Austria

Belgium
Canada
Czech Republic
Denmark
Finland
France
Greece
Hungary
Iceland
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Korea
Luxembourg
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Spain
Sweden
Turkey
United Kingdom
United States

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02-Sep-2009 2:10:38 PM

OECD
in Figures
2009

OECD in Figures 2009
Contents
Demography and health
Demography
Health spending and resources
Health status
Economy
Gross domestic product
Economic growth and performance
Sectoral contributions to gross value added
Services: value added
Business statistics
Transport
Energy
Energy: supply
Energy: production
Energy consumption and electricity generation
Labour
Employment
Part-time and self-employment
Unemployment
Services: employment
Science and technology
Research and development (I)
Research and development (II)
Patents and trade in technology
Environment
Resources
Emissions and pollution
CO2 emissions

6
6
8
10
12
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
24
26
28
30
30
32
34
36
38
38
40
42
44
44
46
48

Education
Expenditure
Performance
Public finance
Agriculture: support estimates
Government sector
Taxation
Development aid
International trade and investment
Direct investment
Trade
Trade in services

50
50
52
54
54
56
58
60
62
62
64
66

Prices and finance

68

Prices and interest rates
Insurance and pensions
Financial balance sheets and institutional investment
Domestic and foreign finance

68
70
72
74

World map

76

OECD in graphs
GDP growth
GDP per capita
Public debt climbs
Financial deficits
Joblessness record?
Immigrants and new jobs
Healthcare gap
Inflation
R&D spending alert
Investment collapse
Rarer youth
Pension funds
Development aid warning
Costly energy subsidies
General notes
Glossary

77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93

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© OECD 2009

4

Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development

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together to address the economic, social and environmental challenges of
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help governments respond to new developments and concerns, such as corporate
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The Organisation provides a setting where governments can compare policy
experiences, seek answers to common problems, identify good practice and work
to co-ordinate domestic and international policies.

The OECD member countries are: Australia (1971), Austria (1961), Belgium
(1961), Canada (1961), Czech Republic (1995), Denmark (1961),
Finland (1969), France (1961), Germany (1961), Greece (1961),
Hungary (1996), Iceland (1961), Ireland (1961), Italy (1962), Japan
(1964), Korea (1996), Luxembourg (1961), Mexico (1994), Netherlands
(1961), New Zealand (1973), Norway (1961), Poland (1996), Portugal
(1961), Slovak Republic (2000), Spain (1961), Sweden (1961),
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the conventions, guidelines and standards agreed by its members.

This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD.
The opinions expressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect
the official views of the Organisation or of the governments of its member
countries.

Also available in French under the title:
L'OCDE en chiffres 2009

2009

OECD
in Figures

Demography and health
Economy
Energy
Labour
Science and technology
Environment
Education
Public finance
International trade and investment
Prices and finance

21 072

8 315

10 623

32 927

10 323

84

31

9 976

79

Austria

Belgium

Canada

Czech Republic

476

105 791

3

1 996

41

269

Netherlands

New Zealand

Mexico

4 228

16 382

48 456

100

Korea*

Luxembourg

127 771

378

Japan*

311

103

Iceland

4 339

10 056

93

Hungary

58 880

11 193

132

Greece*

70

82 257

357

Germany

301

61 938

549

France

Italy*

5 289

Ireland

5 457

43

338

Denmark

Finland

Australia

3 781

15 611

94 478

421

45 954

126 166

56 941

3 664

271

10 290

10 777

82 052

58 207

5 140

5 285

10 304

29 906

10 181

8 072

18 518

1.0

0.2

0.9

1.5

0.3

0.0

0.8

2.5

2.3

- 0.1

0.4

- 0.1

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.5

1.1

0.8

0.4

1.8

growth rate,
2007/2006

Population*

1997

thousands

2007

7 687

Thousand
km²

Total area

Demography and health > Demography

3

16

402

53

183

486

338

195

62

3

108

85

230

113

16

127

131

3

348

99

2007

per km²

Under 15

21.0

18.0

30.0

18.3

18.0

13.5

14.1

20.4

21.0

15.1

14.3

13.4

18.3

17.0

18.5

14.3

17.1

16.9

15.5

19.4

2007

32.9

30.0

..

21.4

42.3

30.2

23.4

30.5

34.8

25.3

26.1

21.3

26.4

30.4

25.2

25.4

33.7

23.5

22.0

30.2

1960

Age structure*

15-64

66.5

67.4

64.5

67.6

72.0

65.0

66.1

68.8

67.4

68.8

67.1

66.3

65.1

66.5

66.0

71.2

69.5

66.0

67.5

67.5

2007

58.5

61.0

..

67.9

54.8

64.1

67.6

58.6

57.1

65.6

65.8

67.8

62.0

62.3

64.2

64.9

58.7

64.5

65.8

61.3

1960

As a % of total population

12.5

14.6

5.5

14.0

9.9

21.5

19.7

10.8

11.5

16.1

18.6

20.2

16.6

16.5

15.5

14.5

13.5

17.1

17.0

13.1

8.7

9.0

..

10.8

2.9

5.7

9.0

10.9

8.1

9.0

8.1

10.8

11.6

7.3

10.6

9.6

7.6

12.0

12.2

8.5

1960

65 and over
2007

21.6

10.7

0.4

36.2

1.7

1.7

5.8

15.7

..

3.8

5.7

12.9

8.5

3.8

6.9

6.2

20.1

13.0

14.2

25.0

2007

-2

-4

16.4

9.4

0.4

31.9

0.3

1.2

2.1

7.4

..

2.8

2.7

12.1

7.3

2.3

5.2

4.3

17.7

9.9

11.2

23.3

1997

As a % of total population

Foreign-born population*

-2

+1

+2

-1

+1

Australia

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea*

Japan*

Italy*

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece*

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

6

5 398

372 972

1 104 520

0.4

0.6

0.6

1.0

34

121

34

32

249

90

183

20

89

110

115

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

390 750

1 179 337

3 240

34 804

684 234

272 647

0.6

- 3.3

0.9

0.7

1.8

0.1

0.2

15

122

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to
2008, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

726 038

58 314

64 063

7 089

8 846

39 583

5 383

9 878

0.0

1.0

..
-n

301 290

9 376

4 405

38 292

*

OECD total

EU15

G7

21 182

60 975

245

United Kingdom

United States

7 551

70 586

41

781

9 148

44 874

Turkey*

Switzerland

450

Sweden

49

Slovak Republic

505

92

Portugal

Spain

313

Poland

10 604

4 709

38 116

324

Norway

18.8

15.8

17.2

20.2

17.6

26.4

15.0

16.9

14.6

16.0

15.4

15.6

19.3

66.9

66.5

66.5

67.2

66.4

66.5

68.1

65.7

68.8

72.1

67.3

70.9

66.1

61.6

63.2

63.0

59.7

64.9

55.1

66.1

65.9

64.5

61.5

..

60.8

63.2

14.3

17.7

16.3

12.6

16.0

7.1

16.8

17.4

16.6

11.9

17.3

13.4

14.6

..

..

..

13.6

10.2

..

24.9

13.4

13.4

6.8

6.1

1.6

9.5
-5

..

..

..

10.7

7.2

1.9

21.3

10.8

3.0

..

5.3

..

5.8

+3

OECD total

EU15

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey*

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702411568104

8.5

10.1

9.0

9.2

11.7

3.7

10.7

11.8

8.2

6.9

..

5.8

10.9

Sources:
Labour Force Statistics: 1987-2007, OECD, Paris, 2008;
International Migration Outlook: SOPEMI, 2008 Edition, OECD, Paris, 2008.

28.6

23.6

27.9

31.0

23.3

41.2

23.2

22.4

27.3

31.6

..

33.5

25.9

7

11.0

10.4

9.6

7.4

9.3

7.6

8.7

8.1

France

Germany

Greece*

Hungary*

Iceland

Ireland*

Italy

Japan

-1

7.0

7.7

6.4

8.1

6.8

8.4

10.2

10.2

7.6

8.2

9.8

6.7

6.8

Czech Republic

8.2

8.8

10.1

Canada

Finland

8.3

10.2

Belgium

Denmark

9.8

10.1

Austria

7.6

1997

8.7

Australia

-1

81.3

76.5

80.7

82.5

70.6

60.3

76.9

79.0

74.6

83.8

85.2

70.0

75.1

76.4

67.7

2007

-1

-1

81.5

70.8

73.9

82.1

81.3

52.8

80.8

79.6

72.2

81.7

90.3

70.1

75.4

75.7

66.9

1997

% of total expenditure

% of GDP

2007

Public expenditure*

Total expenditure

2.2

1.9

6.4

2.4

5.0

6.8

1.4

2.4

4.6

3.7

4.9

3.5

3.8

2.0

2.9

Average
annual
growth
rate*
2000-07

Demography and health > Health spending and resources

-1

-1

2 581

2 686

3 424

3 319

1 388

2 727

3 588

3 601

2 840

3 512

1 626

3 895

3 595

3 763

3 137

-1

-1

1 695

1 728

1 396

2 114

679

1 354

2 413

2 226

1 606

2 060

922

2 152

1 969

2 416

1 805

1997

19.6

19.3

..

13.5

31.2

24.8

15.1

16.3

14.1

8.6

21.5

17.7

15.7

13.3

13.7

2007

-1

-1

20.6

21.2

..

15.1

25.9

16.2

13.1

15.0

13.6

9.0

24.9

14.8

16.5

10.9

12.6

1997

% of total expenditure

Per capita USD PPP

2007

Pharmaceutical
expenditure

Health expenditure

8.2

3.1

2.7

..

4.1

3.9

5.7

3.6

3.7

2.9

5.2

2.7

4.3

6.1

3.5

2007

-1

-1

-1

11.5

5.2

2.9

..

5.9

3.9

6.6

4.4

4.2

3.7

6.3

3.8

4.9

6.6

3.8

1997

per 1 000 population

Acute care beds*

2.1

3.7

3.0

3.7

2.8

5.4

3.5

3.4

3.0

3.2

3.6

2.2

4.0

3.8

2.8

2007

-1

-1

2.2

1.8

4.0

2.1

3.3

3.0

4.0

3.1

3.3

2.6

-1

3.1

2.0

3.7

2.9

2.4

1997

-1

-1

per 1 000 population

Practising physicians*

-1

-2

40.1

18.6

8.5

19.3

2.8

13.2

8.2

5.7

15.3

10.2

4.4

6.7

7.5

17.7

5.1

2007

-2

-2

-3

18.8

4.1

..

7.4

1.4

1.9

3.2

2.5

6.6

5.4

1.1

1.8

3.2

8.4

3.5

1997

per million population

MRI scanner units

-1

+2

Australia

Japan

Italy

Ireland*

Iceland

Hungary*

Greece*

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

8

9.2

8.9

6.4

9.9

7.7

8.5

9.1

10.8

5.7

8.4

16.0

8.9

New Zealand

Norway*

Poland

Portugal*

Slovak Republic

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom*

United States

OECD average

-2

-1

7.6

13.4

6.6

3.1

10.0

8.1

7.3

5.8

8.0

5.6

8.4

7.3

7.9

4.8

73.2

45.4

81.7

71.4

59.3

81.7

71.8

66.8

71.5

70.8

84.1

78.0

81.4

45.2

90.9

54.9

-2

-1

-1

-1

72.8

44.7

80.4

71.6

55.0

85.8

72.5

91.7

65.7

72.0

81.3

77.3

71.2

44.7

92.5

41.7

4.3

3.7

4.7

6.1

2.1

3.8

4.2

11.5

2.3

6.4

2.5

4.8

4.5

3.6

5.1

9.2

-2

-1

-1

2 984

7 290

2 992

618

4 417

3 323

2 671

1 555

2 150

1 035

4 763

2 510

3 837

823

4 162

1 688

-2

-1

-1

623

1 641

4 055

1 488

250

2 846

1 887

1 299

564

1 186

498

2 350

1 352

1 916

407

1 972

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008, a
data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

9.8

Netherlands*

5.6

4.3

..
-n

5.9

Mexico

-1

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

7.3

Luxembourg*

*

6.8

Korea

-1

-2

16.9

9.5

15.9

24.3

10.5

12.4

20.8

34.0

23.8

..

9.1

14.4

11.0

18.6

12.6

25.8

+2

+2

+2

3.8

2.7

2.6

2.7

3.5

2.1

2.5

4.9

2.8

4.6

2.9

..

3.0

1.0

4.4

7.1

-1

-1

4.4

3.2

3.0

2.1

4.9

2.7

2.9

6.1

3.4

5.7

3.3

..

3.7

1.1

..

4.2

Sources:
OECD Health Data 2009, OECD, Paris, June 2009.
http://www.oecd.org/health/healthdata

17.1

12.0

..

..

10.3

13.4

21.0

27.9

21.8

24.5

8.0

9.6

11.0

24.0

8.4

24.7

+3

1.7

3.1

2.4

2.5

1.5

3.9

3.6

3.7

3.1

3.5

2.2

3.9

2.3

3.9

2.0

2.9

-1

-3

1.2

+3

+1

16.0

11.0

25.9

8.2

5.6

14.4

..

9.3

5.7

8.9

2.7

..

8.8

6.6

1.5

10.5

-2

5.1

5.1

13.5

4.7

0.6

12.4

6.8

3.3

..

2.8

..

..

2.6

3.9

..

2.4

+3

-1

-2

-2

Korea

OECD average

United States

United Kingdom*

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal*

Poland

Norway*

New Zealand

Netherlands*

Mexico

Luxembourg*

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702473374743

2.7

2.3

1.9

1.2

3.3

2.9

2.9

3.1

3.0

2.4

2.5

2.2

2.9

1.7

2.4

9

82.2

81.9

Luxembourg*

New Zealand*

82.7

Korea

77.4

86.0

Japan*

82.3

84.0

Italy

Netherlands

82.1

Ireland

Mexico

77.3

82.9

Iceland

82.0

Greece

Hungary

84.4

82.4

83.1

Finland

Germany

80.7

Denmark

France

83.0

79.9

82.3

Belgium

Czech Republic*

82.9

Austria

Canada

83.7

Australia*

Women

73.5

76.1

75.9

-1

-1

-1

-1

78.4

-1

78.2

78.0

72.6

76.8

76.1

79.2

77.3

-1

79.4

69.2

77.0

77.2

77.5

78.4

-1

-1

76.6

-1

77.3

79.0

Men

2007

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

80.2

80.2

75.0

79.4

79.4

82.6

81.2

79.7

81.2

73.3

79.5

79.8

81.0

79.5

78.4

76.7

80.7

79.5

80.1

81.4

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

80.0

80.5

75.7

80.0

78.1

83.8

82.1

78.7

81.5

75.1

80.8

80.5

82.3

80.7

78.6

77.6

81.3

80.7

80.5

81.3

Women

1997

74.8

75.2

70.3

74.0

70.6

77.2

75.9

73.4

76.3

66.4

75.6

74.1

74.5

73.5

73.6

70.5

75.7

74.2

74.1

75.6

Men

Total

77.4

77.9

73.0

77.0

74.4

80.5

79.0

76.1

78.9

70.8

78.2

77.3

78.4

77.1

76.1

74.1

78.5

77.5

77.3

78.5

2.01

1.72

2.17

1.64

1.26

1.32

1.34

1.90

2.10

1.35

1.41

1.33

1.98

1.83

1.85

1.33

1.54

1.80

1.38

1.81

5.9

-1

3.1

2.5
15.7
4.1
4.8

-1
-1
-1

4.1

2.6

3.7

-1

-1

-1

3.6

-1

2.0

3.8

3.8

2.8

3.8

3.3

5.0

3.7

3.7

4.2

2007

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-2

6.8

5.0

24.0

4.2

7.7

3.7

5.6

6.1

5.5

9.9

6.4

4.9

4.9

3.9

5.2

5.9

5.5

5.4

4.7

5.3

1997

per 1 000 live births

Infant mortality

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Children per
woman
15-49
2007

Number of years

Total

Fertility rate

Life expectancy at birth

Demography and health > Health status

-1

18.1

29.0

..

21.0

25.3

26.0

22.4

29.0

19.4

..

40.0

23.2

25.0

20.6

25.0

24.3

18.4

22.0

23.2

16.6

2007

-2

-1

-2

-1

-1

-2

-1

26.0

36.0

27.7

32.0

33.5

35.3

25.2

33.0

27.3

35.5

37.6

24.3

28.0

24.1

32.0

26.2

24.5

26.5

24.3

22.1

1997

% of adults smoking daily

Tobacco consumption

+1

+1

+1

+1

-3

+1

-2

-1

-1

+1

Obesity*

..

26.5

11.2

30.0

20.0

3.5

3.4

9.9

15.0

20.1

..

16.4

13.6

10.5

14.9

11.4

17.0

15.4

12.7

12.4

2007

-1

-2

-1

-1

-2

-1

-2

-2

-3

-1

18.8

8.1

24.2

14.9

2.2

2.7

8.8

11.0

..

18.2

..

11.5

7.4

9.9

7.6

11.3

11.4

11.1

9.1

19.8

1997

% of adults with BMI>30
kg/m²

-2

+3

+1

+2

+1

+3

+2

-3

-1

-1

+2

New Zealand*

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg*

Korea

Japan*

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic*

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia*

10

78.2

75.4

-1

80.6

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

81.1

79.7

79.4

79.7

70.9

82.2

81.8

82.3

76.7

79.3

77.0

75.5

73.4

73.6

74.6

66.3

76.3

76.7

75.2

68.9

72.2

68.5

-n

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to
2008, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

79.0

78.1

79.1

71.8

81.7

81.0

81.1

74.3

78.9

75.4

..

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

76.2

77.1

69.3

79.2

78.9

77.7

70.5

75.5

71.0

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

*

81.8

OECD average

Switzerland

80.7

84.2

Sweden

United States*

83.0

Spain

74.2

84.4

Slovak Republic*

81.1

78.1

Portugal

Turkey

82.3

Poland

United Kingdom*

82.9

79.7

Norway

78.3

76.6

76.5

77.2

68.6

79.3

79.3

78.8

72.8

75.8

72.8

1.90

-1

-1

4.9

6.7

4.8

20.7

4.4

2.5

-1
-1

3.8

6.1

-1
-1

3.3

6.0

3.2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

4.1

7.5

7.2

5.9

38.8

4.8

3.6

5.0

8.7

6.4

10.2

Sources:
OECD Health Data 2009, OECD, Paris, June 2009.
http://www.oecd.org/health/healthdata

1.65

2.10

1.84

2.17

1.44

1.85

1.38

1.24

1.36

1.27

22.0

23.3

15.4

21.0

33.4

20.4

14.5

26.4

25.0

19.6

26.3

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-3

-1

-2

-1

-1

9.0

15.1

34.3

24.0

..

8.1

10.2

14.9

16.7

15.4

12.5

-1

-1

-1

-3

-2

6.4

12.2

30.5

18.0

..

6.8

7.9

11.7

16.2

11.5

11.4

+3

+1

-1

-1

+1

OECD average

United States*

United Kingdom*

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic*

Portugal

Poland

Norway

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702478677155

29.1

20.3

28.0

47.4

28.9

19.2

33.2

..

19.5

31.5

34.0

11

200.0

188.3

2 140.7

2 927.3

334.7

189.6

11.7

197.3

1 815.6

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Canada

Denmark

386.9

1 311.2

Belgium

260.0

320.4

Austria

Czech Republic

803.1

Australia

Billion USD

4.6

0.5

0.0

0.5

0.8

7.3

5.4

0.5

0.5

0.7

3.3

1.0

0.8

2.0

% of OECD total

Using current PPPs*

Using current
exchange rates, billion
USD

USD

993.0

2 303.1

272.0

16.3

153.8

355.9

3 649.5

2 856.5

272.7

341.2

217.1

1 502.2

504.2

413.4

37 400

30 300

44 200

36 700

18 900

29 800

35 600

33 400

35 400

36 400

24 900

39 400

36 400

38 400

OECD = 100

Using current PPPs*

91

132

110

57

89

107

100

106

109

75

118

109

115

112

Per capita
at current market prices

Total

at current market prices

Economy > Gross domestic product, 2008

38 500

61 000

51 100

15 300

31 700

44 400

44 500

51 300

62 100

20 800

45 100

47 500

49 500

46 200

Using current
exchange rates, USD

0.866

0.94

123.1

140

0.726

0.851

0.911

0.989

8.70

14.3

1.22

0.890

0.881

1.47

Purchasing power
parities

Australia

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

12

26.9

100.0

Not available or not applicable.

39 856.3

OECD total

..

10 734.8

Euro area

35.6

72.7

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

28 965.7

G7

5.5

2.5

0.8

0.9

3.7

0.3

0.6

1.6

0.7

0.3

1.7

3.8

0.1

3.1

10.9

*

14 196.5

United States

2 211.0

981.6

United Kingdom

319.2

Turkey

115.6

Slovak Republic

Switzerland

246.6

Portugal

340.5

656.1

Poland

1 461.1

270.0

Norway

Sweden

115.1

Spain

676.8

New Zealand

1 531.1

Netherlands

Mexico

39.0

1 245.7

Korea

Luxembourg

4 363.4

Japan

43 235.7

13 399.6

32 071.7

14 196.5

2 653.6

741.5

491.3

479.1

1 604.2

95.0

243.5

527.8

450.0

126.8

871.0

1 081.7

53.7

858.8

4 910.4

34 100

100

101

118

139

109

39

124

111

96

64

70

52

170

80

123

43

239

77

102

Sources:
National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2009.

33 400

33 600

39 500

46 500

36 300

13 100

41 600

36 900

32 000

21 400

23 200

17 200

56 600

26 700

41 200

14 400

79 800

25 600

38 400

116

..

0.852

..

1.00

0.653

0.983

1.67

9.27

0.750

0.583

0.674

1.94

9.40

1.57

0.879

7.86

0.940

760

Japan

OECD total

Euro area

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702548810026

36 200

42 000

43 700

46 500

43 500

9 900

64 000

52 000

35 200

17 600

22 900

13 900

94 400

29 500

53 000

10 100

110 000

17 700

13

1.8

1.1

0.4

3.2

- 1.1

0.5

0.3

- 2.3

- 1.0

- 0.7

2.2

- 0.9

2.4

2.2

2.9

4.0

1.6

3.1

2.0

1.5

4.0

3.6

3.8

5.7

1.2

1.3

5.3

4.5

2.9

2.4

Belgium

Canada

Czech Republic

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea

Luxembourg

Mexico

Netherlands

2.1

1.3

2.9

1.3

0.4

0.9

2.3

3.2

Austria

2007-08

Australia

1998-2008

3.5

3.2

5.2

5.1

2.4

1.6

6.0

3.8

1.2

4.0

2.5

2.3

4.2

1.6

6.0

2.7

2.8

3.1

3.7

2006-07

Average annual % volume change

GDP growth

Economy > Economic growth and performance

1.6

4.2

1.8

0.9

0.7

- 0.9

6.1

4.2

- 0.7

2.2

0.1

1.0

2.0

- 0.2

2.9

4.5

0.9

0.9

3.7

Private final
consumption
expenditure

3.4

-1

-1

6.8

-1

2.1

1.0

1.3

4.2

2.0

0.6

3.3

1.3

3.2

1.8

1.2

1.7

1.1

0.9

3.7

2.1

0.5

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Government final
consumption
expenditure
9.7

3.1

3.9

5.2

1.8

5.3

5.6

1.7

- 1.7

1.1

- 3.0

1.3

- 14.9

- 2.9

- 11.5

4.4

0.6

1.0

- 3.6

Total

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

4.2

..

