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Source #1

Zimmerman, A., & Dahlberg, J. (2008). The Sexual Objectification of Women in

Advertising: A Contemporary Cultural Perspective. Journal Of Advertising Research,
48(1), 71-79.
This source was written by a professor and a graduate student (both who have contributed
extensively to journals, conference papers, and conventions) from Canisius University in
Buffalo, NY.
I found this source through Trinity Universitys Coates Library database, using the search
Its intended audience is scholars and researchers seeking to learn more about the
objectification of women in advertisements.
This source discusses attitudes of young women to sexually objectified advertising, and
provides research data to support its claims. Additionally, it discusses how sexual
objectification of women can affect views of sex and sexual behavior. This source also
addresses young womens densensitization to sexual objectification and how, after being
exposed to numerous exploitative advertisements, women become less and less affected.
..the context of consistent exposure to sexualized imagery might gradually teach or
condition society to find it less offensive and more acceptable, regardless of the demographic.
This raises a larger ethical issue about advertising's ability to shift cultural and moral values.
As sexual objectification becomes culturally acceptable, arguably routine, does and should
the advertising industry necessarily push that boundary and reveal more in order to grab our
divided attention?
This article goes on further to point out that women in advertising play various roles:
housewife, decorative element, sex object, and dependent on men, concerned with physical
attractiveness, sex object, career oriented, and neutral (Lysonski, 1983); alluring objects of
sexual gratification (Mayne, 2000); and erotic and suggestive stimuli (Henthorne and LaTour, 1995).

Source #2
Kerin, R. A., Lundstrom, W. J., & Sciglimpaglia, D. (1979). WOMEN IN


8(3), 37-42.
This source was written by two University of Colorado professors of Marketing, and its
credibility is demonstrated through an extensive list of scholarly references.
I located this source through Trinity Universitys Coates Library database, through the search
Its intended audience is academic scholars, professors, and others interested in womens role
in advertisements.
This article discusses role portrayals in advertisements, women as sex objects, consumer
reaction, and prospects for the future. It projects future trends of how women will be used in
advertising and provides studies backing up its claims.
Women were most often shown in the role of housewife/mother Likewise, McArthur and
Resko reported that a much higher percentage of males are predominantly used as authorities
In television advertisements even for situations where they would not be the primary users of
a product or service.
In short, the modern woman is not, and will not, accept a thrusting into traditional roles, and
expects to be found in an expanding number of positions replacing her male counterpart.
The use of women as sex objects in advertising is nol new and appears to be as in vogue
today as the pin-up girls of the forties. One of the most blatant abuses is found in the
industrial market where women have been and are currently employed as calendar girls,
attractions at trade shows and in not-so-hidden sexual advertisements for industrial parts and

Source #3
Krawczyk, Ross. "Media That Objectify Women: The Influence on Individuals' Body
Image and Perceptions of Others." Scholar Commons. University of South
Florida, Jan. 2013. Web. 11 Sept. 2016.

Validation: This dissertation was written by a grad student at the University of South
Florida. It was reviewed by five different professors and includes an extensive Works
Cited page.
Locating the source: I found this source by searching women in mass media
advertising through Google Scholar.
Intended Audience: This dissertation was mainly written for professors and scholars
interested in the field of psychology; namely, body image.
Summary: This source covers past research examining body image and the
influence of mass media, citing several studies to corroborate its assertions. It also
goes on to explore how exposure to objectification in the media influences public
perception, and even draws comparisons between Western media and that of other
cultures. The author addresses the objectification present in not only adult
marketing, but towards the child consumer base as well. He makes several
hypothesis about the causal nature of objectification in the media (does it cause
eating disorders or is it just a risk factor?), and provides concrete data about
experiments done in the field. He extensively discusses the implications of each
study and draws conclusions about how they illustrate the effects of media on
cultural body image ideals.
In a rather striking example of the powerful and fast-acting influence of western
mass media, researchers (Becker et al., 2002; Becker, 2004) found that girls and
women in Fiji exhibited virtually none of the symptoms of eating disorders such as
anorexia and bulimia nervosa before the arrival of western television.
...exposure to western mass media, and the appearance ideals it depicts, is related
to negative body image and eating outcomes.
it appears that indeed, exposure to media depicting cultural appearance ideals is
a ...possible causal risk factor for body image disturbance among women and men.

