Heuristic derives from the verb heuriskein which means to find , while the suffix metameans beyond, in an upper

level . Examples of metaheuristics include-but not limited to- Ant Colony Optimisation, Evolutionary Computation including Genetic Algorithm, Iterated Local Search, Simulated Annealing and Tabu Search. Nowadays metaheuristics are widely used to solve important practical combinatorial Optimisation problems.

-fundamental properties which characterize metaheuristics:
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Metaheuristics are strategies that guide the search process. The goal is to efficiently explore the search space in order to find (near) optimal solutions. Techniques which constitute metaheuristics algorithms range from simple local search procedures to complex learning processes. Metaheuristic algorithms are approximate and usually non-deterministic. They may incorporate mechanism to avoid getting trapped in confined areas of the search space. Metaheuristics are not problem-specific. Todays more advanced metaheuristics use search experience (embodied in some form of memory) to guide the search.

Simulated Annealing Metastrategy simulated annealing and tabu search algorithms for the vehicle routing problem. Tabu Search Tabu (or taboo) indicate things that can not be touched because they are sacred; the word tabu now also means a prohibition imposed by social custom as a protective measure: or of something banned as constituting a risk . The risk to be avoided in this case is that of following a counter-productive course, including one which may lead to entrapment without hope of escape. On the other hand, as in the broader social context where protective prohibitions are capable of being superseded when the occasion demands, the tabus of tabu search are to be overruled when evidence of a preferred alternative becomes compelling.

The most important association with traditional usage, however, stems from the fact that tabus as normally conceived are transmitted by means of a social memory which is subject to modification over time. This creates the fundamental link to the meaning of ³tabu´ in TS. The forbidden elements of TS receive their status by reliance on an evolving memory, which allows this status to shift according to time and circumstance. More particularly, TS is based on the premise that problem solving, in order to qualify as intelligent, must incorporate adaptive memory and responsive exploration. The adaptive memory feature of TS allows the implementation of procedures that implement a form of sampling (Fred Glover

Manuel Laguna, 1997).

Tabu Search Foundations and Short Term Memory The meta-heuristic approach called tabu search (TS) is dramatically changing our ability to solve problems of practical significance. Current applications of TS span the realms of resource planning, telecommunications, VLSI design, financial analysis, scheduling, space planning, energy distribution, molecular engineering, logistics, pattern classification, flexible manufacturing, waste management, mineral exploration, biomedical analysis, environmental conservation A distinguishing feature of tabu search is embodied in its exploitation of adaptive forms of memory, which equips it to penetrate complexities that often confound alternative approaches.

Recency-Based Memory In a system that uses memory, a bad choice based on strategy can provide useful clues about how the strategy may profitably be changed. (Even in a space with significant randomness a purposeful design can be more adept at uncovering the imprint of structure.) Responsive exploration integrates the basic principles of intelligent search, i.e., exploiting good solution features while exploring new promising regions. Tabu search is concerned with finding new and more effective ways of taking advantage of the mechanisms associated with both adaptive memory and responsive exploration. The development of new designs and strategic mixes makes TS a fertile area for research and empirical study.

Reactive Search Optimization (RSO) advocates the integration of sub-symbolic machine learning techniques into search heuristics for solving complex optimization problems. The word reactivehints at a ready response to events during the search through an internal online feedback loop for the selftuningof critical parameters. Methodologies of interest for Reactive Search include machine learning and statistics, in particular

reinforcement learning, active or query learning, neural networks, and meta-heuristics (although the boundary signalled by the "meta" prefix is not always clear).

Nature-Inspired Metaheuristic Algorithms
Modern metaheuristic algorithms such as bee algorithms and harmony search start to demonstrate their power in dealing with tough optimization problems and even NP-hard problems. This book reviews and introduces the state-of-the-art nature-inspired metaheuristic algorithms in optimization, including genetic algorithms, bee algorithms, particle swarm optimization, simulated annealing, ant colony optimization, harmony search, and firefly algorithms. We also briefly introduce the photosynthetic algorithm, the enzyme algorithm, and Tabu search. Worked examples with implementation have been used to show how each algorithm works. This book is thus an ideal textbook for an undergraduate and/or graduate course. As some of the algorithms such as the harmony search and firefly algorithms are at the forefront of current research, this book can also serve as a reference book for researchers. Evolutionary Algorithms
Evolutionary Algorithms belong to the Evolutionary Computation field of study concerned withcomputational methods inspired by the process and mechanisms of biological evolution. Theprocess of evolution by means of natural selection (descent with modification) was proposed byDarwin to account for the variety of life and its suitability (adaptive t) for its environment.The mechanisms of evolution describe how evolution actually takes place through the modification and propagation of genetic material (proteins). Evolutionary algorithms are concerned with investigating computations that resemble simpli ed versions of the processes and mechanisms of evolution toward achieving the effects of these processes and mechanisms, namely the development of adaptive systems. Additional subject areas that fall within the realm of Evolutionary Computation are algorithms that seek to exploit the properties from the related fields of Population Genetics, Population Ecology, Coevolutionary Biology, and Developmental Biology.