3.7

- 2.0

- 0.4

- 1.8

- 0.3

14.0

- 4.4

- 14.6

3.0

- 1.0

- 1.3

- 5.7

- 2.6

1.4

..

1.5

5.9

-1

-1

-3

-1

-1

-1

Housing and other
construction

Gross fixed capital formation

Volume % change 2007-08

GDP growth by component

8.0

- 1.6

28.5

- 1.2

1.7

- 0.5

10.7

- 10.6

1.5

- 8.8

6.2

- 2.5

3.9

2.2

5.0

1.9

- 0.5

5.4

- 1.8

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

% of GDP
at current prices,
2008

External balance
(goods and
services)

12.2

17.0

..

17.6

6.3

2.0

12.4

- 1.2

3.1

- 2.7

11.4

5.0

9.6

7.9

4.7

11.0

6.9

11.5

7.3

% of GDP
at current prices,
2008

Net national
saving

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Australia

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

14

1.1

0.7

1.1

1.5

5.1

3.5

2.8

2.0

3.8

2.6

2.6

2.1

2.1

2.3

Portugal

Slovak Republic

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States

G7

Euro area

OECD total

..
-n

1.6

4.2

Poland

3.1

2.5

2.7

2.2

2.0

3.0

4.5

3.3

2.6

3.7

10.4

1.9

6.7

3.1

3.2

2.4

0.5

2.1

2.8

1.4

4.6

2.1

- 0.2

0.1

6.1

1.6

5.4

1.4

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008,
a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

0.7

0.8

0.5

- 0.2

1.2

6.4

0.0

4.9

2.1

Norway

- 1.6

3.0

2.4

New Zealand

4.3

2.8

-1

-1

1.9

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

4.7

1.9

0.0

0.7

- 2.2

- 3.1

3.3

5.4

2.7

- 3.0

6.8

- 1.1

8.1

3.9

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

..

..

- 1.5

- 5.6

- 3.5

..

- 0.5

1.5

- 4.8

1.9

- 5.9

2.9

2.0

- 2.4

Sources:
National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2009.

2.1

2.0

1.9

-1

3.4

- 1.1

1.5

5.3

4.3

0.5

7.6

3.8

-1

-1

-1

-1

-2

-2

-2

- 0.9

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

1.7

..

4.6

1.7

3.7

..

18.9

15.2

3.4

5.8

- 6.7

7.1

29.7

-1

-1

-2

-1

-1

New Zealand

Euro area

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

- 1.0 -1
..
OECD total
12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702554741633

1.0

- 1.7

- 5.2

- 3.0

- 5.0

9.2

7.4

- 5.8

- 2.4

- 9.5

- 3.7

19.3

15

4.0

5.8

1.7

2.1

1.4

2.9

Hungary

Iceland2

Ireland

Italy

Japan3

Korea

1.4

3.8

Greece

Norway

0.9

Germany

6.2

2.2

France

New Zealand4

3.3

Finland

2.0

1.2

Denmark

Netherlands

2.4

Czech Republic

0.4

2.2

Canada

3.3

0.8

Belgium

Mexico

1.8

Austria

Luxembourg

2.6

2007

Australia

-3

-1

-2

-3

% of value added

Agriculture

1997

2.4

6.8

3.5

5.5

0.8

5.2

1.7

3.2

5.2

9.8

7.4

7.7

1.3

3.2

4.1

3.2

4.2

2.5

1.6

2.3

3.4

2007

42.7

24.6

24.4

35.8

15.6

37.1

28.5

27.5

33.6

23.7

29.7

20.4

30.4

20.4

32.6

26.5

38.9

31.7

23.9

30.6

29.1

Economy > Sectoral contributions to gross value added1

-3

-1

-2

-3

Total

1997

Industry

37.1

25.5

25.8

35.2

20.9

37.9

32.8

29.5

38.6

28.9

31.8

20.0

31.0

23.5

32.3

25.6

40.6

30.9

28.4

30.9

27.7

% of value added

2007

10.4

15.3

13.7

18.9

8.5

27.6

20.6

19.0

21.9

10.1

22.1

10.3

23.9

12.3

23.6

15.0

27.4

16.2

16.4

20.2

10.5

-3

-1

-2

-3

Manufacturing
1997

12.3

16.9

16.2

21.4

13.1

25.6

22.2

21.7

30.8

16.4

23.5

11.1

22.4

16.1

24.6

17.0

27.3

18.0

20.2

19.9

14.3

66.3

55.9

69.2

73.6

60.9

84.0

60.0

70.1

70.4

64.8

70.5

75.9

+3

68.7

77.4

64.2

72.4

58.7

66.1

75.3

67.7

68.4

+3

+2

2007

-3

-1

-2

-3

% of value added

Services

1997

60.4

67.6

70.7

59.2

78.2

56.2

65.5

67.3

56.2

61.3

61.1

72.2

67.7

73.3

63.7

71.2

55.2

66.6

70.1

66.8

68.9

Norway

New Zealand4

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan3

Italy

Ireland

Iceland2

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia

16

4.6

2.5

3.6

2.9

1.4

1.2

8.7

0.7

1.3

Portugal

Slovak Republic

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States 2

According to the 1993 System of National Accounts and the International Standard
Industrial Classification (ISIC), Revision 3 (1990). Value added is estimated at basic
prices and includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured (FISIM).

Value added estimated at factor cost.
Value added is estimated approximately at market prices.
Value added is estimated at producer's prices.

Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if
the column refers to 2008, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

2.
3.
4.

-n

21.8

23.0

27.8

28.0

28.3

29.8

39.3

24.5

31.8

1.

1.7

1.4

10.8

1.8

2.5

5.0

5.3

6.6

4.3

Poland

25.5

29.9

37.2

28.5

29.1

29.3

35.2

29.1

33.4
-1

17.3

20.3

27.9

20.1

21.7

19.0

23.0

18.9

19.8

+1

76.9

76.3

63.5

70.8

70.3

67.4

57.2

73.0

63.8

72.8

68.7

52.2

69.8

68.4

65.7

59.5

66.3

60.0

United States 2

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702607835138

Sources:
National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2009.

13.3

12.7

18.7

20.3

20.0

15.2

24.7

14.3

18.9

17

14.2

14.5

10.3

13.1

13.8

14.4

13.5

11.7

12.3

11.8

22.0

13.7

12.5

12.8

14.9

17.0

9.7

11.7

18.5

14.9

Canada*

Czech Republic

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Japan*

Korea

Luxembourg

Mexico

Netherlands

-1

-1

15.2

..

18.3

16.9

12.7

13.3

13.1

24.4

12.3

12.9

11.7

13.6

13.4

14.7

Belgium

-2

17.2

16.8

Austria

14.5

13.1

-1

1997

Australia*

2007

6.8

8.2

6.3

7.7

7.0

9.2

8.7

7.2

6.4

7.6

5.2

7.3

8.2

8.6

5.8

6.4

9.8

7.8

10.3

2007

-1

-1

-2

-1

7.2

7.9

7.5

8.7

7.1

..

10.0

6.7

6.8

7.0

5.9

8.7

8.4

5.6

5.5

6.2

10.0

8.0

10.5

1997

Wholesale and retail trade, restaurants
Transport, storage and communication
and hotels
I
II

Economy > Services: value added*

8.7

4.2

4.1

4.2

4.9

2.9

5.4

3.7

7.4

5.6

5.4

7.9

6.0

3.6

27.3

8.9

6.7

5.1

10.6

2007

-1

-1

-2

-1

III

7.2

6.0

4.1

6.6

4.3

3.7

4.4

4.9

4.9

3.5

5.0

2.9

7.2

6.1

5.7

6.5

6.2

..

20.0

1997

Finance and insurance

22.2

16.7

20.0

12.8

19.9

22.5

17.5

18.5

18.1

14.7

25.0

29.0

18.4

19.2

13.6

17.8

23.5

18.8

21.7

2007

-1

-1

-2

-1

19.8

..

17.8

13.2

17.4

18.7

12.0

12.6

14.7

16.5

22.4

24.4

15.7

16.9

11.8

18.0

20.2

14.6

20.9

1997

Real estate, renting and business
services
IV

% of total value added

Contribution to total economy

2007

6.8

3.8

5.1

6.4

5.5

6.4

4.3

4.7

8.4

8.3

5.7

7.4

4.6

6.0

5.5

5.6

7.2

5.6

4.2

-1

-1

-2

-1

V
1997

Public administration and defence

7.4

..

6.0

5.6

4.9

6.1

5.2

4.7

8.2

8.2

6.6

8.2

5.4

6.9

5.3

6.1

7.1

6.8

4.3

16.6

9.1

11.0

12.7

13.0

14.4

14.4

16.2

13.8

15.6

16.2

17.3

16.7

20.5

11.3

14.0

16.1

14.8

14.4

2007

-1

-1

-2

-1

15.0

..

11.3

10.4

11.3

14.5

13.9

17.1

13.0

13.2

15.9

16.6

17.3

19.9

10.4

14.4

15.4

14.9

14.0

1997

Education, health, social work
and other services
VI

Australia*

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan*

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada*

Belgium

Austria

18

17.6

12.7

15.6

16.7

14.3

15.0

Slovak Republic

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States*

-1

-1

15.8

14.2

17.1

15.9

11.8

18.2

15.7

17.6

20.2

+1

5.9

6.8

15.6

6.5

7.2

6.8

7.1

7.0

7.0

7.5

7.4

-1

-1

-3

8.0

6.3

7.7

11.4

6.1

7.9

7.3

10.6

6.5

6.2

9.6

+1

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

17.4

Portugal

15.1

11.8

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008, a data
point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

17.3

Poland

-3

..
-n

19.7

Norway

*

15.4

10.0

New Zealand*

6.3

7.9

7.6

3.3

12.5

3.6

5.2

3.8

7.5

5.2

3.6

-1

-1

-3

5.5

7.2

6.6

7.9

11.4

5.5

4.6

3.7

6.2

3.9

3.7

24.9

24.3

15.3

16.7

21.7

16.9

13.1

14.6

13.5

-1

-1

-3

21.9

22.9

18.8

7.7

16.5

19.0

14.4

13.3

13.4

11.5

13.1

+1

Sources:
OECD STAN Database, June 2009;
National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, 2009.

+1

21.8
14.3

4.4

8.0

5.1

4.4

..

4.8

6.0

6.7

9.2

5.8

4.5

-1

-3

4.7

+1

13.9

15.8

17.9

7.1

..

20.2

14.9

9.1

17.3

12.7

16.0

-1

-3

12.3

14.7

16.0

5.2

..

18.5

14.2

10.7

14.2

11.8

16.6

+1

New Zealand*

United States*

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702673143772

8.0

5.4

4.1

..

5.7

6.3

5.5

8.3

6.4

5.6

19

281

284

45

Mexico

Netherlands

New Zealand

13

-1

956

Korea

Luxembourg

2 683

Japan

271

725

3 464

37

2 778

7 549

218

3 834

142

Ireland

1 126

18

5

Iceland

Italy

745

93

305

66

6 934

3 577

400

406

1 225

1 947

Hungary

-1

-3

573

602

Greece

1 980

Germany

106

Denmark

147

142

Czech Republic

1 098

397

Canada

France

294

Belgium

Finland

171

Austria

994

-1

-3

-1

-3

-1

23

46

348

1

119

277

514

4

3

61

93

197

254

25

18

149

49

36

29

133

Thousands

-1

-3

-1

-3

27

134

81

6

..

..

496

33

..

21

51

436

430

33

90

31

..

102

68

174

Billion USD

-1

-3

333

1 158

2 601

40

1 276

10 720

1 827

294

20

494

546

4 295

3 113

248

430

517

..

469

548

1 756

Thousands

-1

-3

-4

-1

Thousands

252

Billion USD

Australia

Production

Production

Number of
employees*

54

162

1 780

7

917

..

1 247

32

5

151

309

474

706

48

50

214

..

132

80

350

Thousands

-1

-3

Number of
enterprises*

Wholesale and retail trade

Number of
employees*

Number of
enterprises*

Manufacturing

Economy > Business statistics, 2006*

28

151

29

11

..

..

301

33

..

16

28

473

555

33

71

28

..

90

53

187

Billion USD

Production

-1

-3

222

1 214

1 120

48

1 275

..

1 584

186

12

345

194

3 811

3 154

208

350

344

..

425

348

1 005

Thousands

Number of
employees*

-1

-3

-1

143

147

157

9

217

..

1 059

35

19

193

142

620

631

56

73

250

..

110

85

718

Thousands

-1

-3

Number of
enterprises*

Business services and real estate

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia

20

810

3 138

-1

430

153

281

..

61

220

8

98

-1

-2

-1

-n

54

..

498

57

..

69

230

7

41

127

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column
refers to 2008, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

-1

-2

19

192

..

12 549

2 085

..

711

2 451

411

-1

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

5 020

255

2 245

-2

-1

*

United States

793

United Kingdom

..

200

Turkey

Switzerland

228

Slovak Republic

622

36

Portugal

Sweden

92

Poland

Spain

96

194

Norway

-2

-1

338

-4

-2

-1

56

1 242

381

968

..

126

816

21

299

591

-2

-1

59

-2

-3

-1

232

17 057

4 340

401

323

482

2 212

108

568

632

-4

-2

-3

-1

97

1 298

644

110

30

227

645

14

224

268

-2

-3

-1

Norway

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702761036354

..

668

17

56

100

217

4

34

37

Sources:
Structural and Demographic Business Statistics, OECD database.

21 761

4 440

1 333

..

516

2 641

189

827

1 460

21

7.7

..

Belgium

Canada

Mexico

77.2

0.3

10.9

Korea

Luxembourg

25.3

23.3

Japan

Ireland

Italy

-

0.1

Iceland

10.1

Germany

Hungary

114.6

France

0.8

40.5

Finland

Greece

1.8

10.4

Denmark

16.3

21.4

Austria

Czech Republic

198.7

Australia

Rail

Economy > Transport, 2007

222.4

0.6

..

353.2

171.6

19.1

..

13.2

16.5

343.4

207.1

26.0

11.8

48.1

..

42.1

18.6

168.3

Roads

-2

-1

-1

Coastal
shipping

Rail

-

-

0.3

-

-

0.1

-

-

2.2

-

64.7

8.8

0.1

-

0.9

..

9.0

2.6

-1

-1

-

..

-

-

-

11.5

-

-

5.7

-

15.8

21.7

-

4.6

2.1

..

1.5

7.2

299.6

1.2

..

376.6

205.8

19.3

..

31.2

17.2

538.6

278.1

36.5

18.2

67.4

..

62.1

49.8

357.4

-2

-1

-1

-1

..

-

26.6

207.8

46.6

1.9

0.1

-

..

..

..

2.9

..

-

..

..

-

125.9

18.4

-1

-2

0.1

0.3

49.8

405.5

-1

2.0

-

8.8

1.9

79.1

80.3

3.8

6.0

6.9

..

9.9

9.6

12.9

449.9

..

..

84.1

104.1

..

0.7

16.9

6.1

66.2

47.1

7.5

7.5

9.5

..

18.1

..

19.2

Buses and
coaches

-1

-1

-1

-1

..

..

..

833.9

720.2

..

5.1

41.4

36.2

869.0

727.8

63.8

63.9

71.5

..

109.9

..

263.2

Private cars

-1

-1

-1

-1

449.9

..

..

917.9

824.3

..

5.7

58.3

42.3

935.2

774.9

71.3

71.4

81.1

..

128.0

..

282.4

Total road
transport

Billion passenger-kilometres

Billion tonne-kilometres

Inland
Total inland
Oil pipelines
waterways
freight

Passenger transport

Freight transport

-1

-1

-1

-1

450.0

0.3

..

1 313.6

874.1

2.0

5.7

67.0

44.1

1 014.2

855.2

75.1

77.4

88.0

..

137.6

9.3

295.2

Total
passengers

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

..

- 28.3

- 53.8

- 41.0

- 23.7

- 28.4

0.0

- 11.4

- 23.4

- 42.1

- 45.3

- 13.2

- 17.0

- 23.5

- 8.8

- 21.8

- 37.5

- 9.3

2007 / 1997

% of
fatalities
compared

..

1.2

342.1

1 040.2

331.0

8.1

1.7

28.7

21.4

436.4

107.8

8.8

7.1

30.5

202.9

66.9

53.9

..

Killed and
injured,
thousands

-1

Road accidents

..

9

13

5

9

8

5

12

14

6

8

7

7

12

8

10

8

8

Killed per
100 000
population

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia

22

Switzerland

2 090.3

Russian Federation

0.2

1 140.9

853.6

10.8

12.9

-1

-1

-1

3 523.1

5 711.8

202.0

204.2

38.1

52.3

273.8

37.7

21.0

238.6

23.0

..

89.1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-n

..

..

11.7

384.7

50.6

..

-

7.9

47.8

-

..

..

23.7

Nil or negligible.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008, a
data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

-1

-1

-1

-

8.9

-

-

23.5

4.3

-

5.6

Not available or not applicable.

86.0

408.5

0.2

-

0.1

-1

-

-1

-1

-

-

1.0

-

1.3

-

-

43.6

..

205.8

175.9

1 889.9

21.3

2 556.6

United Kingdom

United States

25.4

36.4

15.9

Sweden

181.3

253.8

11.1

Spain

9.9

27.1

9.6

Slovak Republic

13.4

18.4

2.6

Portugal

Turkey

16.3

159.5

2.5

54.3

Poland

..

New Zealand

Norway

32.9

19.2

7.2

Netherlands

-1

-1

174.1

9.3

48.4

5.6

16.2

10.4

21.9

2.2

4.0

19.9

3.4

..

16.3

52.3

238.6

49.8

..

5.3

-1

-1

-1

-1

..

4 278.6

690.0

..

88.2

99.6

343.3

26.0

86.6

239.3

53.1

..

148.8

-1

-2

-1

52.3

4 517.3

739.8

209.1

93.8

108.1

402.5

33.7

97.2

266.6

59.1

..

163.6

-1

-2

-1

-1

IRTAD: www.irtad.net.

Sources:
Trends in the Transport Sector, ITF, Paris, 2009;

-1

8.5

59.2

7.7

10.6

27.4

5.9

..

15.6

226.3

4 526.0

788.2

214.7

109.9

118.5

424.3

35.9

101.1

286.5

62.5

..

179.0

-1

-2

-1

-1

- 39.0

31.1

..

2 532.3

257.2

..

27.5

27.2

146.3

0.6

48.0

68.8

11.7

16.4

-1

4

..

14

5

..

5

5

9

12

9

15

5

10

Netherlands

Russian Federation

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

New Zealand

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702767650465

..

- 1.8

- 18.3

..

- 34.6

- 12.9

- 31.8

- 20.4

- 55.9

- 23.6

- 23.1

- 22.0

23

24.9

10.6

0.9

27.5

35.4

178.16

513.52

222.20

4.22

Italy

Japan

Korea

33.7

11.9

1.3

11.3

184.26

80.42

16.77

26.86

New Zealand

Norway

Mexico

Netherlands

Luxembourg

101.6

4.89

15.06

Germany

Ireland

331.26

France

Iceland

263.72

Finland

2.8

- 4.1

36.47

Denmark

32.3

8.5

19.65

Czech Republic

32.18

- 3.4

13.0

45.76

Canada

26.73

7.8

57.02

269.37

Belgium

Hungary

0.4

12.8

33.18

Greece

22.5

17.7

124.07

Austria

% Change
2007/1997

Total

Australia

Mtoe3

Energy > Supply, 2007

0.14

0.25

0.18

0.24

0.16

0.31

0.10

0.15

0.11

0.42

0.43

0.19

0.16

0.18

0.24

0.11

0.59

0.31

0.21

0.15

0.24

Energy
intensity4

- 12.6

- 25.9

- 13.4

- 2.9

- 18.9

- 16.5

- 10.1

- 3.9

- 35.2

30.6

- 30.9

- 11.3

- 17.9

- 13.9

- 20.6

- 20.3

- 24.0

- 18.6

- 19.7

- 8.4

- 13.6

% Change
2007/1997

-

-

-

-

1.09

2.72

-

37.25

68.76

-

-

-

3.84

-

36.62

114.60

6.10

-

6.84

24.36

12.57

Mtoe3

-

-

74.4

- 0.3

-

85.4

- 17.3

-

-

-

4.9

-

- 17.5

11.2

12.1

-

110.2

13.1

1.7

-

-

% Change
2007/1997

Nuclear

0.75

1.53

8.45

9.10

0.08

56.31

114.57

16.78

2.37

0.11

3.13

10.81

86.64

13.34

7.22

4.65

21.26

30.07

4.24

3.87

54.75

Mtoe3

- 26.9

27.4

- 8.6

41.9

- 74.5

76.9

30.7

47.9

- 21.8

103.6

- 31.8

26.6

- 0.3

- 9.0

5.4

- 30.5

- 8.2

9.2

- 46.9

5.0

23.5

% Change
2007/1997

Coal and peat

Primary energy supply1

9.54

6.12

32.94

104.93

2.48

94.45

229.82

75.03

7.83

0.83

7.28

15.91

104.40

83.26

9.74

7.46

9.56

94.45

22.50

13.25

36.99

Mtoe3

Oil

17.3

6.6

37.1

24.0

47.2

- 12.4

- 12.2

- 16.6

28.9

20.2

4.1

13.3

- 21.8

1.6

2.8

- 13.0

23.2

15.8

- 6.2

11.7

10.6

% Change
2007/1997

4.42

3.65

33.31

50.54

1.20

31.15

83.05

69.51

4.28

-

10.70

3.35

76.62

38.47

3.72

4.06

7.16

79.00

14.92

6.98

25.35

Mtoe3

12.8

- 22.5

- 5.7

75.3

92.1

133.8

41.8

46.4

54.6

-

10.3

+

6.5

22.8

28.1

3.3

- 6.6

11.4

32.5

6.7

49.8

% Change
2007/1997

Natural gas

12.14

5.47

4.63

16.98

0.46

3.03

17.33

16.84

0.58

3.95

1.78

2.11

26.97

14.06

9.68

3.48

0.93

41.48

2.79

9.08

6.98

Mtoe3

9.9

11.5

74.7

11.9

- 7.2

151.9

- 2.7

38.2

222.7

134.9

69.1

33.6

210.1

16.8

27.6

203.5

50.5

11.4

132.7

48.6

5.7

% Change
2007/1997

Other 2

Australia

Norway

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

24

- 1.4

0.5

4.7

41.9

- 3.9

9.1

6.4

4.9

50.42

25.72

100.01

211.31

2 339.94

4 107.28

1 758.85

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States

G7

EU27

OECD total

80.0

43.8

13.7

25.9

235.56

1 955.77

595.31

672.14

134.34

China

India

Russian Federation

South Africa

40.2

- 4.2

Growth of more than 500%

- 10.5

47.0

66.4

330.9

289.7

9.3

- 0.2

6.1

25.6

- 35.8

-

10.0

Nil or negligible.