Source #4
Goffman, E. (1979). Gender advertisements. New York: Harper & Row. Retrieved

Validation: This book was written by Erving Goffman, an esteemed social scientist
and writer (considered "the most influential American sociologist of the twentieth
century") who dedicated the majority of his career to observing social behavior.

Locating this source: I located this book through Google Scholar after searching
gender advertisement.
Intended Audience: This book was written to inform people in the Western
consumer base about their own behavior, and is intended for not only scholars but
people in the general adult population who wish to learn about social behavior
regarding gendered advertising.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This book goes into extensive detail about the
components of gendered advertisements, such as function ranking and relative size.
Goffman also includes various pictures of advertisements and offers commentary
about what these advertisements imply. His book comes off as less didactic and
more practical; though plenty of research and studies are included in this book,
Goffman also offers metaphors and introspective conjectures to his draw
conclusions. Not only does Goffman observe gendered behaviors and objectification
in advertisements, but he also makes quaint observations about gender behavior
styles in real life.
Quotes: Correspondingly, [in advertisements], when females are pictured engaged
in a traditionally male task, a male.. [looks] on appraisingly, condescendingly, and
with wonder
Interestingly, it is not merely commercial advertisers who have recourse to these
pictorial methods. Governments and nonprofit organizations employ the same
devices in order to convey a message through pages, posters, and billboards
...examine these stereotypes for what they might tell us about the gender patterns
prevalent in our society at large. One should [also],... in part, attend to those who
[create advertisements] in order to achieve their end, namely, the presentation of a
scene that is meaningful

Source #5
Kilbourne, J. (2006, September 1). Jesus is a brand of jeans. Retrieved September
27, 2016, from
Validation: This article was written by Jean Kilbourne, an esteemed author and
creator of the Killing Us Softly film series. This article was published in the
September 2006 issue of New Internationalist, a multi-award winning, independent,
non-profit media co-operative.
Locating this source: I located this article through Google after researching Jean
Intended Audience: This article was written to inform the average American

consumer of the pervasive and seductive nature of todays ads.

Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article explores the materialistic nature of
American consumer culture, and shines a light on the values that modern
advertisements perpetuate. Kilbourne discusses the exploitative ways that ads can
convince consumers to buy their products; she points out that advertisements can
convince consumers to commit to products rather than to human relationships. She
observes the rampant commercialism present in our society and pokes holes in the
philosophy of many advertisements today: that we need products to be happy.
Overall, Kilbourne doesnt discuss the gender aspect of advertisements; rather, she
discusses the materialism, cynicism, and dissatisfaction so prevalent in ads today.
Quotes: Some argue that advertising simply reflects societal values rather than
affecting them. Far from being a passive mirror of society, however, advertising is a
pervasive medium of influence and persuasion. Its influence is cumulative, often
subtle and primarily unconscious.
The self-esteem of girls plummets as they reach adolescence partly because they
cannot possibly escape the message that their bodies are objects, and imperfect
objects at that.
The problem with advertising isnt that it creates artificial needs, but that it exploits
our very real and human desires.

