0.707 X 4 X 220 = 622 N
Strength of Weld per mm length of Weld = 622 N
Total Strength of the Welded Length = Length X Strength of Weld per mm
Referring to shop drawing,
The length of weld available as per the shop drawings
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L = 2X100 = 200 mm
Hence, the Total Strength of the Welded Length = 622 X 200 = 124.40 KN
The Maximum Shear force acting on the same position is less than the Strength of
Weld at that position which is safe.
Check the anchor bolt design 2 M10:
Maximum Shear force at the Mullion end = 0.377 KN
Using 1 M10mm dia bolt,
Shear capacity of each bolt = 0.40 X 0.62 X 100 X 375/1000 = 9.30 KN
Hence, 1- 10mm dia bolt used are safe against Shear.
Conclusion:
All Aluminium profiles are structurally sufficient and meet its intended purpose.

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