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Fourth Edition

McGraw-Hill, 2011

Chapter 7

EXTERNAL FORCED

CONVECTION

Objectives

Distinguish between internal and external flow

Develop an understanding of friction drag and

pressure drag

Evaluate the drag and heat transfer associated

with flow over a flat plate for both laminar and

turbulent flow

Calculate the drag force exerted on cylinders

during cross flow, and the average heat transfer

coefficient

Determine the pressure drop and the average heat

transfer coefficient associated with flow across a

tube bank

2

Fluid flow over solid bodies creates:

drag force on the automobiles, power lines, trees,

and underwater pipelines

lift on airplane wings

upward draft of rain, snow, hail, and dust particles in

high winds;

cooling of metal or plastic sheets, steam and hot

water pipes

Free-stream velocity:

Velocity of fluid relative to an immersed solid body

sufficiently far from body. It is usually taken to be

The fluid velocity ranges from zero at the surface (the

no-slip condition) to the free-stream value away from

the surface.

Drag: The force a flowing fluid exerts on a

body in the flow direction.

The components of the pressure and wall

shear forces in the normal direction to flow

tend to move the body in that direction, and

their sum is called lift.

Both the skin friction (wall shear) and

pressure contribute to the drag and the lift.

The drag force FD depends on the density of the fluid, the upstream velocity

V, and the size, shape, and orientation of the body.

The drag characteristics of a body is represented by the dimensionless drag

coefficient CD defined as

shear stress w is called the skin friction

drag (or just friction drag) since it is

caused by frictional effects, and the part

that is due directly to pressure P is called

the pressure drag.

due to friction drag.

surface area.

frontal area and to the difference

between the pressures acting on the

front and back of the immersed body.

blunt bodies and negligible for

streamlined bodies.

forms a separated region between the

body and the fluid stream.

region behind the body here recirculating

and backflows occur.

larger the pressure drag.

trailing the body where the

effects of the body on velocity

are felt.

Viscous and rotational effects

are the most significant in the

boundary layer, the separated

region, and the wake.

6

Heat Transfer

Local and average

Nusselt numbers:

Average Nusselt

number:

Film temperature:

Average friction

coefficient:

Average heat transfer

coefficient:

The heat transfer rate:

7

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow depends on the surface

the type of fluid, and is best characterized by the Reynolds number.

The Reynolds number at a distance x from the leading edge of a flat plate is

expressed as

Critical Reynold number

critical Reynolds number for a flat

plate may vary somewhat from 105 to 3

106, depending on the surface

roughness, the turbulence level, and

the variation of pressure along the

8

surface.

Friction Coefficient

10

Local Nusselt number at x over a flat plate may be obtained by solving

differential energy equation for laminar flow (chapter 6) and by

empirical works for turbulent flow. For isothermal and smooth surfaces:

flow than they are in laminar flow.

decreases by a factor of x0.2 in the flow

11

direction.

transfer coefficients

Laminar +

turbulent

12

13

Local Nusselt numbers

coefficients

unheated starting length.

14

For a flat plate subjected to uniform heat flux

laminar flow and 4 percent higher for turbulent flow relative

to the isothermal plate case.

from the plate and the surface temperature at a distance x are

determined from

15

Flow over cylinders and spheres is frequently encountered in practice:

The tubes in a shell-and-tube heat; soccer, tennis, and golf balls.

Flows across cylinders and spheres, in general, involve flow

separation, which is difficult to handle analytically.

Flow across cylinders and spheres has been studied experimentally,

and several empirical correlations have been developed for the heat

transfer coefficient.

16

a cylinder

FLOW

OVER

CYLINDERS AND SPHERES

except for s, which is evaluated at the surface temperature Ts.

Constants C and m are

given in the table.

The relations for cylinders above are for single cylinders or

cylinders oriented such that the flow over them is not affected by

the presence of others. They are applicable to smooth surfaces.

17

18

19

in practice in heat transfer equipment, e.g., heat

exchangers.

In such equipment, one fluid moves through the

tubes while the other moves over the tubes in a

perpendicular direction.

Flow through the tubes can be analyzed by

considering flow through a single tube, and

multiplying the results by the number of tubes.

For flow over the tubes the tubes affect the flow

pattern and turbulence level downstream, and thus

heat transfer to or from them are altered.

Typical arrangement: in-line or staggered

The outer tube diameter D is the characteristic length.

The arrangement of the tubes are characterized by the

transverse pitch ST, longitudinal pitch SL , and the

diagonal pitch SD between tube centers.

20

diagonal

pitch

Arrangement of the

tubes in in-line and

staggered tube

banks (A1, AT, and

AD are flow areas at

indicated locations,

and L is the length of

the tubes).

21

be evaluated at the arithmetic

mean temperature.

The average Nusselt number relations in Table 72 are for tube banks

with more than 16 rows. Those relations can also be used for tube

banks with NL < 16 provided that they are modified as

NL < 16

where F is a correction factor whose values are given in Table 73.

For ReD > 1000, the correction factor is independent of Reynolds number.

Log mean

temperature

difference

Exit temperature

Heat transfer

rate

22

23

Pressure drop

c is the correction factor.

given is used to account

for the effects of deviation

from square arrangement

(in-line) and from

equilateral arrangement

(staggered).

24

external surface temperature is

110C passes through some

open area that is not protected

against the winds

(Fig. 723). Determine the rate

of heat loss from the pipe per

unit of its length when the air is

at 1 atm pressure and 10C and

the wind is blowing across the

pipe at a velocity of 8 m/s.

Summary

Drag and Heat Transfer in External Flow

Friction and pressure drag

Heat transfer

Friction coefficient

Heat transfer coefficient

Flat plate with unheated starting length

Uniform Heat Flux

Effect of surface roughness

Heat transfer coefficient

Pressure drop

44

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