2.

-

-

- 0.4

+

2.95

42.06

4.37

16.19

3.22

592.38

243.89

478.80

218.03

16.43

-

7.31

17.45

14.36

4.04

-

-

-

- 11.8

- 34.4

- 27.6

- 27.4

1.1

- 14.4

- 17.9

- 15.0

- 17.7

- 27.8

- 4.4

- 14.6

- 26.9

- 6.2

- 38.8

- 2.8

- 37.0

3.
4.

0.76

1.65

0.77

0.83

0.29

0.18

0.18

0.17

0.20

0.12

0.27

0.09

0.17

0.20

0.57

0.21

0.43

These figures are based on an assumption of 100% efficiency for hydro-electric, 33% for nuclear and
approximately 10% for geothermal plants.
Includes hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, combustible renewables, waste and international trade in
electricity.
Million tonnes of oil equivalent.
Total primary energy supply divided by GDP (ratio expressed in toe per thousand 2000 USD).

1.

9.3

32.4

5 497.13

Brazil

Spain

36.3

Slovak Republic

- 4.9

18.7

17.85

25.07

Portugal

143.95

97.11

Poland

97.10

102.20

242.49

1 285.07

13.55

1 157.68

330.07

854.21

554.15

38.65

29.39

0.17

2.64

20.01

4.00

2.89

55.73

- 20.8

23.96

17.00

132.39

140.75

354.99

92.62

2 110.35

607.36

1 565.50

909.69

68.84

30.70

10.45

13.33

67.94

3.54

13.14

78.8

4.9

53.1

86.1

10.9

2.6

- 3.2

0.6

9.2

- 7.7

3.9

- 12.1

- 9.5

23.8

1.5

- 2.7

32.5

3.77

365.96

33.37

59.12

17.77

1 258.91

432.21

967.03

538.44

81.94

30.42

2.63

0.91

31.85

5.09

3.81

12.37

Sources:
Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2009;
Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2009;
Main Economic Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2009.

19.7

- 4.2

60.5

96.4

10.6

8.8

- 5.6

9.0

7.4

- 3.6

38.8

49.8

0.9

8.8

- 21.3

- 18.2

5.04

13.52

29.52

174.32

240.40

108.40

377.81

145.31

241.75

119.63

5.45

9.50

5.15

16.09

9.80

1.17

5.23

20.3

18.3

61.1

16.7

9.0

42.3

20.0

50.4

16.8

3.6

53.5

- 16.8

42.5

16.6

47.7

10.4

30.9

Poland

South Africa

Russian Federation

India

China

Brazil

OECD total

EU27

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702780788615

173.4

17.5

77.1

250.9

244.7

19.9

20.4

12.0

6.2

7.5

264.7

14.8

14.0

181.7

- 8.8

+

31.4

25

213.91

72.65

Poland

14.00

Norway

61.45

New Zealand

251.05

0.08

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

42.48

1.41

Ireland

Korea

3.95

Iceland

26.38

10.22

Hungary

90.47

12.15

Greece

Japan

137.03

Germany

Italy

15.95

135.45

France

27.04

Finland

33.73

14.36

413.19

Belgium

Canada

Denmark

10.90

Austria

Czech Republic

289.21

Australia

Mtoe

3

- 27.4

0.6

- 5.1

- 6.6

13.1

75.4

79.0

- 14.8

- 13.2

- 50.7

134.9

- 23.3

27.1

- 4.6

4.6

6.0

33.6

2.6

13.2

7.2

25.2

43.9

% Change
2007/1997

Total

Energy > Production, 20071

-

-

-

-

-

1.09

2.72

-

37.25

68.76

-

-

-

3.84

-

36.62

114.60

6.10

-

6.84

24.36

-

-

-

74.4

- 0.3

-

85.4

- 17.3

-

-

-

4.9

-

- 17.5

11.2

12.1

-

110.2

13.1

1.7

-

-

% Change
2007/1997

Nuclear

12.57

Mtoe

3

62.49

2.68

2.81

-

6.00

-

1.33

-

0.10

0.59

-

1.77

10.37

54.59

0.24

1.09

-

23.80

33.89

-

-

218.41

Mtoe

3

- 32.1

+

44.1

-

19.9

-

- 33.1

-

85.8

- 22.9

-

- 49.1

34.5

- 22.9

- 94.7

- 58.6

-

- 15.9

- 21.2

-

- 99.9

55.3

% Change
2007/1997

Coal and peat

0.73

120.23

2.07

3.05

182.29

-

0.58

0.81

6.31

-

-

1.21

0.07

4.54

1.07

0.09

15.58

0.39

160.95

-

1.00

25.30

Mtoe

3

Oil

97.6

- 25.1

- 35.1

1.3

6.6

-

23.5

- 6.5

4.3

-

-

- 38.2

- 82.5

33.2

- 51.5

91.9

36.1

- 10.3

31.4

-

- 4.4

- 10.3

% Change
2007/1997

3.90

78.06

3.65

54.74

42.96

-

0.32

3.58

7.95

0.37

-

2.00

0.02

12.87

0.92

-

8.27

0.14

150.59

-

1.59

38.52

Mtoe

21.6

90.4

- 22.5

- 9.6

52.1

-

-

68.3

- 49.6

- 80.6

-

- 40.3

- 50.9

- 20.0

- 57.0

-

17.3

- 14.1

9.4

-

30.7

50.8

% Change
2007/1997

Natural gas
3

5.53

12.94

5.47

2.56

17.08

0.08

3.00

17.33

12.03

0.45

3.95

1.40

1.69

28.42

18.63

8.67

3.19

2.55

43.40

1.80

8.32

26.1

20.8

11.5

63.9

13.5

75.4

153.2

- 2.7

41.1

147.5

134.9

61.8

22.0

219.1

5.5

25.2

82.2

258.0

7.7

116.9

34.6

5.7

% Change
2007/1997

Other2

6.98

Mtoe

3

Australia

Poland

Norway

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

26

- 1.1

- 3.0

- 12.2

1.0

71.0

65.8

28.3

33.5

11.3

1 665.18

2 643.93

860.59

3 832.87

215.58

1 813.98

450.92

1 230.63

159.59

Brazil

China

India

-

-

-

Includes hydro, geothermal, solar, wind, combustible renewables and waste.

Million tonnes of oil equivalent.

Nil or negligible.

Growth of more than 500%

3.

-

+

139.87

146.16

210.19

1 312.15

2.35

1 018.94

187.66

666.64

567.79

10.03

14.79

-

0.16

5.46

0.55

2.

- 10.5

47.0

66.4

330.9

289.7

9.3

- 0.2

6.1

25.6

- 35.8

-

10.0

- 4.2

- 0.4

40.2

These figures are based on an assumption of 100% efficiency for hydro-electric, 33% for nuclear
and approximately 10% for geothermal plants.

2.95

42.06

4.37

16.19

3.22

592.38

243.89

478.80

218.03

16.43

-

7.31

17.45

14.36

4.04

1.

South Africa

Russian Federation

OECD total

EU27

United Kingdom

G7

Turkey

United States

12.62

Switzerland

- 2.5

3.5

16.5

33.58

Sweden

- 34.3

- 4.3

30.33

Spain

27.27

20.8

5.98

Slovak Republic

176.23

23.1

4.62

Portugal

-

11.3

37.1

47.4

90.3

7.8

- 0.3

- 29.7

- 6.4

1.0

- 66.1

12.8

-

- 16.7

- 44.6

- 48.1

-

-

44.5

60.5

2.3

16.0

111.4

- 11.7

- 30.3

- 13.9

- 19.5

- 40.0

- 38.1

-

-

- 61.7

300.6

-

1.61

521.85

23.73

57.93

9.16

921.91

167.31

686.44

445.66

64.89

0.74

-

-

0.08

0.11

-

14.02

30.53

173.52

241.29

106.41

373.25

142.16

240.76

116.24

4.72

9.64

5.32

15.98

10.29

1.01

4.62

14.8

50.7

16.2

9.1

45.2

19.0

47.8

15.8

3.3

122.2

- 14.2

26.9

13.8

49.1

41.9

23.1

South Africa

Russian Federation

India

China

Brazil

OECD total

EU27

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702826300556

16.7

13.3

26.0

205.0

77.7

6.0

- 16.8

- 0.8

1.1

- 16.0

252.7

-

-

- 50.5

- 51.1

Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2009.

Sources:
Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2009;

1.14

490.04

39.10

186.42

94.45

926.40

119.57

571.29

317.45

80.16

2.11

-

-

0.14

0.26

27

- 2.7

28.1

9.7

40.8

40.0

13.5

1.0

20.6

35.4

22.0

233.15

21.80

18.67

2.51

12.37

139.27

341.70

146.80

3.96

114.76

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea

60.73

12.43

21.07

Netherlands

New Zealand

Norway

Mexico

11.5

9.7

13.7

4.7

Luxembourg

14.6

26.75

164.97

2.7

15.13

Denmark

France

2.1

26.96

Finland

11.9

204.98

Czech Republic

Canada

- 0.6

39.65

Belgium

18.8

26.94

15.8

75.93

Austria

% Change
2007/1997

Australia

Mtoe3

Total

8.96

4.34

27.38

37.97

1.04

75.35

140.60

46.71

2.68

1.20

5.29

5.33

82.71

46.21

13.62

3.18

10.95

77.59

18.19

9.18

30.51

Mtoe3

14.1

- 12.8

30.6

- 2.4

5.3

38.6

- 1.8

5.1

- 1.2

106.3

6.1

11.8

8.7

- 9.1

21.3

- 3.9

- 16.7

9.7

7.0

23.7

15.1

% Change
2007/1997

Industry

5.03

4.96

12.19

50.86

2.19

30.70

83.18

41.79

4.80

0.31

4.48

7.86

55.49

45.96

4.62

4.70

6.50

58.02

8.50

8.51

27.13

Mtoe3

19.2

29.8

18.5

56.2

78.6

5.2

- 6.1

10.1

95.3

58.5

71.9

30.7

- 6.2

7.6

17.1

16.1

69.1

14.6

5.6

48.5

11.3

% Change
2007/1997

Transport

Final energy consumption by sector 1

Energy > Energy consumption and electricity generation, 2007

7.08

3.13

21.16

25.94

0.73

40.74

117.91

50.77

4.89

0.99

8.89

8.61

94.95

72.79

8.50

7.25

9.51

69.36

12.96

9.25

18.28

Mtoe3

Other

3.7

23.2

- 4.5

14.7

2.8

6.8

10.5

25.7

33.3

- 0.9

- 5.6

38.2

- 9.0

13.7

4.1

- 1.7

0.9

12.0

- 12.6

- 2.9

24.5

% Change
2007/1997

136.4

43.9

103.2

257.5

3.2

425.9

1 123.5

308.2

27.9

12.0

40.0

62.7

629.6

564.4

81.3

39.2

87.8

639.7

87.5

60.9

254.6

TWh2

23.1

22.2

19.2

42.3

+

91.8

11.9

25.0

41.6

114.4

12.9

44.9

14.9

12.6

17.5

- 11.6

36.7

11.5

12.4

9.4

39.3

% Change
2007/1997

Total electricity generation

Norway

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia

28

0.7

- 4.9

8.7

43.7

- 3.5

10.4

7.1

5.7

9.5

32.1

57.8

29.9

7.7

17.3

34.35

20.41

76.48

142.81

1 587.83

2 814.69

1 223.92

3 771.48

189.79

1 248.23

391.31

429.83

65.01

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United States

G7

EU27

OECD total

Brazil

China

India

Russian Federation

Including non-energy use.
Terawatt hours, excluding output from pumped storage plants.
Million tonnes of oil equivalent.

Growth of more than 500%

1.
2.
3.

+

South Africa

United Kingdom

Spain

39.8

Slovak Republic

11.53

20.5

20.10

Portugal

102.56

- 3.4

64.90

Poland

25.35

174.90

152.14

680.68

90.17

1 253.72

415.44

882.71

450.19

38.69

28.84

4.59

14.42

33.60

4.94

7.98

21.44

- 3.1

12.6

43.3

79.6

43.1

5.4

1.3

2.3

3.8

- 12.0

44.5

14.2

- 7.2

15.8

1.8

8.7

- 18.3

15.98

92.50

40.77

139.05

58.29

1 242.27

337.50

965.27

635.78

45.05

16.61

6.00

8.25

39.07

2.42

6.42

14.90

56.7

23.69

162.43

198.40

428.50

41.33

1 275.50

470.97

966.72

501.86

59.07

31.03

9.82

11.68

29.90

4.17

5.71

28.56

- 9.1

39.8

- 8.2

18.8

21.2

21.2

9.0

3.0

8.7

11.3

- 3.8

44.1

3.7

- 12.6

62.9

- 19.1

27.3

1 013.4

792.4

3 279.2

445.1

10 645.0

3 327.9

7 980.6

4 322.9

392.3

191.6

66.5

148.8

300.3

27.9

46.9

158.8

12.6

21.6

70.1

189.0

44.5

20.5

17.8

15.7

17.7

12.3

85.4

7.2

- 0.3

58.7

11.3

37.4

Poland

Russian Federation

India

China

Brazil

OECD total

EU27

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

260.5
25.4
South Africa
12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702837230256

Sources:
Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2009;
Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2009.

30.0

38.5

46.1

137.0

25.1

14.6

16.3

10.3

14.8

5.7

41.4

13.5

14.2

50.3

66.7

32.1

29

8 741

2 245

New Zealand

44 048

343

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

24 216

2 202

Ireland

Korea*

181

Iceland

66 690

4 238

Hungary

Japan*

4 918

Greece

24 728

41 685

Germany

Italy

2 695

Denmark

27 702

2 893

Czech Republic

France

0.3

5 198

Canada

Finland

18.9

4 733

18 008

Belgium

18.5

13.9

19.3

46.6

11.2

- 1.7

7.0

43.1

22.8

6.1

14.6

4.7

8.8

7.5

1.3

8.9

8.5

4 213

Austria

18.7

11 000

2007/1997

% change

72.2

72.6

47.4

96.2

59.1

66.9

51.1

63.7

82.0

54.9

54.2

70.0

63.4

74.5

76.3

62.2

74.4

60.7

68.3

69.7

2007

67.8

61.8

44.0

62.2

55.4

63.7

44.1

50.3

78.8

48.8

46.3

62.5

60.4

69.6

75.1

64.4

68.0

57.4

61.9

64.9

1997

Female participation rate*

Total labour force*

Australia

Thousands,
2007

Labour > Employment

2 156

8 464

42 552

333

23 433

64 120

22 970

2 095

177

3 890

4 520

37 815

25 093

2 483

2 752

4 908

16 866

4 380

4 016

10 470

2007

Total,
thousands

22.4

17.5

20.1

46.7

10.5

- 2.2

14.7

52.7

24.6

9.1

17.3

6.5

13.2

14.8

3.9

0.5

23.1

16.4

9.0

24.2

2007/1997

% change

7.1

3.0

13.3

1.4

7.4

4.2

4.0

5.4

5.9

4.7

11.6

2.3

3.2

4.6

2.9

3.6

2.5

1.8

5.8

3.4

2007

8.7

3.7

23.3

2.0

10.8

5.3

6.2

10.3

8.6

8.1

19.8

2.9

4.4

7.0

3.7

5.8

3.9

2.3

6.8

5.1

1997

Agriculture, forestry and
fishing
Industry

21.8

19.1

27.4

22.5

25.9

27.9

30.5

27.5

20.7

32.9

22.4

30.0

22.6

25.8

23.5

40.3

21.6

24.4

27.3

21.5

2007

23.8

22.2

22.5

25.9

31.4

33.1

33.3

27.1

25.5

33.9

22.5

34.8

25.3

27.5

26.8

41.6

22.1

25.3

31.6

22.0

1997

Composition

Civilian employment*

Services

71.0

77.9

59.3

76.1

66.7

67.9

65.5

67.0

73.4

62.4

66.1

67.7

74.2

69.7

73.6

56.1

75.9

73.7

66.9

75.1

2007

67.5

74.1

54.2

72.2

57.8

61.6

60.5

62.6

65.9

58.1

57.7

62.3

70.3

65.5

69.5

52.6

74.1

72.5

61.6

72.9

1997

23.8

11.0

..

46.5

2.1

0.3

9.1

15.5

6.1

1.7

8.7

13.6

11.9

3.1

8.1

2.1

21.2

10.6

16.6

25.8

2007

-1

-1

-1

19.9

8.6

0.4

39.6

0.5

0.2

0.6

6.8

3.3

1.7

5.1

11.9

11.8

1.7

4.6

1.9

19.2

9.7

12.6

24.7

1997

% of total labour force

Australia

+4

+3

+2

+2

Czech Republic

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea*

Japan*

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Canada
+5

Belgium

Austria

-1

Foreign-born labour force

30

15.8

5.0

30.9

10.8

11.0

- 0.6

5 618

2 649

22 190

4 838

4 573

23 114

Poland

Portugal

Slovak Republic

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

64.8

62.4

58.3

59.7

533 627

173 830

341 876

146 047

28 965

20 738

4 413

4 541

20 268

2 357

5 135

11.3

15.5

9.3

12.7

10.7

- 2.2

11.7

15.8

52.6

6.8

14.3

0.4

12.1

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to
2008, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

9.4

568 162

OECD total

64.6

70.2

67.1

31.2

74.6

75.0

48.3

61.9

63.7

2 428

15 241

..
-n

10.6

188 221

EU15

67.7

70.4

69.2

25.8

80.2

77.8

61.6

60.6

72.9

75.3

60.0

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

7.9

363 898

G7

77.4

56.0

*

8.7

12.2

30 721

154 365

United States

Spain

9.6

- 1.8

2 507

16 909

Norway

2.8

5.1

3.5

2.4

1.4

1.4

23.5

3.9

2.2

4.6

4.2

11.7

14.7

4.7

21.1

24.9

26.3

23.7

19.8

22.4

26.7

23.7

21.6

29.4

39.4

30.7

30.7

23.2

27.6

29.5

27.9

23.9

26.7

23.7

26.1

26.0

30.1

39.3

31.6

31.9

76.0

70.1

70.2

73.9

78.8

76.3

49.8

72.4

76.1

66.0

56.4

57.6

54.5

72.1

8.3

..

..

..

16.3

12.2

2.2

25.4

13.8

16.9

0.6

8.0

0.3

..

..

..

12.3

7.7

..

23.2

9.2

3.0

..

4.5

..

4.9

+4

Norway

OECD total

EU15

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702853606563

64.2

65.7

68.5

73.4

71.4

34.6

69.2

71.3

61.7

51.5

54.7

47.5

Sources:
Labour Force Statistics: 1987-2007, OECD, Paris, 2008;
International Migration Outlook: SOPEMI, 2008 Edition, OECD, Paris, 2008.

8.1

4.9

3.6

2.7

1.9

41.7

4.7

2.8

8.1

9.2

13.7

20.6

31

18.7

18.4

Belgium

Canada

19.6

9.3

Japan*

Korea*

22.4

New Zealand

..

36.1

Netherlands

Mexico

12.7

16.3

Italy

Luxembourg

21.0

Ireland

7.8

Greece

3.1

22.1

Germany

15.1

13.4

France

Iceland

11.5

Finland

Hungary

18.0

Denmark

3.5

17.6

Austria

Czech Republic

23.8

Australia*

2008

Total

..

22.7

30.0

15.0

12.6

6.7

..

11.2

17.6

23.2

3.2

9.1

16.6

14.7

9.7

17.1

3.3

18.8

15.6

11.5

1998

Labour > Part-time and self-employment

Women

35.0

59.9

..

27.3

13.2

33.2

31.0

36.0

23.6

4.3

13.4

38.6

22.7

15.1

23.7

5.8

26.4

33.8

30.9

37.7

2008

..

37.6

54.8

28.3

29.2

9.2

..

22.4

31.9

38.6

4.9

15.5

32.4

25.5

13.0

25.6

5.4

28.7

31.2

22.8

1998

% of total employment

Part-time employment*

11.6

16.2

..

1.8

6.5

9.9

6.6

8.2

8.0

2.0

4.2

8.2

5.2

8.2

12.9

1.7

11.3

5.9

6.4

12.3

2008

Men

4.7

2.7

..

10.5

12.4

8.2

2.7

5.1

..

4.9

8.2

9.8

1.7

5.3

4.6

5.9

6.7

9.9

1.7

10.5

1998

72.3

75.5

..

91.9

59.0

70.4

75.8

79.0

71.2

64.7

67.4

79.9

79.5

63.0

61.7

72.1

67.8

82.9

80.4

71.7

2008
..

74.5

75.8

63.8

86.7

55.2

..

71.9

72.0

77.4

70.2

63.1

84.1

77.9

63.6

68.5

70.0

69.7

82.4

86.9

1998

% of total part-time employment

Female part-time employment

17.3

13.1

34.3

6.0

31.8

13.4

26.4

16.8

13.7

12.5

35.9

12.0

8.9

12.6

8.9

16.2

9.3

14.8

14.4

12.0

2007

20.1

12.6

40.9

8.2

36.8

17.5

29.1

20.8

17.7

17.4

45.2

10.9

10.1

14.9

9.1

12.4

11.4

18.6

13.6

15.1

1997

% of civilian employment

Self-employment*

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea*

Japan*

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia*

32

6.0

13.4

12.0

15.9

11.9

12.2

16.5

18.3

15.5

United States*

G7

EU15

OECD total

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

Not available or not applicable.

..