Source #6
Adams, R. (2014, September 19). Why Women Are Only Heard When Seen In TV
Commercials. Retrieved September 27, 2016, from
Validation: This article was written by a staff writer for the Huffington Post, and cites
Jean Kilbournes documentaries and studies done by professors as supporting
Locating this source: I located this article through Google after searching women
in commercials.
Intended Audience: This news article was written to inform anyone interested in the
lack of female representation in mass media. Typically, people who read the

Huffington Post are young, educated, and politically aware. This article could be
targeted towards them as they are capable of enacting change in the future.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article goes into detail about the lack of
womens voices in voice-over or spokesperson roles. It cites a study done by two
professors who found that male voiceovers outnumber womens voiceovers 4:1, and
discusses how the lack of womens voices in media symbolizes institutionalized
sexism. It points out an important reality: women typically arent allowed to speak
unless they are seen. The article expresses frustration at the lack of change in the
fight for equality in ads, and suggests educating oneself about this issue, rather than
simply being aware of the sexism prevalent in mass media.
Quotes: As shes noted in her films, the female body is often broken up or

used to illustrate the product itself in ads, both of which cause women to be
seen as objects, not people. A lack of voice only further dehumanizes women,
as visual and auditory cues often go hand in hand.
Since parents arent often media literate themselves, Kilbourne said that its
important for schools to help contextualize what kids are seeing and hearing in
Theres still this sense that the voiceover, the disembodied voice, is one of
reason and objectivity. Because of sexism in our society, that is still seen as a
masculine domain

Source #7
Martin, C. L., & Baugh, E. J. (2009). Minority Women, Media, and Body Image UF/IFAS Extension. Retrieved October 8, 2016, from
Validation: This source was written by Carolyn L. Martin, an undergraduate student,
and Eboni J. Baugh, an assistant professor, both of the Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences at University of Florida.
Locating this source: I located this paper through Google after searching minority
women in media.
Intended Audience: This source was written to explore the effects of the media on
minority womens self-image. It could be informative for anyone interested in the
topic, yet because of the last section (how one can combat the negative effects of
the media), it can be inferred that this sources primary intended audience are young
women and their parents.

Arguments/Topics Discussed: This source explores the effects of media on three

different minority groups of women: African/Black-American, Hispanic/LatinoAmerican, and Asian-American. It references research focusing on women in
geographic regions such as Singapore and Asia as well, in order to prove how
women across different ethnicities and cultures are affected by the media to varying
degrees. The source cites credible research, reinforcing its main claim that minority
women are more susceptible to imposed standards in the media. The article goes on
further to discuss the manners through which minority women will cope with their
body dissatisfaction, including decreasing their caloric intake or getting cosmetic
surgery done. The articles last points discuss ways that these women and their
families can change their respective perceptions of beauty and combat the negative
effects that affect them across the board.
Quotes: Latin-American women on average watch four more hours of television
daily than women in other ethnic groups. Due to this increase in exposure, LatinAmerican women are more susceptible to negative images, making comparisons to
the media ideal more detrimental.
Additional research throughout Asia reports that teenage girls severely lack
confidence and will take extreme measures to alter their appearance. Not so much
concerned with body shape and size, these girls are dissatisfied with their facial
features and some even resort to plastic surgery to alter their bodies.
Instead of altering physical appearance, it is healthier to attempt to alter perception.
Traits such as hair color and texture, and skin color are still used as the basis of
grouping and identification.
Source #8
Gonzlez, I. (2012, July 18). Minority women in the media. Retrieved October 9,
2016, from
Validation: This article was written by Inez Gonzalez, executive Vice President of
the National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC), which is a non-partisan, non-profit
media advocacy and civil rights organization dedicated to advancing American Latino
equity throughout the entertainment industry and to advocating for policies that
benefit Latinos and other people of color.
Locating this source: I located this article through Google after searching minority
women in media.
Intended Audience: This blog post on Disruptive Women in Healthcare was written
to inform anyone interested in the lack of female minority representation in mass
media. Typically, people who read these blog posts are educated, mature, and