Nature-Inspired Collective Intelligence in Theory and Practice The past twenty years have witnessed an increasingly large emphasis in the computer science community on the study of bio-inspired computing. A wide spectrum of applications and services has been currently developed and designed which relies on various natural biological paradigms. The most known examples are swarm intelligence, evolutionary algorithms, and the artificial neural networks. Such paradigms find applications in the areas of network security, pervasive computing, mobile and embedded systems, pattern recognition, data classification and many others.

It is of extreme importance to bridge more artificial intelligence methods and communication technologies with biological sciences and capture the analogy between these disciplines. The collaborative work of swarms individuals can solve complex optimization problems in many areas of engineering, not only in transportation/communication networks. The artificial immune system can efficiently detect changes in the environment or deviations from the normal system behavior via selfoptimization and learning process. The concepts of intercellular information exchange can be used to learn: efficient dispatching, shortening of signaling pathways and modeling the control loop for a regulatory process in an organism. Some bio-ideas can be successfully exploited to elaborate good strategies against cascading failures in the systems, even terrorism. The aim of the Special Issue is to highlight an ongoing research on different methodological and technological approaches of nature-inspired theory and collective intelligence together with their applications on various domains. Relevant topics include but not limited to: Nature-inspired methods for Bioinformatics Tools and Computational Biology Intelligent Decision Making Systems Bio-inspired Computing Models Cellular and Organic Grids, Agent Colonies Computational Neuroscience Natural Team Formation Nature-inspired Performance Evaluation Self-adaptation, self-maintaining, and selfhealing Social Collective and Swarm Intelligence

Animal Inspired Metaheurstic Algorithms(Quran 27:18.) When foraging, a swarm of ants interact with their.... we are surely inspired to develop more powerful and efficient new algorithms. ...

In the Holy Scriptures, some verses pertaining to them are mentioned. For example, in the Holy Quran, ³At length, when they came to a (lowly) valley of ants, one of the ants said: "O ye ants get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it." (Quran 27:18.) When foraging, a swarm of ants interact with their environment locally. Although, there is no leader nor is there a centralize command, the ants still can communicate with each other via pheromones in finding their source of foods and paths. Foraging ants travel for distances of up to 200 meters from their nest [2] and usually find their way back using pheromone trails. With an average speed of 0.5 cm per second (this varies with the species of ant); a moving ant lays some pheromones (in varying quantities) on the ground, thus marking the path by a trail of this substance. While an isolated ant moves essentially at random, an ant encountering a previously laid trail can detect it and decide with high probability to follow it, thus reinforcing the trail with its own pheromone. According to Dorigo et al. [3], the collective behaviour that emerges is a form of autocatalytic behavior where the more the number of ants following a trail, the more attractive that particular trail becomes to be followed.

DISCUSSION In order to develop a completely new animal inspired algorithm, we have to observe study and learn from the creature¶s nature behavior. Each being has its own unique behavior and each provide almost unlimited ways for problem solving. If we can study carefully, we are surely inspired to develop more powerful and efficient new algorithms. As we can see, all the algorithms are based on the behavior of the animals with slight and small modifications to suit the needs of the algorithm itself. Due to the active nature of research on the particular animals which are still currently being done in laboratories, each significant behavior should be added into the algorithms instead of focusing on the process of hybridization. Although hybrid method is very popular among the researchers, we also rely upon the actual biological criteria of the animal itself. Take for example, the case of hybridization of BA with PSO; BA as we know can only send information about the nectar location on the dance floor. By adding PSO, the message will be sent out of the hive. To us, this is not consistent with the natural behavior of the bee. Naturally, ants and bees hunt for their colony and serve the queen. Monkeys, fireflies and flies look for food and a mate for themselves. The communication medium for the ant colony is via the pheromone (which is passed from ant to ant while foraging). Bees exercise the µwaggle dance¶ in hives after foraging. There is no group searching for monkeys while climbing for food. A firefly does not share its information while at the same is engaged in finding the best mate. A fly makes contact with its neighbors via neuronal signaling (while searching) and pheromone (while mating). We can observe clearly, one of the main advantages of the fly is that, information sharing among the group is faster than any of the other animals. Thus, the searching period for optimization for the fly will be shorter. Theoretically, the whole ant colony loses its direction and energy when being attacked while foraging or when the food is suddenly removed. For bees, only the particular bee concerned will be affected. However if the attacker is close to the hive or swarm of bees, the whole bee colony may µfight brutally¶. Meanwhile, a fly on the other hand, will still be flying around the potential area hunting for food. It may well be observed too that getting rid of flies while on a picnic or having a barbecue, is not actually an easy task! Various applications have been carried out recently in the last five years. These include the combinatorial optimization, job scheduling, web-hosting allocation, engineering design optimization, function optimization, reservoir modeling and the TSP, training neural networks, forming manufacturing cells, scheduling jobs for a production machine, finding multiple feasible solutions to a preliminary design problems, data clustering, optimizing the design of mechanical components, multi-objective optimization., tuning a fuzzy logic controller and many others. It would be futile to mention all of them.