25.3

31.5

26.3

17.0

37.7

19.2

45.9

19.6

21.1

4.1

14.3

14.1

30.8

*

Turkey

23.0

24.2

25.9

Switzerland

8.4

13.5

14.4

Sweden

22.9

7.7

United Kingdom

2.0

Slovak Republic

2.7

10.0

9.7

Portugal

11.1

11.8

9.3

Poland

Spain

20.8

20.3

Norway

20.3

29.8

20.0

19.1

41.2

13.2

45.8

22.0

16.5

3.2

15.8

16.6

35.9

7.7

7.5

8.3

7.5

10.2

4.6

9.0

9.6

3.8

1.5

5.7

5.3

10.9

72.4

77.2

72.8

68.1

76.1

59.7

81.2

64.6

80.6

67.1

68.5

68.1

71.7

72.2

78.7

74.1

68.2

80.2

61.3

83.4

78.1

75.7

71.6

70.9

62.2

79.6

Sources:
Labour Market Statistics, OECD database, June 2009;
Labour Force Statistics: 1987-2007, OECD, Paris, 2008;
OECD Employment Outlook, OECD, Paris, 2009.

5.7

5.8

5.6

8.1

8.2

3.2

7.2

5.6

2.9

1.0

5.2

8.0

7.9

8.0

8.2

19.0

16.8

12.6

8.2

14.5

55.4

13.9

10.8

23.5

6.3

28.9

28.3

OECD total

EU15

G7

United States*

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702886557863

16.0

15.5

10.9

7.2

13.3

39.6

11.5

10.6

17.7

12.9

24.2

23.5

33

4.3

12.6

9.1

4.8

6.2

12.7

11.2

9.9

10.2

10.4

11.8

3.4

2.6

2.7

4.1

5.5

6.6

4.4

7.5

6.0

5.3

4.0

6.9

8.2

8.7

8.1

7.4

2.3

4.6

6.2

3.9

3.2

3.0

3.4

3.2

3.6

Austria

Belgium

Canada

Czech Republic

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea

Luxembourg

Mexico

Netherlands

New Zealand

3.9

8.9

8.5

1997

4.4

Total

Australia

2007

Labour > Unemployment

Unemployment rates*

Women

3.9

3.6

3.7

3.2

2.6

3.7

7.9

4.3

2.3

7.7

12.6

8.8

8.7

7.2

4.3

6.7

5.6

8.4

5.0

4.8

2007

6.6

7.0

6.1

3.2

2.3

3.4

16.2

10.3

4.5

7.8

15.9

10.6

12.6

13.0

7.6

5.9

8.9

16.0

4.6

8.2

1997

% of civilian labour force

3.3

2.8

3.2

2.9

3.7

3.9

5.0

4.8

2.3

7.2

5.0

8.6

7.7

6.6

3.6

4.2

6.4

6.7

3.9

4.0

2007

Men

6.6

4.5

3.0

2.4

2.8

3.4

9.2

10.4

3.3

9.8

6.6

9.4

10.0

12.4

5.0

4.0

9.3

9.8

4.0

8.7

1997

4.4

36.3

1.7

38.6

2.7

33.3

47.5

29.4

4.1

47.6

49.6

53.4

37.9

18.2

16.1

50.2

7.1

52.6

24.2

14.9

2008

19.3

47.9

0.8

31.3

1.5

20.3

59.6

57.0

16.1

50.1

54.9

52.6

44.2

27.5

26.9

31.2

13.8

61.7

30.3

29.7

1998

-1

(12 months or more) % of
total unemployment

Long-term unemployment

11.0

5.6

6.5

13.5

9.3

7.2

21.3

10.5

8.2

19.9

20.6

10.4

18.1

14.8

7.2

9.9

11.6

14.3

8.1

8.9

2008

Total

14.6

8.1

6.4

6.4

15.9

7.7

32.1

11.6

6.0

14.0

29.7

9.0

25.4

22.0

7.2

12.4

15.2

20.4

5.8

14.6

1998

Youth unemployment rates

Women

10.6

5.5

6.8

12.5

8.0

6.6

24.7

7.6

7.5

20.9

27.7

10.0

18.0

16.2

8.4

9.9

10.0

13.8

8.2

8.6

2008

13.5

8.5

8.7

7.1

12.7

7.3

39.0

11.1

5.6

11.7

39.3

8.2

30.0

24.5

7.6

14.8

13.6

23.0

6.6

13.8

1998

(under 25) % of youth labour force

11.4

5.7

6.2

14.3

11.5

7.9

18.9

13.1

9.0

19.1

15.1

10.7

18.2

13.7

6.1

9.8

13.1

14.8

7.9

9.1

2008

Men

15.6

7.8

5.2

5.8

20.5

8.2

27.2

11.9

6.4

15.8

21.4

9.7

21.8

20.1

6.7

10.7

16.6

18.3

5.0

15.4

1998
Australia

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

34

8.0

Portugal

3.5

Switzerland

5.6

OECD total

7.0

10.6

5.9

7.8

5.5

4.5

7.7

12.1

6.9

5.0

5.8

7.7

4.0

9.8

28.2

12.8

7.5

5.4

6.4

5.4

4.7

5.6

10.0

2.8

5.9

6.4

9.8

6.7

9.0

2.6

6.4

9.4

6.2

4.9

8.1

6.5

4.1

10.6

15.9

11.1

6.0

9.5

4.0

Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008, a
data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

7.0

EU15

6.5

4.9

4.9

11.0

4.3

6.4

10.9

12.5

9.6

4.2

13.2

-n

5.4

G7

7.1

6.8

4.1

10.2

20.7

11.9

6.7

2.5

10.3

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

4.6

United States

4.1

11.2

*

5.3

United Kingdom

10.3

6.2

Sweden

Turkey

8.3

Spain

11.0

9.6

Poland

Slovak Republic

2.5

Norway

6.0

25.9

38.6

26.4

10.6

25.5

26.9

34.3

12.4

23.8

66.1

48.3

29.0

8.3

7.5

12.4

14.9

12.6

12.8

14.1

20.5

7.0

19.4

24.6

18.9

16.4

17.3

9.1

12.9

18.4

12.3

10.4

12.3

14.2

5.6

16.7

33.9

25.1

10.3

23.2

6.8

11.7

14.8

11.3

11.2

12.0

21.3

7.4

19.6

25.8

19.9

20.2

19.9

Sources:
Labour Market Statistics, OECD database, June 2009;
Labour Force Statistics: 1987-2007, OECD, Paris, 2008;
OECD Employment Outlook, OECD, Paris, 2009.

33.1

49.2

31.5

8.0

32.7

40.3

34.8

33.5

54.3

51.3

44.7

37.4

9.4

8.2

15.1

13.7

14.4

16.0

20.1

6.7

19.2

23.7

18.1

13.4

15.2

8.9

16.8

12.6

11.1

13.9

14.9

4.4

17.3

27.0

26.6

8.2

21.5

EU15

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

13.3
13.0
12.6
OECD total
12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703037433056

20.3

11.9

9.8

10.5

12.8

7.0

16.1

43.0

23.4

12.8

25.2

35

24.0

21.3

17.5

25.6

18.5

19.5

16.0

17.2

19.5

26.6

19.0

17.8

20.5

19.4

25.2

24.4

17.9

29.3

Australia*

Austria

Belgium

Canada

Czech Republic

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea

Luxembourg

Mexico

-1

-1

-1

..

20.5

27.7

25.6

19.0

20.0

17.1

17.1

24.6

19.4

16.6

15.5

18.9

17.2

25.5

17.9

20.7

25.4

4.6

8.0

6.4

5.8

4.9

5.8

6.3

7.7

5.5

5.5

6.1

7.0

6.5

6.8

6.1

6.8

6.3

6.4

2007

-1

-1

-1

..

7.2

5.5

5.8

5.2

4.6

6.9

8.6

6.8

5.4

6.1

7.7

6.7

7.0

6.0

7.2

6.6

6.4

1997

II

1997

I

2007

Transport, storage and
communication

Wholesale and retail trade,
restaurants and hotels

Labour > Services: employment*

1.0

11.5

3.5

2.7

2.5

4.4

4.9

2.1

2.5

3.0

3.1

1.6

2.9

1.7

5.7

3.2

2.9

3.9

2007

-1

-1

-1

III

..

10.3

3.7

3.0

2.7

3.7

3.0

2.3

2.4

3.3

3.2

2.0

2.9

1.8

5.3

3.7

3.2

3.7

1997

Finance and insurance

4.7

16.5

10.0

11.7

12.2

9.4

9.7

7.2

6.3

14.2

15.5

11.4

12.9

10.9

12.0

16.7

12.1

12.0

2007

-1

-1

-1

IV

..

11.6

5.4

8.8

8.6

6.7

6.3

4.1

4.0

9.5

12.6

7.7

8.5

7.4

9.3

12.5

7.8

10.6

1997

Real estate, renting and
business services

% of total civilian employment

Contribution to total employment

4.8

5.2

3.4

3.2

5.5

4.6

5.0

7.3

9.8

6.7

9.3

6.8

5.7

5.9

5.0

9.7

6.3

4.7

-1

-1

-1

..

5.5

3.1

3.3

6.7

4.9

4.2

7.1

8.7

7.9

10.0

7.6

6.5

5.7

5.4

9.5

6.8

4.0

16.0

17.1

19.0

19.4

22.9

22.6

29.6

19.5

18.2

23.5

25.1

26.4

28.6

14.7

22.6

24.2

21.0

23.9

2007

-1

-1

-1

..

17.0

12.4

15.2

22.0

20.8

28.4

19.3

15.1

20.9

24.2

25.1

28.2

13.4

22.6

22.9

19.3

22.7

1997

VI
1997

V
2007

Education, health, social work
and other services

Public administration and
finance

Australia*

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

36

17.5

15.3

20.1

15.1

21.4

22.7

-2

-1

17.3

17.0

23.5

22.0

22.3

15.1

20.7

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Slovak Republic

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

..

23.1

22.3

..

22.4

22.5

United States

4.2

3.5

-n

..

5.2

2.1

2.0

1.6

1.6

2.2

1.9

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008,
a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

4.8

5.7

..

6.5

6.7

5.7

7.5

3.6

5.8

9.1

3.2

3.4

..

-1

-1

-2

6.2

5.6

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

4.7

5.8

..

6.3

6.3

5.7

6.7

3.9

5.3

8.0

6.2

5.5

*

Turkey

United Kingdom

14.9

26.6

26.8

New Zealand*

-1

20.1

20.3

Netherlands

-1

-1

-2

4.1

3.8

..

5.2

2.1

2.5

1.7

2.0

2.1

2.3

3.6

3.4

18.7

-1

-1

-2

16.0

14.2

13.8

..

9.4

9.6

7.1

5.7

4.9

4.4

7.9

10.1

5.6

8.7

5.5

..

4.4

6.0

6.7

6.7

7.0

6.5

6.1

3.5

-1

-1

-2

National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2009.

Sources:
OECD STAN Database, June 2009;

14.8

17.5

..

12.2

12.7

9.7

8.4

6.4

7.2

12.0

12.9

6.2

26.7

26.7

26.1

..

23.5

32.8

20.3

16.5

17.0

15.9

30.7

24.9

-1

-1

-1

-2

24.7

24.3

23.1

..

21.7

31.4

18.7

18.0

16.2

16.8

28.7

23.8

Netherlands

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

New Zealand*

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703043152228

8.8

5.7

..

3.8

7.1

8.1

6.6

6.4

4.5

7.7

3.7

37

1.63

0.46

1.70

1.21

Mexico

Netherlands

New Zealand

3.47

Korea

Luxembourg

3.44

Japan*

2.75

Iceland

1.31

0.97

Hungary

1.13

0.57

Greece

Italy

2.54

Germany

Ireland

2.08

France

Czech Republic

2.55

1.54

Canada*

3.47

1.88

Belgium

Finland

1.87

Austria*

Denmark

2.01

2.56

Australia*

% of GDP

-2

-1

-1

42.66

36.23

45.34

16.61

24.80

15.63

48.32

30.13

38.80

44.41

46.82

27.76

38.42

24.05

27.58

41.19

31.42

24.65

35.60

38.37

Government

31.06

-2

51.06

-4

40.14

46.49

79.72

73.65

77.71

40.42

59.26

50.35

-2

-2

-1

-1

68.07

43.86

52.44

-1

68.20

59.53

53.96

49.40

59.68

47.68

57.23

-1

-2

-2

-1

Industry

% financed by

-4

-2

-2

-1

-1

-2

-1

-1

-2

-2

-1

Gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)

325

669

57

1 300

861

1 157

334

591

980

181

163

874

680

1 206

917

369

724

662

952

716

Per capita at
current USD,
PPPs

Science and technology > Research and development (I), 2007*

-2

-1

-1

42.7

60.4

49.5

83.8

76.2

77.9

48.8

66.8

54.6

50.3

26.9

69.9

63.2

72.3

64.9

63.8

56.0

69.3

70.4

57.3

% of GERD

-2

-1

-1

0.77

1.63

0.30

1.97

3.87

3.66

0.91

1.33

2.44

0.78

0.25

2.86

2.28

4.00

2.89

1.34

1.56

2.10

2.70

1.64

-2

-1

% of value added
in industry

8.8

3.4

5.7

5.2

6.2

1.1

7.9

3.9

5.4

9.6

5.6

4.5

11.2

3.5

2.4

13.6

2.3

6.2

9.6

4.4

Government

-4

-2

-2

-1

-2

-1

-1

-2

79.4

81.6

92.6

91.7

93.4

98.5

81.8

86.5

83.2

74.9

85.7

92.0

80.2

90.9

86.0

82.2

82.5

78.7

66.4

-1
-1

93.3

-1

Industry

% financed by

Business enterprise expenditure on R&D (BERD)

-4

-2

-2

-1

-2

-1

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1

0.56

0.70

0.19

0.39

0.96

0.70

0.63

0.55

0.92

0.37

0.30

0.79

0.75

0.97

0.85

0.61

0.57

0.60

0.68

0.46

% of GDP

4.0

-2

-2

-1

0.1

-3

0.0

2.0

0.0

0.0

18.0

5.2

1.2

0.0

0.0

0.5

-1

6.0

27.7

2.8

0.6

2.3

0.3

-1

0.0

7.7

% of which
defence R&D

-2

-1

-3

-1

-2

-1

Government budget appropriations
for R&D, 2008

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan*

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada*

Belgium

Austria*

Australia*

38

1.77

2.29

1.02

1.49

0.71

1.12

0.92

EU27*

OECD total*

Brazil

China*

India*

Russian Federation

South Africa

-2

-3

-1

38.19

62.62

80.81

24.62

57.88

28.56

34.11

33.36

26.64

63.79

-1

-2

-5

43.87

29.45

16.11

70.37

39.38

54.98

-1

+3

55.60

65.80

-1

-2

-5

-2

-1

-1

-1

-3

-2

-1

-2

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the
column refers to 2008, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

1.90

EU15*

66.44

47.19

48.45

69.73

63.86

-3

47.07

-2

35.60

36.27

-1

-2

..
-n

2.53

G7

27.73

29.33

47.07

22.71

24.43

42.49

53.92

55.20

45.25

34.26

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

2.68

-3

44.87

58.61

*

1.79

United States*

Sweden

United Kingdom

3.60

Spain

2.90

1.27

Slovak Republic

0.71

0.46

Portugal

Turkey

1.18

Poland

Switzerland

1.64

0.57

Norway

76

165

13

77

92

748

530

635

981

1 221

640

92

1 003

1 320

401

92

269

91

878

-2

-3

-1

-3

53.3

58.3

64.2

19.8

72.3

47.9

69.6

63.4

64.3

70.8

71.9

64.1

41.3

73.7

73.8

55.9

39.6

51.5

30.4

0.79

1.01

..

..

..

2.44

1.79

1.97

2.79

3.05

1.81

0.42

3.06

4.45

1.08

0.25

1.03

-2

-3

8.7

16.2

55.3

..

4.8

0.8

6.7

7.2

7.0

6.7

9.2

6.6

9.7

1.5

4.3

14.4

10.3

4.2

11.7

-2

-3

-1

-1

-3

-1

-2

79.6

68.3

36.6

..

91.9

99.2

90.1

82.7

82.9

90.7

90.8

70.1

89.1

90.9

85.0

79.0

73.5

91.4

83.1

..

0.40

..

..

0.53

0.78

0.69

0.74

0.87

1.00

0.67

..

0.72

0.81

1.08

0.26

1.01

-1

-4

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

..

52.1

..

..

1.2

32.9

12.5

13.1

38.6

56.6

24.2

..

0.6

12.4

13.1

4.4

0.5

1.4

5.2

-4

-4

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

-2

-1

-1

-1

South Africa

Russian Federation

India*

China*

Brazil

OECD total*

EU27*

EU15*

G7

United States*

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703137671354

-2

-3

-1

-1

-3

-1

-2

0.68
0.32

Sources:
Main Science and Technology Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2009;
National sources:
Brazil: Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT);
India: National Science & Technology Management Information System, Department of Science & Technology.

-2

-2

-1

-3

1.25
0.26

39

38.0

53.8

Japan

Korea*

9.0

-2

27.9

-1

Netherlands

37.4

-1

40.2

-1

30.4

6.9

-2

28.5

..

32.3

Italy

16.0

-1

..

48.1

Ireland

13.7

-2

Mexico

25.0

Iceland

52.3

-1

..

53.7

Hungary

32.6

-1

..

21.9

Greece

17.7

14.4

Luxembourg

41.9

30.9

Finland

Germany

57.9

Denmark

France

39.9

Czech Republic

-1

9.2

-1

35.3

15.1

Canada

38.5

23.7

-1

41.2

Belgium

28.2

Austria

10.2

9.1

30.2

Australia

-1

Medium
high-tech
industries*

-1

High-tech
industries*

-1

-1

-1

-2

-2

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

8.9

..

..

8.3

11.7

8.0

9.8

5.7

6.6

17.1

6.8

11.9

11.5

7.5

7.4

15.7

15.7

12.6

14.1

Medium low-tech
and low-tech
industries*

-1

-1

-1

-2

-2

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

21.9

..

..

7.1

8.5

26.3

32.9

59.7

21.4

44.9

9.4

9.5

14.0

33.5

36.6

35.8

17.0

28.0

40.5

Service industries

% of business expenditure on R&D (BERD) performed in

Science and technology > Research and development (II), 2007*

-1

-1

-1

-2

-2

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Researchers

44 116

48 401

2 174

221 928

709 974

88 430

12 169

2 208

17 391

20 817

284 305

211 129

39 000

29 572

27 878

134 300

35 937

31 352

87 270

-1

+2

3.6

5.1

1.2

6.5

9.5

11.0

6.0

-1

12.5

4.5

4.4

7.2

8.3

15.6

10.2

5.4

8.2

8.2

7.8

8.5

Per 1 000 total
employment

-1

-1

+2

Full-time equivalent

(national totals)

+2

-1

-1

-1

+2

-1

26.6

27.4

3.0

10.7

12.6

30.3

26.4

25.1

23.4

50.4

16.3

19.2

18.7

27.5

16.9

33.7

21.8

24.1

25.7

% of GERD

-2

-1

-1

0.45

0.13

0.05

0.37

0.43

0.34

0.35

0.69

0.23

0.29

0.41

0.40

0.65

0.70

0.26

0.63

0.41

0.62

0.52

% of GDP

Higher education expenditure on R&D
(HERD)

-2

-1

-1

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea*

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia

40

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if
the column refers to 2008, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

..

2.6

..

..

..

8.9

9.5

9.5

8.4

6.5

7.6

14.9

..

7.9

16.2

..

..

12.1

*

..

..

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

..

13.5

..
-n

South Africa

..

5.1

..

12.0

India*

Russian Federation

..

27.9

-1

40.9

OECD total*

..

34.4

-1

37.1

EU27*

..

34.6

-1

37.3

EU15*

..

26.5

-1

42.5

G7*

China*

16.3

-1

Brazil

18.8

-1

49.0

Turkey

46.9

..

..

Switzerland

United States*

..

..

Sweden

United Kingdom*

31.4

22.6

43.7

Spain

22.2

..

..

Slovak Republic

-1

..

..

Portugal

27.1

19.2

Poland

-1

..

18.9

..

12.4

Norway

New Zealand

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

36.4

72.0

..

..

..

20.3

16.8

16.5

21.5

29.6

23.2

25.8

..

15.3

33.2

47.4

44.0

29.7

40.0

41.1

18 300

17 303

469 076

92 500

1 423 381

118 296

3 997 466

1 360 332

1 166 129

3 026 989

1 425 550

175 476

49 668

25 400

47 762

122 624

-2

-5

1.3

-1

1.4

6.7

0.2

1.9

7.4

6.0

6.5

8.7

9.7

5.6

2.3

6.1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-3

10.6

6.0

5.7

5.5

4.1

9.8

10.8

-2

-5

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-3

30.1

-3

-3

0.36

0.07

0.03

0.13

..

0.38

0.39

0.41

0.39

0.36

0.44

0.34

0.66

0.77

0.33

0.11

0.35

0.19

0.51

-3

-3

New Zealand

Russian Federation

India*

China*

Brazil

OECD total*

EU27*

EU15*

G7*

United States*

United Kingdom*

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

19.3 -2
0.18 -2 South Africa
12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703144282540

6.3

4.9

8.5

..

16.8

21.8

21.6

15.5

13.3

24.5

48.2

22.9

21.3

26.4

25.0

29.9

33.9

31.4

Sources:
Main Science and Technology Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2009;
Research and Development Expenditure in Industry, 1990-2007, OECD, Paris, 2009;
National sources:
Brazil: Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT);
India: National Science & Technology Management Information System, Department of Science & Technology.

-2

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

27 986
12 354

61 395

-2

24 769

-1

-2

41

7 854.8

2 514.2

1 326.7

Belgium

Canada

Czech Republic

1 197.6

Luxembourg

180.4

1 897.0

Korea

Mexico

5 737.3

21 080.1

Japan

Ireland

Italy

..

31 703.8

Iceland

443.0

2 500.6

42 739.4

Germany

Hungary

5 188.3

France

Greece

3 817.2

Finland

..

6 125.5

Austria

Denmark

3 629.1

Receipts

Australia

-2

-1

-4

-1

-1

2 093.5

1 267.4

4 838.0

6 033.9

4 619.3

30 849.8

..

3 672.7

1 133.7

38 350.0

3 233.5

5 570.5

..

1 889.9

1 357.6

8 714.3

3 644.1

5 069.2

Payments

-2

-1

-4

-1

-1

Million USD, 2007*

-1 913.1

- 69.8

-2 941.0

15 046.3

1 118.0

854.0

..

-1 172.1

- 690.6

4 389.3

1 954.8

-1 753.3

..