socially aware women. This article is mainly targeted towards this demographic in
order to increase their awareness about media misogyny.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This blog post started off by citing the powerful
words of Ashley Judd, a wildly popular actress that was unfairly criticized by the
media for possessing a puffy face after being on medication for the flu, and who
later went on to make a profound statement about the way women are treated by the
media. Gonzalez went on to point out that women of color (minority women) are
impacted greatly by the media due to their unconventional features such as kinky
hair and dark skin. The blog post focused more on Latina women and their media
representation due to Gonzalezs background in Hispanic/Latino advocacy. She
offered statistics about Latino/Hispanic typecasting and womens roles in the general
mass media today. The source ended with a strongly worded call to action to end the
sexism prevalent in mass media.
Quotes: ...Our patriarchal media system [is] one that conspires against women by
placing the interests of boys and men over the bodily integrity, autonomy, and dignity
of girls and women. According to Judd, this type of hate against women is subtle,
insidious, and never more dangerous than when women passionately deny that they
themselves are engaging in it.
For women and girls of color the impact is even greater, as racial markers, such as
dark skin and kinky hair, are rejected by the influential media. Women with these
physical traits are seemingly unworthy of media attention. Indeed, women of color
are largely invisible in media, and the darker one is the less likely she is to see
people like her on TV.
For some, the media is the only way that they learn about people who are different
than themselves, which encourages behaviors and attitudes towards these others
without ever really knowing any of them.

Source #9
McNary, D. (2016, September 12). Directors Guild Finds Lack of Real Progress in
TV Hiring Practices of Women, Minorities. Retrieved October 20, 2016, from
Validation: This article was written by Dave McNary, a film reporter who has covered
film and labor for Variety magazine since 1999.
Locating this source: I located this article through Google after searching minority
women in media.
Intended Audience: This article in Variety magazine is for film/television viewers
who are interested in knowing about the lack of female directors in modern media. It
offers a variety of statistics, implying that the audience should be mature enough to
interpret and understand the research in the article.

Arguments/Topics Discussed: McNary wrote about the television industrys hiring

of women and minority directors. He offered a multitude of statistics from a recent
study done by the Directors Guild of America, all of which shine a light on how rarely
women or minorities are chosen to direct movies or shows. McNary included a
statement from DGA President Paris Barclay, who spoke out about this lack of
representation and pointed fingers at SVOD (Subscription Video On Demand), which
only hired minorities to direct 8% of all episodes. Barclay went on to say that real
change and progress starts with the employers, who need to implement different
hiring practices in order to promote diversity and inclusivity. McNary later included a
list of Worst of television shows, which hired the fewest number of minorities and
women to direct episodes. He also offered rankings of the top eight television
stations that hire minorities and women, of which CBS placed 1st.
Quotes: Women directed 17% of all episodes versus 16% the prior year from
4,000-plus episodes from 299 scripted series produced in the 2015-2016 network TV
season and the 2015 cable season. Ethnic minorities (male and female) directed 19% of
all episodes, a 1% increase over the prior year.
Out of 299 series examined, 57 hired women or minorities to direct fewer than 15% of
episodes, and 30 hired no women or minority directors at all landing on the DGAs
Worst Of list....Aquarius, Galavant, Henry Danger, Its Always Sunny in
Philadelphia,... Gotham,,[etc.]
Theres a long road ahead for true change to be realized because for that to happen,
the pipeline will need to change at the point of entry. Employers will need to implement
new hiring practices from getting more people in the door and interviewing more
diverse candidates, to hiring experienced directors instead of handing these jobs out as

Source #10
Eddo-Lodge, R. (2015, July 7). Beauty Doesnt Just Come In Shade Pale. Retrieved
October 16, 2016, from
Validation: This source was written for Stylist Magazine by Reni Eddo-Lodge, an
award-winning British journalist with a focus on feminism and exposing structural
Locating this source: I located this article through Google after searching skin
tone representation women.
Intended Audience: Because this article was published in Stylist magazine, it can
be assumed that the primary audience would be women. The article would also be
more pertinent to women as it covers the topic of lack of minority womens
representation in the beauty industry.

Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article started off with Eddo-Lodges own

personal experiences with the Eurocentric beauty industry. She talked about her
struggles with finding makeup shades that fit her skin tone, pointing out that high
street brands didnt offer suitable pigments and how she had to opt for department
store products that were three times the price. Eddo-Lodge also detailed how a
sense of otherness characterized her adolescence as she saw ethnic models in the
media being exoticized and objectified. She marveled at how our beauty industry has
changed, giving examples of ethnic role models (Rihanna, Lupita Nyongo) who were
making groundbreaking progress in the world of beauty. Eddo-Lodge offered
statistics about the casting of white models vs. minority models, minority women on
magazine covers, and consumer behavior. She touched on a few companies which
have challenged the status quo and which have created inclusive products that suit
women of color. Eddo-Lodge ended with a call-to-action, urging consumers to opt for
inclusive brands rather than brands that promote a narrow standard of beauty.
Quotes: Afro- Caribbean, mixed race, Latina, Indian and Asian women are still
poorly catered to as beauty consumers, often having to turn to high-end brands just
to buy the basics. For reasons that still remain unclear, too many high street stores
sell foundations in which the darkest colour offered is some form of beige..
Shades are lazily referred to as deep sand or tanned, speaking almost exclusively
to the white woman. The make-up aisle is an analogy for British society, says
Natalie Clue, a marketing consultant and beauty blogger at Beauty Pulse London.
Its just basic marketing. If you see yourself in an image or a name, youll know its
for you. Imagine you are a customer and someones telling you that you dont exist!
Inclusive beauty will impact the beauty landscape. Brands are catering to an
increasingly multicultural marketplace. When theyre reading magazines and looking
at blogs, people want to see a reflection of the world around them.
I couldnt escape a sense of otherness; black and brown models were in
magazines, but they were always exoticised and marked out as other, the subject of
an out of Africa themed photo shoot.

Source A
Bessenoff, G. R. (2006). Can The Media Affect Us? Social Comparison,
Self-Discrepancy, And The Thin Ideal. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30(3),
Reflection: As a psychology article, this source definitely was more didactic and
technical. It discussed variables, introduced acronyms such as MANCOMA
(multivariate analysis of covariance), and analyzed data in-depth. What this article
lacked in insight and commentary, it made up for in data; the article presented solid,
concrete evidence suggesting the negative, yet influential nature of exposure to the
thin ideal in media. This data could be helpful in the future whenever I need to
effectively prove a contention in my timed writing/presentations/speeches.
Description: I read and took notes on this article for approximately 1.5 hours. I
learned about the Self-Discrepancy Theory, researched it on the side, and paid
special attention to the main study featured in this journal, taking time to understand
the variables and terminology. The source was approximately 13 pages.

Validation: This article was written by Dr. Gayle Bessenoff, a professor at Southern
Connecticut State University. It was published in a scholarly journal and copyrighted
by the American Psychological Association.
Locating this source: I located this source online through Google Scholar by
searching women in media advertising .
Intended Audience: The audience of this article was intended to be scholars who
regularly read psychological journals and/or are interested in the field. Because it
goes into detailed specifics about the study featured, it can be inferred that the
intended audience is educated.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article focused more on the thin-ideal image in
advertising and media rather than the general depiction of women in advertising. It
cited one main study, in which exposure to thin-ideal advertisements was measured
in order to establish a correlation between thin-ideal media exposure and body
dissatisfaction. It goes on to introduce a notion called Self-Discrepancy Theory, in
which high levels of self-discrepancy lead to emotional distress and vulnerabilities to
eating disorders. (Self-discrepancy refers to the concept in which ones self falls
short of an often self-imposed standard). The article links the Self-Discrepancy
Theory to harmful media exposure, suggesting that long-term media exposure to
thin-ideal images could cause the development of self-discrepancies.
Quotes: measures of thin-ideal internalization include statements assessing level of
comparison to thin ideals, such as I wish I looked like a swimsuit model and I often
read magazines like Cosmopolitan, Vogue, and Glamour and compare my
appearance to the models (Heinberg et al., 1995).
It is also not enough just to oppose the norm consciously; although we may not
endorse a particular idea, we may still be significantly affected by it (e.g., Bessenoff
& Sherman, 2000; Dovidio, Kawakami, Johnson, Johnson, & Howard, 1997).
The current study also replicated previous findings that exposure to thin-ideal media
leads to a general increase in body dissatisfaction (e.g., Cusumano & Thompson,
1987; Harrison & Cantor, 1997; Heinberg et al., 1995
Harrisons (2001) research suggests a causal relationship between long-term
exposure to thin-ideal media and developing self-discrepancies, culminating in
eating-related pathologies.