Bees Bees, like ants, are specialized species of the wasp. A honey bee queen may lay 2000 eggs per day during spring buildup, but she also must lay 1000 to 1500 eggs per day during the foraging season, mostly to replace the daily casualties, most of which are workers dying of old age It has been stated in the Holy Quran, Your Lord revealed to the bees: "Build dwellings in the mountains and the trees, and also in the structures which men erect. Then eat from every kind of fruit and travel the paths of your Lord, which have been made easy for you to follow." From inside them comes a drink of varying colors, containing healing for mankind. There is certainly a sign in that for people who reflect. (Quran, 16:68-69) Sura 16, The Bee (Al-Nahl)

A well known scientist has made the following observation, "If the bee disappears from the surface of the earth, man would have no more than four years to live?"Albert Einstein The foraging process begins in a colony by scout bees being sent to search for promising flower patches. Scout bees move randomly from one patch to another. Having found the patches which are rated above a certain quality threshold, these scout bees would then deposit their nectar or pollen and eventually perform a ³waggle dance´ when they return to the hive [4]. This dance is essential for colony communication. It is about: the direction to the source, the distance from the hive, and the quality rating [4, 5]. This information helps the colony to send its bees to the flower patches precisely, without using guides or maps. While harvesting from a patch, the bees monitor its food level. This is necessary to decide upon the next waggle dance when they return to the hive [5]. If the patch is still good enough as a food source, then it will be advertised in the waggle dance and more bees will be recruited to the particular source [6]. Approximately 75% of the bees from a colony forage within one kilometer while the young field bees only fly within the first few hundred meters. The longer foraging time is, the greater would be the nectar availability.


Primates have a highly developed brain, usually living in groups with their own complex social systems. Their high intelligence allows them to adapt their behavior successfully to different environments. Included in this group are monkeys, apes and humans.

Fig. 4.Monkey.

According to A. Mucherino and O. Seref [8], when the monkey climbs up a tree for the first time, it they can only choose the branches of the tree in a random way, because it they do not have any previous experience climbing on that tree. However, when the monkey climbs up the tree again, it they would try to follow the paths that would lead them to good food, allowing the monkeys to discover a set of connected branches of the tree in which there are good food resources. When the monkey discovers a better solution, they remember it. Later, on their way down, the monkeys mark the corresponding branches, and then use these marks for deciding which branches to climb up again. This marking strategy reflects the monkey¶s intentions to focus on a part of a tree where it has already found some good solutions. When the monkey decides to restart climbing up, it encounters some previously visited branches on its way up. It then climbs these branches again. The monkey chooses between one of the two tree branches based on the marks it left before. Naturally, the monkey has greater probability of choosing a branch leading to better solutions, and this probability increases with the quality of the solution the branch leads to.


Fireflies (lightning bugs) use their bioluminescence to attract mates or prey. They live in moist places under debris on the ground, others beneath bark and decaying vegetation.

Firefly Algorithm(FA) was developed by Xin-She Yang [9] at Cambridge University in 2007. It uses the following three idealized rules: 1) all fireflies are unisex so that a firefly will be attracted to other fireflies regardless of their sex; 2) Attractiveness is proportional to their brightness; thus for any two flashing fireflies, the less brighter will move towards the brighter one. The

attractiveness is proportional to the brightness and they both decrease as their distance increases. If there is no brighter firefly than a particular one, it will move randomly; 3) the brightness of a firefly is affected or determined by the landscape of the objective function. For maximization problem, the brightness can simply be proportional to the value of the objective function.


