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Deskripsi algoritma thinning

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Introduction

Thinning algorithm is a Morphological operation that is used to remove selected

foreground pixels from binary images. It preserves the topology (extent and

connectivity) of the original region while throwing away most of the original

foreground pixels. Figure 1.1 shows the result of a thinning operation on a

simple binary image.

Original Image

Thinned Image

Figure 1.1

applications, but is particularly useful for skeletonization and Medial Axis

Transform. In this mode it is commonly used to tidy up the output of edge

detectors by reducing all lines to single pixel thickness [6].

Like other morphological operators, thinning operators take two pieces of data

as input. One is the input image, which maybe either binary or greyscale. The

other is the structuring element, which determines the precise details of the

effect of the operator on the image [5].

1.2 Mathematical Morphology

Mathematical Morphology is the analysis of signals in terms of shape. This

simply means that morphology works by changing the shape of objects

contained within the signal. Mathematical morphology was developed in the

1970s by G.Matheron and J.Serra [4]. Morphology has several advantages over

other techniques especially when applied to image processing as outlined

below:

Works by using shape-based processing

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Computationally efficient

Morphology uses Set Theory as the foundation for many functions. The

simplest functions to implement are Dilation and Erosion. Dilation in 1D is

defined as:

This definition is also known as Minkowski Addition. This equation simply

means that B is moved over A and the intersection of B reflected and translated

with A is found. Usually A will be the signal or image being operated on and B

will be the Structuring Element.

The opposite of dilation is known as erosion. This is defined as:

says erosion of A by B is the set of points x such that B translated by x is

contained in A.

Morphology has been used in a wide range of applications. A few of the

possible applications are listed below:

1.3

Image enhancement

Image restoration (i.e. removing scratches from digital film)

Edge detection

Texture analysis

Noise reduction

Structuring Element

number of discrete points relative to some origin. Normally Cartesian

coordinates are used and so a convenient way of representing the element is

as a small image on a rectangular grid. Figure 1.2 shows a number of different

structuring elements of various sizes. In each case the origin is marked by a

ring around that point. The origin does not have to be in the center of the

structuring element, but often it is. As suggested by the figure, structuring

elements that fit into a 33 grid with its origin at the center are the most

commonly seen type.

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Figure 1.2

Each point in the structuring element may have a value. In the simplest

structuring elements used with binary images for operations such as erosion,

the elements only have one value, conveniently represented as a one. More

complicated elements, such as those used with thinning or greyscale

morphological operations may have other pixel values.

In the structure element 1s are represented as the foreground pixels and 0s

are represented as the background pixels. The Blanks are indicated as dont

care.

When a morphological operation is carried out, the origin of the structuring

element is typically translated to each pixel position in the image in turn, and

then the points within the translated structuring element are compared with the

underlying image pixel values. The details of this comparison and the effect of

the outcome depend on which morphological operator is being used.

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Thinning Methods

2.1

General

Thinning algorithms can be divided into two broad classes namely iterative and

non-iterative. Although non-iterative algorithms can be faster than iterative

algorithms they do not always produce accurate results.

2.2

Iterative Thinning

because of their reliability and effectiveness. This type of thinning processes

uses templates, where a match of the template in the image, deletes the center

pixel. They are iterative algorithms, which erodes the outer layers of pixel until

no more layers can be removed [3]. Almost all iterative thinning algorithms use

Mark-and-Delete templates including Stentiford Thinning Method.

Both Stentiford and Zhang-Suen methods use Connectivity numbers to mark

and delete pixels.

2.2.1 Connectivity Number

The Connectivity number is a measure of how many objects are connected with

a particular pixel. The following is the equation to calculate Connectivity

number.

Where: Nk is the colour of the eight neighbours of the pixel analyzed. N 0 is the

center pixel. N1 is the colour value of the pixel to the right of the central pixel

and the rest are numbered in counter clockwise order around the center.

S = {1, 3, 5, 7}

Figure 2.1

The following are the connectivity numbers for Figure 2.1:

a) Connectivity number = 0.

b) Connectivity number = 1.

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c) Connectivity number = 2.

d) Connectivity number = 3.

e) Connectivity number = 4.

It uses a set of four 3 x 3 templates to scan the image.

Figure 2.2 shows these four templates.