- 563.2

1 156.6

- 859.5

2 481.4

-1 440.1

Balance

Technology balance of payments

-2

-1

-4

-1

-1

20

22

2 488

14 605

756

76

4

42

14

6 146

2 468

318

322

19

706

410

400

342

2007

Triadic patent
families*

Science and technology > Patents and trade in technology

193

49

6 396

23 505

3 158

346

39

191

84

17 147

6 085

1 593

1 125

149

2 898

1 060

1 274

2 048

2006

Total

Patenting activity

19.6

60.8

5.0

3.0

13.2

33.4

26.1

30.3

20.6

15.6

21.9

16.2

19.6

26.3

28.6

44.6

26.6

15.2

2006

% of which
foreign coinventors

23

14

2 885

9 994

552

137

10

71

14

3 984

1 789

943

298

22

1 132

200

386

569

2006

ICT

5

2

270

1 103

141

21

3

10

4

639

349

46

148

4

289

118

82

190

2006

Biotechnology

Patent applications filed under the PCT*

Trade coverage ratios

108

45

182

125

72

231

77

118

19

115

109

123

110

90

62

102

88

25

2008 *

High-tech
industries*

94

57

156

373

132

232

8

114

20

200

97

112

92

129

75

111

112

21

2008 *

Medium hightech
industries*

Exports as % of imports

2.7

0.2

4.6

8.4

6.4

1.5

0.1

1.0

0.3

16.8

6.8

1.2

1.2

1.5

3.7

5.4

2.0

0.9

2008 *

All manufacturing
industries

3.5

0.1

7.0

8.1

2.7

3.4

0.1

1.5

0.1

13.6

7.3

1.1

1.0

1.2

2.3

4.5

1.2

0.5

2008 *

High-tech mfg
industries*

% of total OECD

Export market shares

Australia

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

42

1 237.3

1 319.4

Portugal

-1

-1

29

66

171

591

66

15 923

1 645

24

898

851

240

4

12

369

789

1 077

5 195

436

49 909

6 322

291

2 054

2 807

1 343

43

103

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

-1 233.1

- 609.4

..

..

..

36 962.0

16 805.7

..

-4 352.0

5 583.9

-2 389.8

-1

128

634

323

3 411

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008, a
data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

-1

-1

82.1

- 224.1

18

128

50

1 024

..
-n

1 278.7

-1

-2 294.3

1 315.7

..

..

*

South Africa

Russian Federation

1 137.9

..

India

-1

..

..

China

-1

..

..

..

Brazil

45.6

48 957.0

85 919.0

United States

528.5

..

17 816.1

..

Turkey

34 621.8

14 668.8

10 316.8

Switzerland

United Kingdom

10 970.7

9 064.4

16 554.5

6 674.6

Sweden

Spain

573.0

3 993.9

1 699.6

Poland

-1

3 232.0

4 547.7

Norway

348.9

..

..

New Zealand

Slovak Republic

..

..

Netherlands

12.2

22.8

23.9

12.4

14.6

10.7

22.9

9.4

43.4

18.4

19.7

49.2

41.0

30.6

20.9

21.8

19.1

11

73

84

175

29

4 124

420

1

104

127

118

4

13

12

29

29

266

17

9

30

120

35

83

84

21

201

126

44

83

47

49

49

27

106

2.4

1.6

15.0

1.7

12.9

4.5

1.6

2.4

2.1

2.9

0.7

0.6

1.6

0.6

0.3

5.0

0.2

0.4

23.0

0.7

19.4

5.2

0.2

4.9

1.8

1.4

0.5

0.3

0.6

0.3

0.1

6.0

Russian Federation

India

China

Brazil

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

New Zealand

Netherlands

71
0.7
0.1
South Africa
12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703204304314

29

56

109

58

73

82

61

116

115

76

117

64

91

40

25

128

Sources:
Main Science and Technology Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2009;
OECD, STAN Indicators Database;
OECD, Patents database, June 2009.

84

200

257

2 967

58

19 145

2 225

41

449

1 123

245

7

30

33

149

65

1 379

43

Mexico

1 964

3

99

Korea

Luxembourg

378

Japan

70

301

Ireland

Italy

93

132

Greece

103

357

Germany

Iceland

552

Hungary

338

France

43

Finland

79

9 985

Canada

Denmark*

31

Belgium

Czech Republic

84

8.6

17.0

3.8

8.0

12.5

0.5

5.6

8.9

2.8

55.7

11.8

8.2

2.0

15.8

6.7

3.3

28.0

13.0

1.1

-

18.8

9.2

4.2

8.1

0.6

5.8

2.7

10.5

7.5

7.0

7.4

6.8

2.5

10.6

3.2

0.2

0.04

..

1.27

1.16

0.55

0.07

0.00

0.17

0.12

0.19

0.24

0.07

0.12

0.11

0.06

0.50

0.10

0.01

Thousand km²

7 741

t / km² of
agricultural
land

t / km² of
agricultural
land

% of territorial
area

Total area

Austria

Australia*

Pesticides use

Nitrogenous
fertilisers use

Major
protected
areas*

Land

Environment > Resources, latest available year*

33

34

63

68

34

10

-

22

29

32

28

74

12

34

34

22

47

21

% of land area

Wooded area

..

0.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

..

-

0.6

..

1.0

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.8

..

0.8

0.6

..

Harvest /
annual growth

Use of forest
resources

Forest

32

52

11

23

41

2

-

38

38

38

19

11

22

20

20

36

22

24

% of known
species

Mammals

16

23

6

13

18

5

44

15

2

27

19

13

16

50

10

25

28

13

% of known
species

Birds

Threatened species

16

3

40

20

24

2

-

5

12

19

17

2

5

11

2

32

5

1.5

-

1.9

4.8

0.3

0.3

1.6

-

0.1

0.3

0.6

0.2

0.9

-

1.2

-

-

0.2

% of world
catches

% of gross
annual
availability
5

Total fish
catches

Water
withdrawal

Water

36

95

83

69

69

65

57

60

65

93

80

81

88

74

72

55

89

..

% of population
connected

Public waste
water plants

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark*

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia*

44

25.2

7.7

9.2

324

313

92

49

505

450

Norway*

Poland

Portugal

Slovak Republic

Spain

Sweden

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

Not available or not applicable.
Nil or negligible.

2.2

..
-

12.4

35 096

6.0

3.3

2.6

5.9

3.3

3.6

5.1

3.3

4.6

2.3

6.3

10.0

1.8

13.4

*

OECD total*

EU15

G7

13.1

19.5

9 632

United States

14.3

18.3

244

United Kingdom*

3 243

3.9

21 448

28.7

41

784

Switzerland

Turkey

4.9

28.1

4.6

19.5

New Zealand

15.6

42

268

Netherlands

0.55

0.07

0.22

0.11

0.07

0.14

0.04

0.09

0.07

0.14

0.15

0.44

0.10

0.07

0.03

11

31

39

34

33

12

13

31

67

36

40

41

30

31

31

0.7

19

..

..

..

17

16

14

33

18

13

22

26

14

14

18

22

..

..

..

12

16

4

36

17

27

14

38

8

16

21

0.5

26.1

5.6

13.3

5.3

0.7

0.6

-

0.3

1.0

-

0.3

0.2

2.6

0.6

99

71

84

76

71

97

42

97

86

92

56

65

61

77

80

Netherlands

OECD total*

EU15

G7

United States

United Kingdom*

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway*

New Zealand

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703206110145

11

17

12

19

13

19

5

1

30

1

12

20

1

1

11

Sources:
OECD Environmental Data Compendium 2008, OECD, Paris, 2009;
OECD Key Environmental Indicators 2009, OECD, Paris, 2009.

..

..

..

..

0.5

0.4

..

0.9

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.7

45

5

Luxembourg

Netherlands

4

26

9

Korea

Mexico

7

14

Ireland

7

30

Iceland

Japan*

12

Hungary

Italy

6

48

Greece

7

Germany

16

France

21

Czech Republic

Finland

62

Canada*

5

11

Belgium

Denmark

3

122

Austria*

Australia*

kg / capita

58

- 66

-3

- 83

- 46

- 17

- 78

- 67

20

- 88

14

- 90

- 66

- 66

- 86

- 89

- 36

- 65

- 62

% change
since 1990

Sulphur oxides

Air

21

32

17

22

37

34

27

71

21

27

82

20

14

30

26

15

18

28

107

kg / capita

17

36

- 42

14

- 38

46

-5

- 45

-4

3

- 13

22

- 52

- 27

- 35

- 32

- 62

-3

- 48

% change
since 1990

Nitrogen oxides

Environment > Emissions and pollution, latest available year*

30

..

30

40

40

30

40

10

40

..

20

60

110

10

30

..

50

..

20

t / million USD

Industrial waste per
unit of GDP*

Waste

630

350

690

380

410

550

780

560

460

450

580

540

510

800

290

400

490

590

690

kg / capita

Municipal waste

Quantity generated

t / Mtoe

0.1

0.1

-

3.2

1.5

-

-

-

1.7

-

1.2

4.2

1.9

-

1.7

6.2

2.0

-

-

Nuclear waste per
unit of energy*

1.2

1.0

..

4.5

0.8

2.7

0.9

0.4

9.7

4.0

3.4

2.7

1.8

1.7

2.9

4.4

2.3

1.9

4.2

as % of total
government R&D
budget

Environment R&D
budget*

Australia*

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan*

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada*

Belgium

Austria*

46

27

Spain

11

24

EU15

OECD total

- 42

- 48

- 72

- 54

Not available or not applicable.
Nil or negligible.

24

G7

..
-

41

United States*

- 82

11

- 58

- 65

- 46

- 83

- 40

- 63

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

11

United Kingdom

50

- 60

*

23

Turkey

2

16

Slovak Republic

Switzerland*

18

Portugal

4

32

Poland

Sweden

4

19

Norway

New Zealand*

40

33

24

35

53

26

15

11

19

34

16

25

24

41

56

- 24

- 36

- 31

- 30

- 46

72

- 48

- 43

19

- 61

5

- 42

-8

10

400

580

560

630

760

570

430

710

520

580

290

470

320

830

-

..

..

..

..

0.4

1.8

..

0.1

2.2

3.0

1.0

3.5

2.4

2.1

OECD total

EU15

G7

United States*

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland*

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

New Zealand*

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703225273143

1.5

1.5

1.6

1.0

1.0

-

1.9

4.1

1.2

3.0

-

-

-

OECD Key Environmental Indicators 2009, OECD, Paris, 2009.

Sources:
OECD Environmental Data Compendium 2008, OECD, Paris, 2009;

50

40

50

..

30

30

-

110

30

120

50

120

20

47

437.9

182.2

35.5

Netherlands

New Zealand

10.7

Mexico

Luxembourg

488.7

Korea

66.4

16.4

49.5

2.5

113.1

16.1

1 236.3

Japan

Ireland

10.0

2.3

Iceland

44.1

24.6

53.9

Hungary

44.1

39.5

- 19.1

97.8

Greece

437.6

- 16.0

798.4

Germany

Italy

4.9

50.5

Denmark

18.5

0.2

122.1

Czech Republic

64.4

32.5

- 21.4

572.9

Canada

369.3

- 1.8

106.0

Belgium

France

24.0

69.7

Austria

Finland

52.5

396.3

% change
2007/1990

Australia

Total, million
tonnes of CO2

Environment > CO2 emissions, 2007

9.3

31.3

39.2

0.3

209.8

444.8

60.5

9.0

0.5

11.7

36.6

347.5

50.9

29.0

18.1

80.1

123.8

16.7

15.0

222.7

Coal and peat

18.1

71.3

266.1

7.5

197.5

578.2

212.8

25.0

1.9

17.7

53.5

261.3

226.1

26.5

21.9

25.1

266.7

51.9

35.6

109.2

Oil

8.1

76.3

132.6

2.8

73.7

208.8

160.6

10.1

-

24.2

7.7

179.4

87.1

8.5

9.5

16.2

181.9

34.5

16.1

63.9

Gas

-

3.3

-

0.1

7.7

4.5

3.8

-

-

0.3

-

10.2

5.2

0.4

0.9

0.7

0.6

2.8

2.9

0.5

Other2

12.0

57.5

140.9

1.3

218.9

509.2

141.5

14.0

-

19.2

47.4

361.6

54.9

31.1

23.1

67.8

133.1

24.2

15.9

231.0

Electricity and
heat

5.3

38.6

62.7

1.7

90.0

280.0

79.2

5.2

0.8

7.3

10.8

117.3

69.3

12.2

5.4

21.1

101.5

27.3

12.6

47.9

Industry

14.6

34.9

147.6

6.5

88.5

239.4

121.1

14.2

0.9

12.9

22.8

148.7

130.6

13.6

13.9

18.5

164.8

25.0

23.9

78.3

Transport

0.5

15.7

21.9

1.3

32.2

62.6

50.4

6.7

-

8.3

8.5

101.7

56.4

2.1

3.0

6.8

41.4

16.1

7.5

7.5

Residential

By sector
Million tonnes of CO2

Million tonnes of CO2

CO2 emissions from fuel combustion1

By type of fuel

3.1

35.5

64.8

0.1

59.1

145.3

45.3

4.0

0.6

6.2

8.3

69.1

58.1

5.4

5.1

7.9

132.1

13.3

9.8

31.6

Other

0.53

0.41

0.58

0.40

0.69

0.24

0.37

0.31

0.20

0.87

0.58

0.39

0.25

0.43

0.28

1.58

0.66

0.40

0.31

0.78

kg/2000 USD

CO 2 per unit
of GDP

8.48

11.13

4.14

22.35

10.09

9.68

7.38

10.13

7.53

5.36

8.74

9.71

5.81

12.19

9.24

11.83

17.37

9.97

8.38

18.75

t/capita

CO 2 per
capita

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia

48

Slovak Republic

3 926.4

EU27

1 326.5

1 587.4

India

Russian Federation

Nil or negligible.

-

13.3

-

-

-

84.9

40.5

54.4

27.5

2.7

0.2

3.5

1.8

1.4

0.2

0.5

Includes industrial waste and non-renewable municipal waste.

-

820.7

71.2

127.5

40.7

2 946.9

992.0

2 251.6

1 245.5

188.4

70.9

6.1

1.9

74.3

11.3

8.8

2.5

0.6

-

62.7

325.8

359.7

897.7

257.0

5 504.5

1 624.5

4 111.5

2 381.5

184.9

78.6

31.9

33.6

190.2

9.5

34.8

27.1

10.5

2.

283.0

427.6

895.5

5 002.7

49.4

4 464.6

1 269.4

3 289.3

2 114.8

146.9

115.4

0.7

8.9

78.7

15.8

11.2

62.7

22.9

Calculated using the IEA energy balances, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Sectoral
Approach and the default emissions factors from the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse
Gas Inventories. They may differ from National Communications submitted to the UN Framework
Convention on Climate Change.

35.8

- 27.2

125.1

172.6

79.8

17.4

- 3.3

12.7

18.6

- 5.4

108.8

3.6

- 12.4

2.9

212.4

1.

345.8

6 027.9

China

South Africa

347.1

Brazil

13 000.8

9 706.9

G7

OECD total

5 769.3

523.0

United States

265.0

United Kingdom

Switzerland

Turkey

46.2

42.2

Sweden

67.5

- 35.1

36.8

Portugal

344.7

40.5

55.2

Poland

Spain

30.6

- 11.4

36.9

304.7

Norway

1.0

7.1

47.3

241.5

289.6

1 887.2

105.9

1 895.1

632.7

1 346.1

638.0

60.8

62.4

6.3

10.7

55.1

9.7

9.4

39.7

46.3

228.8

118.7

407.3

146.4

3 543.8

962.7

2 742.9

1 807.5

130.9

48.0

16.8

22.6

115.4

6.5

18.7

42.2

14.6

0.6

16.5

119.5

74.7

252.2

16.1

954.1

424.3

716.8

330.9

73.4

32.1

10.3

0.6

20.3

2.8

2.1

30.4

Sources:
CO 2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion, IEA, Paris, 2009;
Energy Balances of OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2009;
Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, IEA, Paris, 2009;
Main Economic Indicators, OECD, Paris, 2009.

220.0

877.4

746.6

3 029.4

32.8

5 186.2

1 483.1

3 862.4

2 459.0

203.1

97.3

1.6

7.9

117.2

9.1

19.5

165.7

3.91

1.72

2.55

0.43

0.43

0.40

0.40

0.50

0.30

0.71

0.15

0.16

0.47

1.18

0.45

1.35

0.19

11.21

1.18

4.57

1.81

10.97

7.92

13.32

19.10

8.60

3.59

5.62

5.05

7.68

6.82

5.20

7.99

7.85

Russian Federation

India

China

Brazil

OECD total

EU27

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

15.7
1.95
7.27
South Africa
12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703348700051

120.2

96.8

451.8

45.8

1 421.7

423.6

1 038.7

533.9

54.8

25.2

7.1

4.4

36.7

8.7

5.5

26.7

13.6

49

5.16

5.85

5.51

6.09

Austria*

Belgium*

5.70

5.48

4.08

..

5.84

5.92

4.78

..

Denmark*

Finland*

France

Germany

5.64

7.98

4.67

Hungary*

Iceland*

Ireland

4.39

7.17

5.11

6.67

7.25

Czech Republic

Greece

4.24

6.48

4.80

Canada*

4.79

4.14

5.71

Australia

-1

% of GDP

% of GDP

Public and
private

-1

Public

151

144

152

..

103

103

122

115

145

108

112

106

115

2000 = 100

-1

Expenditure on educational institutions

Education > Expenditure, 2006*

0.28

0.81

0.54

..

0.71

0.44

0.14

0.59

0.56

1.70

0.24

0.35

1.56

% of GDP

Private

-1

6 337

9 299

4 599

..

5 362

5 482

5 899

8 798

3 217

..

7 072

8 516

6 311

Primary
education

8 991

8 493

3 978

..

7 548

9 303

7 533

9 662

5 307

7 774

8 601

10 577

8 700

Secondary
education

USD using PPPs*

11 832

8 579

6 367

..

13 016

11 568

12 845

15 391

7 989

22 810

13 244

15 148

15 016

Tertiary
education

Annual expenditure per student

-1

159

135

167

..

104

103

119

112

152

125

102

109

111

2000 = 100

-1

Primary,
secondary and
post-secondary
non-tertiary
education

91

90

88

..

99

105

112

116

130

..

104

139

117

2000 = 100

Tertiary
education

Index of change in annual
expenditure per student

52 972

25 227

14 515

32 107

57 978

34 179

39 144

40 322

29 127

..

..

40 304

44 942

Annual statutory
salary

72

38

26

64

76

54

66

62

46

..

..

66

55

Salary per
statutory teaching
hour

USD using PPPs*

Teachers' salaries in public lowersecondary education after 15 years of
experience

Ireland

Iceland*

Hungary*

Greece

Germany

France

Finland*

Denmark*

Czech Republic

Canada*

Belgium*

Austria*

Australia

50

..

4.65

4.82

5.60

Netherlands

New Zealand

4.17

6.15

5.42

2.72

5.19

5.01

4.91

4.91

3.87

4.25

4.66

6.33

..

..

5.91

7.38

5.81

..

..

Slovak Republic*

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland*

Turkey*

United Kingdom*

United States

OECD average

Brazil*

Russian Federation*

190

157

121

120

117

..

112

118

121

127

101

..

..

0.85

2.36

0.72

..

..

0.17

0.50

0.62

0.44

0.54

4 952

..

1 566

6 437

9 709

7 732

1 130

8 793

7 699

5 970

3 221

5 138

3 770

9 486

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

3.63

5.57

Portugal*

128

..

1.26

6 425

2 003

13 676

4 935

6 989

7 716

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008, a data
point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

5.12

5.68

Poland*

111

120

0.78

1.07

..

2.88

1.66

0.32

*

5.16

..

120

123

..

151

101

111

..
-n

5.00

5.36

6.26

Norway*

Luxembourg*

..

4.47

7.35

Korea

5.72

3.33

4.99

Japan*

Mexico

4.60

4.93

Italy*

8 725

4 279

10 294

12 336

25 109

15 447

4 648

22 230

16 991

11 087

6 056

9 724

5 224

16 235

9 288

15 196

6 462

..

8 564

13 418

..

165

124

114

150

..

106

114

119

157

112

141

103

..

116

117

..

159

112

110

..

84

111

103

139

..

102

100

127

108

135

127

97

..

98

111

..

134

112

104

..

61

..

..

..

..

..

63

..

46

..

56

38

..

22

140

100

81

55

Brazil*

OECD average

United States

United Kingdom*

Turkey*

Switzerland*

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic*

Portugal*

Poland*

Norway*

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg*

Korea

Japan*

Italy*

..
..
Russian Federation*
12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703404350478

..

41 993

44 015

..

..

62 183

32 799

44 774

..

34 876

..

36 298

37 213

48 818

23 455

89 864

54 671

48 742

32 859

Sources:
Education at a Glance 2009 : OECD indicators, OECD, Paris, 2009 or revised data. www.oecd.org/edu/eag2009.

2 399

1 538

8 006

10 821

8 763

1 834

13 268

8 496

7 955

2 963

6 846

3 411

11 435

6 043

9 516

2 165

18 144

7 261

8 305

8 495

51

513

548

496

504

459

491

462

523

547

490

494

547

488

495

460

482

484

517

469

498

556

479

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea

Luxembourg

501

506

527

510

527

483

520

501

Belgium

Czech Republic*

505

490

Canada

520

513

Austria

Maths

Australia

Reading

486

522

531

475

508

491

504

473

516

495

563

496

513

534

510

511

527

Science

Student performance on the reading, scientific
and mathematical literacy scales, mean score,
2006*

Education > Performance, 2007*

65.7

77.9

..

52.3

67.6

64.5

79.2

59.6

84.4

68.7

80.5

75.5

90.5

86.6

68.0

80.1

68.2

74.6

91.3

93.0

84.9

89.6

85.9

84.3

96.2

99.5

..

96.8

85.4

88.0

78.9

..

..

..

-1

26.5

34.6

41.0

13.6

32.2

29.8

17.7

22.7

24.3

26.8

36.4

32.2

13.7

48.3

32.1

17.6

33.7

..

..

38.8

35.0

45.0

63.1

29.4

17.7

23.4

..

48.5

47.3

34.9

30.6

..

22.1

49.8

-1

-1

Upper
Current upper
All tertiary
First-time
secondary or
secondary
attainment, 25- tertiary-type A
higher, 25-to-64graduation rate to-64-year-olds graduation rate
year-olds*

% educational attainment of adult population and current graduation
rates

150

201

..

143

201

..

185

..

174

161

160

127

170

177

151

169

156

Women

143

179

178

-1

138
184

-4
-1

..

165

-2

..

248

..

167

178

140

-1

195

173

155

170

-1

-1

-2

-2

Men

-1

-4

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1

-2

-2

..

2.3

2.8

5.2

..

..

2.8

..

4.5

5.7

3.6

3.0

1.5

3.5

..