Source B
Ros-Lehtinen, I. (2016, February 5). H.R.4445: Truth in Advertising Act of 2016.
Retrieved September 11, 2016, from

Reflection: My Capstone topic has many subtopics and numerous possible Spring
Actions, and thus its important that I cover many different aspects as I research.
This source covers the topic of women in advertisements from a legislative
perspective, and it was pleasing to read about how measures were actively being
taken to combat the manipulation of womens bodies in mass media. So far, the bill
has only ever been introduced to Congress, not voted on; through my Capstone
project, I feel that I can bring more attention to this bill and hopefully elicit public
support behind it. Its important to realize how Photoshop manipulation matters in the
differences between how women are portrayed in media.
Description: I looked over this bill for about 1.5 hours, also doing additional
research on the terminology used (Federal Trade Commission, stakeholders). The
bill consisted of a several tabs: a summary, an abstract, action taken. cosponsors,
Validation: This bill is a legitimate article that was introduced to the House of
Representatives, and it was proposed by a female representative from Florida.
Locating this source: I located this source by looking through a Works Cited for
another scholarly article that I was reading.
Intended Audience: This source was addressed to Congress and can also be

directed towards anyone interested in U.S. legislation, including lobbyists, politicians,

and American citizens.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This bill discussed the need for the Federal Trade
Commission (an organization that helps prevent deceptive business practices) to
submit a report to Congress. This report includes an evaluation of the degree of
manipulation in advertising, guidelines for advertisers regarding the use of altered
images, and recommendations for how to reduce consumer harm from the use of
these images. The bill strongly emphasizes not only protecting consumers against
deception but regulating the use of this deception in the first place. The article has
numerous contentions to support its argument, citing research from the American
Psychological Association as well as pointing out that the Federal Trade Commission
has not done enough to combat this issue.
Quotes: Decades of academic evidence links exposure to such altered images with
emotional, mental, and physical health issues including depression, anxiety, and
eating disorders, especially among children and teenagers.
Despite the shift in modern advertising to rely primarily on imagery, the Federal
Trade Commission continues to focus on linguistic elements of advertising, even as
some advertisers use unfair or deceptive images to promote their products to
This bill directs the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to submit a report to Congress
assessing the prevalence, in advertisements and other media for the promotion of
commercial products and services in the United States, of images that have been
altered to materially change the appearance and physical characteristics of the faces
and bodies of the individuals depicted.

Source C
Perez, N. P. (2013, May). Roles of Women in Advertising: The Objectification of
Women and the Shift to an Empowering Ad Frame. Retrieved September 8,
2016, from