Figure 2.2

1. Find a pixel location (i, j) where the pixels in the image match those in

template T1. With this template all pixels along the top of the image are

removed moving from left to right and from top to bottom.

2. If the central pixel is not an endpoint, and has connectivity number = 1, then

mark this pixel for deletion.

Endpoint pixel: A pixel is considered an endpoint if it is connected to just one

other pixel. That is, if a black pixel has only one black neighbour out of the eight

possible neighbours.

3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for all pixel locations matching T1.

4. Repeat steps 1-3 for the rest of the templates: T2, T3, and T4.

T2 will match pixels on the left side of the object, moving from bottom to top

and from left to right. T3 will select pixels along the bottom of the image and

move from right to left and from bottom to top. T4 locates pixels on the right

side of the object, moving from top to bottom and right to left.

5. Set to white the pixels marked for deletion.

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Figure 2.3 shows some examples of the thinning process using the Stentiford

Algorithm.

Figure 2.3

2.2.3 Zhang-Suen Thinning Algorithm

This skeletonization algorithm is a parallel method that means the new value

obtained only depend on the previous iteration value. It is fast and simple to be

implemented. This algorithm is made by two sub-iterations. In the fist one, a

pixel I (i , j) is deleted if the following conditions are satisfied [3]:

1. Its connectivity number is one.

2. It has at least two black neighbours and not more than six.

3. At least one of I(i,j+1), I(i-1,j), and I(i,j-1) are white.

4. At least one of I(i-1,j), I(i+1,j), and I(i,j-1) are white.

In the second sub-iteration the conditions in steps 3 and 4 change.

1. Its connectivity number is one.

2. It has at least two black neighbours and not more than six.

3. At least one of I(i-1,j), I(i,j+1), and I(i+1,j) are white.

4. At least one of I(i,j+1), I(i+1,j), and I(i,j-1) are white.

At the end, pixels satisfying these conditions will be deleted. If at the end of

either sub-iteration there are no pixels to be deleted, then the algorithm stops.

Figure 2.4 shows some examples of the thinning process using the ZhangSuen Algorithm

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Figure 2.4

2.3

Non-Iterative Thinning

[2]

. It has time complexity of O (n2).

2.3.1 Neusius-Olszewski Algorithm

Approach

It is possible to state for some black nodes whether they belong to the skeleton

or not by examining the kind of their four edges. For example, when there are

four incoming edges to a node, the node certainly belongs to the skeleton; it

represents a local maximum in this case, and therefore lies in the middle of the

object. Unfortunately the nodes found by this method do not building a sound

skeleton; the connectivity is not preserved. This is called a pre-skeleton.

Further step is necessary construct the skeleton [6].

This algorithm can be summarized as follows:

(1) Label all nodes with their minimal distance to an edge of the object.

(2) Detects all nodes of the pre-skeleton.

(3) Find the remaining skeleton nodes to preserve connectivity.

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recognition, but it is particularly useful for skeletonization, which has been

successfully applied in the following three medical applications [7]:

Assessment of infrarenal aortic aneurysm, and

Unravelling the colon.

the investigated tubular organs. The proposed process is sketched as follows:

(semiautomatic snake-based) segmentation (i.e., determining a binary

object from the grey-level picture,

Morphological filtering of the segmented object,

Curve thinning (by using one of our 3D thinning algorithm),

Raster-to-vector conversion,

Pruning the vector structure (i.e., removing the unwanted branches),

Smoothing the resulted central path, and

Calculation of the cross-sectional profile orthogonal to the central path.

associate professor of University of Szegek, Hungary. The following sections

describe each application in detail including tests carried out on patients.

3.1

endotracheal intubation, followed by external trauma, or prior airway surgery.

Clinical management of these stenosis requires exact information about the

number, grade, and the length of the stenosis. There is a method developed for

assessment of LTS. The cross-sectional profiles (based on the central path) of

the upper respiratory tract (URT) were calculated for 30 patients with proven

LST on fiberoptic endoscopy (FE). Locations of LTS were determined on axial

S-CT slices and compared to findings of fiberoptic endoscopy (FE) by Cohen's

kappa statistics. Regarding the site of LTS an excellent correlation was found

between FE and S-CT (z=7.44, p<0.005). Site of LTS, length and degree could

be depicted on the URT cross-sectional charts in all patients.