3.6

2.1

Women

..

2.5

2.5

3.0

..

..

2.1

..

3.6

4.9

3.2

2.9

1.5

3.5

..

2.3

1.8

Men

Index of earning differentials,
tertiary-type A and advanced
% unemployment ratio at tertiaryresearch programmes to upper
type A attainment level (25-to-64secondary and post-secondary nonyear-olds)*
tertiary education (25-to-64-yearolds)*

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic*

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia

52

492

466

461

507

499

447

495

Slovak Republic

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey*

United Kingdom

370

476

393

440

Brazil*

Russian Federation

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008, a
data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

-5

..

..

82.1

77.5

88.7

58.4

89.1

74.1

74.3

84.7

65.1

83.7

91.9

74.5

..

42.6

..
-n

88.0

36.8

70.1

87.9

68.3

28.7

86.0

84.6

50.7

87.0

27.5

86.3

78.9

71.6

73.2

33.3

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

479

390

500

489

515

424

512

503

488

488

474

498

487

530

525

410

*

498

492

OECD average

474

..

United States

495

424

530

502

480

495

466

490

508

484

Norway

522

472

521

New Zealand

531

406

Portugal*

507

Netherlands

Poland*

410

Mexico
..

15.1

38.7

36.5

38.7

15.2

31.4

39.9

32.4

38.9

42.6

49.0

43.4

47.6

42.8

-4

-1

..

270

164

173

199

162

164

132

156

..

178

165

134

145

159

..

190

-1

-2

284

166

188

153

162

154

144

144

..

194

-1

-3

125

142

151

-1

-1

-2

-3

-1

-1

-1

-1

3.8

3.7

1.8

2.1

9.9

2.9

3.0

5.2

..

7.6

4.3

..

2.3

1.8

4.5

2.6

3.0

1.9

2.3

5.4

2.1

3.6

3.8

..

5.1

3.3

..

2.1

1.7

3.4

Brazil*

OECD average

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey*

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal*

Poland*

Norway

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

54.0 -5
..
..
..
..
..
Russian Federation
12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703440120450
Sources:
Education at a Glance 2009 : OECD indicators, OECD, Paris, 2009. www.oecd.org/edu/eag2009;
PISA 2006: Science Competencies for Tomorrow's World, OECD, Paris. www.pisa.oecd.org.

9.6

27.5

40.3

31.8

10.8

31.3

31.3

29.0

14.1

13.7

18.7

34.2

41.0

30.8

15.9

53

6

0

6

51

48

52

13

Iceland

Japan

Korea

Mexico

0

4

6

16

23

1

62

58

25

7

New Zealand

Norway

Switzerland

Turkey

United States

18

42

2

6

13

Canada

2008

Total in billion USD

Australia

% of value of total gross
farm receipts

Producer support estimate1

Public finance > Agriculture: support estimates, 2008

2007

34

12

5

3

0

6

26

36

0

7

2

11

- 18

- 41

- 43

-2

-2

- 48

- 41

- 33

- 11

-1

% of value of
consumption
expenditure on
commodities
domestically produced
2008

28

- 12

-3

-2

0

-1

- 20

- 47

0

-3

0

Total in billion USD

Consumer support estimate2

2007

0

13

-5

-3

-1

0

-2

- 32

- 41

0

-4

% of GDP

0.7

2.3

1.2

1.0

0.2

0.7

2.4

1.1

1.1

0.6

0.3

Total support
estimate3

Australia

United States

Turkey

Switzerland

Norway

New Zealand

Mexico

Korea

Japan

Iceland

Canada

54

5

50

8

0

-1

-1

-1

-1

5

9

11

3

Brazil

China

Russian Federation

South Africa

The value of gross transfers from taxpayers and consumers arising from policy measures
which support agriculture.

3.

Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to
2008, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

The value of gross transfers to consumers of agricultural commodities arising from policy
measures which support agriculture (when negative, the CSE is an implicit tax on
consumption).

1

10

2.

-n

5

49

The value of gross transfers from domestic consumers and taxpayers to support agricultural
producers (when negative, the PSE is an implicit tax on agriculture).

-1

-1

-1

-1

260

135

1.

265

21

150

25

EU27

OECD total

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

- 51

0

- 10

- 23

-2

- 108

-1

-1

-1

-1

- 45

-1

-1

-1

-1

0.5

0.8

2.1

0.5

0.8

0.9

-1

-1

-1

-1

South Africa

Russian Federation

China

Brazil

OECD total

EU27

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703443465000

-1

- 12

- 27

-2

- 118

Agricultural Policies in OECD Countries: Monitoring and Evaluation, 2009 Edition, OECD, Paris, 2009.

Sources:

-2

- 13

-4

-3

- 10

- 10

55

55.1

49.3

43.8

39.9

46.5

48.8

35.9

46.0

33.5

33.3

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea

40.9

Czech Republic

52.5

40.4

Canada

Finland

48.7

Belgium

Denmark

35.7

48.2

Austria

34.1

35.7

-1

36.0

28.7

-1

-1

48.7

43.2

49.8

44.9

43.9

52.7

48.4

51.7

42.4

39.1

50.0

48.7

-1

-1

-1

% of GDP

% of GDP

Australia

Total general government
expenditure

Total general government
revenue

Public finance > Government sector, 2008

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

% of GDP

14.7

17.9

20.2

16.0

24.8

21.5

16.5

18.1

23.2

22.1

26.6

20.3

19.3

23.1

18.6

17.7

General government final
consumption expenditure

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

% of GDP

3.1

11.6

17.7

9.8

5.9

15.9

18.4

16.9

17.5

15.2

14.9

12.7

9.9

15.9

18.1

7.7

Social security transfers

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

% of GDP

8.6

- 2.9

- 1.0

3.7

8.6

- 3.2

- 4.4

0.8

- 2.1

4.3

3.7

- 0.1

2.6

- 0.8

1.3

2.9

Net saving of general
government

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

% of GDP

4.7

- 2.5

- 2.7

0.2

5.5

- 3.4

- 5.0

- 0.1

- 3.4

4.1

3.4

- 1.4

1.4

- 1.2

- 0.5

1.6

Net lending of general
government

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Australia

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

56

34.9

39.2

43.2

32.7

Poland

Portugal

Slovak Republic

47.7

42.3

34.6

United Kingdom

United States

-n

..

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the
column refers to 2008, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

37.3

..

..

Turkey

-1

34.7

Switzerland

33.7

40.5

53.1

36.6

55.6

Sweden

43.1

39.9

Spain

-2

45.9

58.7

45.5

39.7

Norway

-1

46.4

44.6

..

40.7

New Zealand

..

43.3

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

-1

-2

-1

16.4

16.1

21.7

12.2

11.2

26.4

19.1

16.4

20.7

18.5

19.2

18.8

25.1

10.3

-1

-2

-1

-1

-2

-1

- 2.8

- 5.4

..

1.0

2.5

- 3.8

- 2.2

- 2.7

- 3.9

18.7

4.9

1.0

..

2.6

-1

-2

-1

Luxembourg

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703462060711

- 1.6

- 2.7

..

1.7

3.5

- 0.4

- 1.3

- 2.7

- 0.4

20.1

6.5

2.1

..

5.9

Sources:
National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2009.

12.3

13.2

..

-1

11.4

-1

15.1

12.3

11.3

15.6

14.1

11.7

10.2

10.3

..

14.4

-2

-1

-1

57

Personal
income tax

37.4

22.3

29.3

36.3

11.5

49.8

30.3

17.5

24.5

14.9

18.3

33.7

27.8

25.6

18.5

15.2

21.0

25.1

% of GDP

30.6

41.7

44.5

33.3

36.9

49.1

43.5

44.2

35.6

31.3

37.1

41.5

31.9

42.1

27.9

26.8

35.9

20.6

Australia

Austria

Belgium

Canada

Czech Republic

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea

Luxembourg

Mexico*

Total tax
receipts

Public finance > Taxation, 2006

..

13.8

14.3

17.0

8.1

12.0

5.8

6.3

8.5

5.9

6.7

7.7

8.7

13.0

11.0

8.3

5.2

21.7

Corporate
income tax

14.9

12.4

11.9

15.9

5.3

4.5

..

6.8

13.9

16.9

9.2

5.4

2.0

9.8

5.9

9.2

14.0

0.0

Employees

..

12.0

9.1

16.6

20.6

8.2

..

24.9

16.3

18.4

25.1

20.4

0.1

27.5

8.4

18.6

16.2

0.0

Employers

Social security contributions

% of total tax receipts

Tax structures

56.3

27.9

32.6

18.6

25.6

36.5

42.3

38.4

36.0

28.4

24.8

31.1

33.2

30.2

24.3

25.6

27.7

27.1

Taxes on goods
and services

3.7

12.9

16.8

13.4

14.7

11.0

18.2

5.4

10.5

6.0

16.8

5.0

6.2

8.1

14.1

9.0

14.7

13.7

Other taxes

21.5

34.7

35.5

47.1

44.6

42.0

35.3

59.0

33.6

43.3

36.5

49.2

55.0

28.0

46.4

45.1

42.7

29.0

30.4

27.5

39.5

33.0

12.5

18.0

17.3

29.0

38.9

34.4

26.0

28.0

24.0

36.1

34.0

25.0

30.0

%

%
48.5

Corporate
income tax

Personal
income tax

Highest rates of income taxes*

95.0

73.4

89.4

80.6

71.5

85.3

74.6

64.7

74.4

56.3

71.0

69.4

59.1

77.6

76.1

58.1

66.8

76.0

Single person

95.0

100.5

90.9

86.4

84.3

108.6

93.1

79.2

72.8

75.4

82.9

76.9

70.9

99.8

87.2

77.9

80.9

87.7

Married with
two children*

% of gross pay*

Disposable income of average
worker*

Australia

Mexico*

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

58

35.7

29.8

36.6

49.1

29.6

24.5

37.1

28.0

39.8

35.9

Portugal

Slovak Republic

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States

EU average

OECD average

20.7

24.8

25.1

36.5

29.0

15.6

35.6

31.9

18.9

8.5

15.4

13.7

10.7

8.8

11.8

10.8

6.0

10.1

7.5

11.5

9.9

8.4

7.1

29.4

Not available or not applicable.

33.5

Poland*

8.5

15.8

..

43.9

Norway

18.8

40.7

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

36.7

New Zealand

*

39.3

Netherlands

8.6

9.2

10.4

7.6

8.4

10.8

5.4

5.0

9.4

9.6

36.3

6.6

0.0

17.3

14.6

16.2

12.1

10.2

9.6

10.6

19.8

24.5

21.4

20.8

..

12.1

0.0

11.8

30.5

13.1

9.7

10.7

12.3

13.4

11.7

9.9

9.2

12.9

12.1

5.3

4.7

3.8

10.9

52.0

40.5

43.8

41.3

40.0

35.6

37.8

56.6

45.0

10.8

37.4

31.5

40.0

39.0

Taxing Wages , 2007-2008, OECD, Paris, 2008.

Sources:
Revenue Statistics, 1965-2007, OECD, Paris, 2008;

31.5

30.0

16.8

29.0

48.7

23.0

26.1

27.2

38.7

40.6

38.1

27.3

32.7

29.6

63.7

73.4

69.9

75.6

73.1

69.6

78.3

69.1

79.5

77.6

77.5

67.8

70.9

78.9

71.7

84.9

82.4

88.6

79.6

69.6

90.9

77.2

86.7

96.3

88.9

69.6

79.3

96.9

Netherlands

OECD average

EU average

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland*

Norway

New Zealand

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703488337628

28.1

29.4

39.3

30.0

20.0

21.3

28.0

35.0

19.0

27.5

19.0

28.0

33.0

59

409

6 993

Netherlands

9 362

Japan

Luxembourg

4 444

13 910

Germany

1 325

10 957

France

Italy

1 139

Finland

Ireland

2 800

Denmark

693

0.32

4 725

Canada

Greece

0.47

2 381

Belgium

0.80

0.92

0.18

0.20

0.58

0.20

0.38

0.39

0.43

0.82

0.42

1 681

Austria

5.8

0.3

7.8

3.7

1.1

0.6

11.6

9.1

1.0

2.3

3.9

2.0

1.4

4.1

7.5

- 2.0

2.7

13.3

3.2

8.7

1.7

7.4

0.7

6.3

- 0.2

17.8

9.1

100.0

100.0

86.2

98.9

100.0

100.0

95.8

92.6

99.9

100.0

100.0

99.7

100.0

100.0

2007

2002-03/2007-08

2.6

2008

0.34

2008

3 166

Australia

2008

% of ODA
commitments

Annual average %
change in volume

Share in total DAC
ODA*

% of GNI

Million USD

Grant element

Official Development Assistance (ODA)

Public finance > Development aid

25.4

32.5

24.8

68.0

30.9

50.2

35.3

36.7

40.5

35.6

22.7

36.5

26.8

0.04

0.02

0.01

0.00

0.15

0.00

0.04

..

0.01

0.03

0.10

0.07

0.03

0.08

2007

2007
15.0

% of GNI

Grants by NGOs*

% of ODA

Multilateral aid

2007

0.23

0.35

0.06

0.06

0.28

0.04

0.09

0.11

0.15

0.34

0.11

0.17

0.07

0.08

% of GNI

ODA to LDCs*

Netherlands

Luxembourg

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Canada

Belgium

Austria

Australia

60

Not available or not applicable.

0.30

DAC total*

..

0.42

70 168

119 759

EU15

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL
Data for 2008 are preliminary.

0.25

80 815

G7

*
.

0.18

0.43

26 008

0.41

11 409

2 016

Switzerland

0.98

United States

4 730

Sweden

0.43

0.27

0.88

0.30

United Kingdom

6 686

Spain

614

Portugal

346

3 967

Norway

New Zealand

100.0

58.6

67.5

21.7

9.5

1.7

3.9

5.6

0.5

3.3

0.3

5.4

5.9

4.9

7.0

6.7

4.4

7.4

14.3

1.4

3.8

8.1

29.6

37.6

29.7

13.2

43.1

25.0

32.4

35.0

42.6

22.7

22.7

Sources:
OECD/DAC Statistics, www.oecd.org/dac/stats.

97.1

97.4

96.3

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

95.8

85.7

100.0

100.0

0.09

0.12

0.07

0.04

0.14

0.11

0.29

0.08

0.10

0.34

0.07

DAC total*

EU15

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Portugal

Norway

New Zealand

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703520540522

0.05

0.02

0.05

0.09

0.02

0.11

0.02

..

0.00

..

0.04

61

3.3

2.6

1.5

0.0

New Zealand

Norway

1.9

9.2

2.0

..

..

..

1.6

0.1

0.4

10.1

1.8

6.9

0.1

1.1

2.1

9.3

4.4

6.0

3.7

11.0

2.1

1.6

1998

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg*

0.3

..

Ireland

Korea

..

Iceland

0.5

4.3

Hungary

Japan

1.4

Greece

0.7

0.7

Germany

Italy

..

3.4

3.1

Denmark

France

4.9

Czech Republic

Finland

3.0

Canada

25.1

3.3

Austria

Belgium-Luxembourg*

4.5

2008

Australia

% of GDP

Inflows

- 0.1

2.0

- 9.1

21.9

..

2.2

24.4

17.0

- 12.3

- 0.4

6.6

5.1

24.9

97.0

- 4.2

10.7

10.7

44.7

139.9

13.5

46.6

2008

3.9

1.8

36.9

8.6

..

5.4

3.2

4.3

8.9

0.1

3.3

0.1

24.6

31.0

12.1

7.7

3.7

22.8

30.1

4.5

6.0

1998

Billion USD

6.2

0.1

6.1

0.1

..

1.5

2.6

1.9

81.1

..

1.1

0.7

4.3

7.0

0.6

8.0

0.9

5.2

30.8

6.8

3.5

2008

% of GDP

Direct investment flows

International trade and investment > Direct investment

1.7

0.7

9.1

0.0

..

1.4

0.6

1.3

4.4

0.9

0.6

..

4.1

3.3

14.3

2.6

0.2

5.6

10.6

1.3

0.9

1998

Outflows

28.1

0.1

53.1

0.7

103.9

12.8

128.0

43.8

13.2

- 8.1

1.6

2.6

156.2

200.0

1.6

27.3

1.9

77.6

172.1

28.2

35.8

2008

2.5

0.4

36.5

0.0

0.0

4.7

24.2

16.1

3.9

0.1

0.3

- 0.3

88.8

48.6

18.6

4.5

0.1

34.3

29.1

2.7

3.3

1998

Billion USD

..

53.4

644.6

..

..

85.3

203.4

343.2

0.0

0.0

88.4

34.8

915.4

991.5

87.9

..

114.4

412.3

..

164.2

272.3

2008

25.6

33.2

164.5

63.6

20.8

0.0

26.1

108.8

62.5

0.5

20.8

13.1

252.4

246.2

16.5

35.7

14.4

143.3

..

25.0

106.0

1998

..

13.1

843.8

..

..

95.5

680.3

517.1

..

..

19.5

27.8

1 228.4

1 397.1

114.5

..

9.9

520.4

..

160.1

194.8

2008

23.7

5.5

229.0

..

8.0

..

270.0

177.0

20.3

0.4

0.8

2.8

365.2

288.0

29.4

38.8

0.8

171.8

..

17.5

78.6

1998

Outward
Billion USD

Billion USD

Direct investment positions
Inward

Australia

Norway

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg*

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium-Luxembourg*

Austria

62

6.4

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

Not available or not applicable.

0.6

2.8

2.6

43.8

31.9

524.2

179.0

74.3

0.9

8.9

19.8

11.8

0.7

3.0

..

9.6

70.3

41.1

..

45.1

1 021.2

319.7

96.0

18.2

17.4

40.4

65.4

3.4

3.5

16.0

*

0.4

3.9

3.9

3.6

Brazil

South Africa

2.2

2.4

OECD total

2.2

2.1

2.3

United States

5.0

5.1

3.6

United Kingdom

Russian Federation

0.3

2.5

Turkey

0.7

3.3

3.5

Switzerland

4.2

7.8

8.4

Sweden

..

2.0

4.1

Spain

3.8

3.2

3.6

Slovak Republic

India

2.5

1.4

Portugal

China

3.7

3.0

Poland

0.6

..

3.7

1.8

..

1.7

3.8

2.3

4.1

0.3

17.6

8.4

4.8

0.3

0.9

0.2

1.3

1.0

0.0

0.3

0.3

2.7

1.6

8.4

0.1

6.9

9.6

3.2

0.7

3.4

3.4

0.3

1.6

1.3

0.0

2.6

2.7

651.1

142.6

122.9

0.4

18.8

24.4

18.9

0.1

4.0

..

..

..

..

..

6 963.3

..

982.8

..

374.1

253.4

634.8

45.9

99.8

161.4

22.5

21.8

..

..

..

..

..

9 080.0

..

1 510.5

13.9

724.7

319.2

601.9

1.9

63.6

1.2

..

..

..

..

..

3 775.7

1 196.0

488.4

..

184.2

93.5

74.1

0.4

10.2

Poland

South Africa

Russian Federation

India

China

Brazil

OECD total

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703543766732

..

..

..

..

..

2 940.6

920.0

337.4

..

72.0

51.0

126.0

2.9

30.1

Sources:
International Direct Investment Database, OECD, Paris, 2008.

- 2.3

52.4

19.4

..

20.5

1 630.8

332.0

110.4

2.6

86.3

40.2

77.2

0.3

2.1

63

2.8

6.5

5.4

5.0

6.7

155.5

100.0

735.9

1 322.4

104.6

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

1.5

11.7

3.5

698.0

424.0

73.5

Italy

Japan

Korea

Luxembourg

4.1

3.8

179.3

618.4

Ireland

13.4

14.2

130.7

Czech Republic

- 1.4

5.5

467.6

Canada

9.2

4.6

393.4

Belgium

109.3

7.5

Iceland

12.7

213.2

199.1

Austria

2007/2006

Billion
USD

Australia

% volume
change

89.7

439.9

771.4

613.5

207.2

7.1

111.5

71.9

1 556.4

687.5

112.4

162.2

139.5

495.4

407.1

220.9

196.5

Billion
USD

4.4

12.6

8.4

4.6

6.8

18.1

16.4

3.1

7.5

2.6

8.1

2.2

14.9

1.0

4.0

8.8

4.5

2007/2006

% volume
change

Exports

At current
prices and
exchange
rates

Goods and services1

At current
prices and
exchange
rates

Imports

International trade and investment > Trade, 2007

22.3

356.8

622.2

511.8

86.7

6.7

94.7

76.1

1 059.3

611.1

81.7

98.0

116.8

380.4

413.4

156.1

157.8

Billion
USD

13.5

15.3

7.5

15.6

13.2

11.7

23.0

19.5

14.9

15.3

17.7

15.9

25.0

8.7

16.9

16.2

19.0

% change
2007/2006

Total

73.9

61.5

55.7

75.0

80.4

76.7

85.3

70.7

79.4

76.5

70.7

80.0

84.5

80.7

77.0

79.6

77.6

% of total
trade

1.1

0.5

- 0.7

0.5

- 2.2

- 2.8

- 2.3

4.0

2.0

1.4

0.5

- 0.2

1.5

- 1.0

2.2

4.3

0.0

% change
2007/2006
141.0

16.2

371.5

714.3

500.4

122.0

4.8

94.6

23.5

1 328.8

539.3

90.1

101.6

120.9

420.2

430.9

156.6

14.3

14.1

14.1

10.5

20.0

12.2

38.2

27.7

12.4

18.4

12.6

16.5

12.7

27.1

8.3

16.7

16.7

91.0

91.2

96.4

88.6

87.5

54.2

89.6

63.6

91.5

83.0

86.6

68.5

91.2

62.9

82.8

88.2

33.5

% of total
trade

- 0.1

- 0.3

- 0.5

- 0.2

- 0.5

25.0

- 1.2

5.0

0.3

- 0.1

- 0.2

0.2

- 0.2

- 2.8

1.1

2.5

2.6

% change
2007/2006

Manufacturing, share of
total trade

Exports (f.o.b.)*

% change
2007/2006

Total

Billion USD

Trade by commodities2

Manufacturing, share of
total trade

Imports (c.i.f.)*

72.6

104.1

114.8

97.8

140.8

71.3

99.9

30.9

125.4

88.3

110.2

103.7

103.5

110.5

104.2

100.3

89.3

Coverage
ratio

Australia

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

64

..

India

37.8

Customs basis data, by SITC rev. 3

Not available or not applicable.

..

6.4

..

..

..

6.1

5.4

8.4

- 4.1

6.7

9.4

5.8

4.9

13.8

7.5

9.1

2.5

2.9

..

..

393.2

..

..

..