In the Holy Quran, 22, verse 73, it was stated:

Mankind! An example has been made, so listen to it carefully. Those whom you call upon besides God are not even able to create a single fly, even if they were to join together to do it. And if a fly steals something from them, they cannot get it back. How feeble are both the seeker and the sought!

The main idea behind this algorithm is based upon Drosophila¶s biological behavior; 1) The fly hunts for food and a mate within a one to two month lifespan [10], 2) The fly flies with Lévy flight motion [11, 12, 13, 14]. 3) It smells the potential location (attractiveness), 4) Then tastes, if not good (fitness / profitability), rejects and goes to another location. To the fly, attractiveness is not necessarily profitable [21, 22, 10, 15]. 5) While foraging or mating, the fly also sends and receives a message with its friends about it foods and mates [16, 17, 18, 19, and 20].

The main steps of the algorithm are given in flowchart Fig. 8. When a fly decides to go for hunting, It will fly randomly (with Lévy flight motion) to find the location guided by a particular odor. While searching, the fly also sends and receives information from its neighbors and makes comparison about the best current location and fitness. If a fly has found its spot, it will then identify the fitness by taste. If the location no longer exists or the taste is µbitter¶, the fly will go off searching again. The fly will stay around at the most profitable area, sending, receiving and comparing information at the same time. The total number of flies depends upon the number of sources. However, since most of the flies are near to the food source location, then the next generation of flies is considered to be already closeby to the potential food location.

The extraordinary thing about the entire animal inspired metaheuristic algorithms is that, they all share one thing in common; in a short period of time, animals try to optimize their searching space while hunting for food and mates. As humans, we are no different i.e. we also deal with

optimization our daily life, such as budgeting our expenditure, traveling from one place to another, or even looking for the perfect µsoulmate¶. However, the only difference is the way in which we carry out our deals, as compared to the creatures. The existence of too µmany neurons¶ or disturbances make our decision become more complex, even though the solution might just be right in front of our eyes! Man always indulge in the quest for perfection, which may be prove to be quite a problem, as our lifespan is not very long, some might say. However, each animal algorithm has its own list of strengths and weaknesses due to its own µnatural¶ ability.

The word 'Algorithm' or 'Algorizm' is a corruption of his name or the name of the town Khwaarizm... Muhammad bin Moosaa Al-Khawaarizmi is considered to be one of the founders of Algebra. The word Algorithm or 'Algorizm' is a corruption of his name or the name of the town Khwaarizm (Kheva), in what is now Uzbekistan, where he was born. He adopted the use of cipher (zero), that was devised in India some centuries earlier, a numeral of fundamental importance, leading up to the so-called arithmetic of positions and the decimal system. The very word zero is a derivative of the Arabic sifr or cipher . His pioneering work on the system of numerals is well known as "Algorithm," or "Algorizm." In addition to introducing the Arabic numerals, he developed several arithmetical procedures, including operations on fractions. Parallel Metaheuristics: A New Class of Algorithms -Parallel Metaheuristics brings together an international group of experts in parallelism and metaheuristics to provide a much-needed synthesis of these two fields. Metaheuristic Techniques, Measuring the Performance of Parallel Metaheuristics Parallel Metaheuristic Models, including Parallel Genetic Algorithms, Parallel Genetic Programming, Parallel Evolution Strategies, Parallel Ant Colony Algorithms, Parallel Estimation of Distribution Algorithms, Parallel Scatter Search, Parallel Variable Neighborhood Search, Parallel Simulated Annealing, Parallel Tabu Search, Parallel GRASP, Parallel HybridMetaheuristics, Parallel Multi-Objective Optimization, and Parallel HeterogeneousMetaheuristics * Part Three: Theory and Applications, including Theory of Parallel Genetic Algorithms, Parallel Metaheuristics Applications, Parallel Metaheuristics in Telecommunications, and a final chapter on Bioinformatics and Parallel Metaheuristics

CALMA: Combinatorial ALgorithms forMilitary Applications ...J.G.Taylor, "Tabu Search for the Radio Links Frequency Assignment Problem", Presented in ... "Behaviour of three methods applied to easy and hard combinatorial problems", ... CALMA is the name of a research project setting out to determine strengths and weaknesses of a range of solution approaches to combinatorial problems. The project has been financed by the Ministeries of

Defence of the Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom in the EUCLID programme RTP 6-4 as part of CEPA 6 (Artificial Intelligence). EUCLID stands for EUropean Cooperation for the Long term In Defence.

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