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Figure 3.1

The segmented URT, its central path, and its cross--sectional profile at the

three landmarks (vocal cords, caudal border of the cricoid cartilage, and cranial

border of the sternum) and at the narrowest position (top); the line chart

(bottom).

3.2

aneurysms (AAA) was used. AAA are abnormal dilatations of the main arterial

abdominal vessel due to atherosclerosis. AAA can be found in 2% of people

older than 60 years. If the diameter is more than 5 cm then the person is at high

risk for AAA rupture, which leads to death in 70-90%. For therapy two main

options exist: surgery or endoluminal repair with stentgrafts. For optimal patient

management the "true diameter" in 3D as well as the distance to the origin of

the renal arteries (proximal aneurysma neck) as well as the extension to the

iliac arteries (distal aneurysma neck) have to be known.

Figure 3.2

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The segmented part of the infrarenal aorta and its central path. Along the

central path the cross-sectional profile was computed. The following

parameters could be derived from this approach: the maximum diameter in 3D

as well as the length of the proximal and distal neck of the aneurysma. Since

size of the aneurysma is regarded to be a prognosticated factor, the volume of

the segmented aneurysma was determined too. At follow-up investigations the

same parameters were derived.

In order to investigate the correctness of the applied 3D thinning algorithms,

some mathematical phantoms were created.

Figure 3.3

Two phantoms and their central paths.

3.3

Unravelling the colon is a new method to visualize the entire inner surface of

the colon without the need for navigation. This is a minimally invasive technique

that can be used for colorectal polyps and cancer detection. Dr. Palgyi has

proposed an algorithm for unravelling the colon which is to digitally straighten

and then flatten using reconstructed spiral/helical computer tomograph (CT)

images. Comparing to virtual colonoscopy where polyps may be hidden from

view behind the folds, the unravelled colon is more suitable for polyp detection,

because the entire inner surface is displayed at one view.

Figure 3.4

The segmented volume of a part of the artificial phantom with two polyps (top)

and the same part of the phantom after unravelling (bottom).

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Figure 3.5

The segmented volume of a part of the cadavric phantom with polyps (top) and

the unravelled colon (bottom).

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The Stentiford method tends to produce lines that follow curves very well,

resulting in vectors that most accurately reflect the original image. The Zhang Suen method tends to be better at extracting straight lines from a raster, so

may result in more desirable vectors from an original image which comprises

mainly straight lines [8].

Finally, since sometimes, when thinning is complete, there are still pixels that

could be deleted (principal among these are pixels that form a staircase). It is

possible to use Holts staircase removal algorithm, which allows half of the

pixels in a staircase to be removed without affecting the shape of

connectedness of the overall object by applying a template-matching technique.

The following (figure 4.1) shows the thinned image resulting from the

application of a hybrid implementation based on the merging of the above

algorithms in the following order: Stentifords pre-processing scheme feeding

images into Zhang-Suens basic algorithm, with Holts staircase removal

algorithm as a post-processor [2].

Figure 4.1

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Although there are many thinning algorithms proposed over the years they

produce some sort of side effects such as necking (figure 4.2(a)), tails (figure

4.2(b)) and hairs (figure 4.2(c)). There is yet to be a thinning algorithm that

does not produce any side effect. There are lot of institutes that are undertaking

research on thinning, and it is hoped that there will be a perfect thinning

algorithm in the near future.

Figure 4.2

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References

[1]

http://portal.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?

id=174604&type=pdf&coll=portal&dl=ACM&CFID=11111111&CFTOKEN

=2222222

[2]

processes [online]. Available:

http://wscg.zcu.cz/wscg2004/Papers_2004_Full/M37.pdf

[3]

http://www.eng.fiu.edu/me/robotics/elib/am_st_fiu_ppr_2000.pdf

[4]

http://dmsun4.bath.ac.uk/research/morphology/morphology.htm

[5]

homepages.inf.ed.ac.uk/rbf/HIPR2/thin.htm

[6]

http://www.cee.hw.ac.uk/hipr/html/thin.html

[7]

http://www.inf.u-szeged.hu/~palagyi/skel/skel.html#Applications

[8]

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/heatons/softsoft/wintopo/help/html/vectoris

e.htm

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