11 092.5

6 527.0

1 662.4

740.4

144.3

238.4

238.5

380.9

64.9

73.0

173.3

177.8

6.2

6.5

2.

..

27.3

..

..

..

4.5

2.8

2.2

- 1.5

11.1

5.9

9.4

6.2

8.9

5.6

13.6

7.5

9.6

289.6

581.4

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL
National accounts basis according to the 1993 System of National Accounts (SNA).

..

7.0

5.7

*
1.

South Africa

280.9

..

Russian Federation

..

China

11 513.7

Brazil

OECD total

7 047.6

835.1

United Kingdom

2 370.2

177.4

Turkey

G7

199.2

Switzerland

United States

203.4

Sweden

65.6

Slovak Republic

478.4

89.4

Portugal

Spain

185.3

Poland

38.9

New Zealand

115.8

Netherlands

Norway

306.1

514.8

Mexico

283.2

79.9

199.7

218.6

956.0

120.6

9 485.8

5 826.7

2 017.1

624.8

170.1

161.2

152.8

391.2

58.7

78.2

164.2

80.3

30.9

421.3

10.6

16.7

45.0

17.9

20.8

32.1

12.7

9.1

5.1

4.4

21.8

14.0

20.2

18.6

32.3

17.2

30.7

25.0

16.9

27.1

84.4

- 1.7

2.6

1.2

- 2.4

0.6

0.3

0.0

- 0.6

- 2.3

- 1.0

1.8

1.3

0.8

3.3

0.2

0.1

- 1.5

0.0

2.8

- 2.0

272.0

64.0

352.3

145.9

1 217.8

160.6

8 641.4

5 105.7

1 162.4

440.1

107.3

172.1

169.1

253.8

57.8

51.3

138.8

136.4

26.9

476.8

8.8

21.7

16.8

15.7

25.7

16.6

14.8

12.5

12.1

- 1.9

25.4

16.4

14.7

18.5

38.5

18.2

26.6

11.6

20.2

28.8

76.7

71.2

32.1

67.6

94.9

52.3

82.8

86.0

83.3

81.8

83.6

93.3

85.2

79.6

89.6

82.8

84.6

29.6

34.6

70.6

- 2.3

1.3

- 2.7

0.4

- 4.3

- 0.2

- 0.7

- 2.1

- 2.4

- 0.1

- 0.2

0.3

- 0.1

1.6

0.3

0.7

12.9

- 7.7

3.6

- 0.7

96.0

80.2

176.4

66.7

127.4

133.2

91.1

87.6

57.6

70.4

63.1

106.8

110.6

64.9

98.5

65.6

84.5

169.8

87.2

113.2

Mexico

South Africa

Russian Federation

India

China

Brazil

OECD total

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

New Zealand

Netherlands

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703544133021
Sources:
National Accounts of OECD Countries, OECD, Paris, 2009;
International Trade by Commodity Statistics, OECD, Paris, 2009;
UN Commodity Trade Statistics Database.

73.2

83.4

49.5

74.6

73.6

75.2

74.8

75.4

78.9

73.1

85.7

78.0

72.5

80.8

71.7

81.0

80.2

75.0

71.4

65

83.1

37.3

23.8

98.2

9.1

Korea

Luxembourg

Mexico*

Netherlands

New Zealand

93.8

Ireland

150.2

3.0

Iceland

Japan

15.6

Hungary

121.3

20.2

Greece

Italy

258.3

53.7

Denmark

Germany

14.3

Czech Republic

22.0

80.5

Canada

130.4

72.3

Belgium*

France

38.9

Austria

Finland

38.5

Australia

Billion USD

15.2

13.1

4.4

23.8

20.7

10.8

20.8

17.1

15.6

32.4

23.5

15.3

14.9

18.4

19.3

20.6

11.4

36.0

16.3

19.7

% change
2007/2006

Total

32.6

21.2

11.5

4.6

35.0

32.6

22.5

3.0

29.8

19.9

52.7

23.8

28.8

25.8

53.9

25.2

23.2

28.2

30.8

33.8

Transport

33.8

19.4

35.2

9.5

26.4

17.6

22.5

9.3

44.6

18.8

16.9

32.1

28.1

18.1

16.3

25.3

30.8

23.8

27.1

36.8

Travel

Imports

3.9

3.4

47.0

61.7

2.0

5.1

3.8

17.2

2.0

3.2

8.3

4.2

4.6

1.4

1.4

7.0

11.1

4.7

6.4

3.3

Finance and
insurance

% of total

International trade and investment > Trade in services, 2007*

6.3

10.2

0.0

1.0

6.2

11.1

1.4

25.2

0.2

11.4

3.0

3.8

3.5

6.4

2.5

4.5

9.3

2.6

3.8

7.3

Royalties
and license
fees

23.5

45.8

6.3

23.1

30.4

33.5

49.9

45.3

23.5

46.8

19.2

36.1

35.0

48.3

25.9

37.9

25.5

40.7

31.9

18.7

Other
services*

9.3

111.6

17.7

64.3

63.3

129.0

111.7

89.8

2.2

17.0

42.9

216.5

145.4

23.0

61.3

17.1

62.6

78.9

55.3

40.2

Billion USD

15.2

15.5

8.2

26.6

27.0

10.0

13.1

25.5

20.6

27.3

20.5

15.4

15.4

31.7

18.3

22.9

5.7

32.7

21.1

21.6

% change
2007/2006

Total

21.4

24.6

11.3

5.3

53.0

32.5

15.8

3.9

45.5

19.2

54.1

23.7

22.9

14.1

65.0

29.4

18.1

31.4

21.7

17.9

Transport

58.1

11.9

72.7

6.2

9.7

7.2

38.1

6.7

24.4

27.7

36.1

16.6

37.2

12.3

10.1

38.7

24.7

13.8

34.1

55.3

Travel

Exports

1.2

2.1

11.3

70.3

7.0

5.9

4.7

24.5

0.6

1.6

1.3

8.1

2.1

2.4

1.0

1.8

8.9

5.9

5.1

3.6

Finance and
insurance

% of total

1.5

12.3

0.7

0.6

2.7

18.0

0.9

1.3

0.0

5.4

0.1

3.4

6.1

5.4

3.3

0.2

5.8

2.1

1.4

1.7

Royalties
and license
fees

17.8

49.1

4.0

17.6

27.6

36.4

40.5

63.5

29.5

46.1

8.4

48.2

31.7

65.8

20.6

29.9

42.5

46.8

37.8

21.4

Other
services*

New Zealand

Netherlands

Mexico*

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium*

Austria

Australia

66

34.2

15.9

8.4

13.0

18.6

19.5

15.4

203.1

378.1

1 321.9

1 404.3

572.0

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States

G7

EU-25*

EU-25 extra*

OECD total*

32.0

15.9

59.2

16.6

South Africa

*

32.7

45.5

15.8

33.3

22.9

24.9

24.9

23.0

24.8

25.3

18.5

42.8

12.2

15.9

25.0

28.2

31.7

23.5

34.0

23.7

37.6

22.9

22.1

25.0

23.0

25.2

26.6

21.6

35.2

21.2

34.7

29.2

19.9

23.5

28.1

32.3

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

29.0

130.1

China

Russian Federation

Brazil

16.0

18.1

29.6

Switzerland*

27.7

21.1

47.8

Sweden

37.2

25.9

98.5

Spain

2 219.5

18.5

Slovak Republic*

36.8

Portugal

22.2

20.7

6.5

23.9

Poland

13.9

38.2

Norway

2.4

5.0

3.9

8.6

5.7

9.0

6.9

7.3

8.7

16.3

7.8

14.1

8.1

2.8

8.1

9.0

4.0

3.8

1.6

9.6

4.7

6.3

6.1

6.6

8.2

5.5

5.7

6.6

5.0

4.2

37.8

3.8

3.4

1.9

3.2

6.5

29.3

16.2

37.9

28.9

43.3

34.3

37.0

39.0

34.2

30.2

33.5

17.8

7.3

48.4

43.6

37.4

33.0

33.9

40.3

21.8

12.9

26.7

32.8

23.1

18.2

21.9

20.2

14.9

14.6

20.2

13.2

19.9

27.8

21.2

29.8

29.8

39.0

47.5

13.3

30.0

25.6

17.2

21.3

23.8

21.4

18.4

15.6

11.6

21.6

8.2

17.5

16.7

31.9

25.4

32.1

10.6

62.3

24.4

30.5

20.7

22.9

15.4

22.6

21.8

24.2

13.4

64.5

18.4

18.9

44.8

28.7

43.9

36.8

3.1

1.3

0.4

1.0

0.3

1.3

7.2

5.2

3.7

9.8

16.8

5.4

0.0

13.5

7.5

0.4

2.1

0.5

0.4

37.4

16.0

40.7

42.7

54.0

35.8

42.4

39.8

36.7

29.5

40.1

10.3

21.7

51.7

32.3

33.1

28.2

29.5

Norway

South Africa

Russian Federation

China

Brazil

OECD total*

EU-25 extra*

EU-25*

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland*

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic*

Portugal

Poland

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703564332456

8.0

3.9

0.9

6.8

12.6

13.2

12.5

13.2

13.9

29.5

3.6

38.2

4.4

5.8

4.2

2.0

1.2

Sources:
OECD Statistics on International Trade in Services, Volume 1, 1999-2007, OECD/Eurostat, Paris, 2009;
For Brazil, China, Russian Federation and South Africa: IMF.

13.6

39.4

122.2

24.0

2 520.0

687.5

1 595.7

1 439.9

493.2

281.4

28.6

66.3

63.4

128.9

7.0

23.1

28.5

67

0.7

0.6

0.4

1.8

1.4

0.8

0.1

0.7

1.0

3.3

11.9

- 3.5

1.2

- 0.1

3.6

0.3

107.4

108.3

106.5

113.9

108.5

108.6

106.1

106.8

112.0

122.5

137.9

109.2

108.1

100.8

112.7

108.7

118.9

107.4

111.2

Austria

Belgium*

Canada

Czech Republic

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea

Luxembourg

Mexico

Netherlands

New Zealand*

3.0

1.8

6.2

2.5

111.5

% change April 2009
/ April 2008

Australia*

2005 = 100

April 2009

Consumer prices

Prices and finance > Prices and interest rates

..

..

106.5

126.5

104.5

111.1

103.0

105.7

108.6

164.1

119.7

110.8

104.0

103.9

109.7

112.8

101.8

105.6

110.9

105.4

2005 = 100

April 2009

..

- 9.7

6.8

- 18.1

0.5

- 3.0

- 6.3

- 0.1

12.5

0.3

- 10.4

- 3.4

- 7.3

- 7.7

- 1.1

- 4.8

- 2.2

0.0

- 3.0

..

% change April 2009
/ April 2008

Producer prices

68.0

63.9

150.4

85.2

123.4

65.6

56.2

36.6

9.7

64.9

64.7

88.4

71.8

72.3

72.3

65.9

91.8

62.3

61.8

87.1

2005 = 100

April 2009

- 27.2

- 48.7

- 31.8

- 57.2

- 25.6

- 35.7

- 44.4

- 61.6

- 91.7

- 44.4

- 51.2

- 36.7

- 38.5

- 46.8

- 44.0

- 47.1

- 33.0

- 50.3

- 52.9

- 32.4

% change April 2009
/ April 2008

Share prices

3.12

..

5.99

..

2.42

0.36

..

..

14.54

9.77

..

..

..

..

2.06

2.50

0.89

..

..

3.10

Short-term, %*

5.24

3.77

6.13

..

4.90

1.40

4.35

5.27

7.90

10.63

5.51

3.13

3.66

3.78

3.50

5.25

2.92

3.90

3.91

4.51

Long-term, %

April 2009

Interest rates

New Zealand*

Netherlands

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium*

Austria

Australia*

68

2.3

- 0.7

- 0.1

0.6

1.3

0.6

0.5

5.5

108.0

114.0

110.6

106.7

103.9

138.0

110.1

109.2

107.5

108.3

109.5

109.3

108.6

118.8

Portugal

Slovak Republic

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

United Kingdom

United States

G7

Euro area*

EU27*

OECD total*

excl. high infl.*

Brazil

Not available or not applicable.

8.8

128.5

South Africa*

..

13.1

151.4

Russian Federation*

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

8.7

India

*

- 1.5

..

129.1

China

6.1

- 0.3

- 0.1

- 0.2

2.3

- 0.5

4.2

112.1

Poland

2.9

109.0

Norway

136.5

..

..

..

..

108.4

108.8

106.9

105.2

107.0

108.6

113.6

126.6

..

113.7

108.1

97.8

105.5

106.7

116.3

2.0

8.1

..

..

..

..

- 4.3

- 4.3

- 4.8

- 5.8

- 5.2

- 6.6

- 1.6

- 3.2

..

2.7

- 6.2

- 5.8

- 6.6

- 2.2

89.9

- 44.8

- 39.0

- 46.5

- 33.0

- 32.9

- 30.3

..

..

..

- 41.8

..

- 41.8

- 32.4

- 27.2

- 31.9

- 28.2

- 38.6

- 26.3

- 37.2

- 42.3

2.87

8.17

14.80

..

1.12

..

..

..

..

1.42

..

0.89

1.48

..

0.40

0.30

..

..

..

4.30

3.90

8.43

10.40

..

..

..

..

..

..

4.09

..

2.93

3.41

..

2.20

3.18

4.02

4.93

4.53

6.19

Norway

South Africa*

Russian Federation*

India

China

Brazil

excl. high infl.*

OECD total*

EU27*

Euro area*

G7

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703588158876

Sources:
Main Economic Indicators , Volume 2009/6 - June, OECD.

121.4

124.9

147.7

216.5

169.2

..

..

..

71.3

..

72.6

78.5

105.3

80.6

88.5

85.3

77.5

94.3

92.3

69

1.7

30.9

Mexico

11.8

Luxembourg

Ireland

Korea

2.9

23.9

Iceland

7.5

3.6

Hungary

Japan

2.2

Greece

6.7

6.7

Germany

Italy

3.3

11.4

9.1

Denmark

France

3.7

Czech Republic

Finland

9.3

7.8

Canada

5.3

Austria

Belgium

6.4

Australia

1.3

26.1

11.7

7.9

4.0

9.0

2.6

2.3

1.5

6.5

9.3

3.6

6.3

2.6

4.1

5.7

5.3

8.4

7 711.3

13 706.1

79 381.9

270 355.9

91 109.1

52 860.3

46.8

2 782.9

3 461.1

117 244.5

187 155.1

3 807.3

18 640.7

2 668.5

62 573.4

30 381.6

9 696.5

41 481.7

Life

9 990.6

1 626.6

40 387.4

81 051.8

56 132.3

10 374.0

537.5

2 286.8

3 684.6

163 163.0

125 817.0

4 482.2

9 821.7

3 881.9

73 496.5

12 655.2

14 064.2

25 479.0

Non-life

Millions of USD

1997

% of GDP

2007

2007 premiums

Insurance

Direct gross premiums

Prices and finance > Insurance and pensions

32 472.0

..

349 511.8

2 838 015.0

638 900.7

206 032.9

..

..

..

1 320 297.6

1 975 927.9

61 542.8

..

13 017.1

478 300.0

..

58 070.5

250 034.6

2007

..

..

116 457.2

1 823 927.2

156 925.8

..

..

..

3 351.4

705 703.6

646 258.1

..

107 873.9

2 925.6

140 825.9

..

..

161 210.7

1997

Millions of USD

Financial assets*

10.4

1.0

3.0

20.0

3.3

46.6

115.8

9.7

0.0

4.7

1.1

59.0

47.4

4.7

54.2

4.0

4.2

93.3

2008

% of GDP

874 425.7

-1

112 675.6

512.2

27 790.5

68 685.6

-1

18 882.4

14 885.7

33.7

171 989.8

27 397.3

160 678.4

161 648.7

8 240.7

813 990.9

18 151.7

17 125.7

962 539.4

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

26 600.0

..

..

759 719.8

25 100.6

45 791.2

6 636.0

2 071.4

..

65 125.3

..

61 951.7

43 639.4

1 404.1

351 615.3

12 771.0

5 673.2

268 180.6

2001

Millions of USD
2008

118 633.2

-1

Pension*

Financial assets

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Total
investment of
pension funds

1.2

0.1

0.3

..

0.4

..

7.9

1.4

0.0

0.3

..

10.7

0.5

1.0

1.5

0.2

0.4

13.5

2008

% of GDP

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

0.2

0.1

0.4

..

0.2

..

3.8

0.2

0.0

0.1

..

9.1

0.6

0.3

1.8

0.2

0.3

2.9

2008

% of GDP

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Contributions to Benefits paid by
pension funds
pension funds

Australia

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland

Hungary

Greece

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

70

5.2

6.4

9.8

1.3

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

5 487 883.9

..

3 469.6

293 976.5

319 091.6

252 282.2

..

67 027.1

29 382.3

138 215.2

..

303 956.2

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

813 993.7

133 419.2

7 385.1

21 577.2

15 603.7

46 450.7

1 170.4

6 113.3

6 589.9

7 718.9

3 314.1

28 687.7

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008, a data
point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

568 983.1

423 783.5

1 023.7

23 927.5

15 451.3

31 967.1

1 154.0

12 610.5

9 222.1

12 076.8

..

36 590.4

..
-n

10.1

11.8

1.0

11.6

5.3

4.8

2.3

4.4

2.4

4.6

..

8.8

*

10.8

3.1

Slovak Republic

United States

8.2

Portugal

19.2

3.7

United Kingdom

5.1

Poland

..

New Zealand

Norway

8.3

Netherlands

57.6

78.9

1.7

119.2

8.7

7.5

4.7

12.2

11.0

7.0

10.6

138.1

Sources:
OECD, Global Pension Statistics;
OECD, Insurance Statistics.

2 709 790.0

1 126 340.7

1 649.9

..

162 734.7

..

..

14 938.8

3 230.1

51 063.0

..

224 644.4

504 601.5

-1

8 180 855.9

2 186 471.5

12 681.9

39 452.3

-1

108 404.4

-1

4 509.6

29 653.0

57 927.0

27 385.4

13 600.9

1 058 153.4

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

4.3

..

2.8

0.6

8.7

..

0.7

..

1.5

1.7

0.6

1.5

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

3.6

..

2.8

0.0

5.4

..

0.3

..

0.7

..

0.2

1.4

-1

-1

-1

-1

-1

Netherlands

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey

Switzerland

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

Portugal

Poland

Norway

New Zealand

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703600658558

7 207 875.3

1 040 471.9

..

261 356.6

18 254.3

35 059.8

0.0

13 273.3

4 624.0

9 389.0

7 686.9

411 321.8

71

228.92

63.16

152.37

..

245.85

292.44

301.32

225.12

177.89

..

356.89

365.14

530.20

325.90

..

..

Finland

France

Germany*

Greece*

Hungary

Iceland*

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea

Luxembourg*

Mexico*

260.53

..

545.02

Denmark

Norway*

58.94

161.99

Czech Republic

600.39

318.38

461.34

Canada

Netherlands

80.79

464.57

Belgium

-1

-1

88.01

142.18

280.22

Austria

215.20

249.94

..

136.55

73.32

102.13

96.80

109.33

89.15

366.97

183.38

2007

2007

Australia*

-1

Total liabilities

-1

-1

-1

201.85

24.13

3.43

..

69.16

109.02

25.44

27.77

..

19.27

29.78

20.97

35.63

112.62

34.26

48.08

50.32

14.76

31.21

25.38

2007

Total assets

-1

-1

-1

57.91

51.91

28.87

..

29.54

190.97

112.54

28.10

..

71.82

106.50

65.56

70.03

41.41

31.19

34.14

95.26

87.65

61.93

28.64

2007

Total liabilities

% of GDP

% of disposable income

Total assets

General government

Households and NPISH

Financial balance sheets

-1

-1

-1

34.23

57.05

..

148.58

43.39

53.09

33.94

..

12.00

8.77

5.22

61.22

92.11

26.02

71.90

9.99

34.61

64.93

33.63

33.52

2007

-2

-1

30.70

56.53

..

77.72

33.60

41.05

22.14

..

9.53

4.06

3.24

43.07

54.50

17.20

52.38

9.35

32.71

24.30

25.95

36.25

1997

Insurance companies*

Prices and finance > Financial balance sheets and institutional investment

+5

+2

+4

+5

7.52

122.40

7.83

..

3.98

22.78

2.13

..

131.74

10.83

0.59

11.35

..

2.09

49.82

4.65

63.88

3.96

4.75

97.49

2007

-1

6.96

93.42

0.18

..

3.30

14.65

1.06

..

82.96

0.65

0.10

7.24

..

3.69

39.66

2.73

51.62

3.92

1.72

48.28

1997

Pension funds*

% of GDP

+5

+2

+4

+3

+5

Financial assets of institutional investors

20.18

14.86

7.67

..

44.24

72.95

16.22

..

54.39

13.09

9.47

44.71

79.09

38.93

60.47

7.71

47.86

34.57

51.75

23.91

2007

-1

8.79

16.07

3.66

..

30.67

45.84

12.57

..

13.03

2.83

20.19

24.30

40.48

2.86

7.93

8.21

34.32

14.91

22.75

13.10

1997

Investment companies*

+2

+5

+4

Australia*

Norway*

Netherlands

Mexico*

Luxembourg*

Korea

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland*

Hungary

Greece*

Germany*

France

Finland

Denmark

Czech Republic

Canada

Belgium

Austria

72

634.60

Switzerland*

20.02

24.84

..

37.05

-1

-n

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier (later, if +n) than the reference year. E.g. if the
column refers to 2008, a data point with '-1' attached refers to 2007.

-1

68.02

23.27

32.96

..

146.79

187.80

..

203.24

149.51

148.67

60.87

26.81

34.75

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

United States

-1

39.90

157.00

*

505.97

509.71

United Kingdom

..

359.07

Sweden

Turkey*

308.20

Spain

85.91

Portugal

Slovak Republic

121.36

347.77

Poland

63.38

53.80

..

50.62

47.06

42.19

32.36

70.32

51.66

-1

9.96

45.91

100.77

1.02

89.09

83.56

25.08

8.66

32.88

40.70

87.71

0.65

79.70

66.88

17.28

4.80

+2

78.21

75.82

..

111.30

3.88

8.40

1.37

12.66

12.06

-1

-1

74.74

77.09

..

95.32

3.21

4.37

..

9.92

0.34

Financial Balance Sheets, OECD, Paris, 2008.

11.95

85.77

38.79

2.57

76.64

49.70

25.82

7.29

17.60

-1

0.37

50.72

24.40

0.07

32.30

34.63

33.17

0.58

23.24

+2

United States

United Kingdom

Turkey*

Switzerland*

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic

+4

Portugal

+3

Poland
+1

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703605172830

+2

+4

+2

Sources:
Institutional Investors database (table 7IA), OECD, Paris, 2008;

-1

-1

2.07
15.31

73

Australian dollar

Euro

Euro

Canadian dollar

Czech koruna

Danish krone

Euro

Euro

Euro

Euro

forint

Icelandic króna

Euro

Euro

yen

won

Euro

Mexican peso

Australia*

Austria

Belgium

Canada*

Czech Republic

Denmark*

Finland

France

Germany

Greece*

Hungary*

Iceland*

Ireland

Italy

Japan

Korea*

Luxembourg

Mexico

Currency

Foreign finance

13.19

..

1 253.59

96.53

..

..

126.46

206.02

..

..

..

..

5.45

19.54

1.15

..

..

1.31

Per USD

20.58

..

2 000.00

144.93

..

..

192.31

333.33

..

..

..

..

8.42

30.21

1.81

..

..

2.09

Per SDR*

Currency units, April 2009

Exchange rates

Prices and finance > Domestic and foreign finance

56 113

245 345

137 981

661 646

26 618

528 942

2 068

23 885

321 925

32 291

19 977

4 385

30 703

24 467

28 397

6 622

4 434

158.7

..

140.4

107.4

..

..

231.5

153.7

..

..

..

..

154.9

139.9

138.4

..

..

162.6

2005 = 100

Million SDR

20 276

April 2009

14.2

..

8.8

0.0

..

..

29.2

8.4

..

..

..

..

6.1

8.5

12.9

..

..

13.3

% change April
2009 / April
2008

Broad money

April 2009*

Reserve assets

Monetary aggregate

Domestic finance

20.4

5.5

28.3

146.2

86.2

34.5

42.4

55.6

101.2

37.7

52.1

28.2

32.3

25.7

27.8

82.0

54.0

5.1

Marketable

-1

4.1

3.4

0.8

16.7

11.5

- 7.4

2.3

12.7

6.7

1.1

2.1

1.0

0.0

1.3

0.8

8.1

5.5

0.0

-1

Non-marketable

% of GDP, 2008

Central government debt

All banks

..

1.00

1.93

..

1.14

0.73

..

2.18

1.64

0.71

0.47

1.39

0.99

..

1.30

0.50

0.86

..

Net income
before
provisions*

..

0.30

0.44

..

0.12

0.06

..

0.42

0.44

0.31

0.08

0.12

0.07

..

0.15

0.21

0.25

..

Net provisions

..

0.70

1.50

..

1.02

0.67

..

1.76

1.20

0.40

0.39

1.27

0.93

..

1.15

0.29

0.61

..

Income before
tax*

% of balance sheet, annual averages
2007

Mexico

Luxembourg

Korea*

Japan

Italy

Ireland

Iceland*

Hungary*

Greece*

Germany

France

Finland

Denmark*

Czech Republic

Canada*

Belgium

Austria

Australia*

74

Euro

Euro

Euro

Swedish krona

Swiss franc

Turkish new lira

Pound sterling

US dollar

Euro

..

..

Real

Yuan

Rupee

Ruble

Rand

Portugal*

Slovak Republic*

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland*

Turkey*

United Kingdom*

United States

Euro area

OECD total

excl. high infl.*

Brazil

China*

India

Russian Federation*

South Africa*

6.44

8.47

33.25

50.23

6.83

2.18

..

..

0.73

..

0.65

1.55

1.11

7.74

..

..

..

3.23

9.91

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.13

..

1.02

2.40

1.71

12.11

..

..

..

5.00

20 459

246 603

162 409

1 083 780

126 616

..

..

149 308

51 930

27 291

43 164

34 575

16 151

8 683

156

1 209

39 044

31 155

7 805

7 995

..

191.6

273.6

202.4

194.1

190.4

133.3

134.7

138.8

126.9

163.7

206.6

111.7

156.7

..

..

..

169.0

145.4

139.6

Additional information, including footnotes, are available via the StatLink URL

Złoty

Poland*

..

2.64

Not available or not applicable.
Data in this cell are from n years earlier than the reference year. E.g. if the column refers to 2008, a data point with '-1' attached
refers to 2007.

Norwegian krone

Norway*

..

1.66

..
-n

N. Zealand dollar

New Zealand*

*

Euro

Netherlands
..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

36.2

53.9

35.1

19.4

33.4

32.4

24.7

58.3

42.0

12.1

16.4

48.2

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

4.1

6.8

4.9

3.5

2.6

1.1

1.5

13.0

3.0

1.6

4.7

1.9

Sources:
Main Economic Indicators, Volume 2009/6 - June, OECD;
International Financial Statistics, IMF;
Central Government Debt, OECD, Paris, 2009;
Banking Statistics, database, OECD, Paris, 2008.

9.8

10.6

20.0

25.7

15.8

7.4

7.6

5.8

8.5

13.3

18.7

3.8

2.2

..

..

..

15.9

3.6

7.0

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

0.55

0.25

1.11

0.46

- 0.03

0.40

- 0.13

0.49

0.23

- 0.06

0.08

0.10

0.68

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.15

0.72

3.29

0.36

0.93

1.11

1.61

0.89

2.27

1.07

1.56

Netherlands

South Africa*

Russian Federation*

India

China*

Brazil

excl. high infl.*

OECD total

Euro area

United States

United Kingdom*

Turkey*

Switzerland*

Sweden

Spain

Slovak Republic*

Portugal*

Poland*

Norway*

New Zealand*

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/703605802625

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

..

1.70

0.96

4.40

0.83

0.90

1.51

1.48

1.38

2.50

1.02

1.64

0.77

75

Note: For details on OECD enlargement and enhanced engagement,
as well as co-operation programmes with other countries,
please visit “About OECD” at www.oecd.org.

Enhanced engagement countries
Brazil
China
India
Indonesia
South Africa

Candidates for accession
Chile
Estonia
Israel
Russian Federation
Slovenia

OECD member countries (see page 4)

FOR A BETTER WORLD ECONOMY

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OECD in graphs
2009
GDP growth
GDP per capita
Public debt climbs
Financial deficits
Joblessness record?
Immigrants and new jobs
Healthcare gap
Inflation
R&D spending alert
Investment collapse
Rarer youth
Pension funds
Development aid warning
Costly energy subsidies

78

GDP growth
Average annual, constant PPPs, %, 1989-2008
0.0
Ireland
Korea
Slovak Republic
Luxembourg
Turkey
Poland
Australia
Mexico
Spain
Greece
Iceland
United States
Norway
Hungary
Netherlands
Canada
OECD total
New Zealand
Austria
Finland
United Kingdom
Portugal
Sweden
Belgium
Czech Republic
Euro area
Japan
France
Germany
Denmark
Switzerland
Italy

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

6.5
5.6
5.1
4.7
4.2
4.0
3.3
3.2
3.1
3.0
3.0
2.9
2.9
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.8
2.7
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.2
2.2
2.1
2.1
2.0
2.0
2.0
1.9
1.8
1.4

Economic growth in the OECD area grew by an average of 2.8% per year in the 20 years to 2008, which
was still slightly faster than in the previous 20 years, despite the current crisis. The fastest annual
growth over two decades was recorded by Ireland, at over 6% per year, followed by Korea at 5.6% and
the Slovak Republic with 5.1%. Average growth reached over 4% in three other countries, but three
countries posted growth of below 2%. Poland and Hungary also delivered strong growth, though the
Czech Republic, also a transition economy, grew more slowly. Canada and the US were the only G7
economies to grow faster than the OECD average over the past two decades, whereas one G7 country,
Italy, showed the most sluggish average performance, at 1.4%. GDP growth in the OECD grew by an
average of 0.8% in 2008 and is expected to sag by 4.1% in 2009.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702037810306

GDP per capita

79

US$, using current PPPs

Luxembourg
Norway
United States
Ireland
Switzerland
Netherlands
Canada
Austria
Australia
Sweden
Iceland
Denmark
Belgium
United Kingdom
Germany
Finland
Japan
Euro area
OECD total
France
Spain
Italy
Greece
New Zealand
Korea
Czech Republic
Portugal
Slovak Republic
Hungary
Poland
Mexico
Turkey

1988
2008

0

20,000

40,000

60,000

80,000

Luxembourg, which had the highest GDP per head in the OECD in 1988 at $24,971 per head, was still
in the top slot in 2008 with some $79,800 per head, a rise of 220%. The profile of the top 10 has not
changed much in two decades, with the US, Norway, Canada and Switzerland still in the leading group.
Denmark and Sweden have slipped back, replaced by the Netherlands and Ireland. And in the past year,
Iceland, badly hurt by the crisis, has been replaced by Australia. Six countries now have GDP per head
above $40,000. The average for the OECD was $33,400 in 2008, compared with $14,493 in 1988.
Poland, Mexico and Turkey had the lowest GDP per head in 2008, at below $18,000.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702060641868

Public debt climbs

80

As % of GDP
0

25

50

75

100

125

150

175

Japan
Italy
Greece
Belgium
OECD total
United States
France
Hungary
Portugal
Germany
Canada
Austria
United Kingdom
Netherlands
Poland
Switzerland
Norway
Sweden
Spain
Finland
Slovak Republic
Czech Republic
Ireland
Korea
Denmark
New Zealand
Iceland

1989
2008

Luxembourg
Australia

Public debt, or general government debt, which covers central and local governments, has risen sharply
in the OECD area since 1989, from about 59% to nearly 79% in 2008. These proportions are likely to
increase significantly in the coming few years, as statisticians factor in the high price of the stimulus
packages put in place to bolster recession-hit economies in the OECD area and to tackle the social
fallout of the downturn. But in 2008, before stimulus packages were launched, Japan’s debt already
stood at nearly 175% of its total GDP, while the level of public debt in Finland, France and Germany
had nearly doubled, and had nearly quadrupled in Korea, over the past 20 years. Denmark, New Zealand
and Ireland, however, showed significant drops in the level of public debt over the same period.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702088626343

Financial deficits
as a % of nominal GDP, 2009

81

Norway
Korea
Finland
Switzerland
Luxembourg
Denmark
New Zealand
Sweden
Germany
Hungary
Austria
Netherlands
Czech Republic
Belgium
Canada
Australia
Slovak Republic
Italy
Estonia
Euro area
Slovenia
Greece
Poland
Portugal
France
OECD total
Japan
Spain
United States
Iceland
Ireland
United Kingdom
-14

-9

-4

2

7

General government fiscal balances of OECD countries dropped to an average of -7.7% of nominal
GDP in 2009. Norway is the only country that is not running an overall deficit, though that is thanks to
its oil revenues. The current recession has hit revenues in every country, but countries that needed large
crisis response and stimulus packages, like the US, Ireland and the UK, saw their deficits soar to above
10% of nominal GDP. Countries in a strong fiscal position before the crisis managed to limit their
deficits to -2%, like Finland, Korea and Switzerland. In the euro area, Germany, which aims to maintain
a balanced budget from 2016, managed better than France and Italy, whose fiscal deficits will exceed
-5.5% in 2009.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702113603061

Joblessness record?
Index base 100 = trough for the unemployment
rate, OECD average, quarterly data

82
190

1974Q3

1980Q1

1990Q2

2000Q4

2007Q4

Forecast

180

170

160

150

140

130

120

110

100
0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Unemployment in the current recession is set to rise more steeply than in any previous recession since
the 1970s. Projections show joblessness to reach nearly 10% in 2010, the OECD’s highest ever rate. If
these projections prove accurate, the level of unemployment will be 80% higher than in 2007. That
means that almost 26 million more people will be out of work in the OECD area alone. Since, as history
shows, employment trends lag behind growth trends, even if economic growth becomes vigorous late in
2010 and in 2011, it will still take several more years to reabsorb this large pool of unemployed into
the labour market.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702131842121

Immigrants and new jobs
Contribution of immigrant labour
to employment growth, %

83

Denmark
Luxembourg
United Kingdom
Italy
United States
Austria
Spain
Norway
Greece
Portugal
Australia (96-06)
Netherlands
Ireland (96-06)
Belgium
France
Finland

2003-2007

Hungary
0%

50%

100%

1997-2007
150%

200%

250%

Immigrants play a key role in the dynamic of labour markets but are also among the hardest hit by the
current economic crisis. From 2003 to 2007, some 30 million jobs were created in the OECD area,
representing an annual employment growth rate of 1.5%. Immigrant labour contributed significantly to
this growth. In the UK, for example, employment rose by more than 2 million since 1997, of which
almost 1.5 million, or 71% of the total, was accounted for by persons born abroad. Immigrant
employment has represented at least 40% of total employment growth in Austria, Denmark, Italy and
Spain. Two main factors explain trends observed in foreign-born employment in the past decade:
improvements in labour-market integration of immigrants and greater recruitment of foreign workers.
However, the economic downturn significantly worsens prospects for migrant workers. Labour
migration is on the decline in most OECD countries, sometimes very sharply, as in Spain, Ireland and
the UK, and unemployment among immigrants is increasing more rapidly than among their native
counterparts.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702142470156

Healthcare gap
84

Unmet care needs due to costs by income groups, 2007
Below average income

Above average income

52
United States
25

32
Australia
22

30
New Zealand
21

24
Germany
18

18
Canada
7

9

United
Kingdom

8

6
Netherlands
3

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Inequalities in access to healthcare affect all OECD countries. One measure of healthcare access is
whether people report an unmet care need, whether for a visit to the doctor, a dental consultation, a
hospital admission or some other type of care. While some people cite a lack of healthcare providers,
excessive travelling distance, or long waiting times as the reasons why they forego treatment, by far the
most prevalent reason cited by adults with low socioeconomic status is cost.The share of people
reporting unmet healthcare needs was by far the highest in the US, where adults with below-average
incomes who have health insurance report significantly fewer cost-related problems than their
uninsured counterparts. The Netherlands and the UK reported the lowest unmet needs, suggesting good
access and use of healthcare services in these countries.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702176582365

Inflation
Consumer price indices, 2005 = 100

Consumer price (non-food, non-energy)

135

Consumer price (energy)

115

95

75

55

35
Jan-1988

Jan-1993

Jan-1998

Jan-2003

Jan-2008

Energy prices had showed a sharp 70% increase between mid-2003 and mid-2008, yet the current fall
in prices is just as spectacular: in the six months before December 2008, the energy price index for
fuel, electricity and petrol collapsed by 23%–to reach the same level as in September 2005. Energy
prices seem to be firming up again, which could slow a recovery. On the other hand, the rise may also
reflect less speculative behaviour. After all, prices for non-energy and non-food items have continued
to rise at a regular rate of between 1.5% and 2.5% annually since January 2003. The latest forecasts
suggest that there is no risk of deflation in the OECD area for at least the next two years.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702225073788

85

R&D spending alert
Venture capital spending, 2005=100

86
180

Total

New projects

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

2009 Q1

2008 Q4

2008 Q3

2008 Q2

2008 Q1

2007 Q4

2007 Q3

2007 Q2

2007 Q1

2006 Q4

2006 Q3

2006 Q2

2006 Q1

2005 Q4

2005 Q3

2005 Q2

2005 Q1

0

Even as the world’s main economies are looking to “green growth” as the way out of the crisis and
towards a more sustainable economy, investment in the kinds of ideas and technologies that could
stimulate that growth has fallen sharply. Venture capital investment in the US began drying up at the
beginning of 2008 and has practically calcified since then. Total investment in the first quarter of 2009
was down 60% compared with the same quarter of 2008, while first sequence investment, or the first
investments made in a company from external sources, was down 65%. Venture capitalists are
concentrating on helping those firms survive that are already part of their investment portfolio. That
means fewer new start-ups and less spending on innovative areas like technology, as well as on “soft
assets”, such as research and skills that help drive growth in modern economies.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702234732584

Investment collapse
Millions of US$, 1991-2009

87

2,000,000

OECD FDI outflows projection
OECD FDI inflows projection
OECD FDI outflows
OECD FDI inflows
1,500,000

1,000,000

500,000

0

1991

1994

1997

2000

2003

2006

2009

The economic and financial crisis led to an abrupt drop in flows of foreign direct investment (FDI) in
2008. FDI inflows in OECD countries fell by 35% and outflows by 19% between 2007 and 2008. The
decrease is not–yet–as large as during the 2001 downturn, though the forecast for 2009 is not
encouraging: if the trend continues, inflows would fall to around $500 billion, three times less than in
2007; outflows could dip below $1 trillion for the first time since 2005. Inflows already fell by 48% in
the UK, but only by 7% in France. At the same time, outflows from France increased by 18%, whereas
Germany and the US recorded a 15% drop in their outflows.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702270558582

Rarer youth
2005=100

88

Australia

2010
2025

Austria

Denmark

France

Ireland

Mexico

Netherlands

Poland

Turkey

United States

OECD average

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

OECD countries have entered a period of demographic ageing that will have a major impact on their
economies, labour markets and societies. The first effects of this shift are expected to be felt in the
working-age population, as baby-boomers begin to retire in large numbers. Another effect is the size of
youth cohorts in OECD countries, which is showing signs of declining. Only in Denmark, Mexico, the
Netherlands and Turkey is the size of the youth cohort expected to surpass 2005 levels in 2025. Across
the OECD, the size of the 20-24 youth cohort will be 14% smaller in 2025 than it was in 2005. A
declining working-age population could pose challenges for financing social protection, maintaining
living standards, funding pensions and for skill supply and productivity.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702315300836

Pension funds
Nominal investment rate of return in selected
OECD countries, % change

89

Ireland
United States
Australia
Canada
Japan
Netherlands
Belgium
Hungary
Finland
United Kingdom
Poland
Sweden
Denmark
Iceland
Austria
OECD average
Portugal
Switzerland
Norway
Spain
Slovak Republic
Italy
Germany
Czech Republic

Jan-Dec 08

Mexico
Jan-Jun 09

Korea
Turkey
-40

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

The sharp declines in stock markets around the world in late 2008 hit private pension systems hard.
While pension funds in the OECD area lost more than 10% on average during 2008, that percentage
includes a 20% drop in returns late in the year, when the crisis was at a peak. Retirees and prospective
retirees in Ireland watched as the value of their pensions plunged by 35% during 2008. Americans and
Australians saw more than 20% of their retirement funds evaporate. “Green shoots” began surfacing for
pension investments in the first half of 2009, with slight positive returns in the US and Australia, while
in Korea and Turkey there were stronger gains. Despite the bursting of two major bubbles within the
same decade, pension-fund performance has been positive in the recent past. For example, the average
nominal rate of return of pension funds over the past 15years was 11.8% in Sweden (8.5% in real
terms), 10.6% in the United-States (6.1% in real terms) and 9.2% in the United Kingdom (6.1% in real
terms).

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702355773253

Development aid warning
DAC's members net ODA, 1990-2010

90
% of GNI

ODA (2004 US$ billions)

0.40

140

ODA as a % of GNI (left scale)
Total ODA (right scale)
ODA to Africa (right scale)

0.35

120

0.30
100

0.25
80

0.20

60
0.15

40
0.10

20

0.05

0.00

0
1990

1993

1996

1999

2002

2005

2008

With tightening government budgets, ensuring that development aid is not hit by the crisis will be a
challenge. Since 2005, donors had agreed to increase their official development assistance (ODA) by
$50 billion in 2010 compared with 2004 (at 2004 prices and exchange rates). Excluding debt relief and
humanitarian aid, annual growth of 11% is required to reach that target. ODA was exceptionally high in
2005 ($107.1 billion) and 2006 ($104.4 billion) due to large debt-relief operations for Iraq and
Nigeria. Excluding debt-relief grants, net ODA by OECD members of the Development Assistance
Committee rose by only 2% those years; this gives a truer reflection of the underlying trend in aid
flows. DAC members account for some 90% of global bilateral ODA. So far, about $21 billion of the
$50 billion promised by 2010 has already been delivered or planned. This leaves nearly an additional
$30 billion in 2004 dollars–about $34 billion in 2007 dollars–to be programmed into donors’ aid
budgets if they are to meet their aid commitments.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702364240587

Costly energy subsidies
% deviation of emissions relative to business-as-usual if
subsidies are removed

91

2050

Non-EU Eastern
European countries

2020

Russia
Oil-exporting
countries
India
China
Rest of the world
Brazil
Australia and
New Zealand
Canada
United States
Japan
EU27, Iceland, Liechtenstein,
Norway and Switzerland
Annex I
Non-Annex I
World
-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

0

10

20

30

Carbon taxes and cap-and-trade schemes put a price on greenhouse gas emissions and help control
the behaviour that generates them. Removing environmentally-harmful subsidies to energy
consumption and production is also important in setting the right price for carbon because these
subsidies are a de facto reward for carbon emissions. Energy subsidies are high in Russia, other
non-EU Eastern European countries, and a number of large developing countries, particularly India.
Removing these subsidies could reduce harmful emissions sharply in these countries and in the oilexporting countries of the Middle East, Algeria, Egypt, Indonesia, Libya and Venezuela. The effects
would be less marked in those countries that have agreed to reduce their emissions under the Kyoto
Protocol, known as Annex I countries, because most of them do not subsidise energy demand.

12 http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/702373628026

92

General notes

Cut-off date
Cut-off date for the data: June 2009.

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Glossary of terms used in OECD in Figures 93

DAC OECD Development Assistance Committee.
GDP Gross domestic product. The standard measure of the incomes generated from
productive activity in a country.
GNI Gross national income. GNI = GDP + net receipts of wages, salaries and property
income from abroad.
ICT Information and communication technologies.
ISCED International standard classification of education. A system designed by
UNESCO to ensure comparability of education statistics. ISCED classifies various
education programmes by their level of education (primary, secondary, tertiary...) and
field of education (general programmes, humanities and arts, science...).
LDC Least developed countries, group of 50 countries established by the United
Nations. To be classified as an LDC, countries must fall below thresholds established
for income, economic diversification and social development.
13

Mtoe Million of tonnes of oil equivalent. This is defined as 10 kilocalories. This
quantity of energy is, within a few per cent, equivalent to the net heat content of 1
million tonnes of crude oil.
NGO Non-governmental organisation.
ODA Official development assistance. Government aid to developing countries
designed to promote economic development and welfare. ODA can be bilateral (from
one country to another) or multilateral (via agencies such as the UN or the World
Bank).
PCT Patent Cooperation Treaty. An international patent law treaty which provides a
single procedure for filing patent applications in each of its contracting states (139
countries).
PPP Purchasing power parities (PPPs) are the currency conversion which eliminates
the differences in price levels between countries. They are used to compare the
volume of GDP in different countries. PPPs are obtained by evaluating the costs of a
basket of goods and services between countries for all components of GDP; PPPs are
given in national currency units per US dollar (in euro per US dollar for euro area
countries).
SNA The Systems of National Accounts includes definitions that ensure international
comparability of national accounts aggregates such as GDP.
TWh Terawatt hours.

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