Reflection: This source is an excellent, relevant piece of research that will greatly
contribute how I approach my upcoming Spring Action. It was easier to read than
many of my other articles, perhaps because it was written by a (very well educated)
student rather than a tenured professor. It was able to cover a broad range of topics,
but did so in depth. Its very clear to me that this paper was written thoughtfully, and it
draws well-reasoned conclusions that could help me make contentions for my
speeches in Capstone as well. By addressing the Nike Real Women campaign, this
report really sparked my inspiration for possible action that I, as an individual, could
take to combat the negative stigmas of women in advertising.
Description: This report took me 3 hours to fully dissect. The report is approximately
42 pages long, and covers topics from theoretical principles to the Nike Real Women
campaign. I took notes on these topics, and these topics helped me brainstorm for
my upcoming Spring Action.
Validation: This report was written by Nancy Pilar Perez, a student at the University
of Austin studying for her Master of Arts. Her paper was reviewed by two accredited
professors at the university.
Locating this source: I located this source through Google Scholar by searching
women in advertisements.
Intended Audience: Originally, the intended audience of this paper was supposed to
be the professors reviewing Perezs work. However, because her paper was
published, it can now appeal to scholars and interested minds alike in the field of

consumer behavior.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article focuses on the negative depictions of
women in print advertisements. It observes the many ways women are depicted in
media, focusing on factors such as the submissiveness of their hands. The article
also introduced two theories (Social Comparison Theory and Cultivation Theory)
which discussed social comparison and media exposure, two important components
to consider when researching this topic. The journal also addresses the shifts in the
portrayal of women in advertisements, which many of the other articles that I found
failed to do. Furthermore, the article addresses the pressure on women to be thin,
and how advertisements convey this pressure. It implements several of Goffman (a
renowned sociologist)s theories and relates them to modern-day advertising.
Quotes: Models in advertising present women with an ideal definition of beauty that
is impossible to achieve. Firstly, the images themselves are created artificially by the
means of studio lighting, airbrushing, and computer enhancement. Secondly, models
themselves maintain a body type that only 5 percent of females maintain.
In presenting women as desirable commodities and objects for pleasure, womens
hands are therefore less likely to be depicted as engaging in utilitarian or practical
activities. Instead, womens hands are more likely to be shown tracing the outline of
something, caressing and cuddling.
Likewise, we often see women disempowered in images in which they are
disengaged or withdrawn from active participation in social scenes. Often the woman
is seen turning her face away, looking dreamy and introverted. Goffman calls this
Licensed Withdrawal.

Source D
Jhally, S., In Kilbourne, J., Rabinovitz, D., & Media Education Foundation. (2010).
Killing Us Softly 4: Advertising's Image of Women.
Reflection: This documentary was a profound medium through which Kilbourne
explored the sexist and misogynistic images of women in the media. It will play a
substantial role in helping me choose my subtopics and my focuses in my Capstone
project. Kilbournes influential nature really shined through this documentary as she
eloquently pointed out the many ways women were objectified in media, and how we
(the general public) could take initiative and become more aware of this. The
examples that Kilbourne provided throughout the documentary could possibly be
examples that I use when presenting how advertisements depict women. Ultimately,
this documentary really helped me find the direction of my Capstone project and may
even be featured in it.
Description: It took me 2 hours to go through and take detailed notes on this
documentary, and the duration of the documentary was about 45 minutes. I made an
outline of her documentarys key points and contentions, and plan to use this outline
to help guide my future Capstone presentations or timed writings.
Validation: Jean Kilbourne is a renowned social scientist who has been recognized
for her groundbreaking work on the effects of advertising (whether it be violence in
advertising, womens roles, or alcohol/tobacco).
Locating this source: My Capstone out of school mentor suggested that I watch
this documentary in its entirety.
Intended Audience: Kilbournes message was aimed towards consumers in
America, in order to give them an awareness of the (often subconscious) messages
that objectification of women in advertisements bring.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: Kilbourne chronicled her own journey researching
the topic of the images of women in advertising. She spoke out about her personal
experiences, and cited statistics about media exposure in order to show how we all
subconsciously process these advertisements. . Kilbourne went on to the more
informative side of her presentation, in which she explored the specific ways that
advertising portrayed women (submission, sexualization, etc). She also spoke about
how men are portrayed and made profound observations about how toxic

masculinity is the standard in our media today.

Quotes: Advertisings influence is quick, its cumulative, and for the most part, its
Just as its difficult to be healthy in a toxic physical environment, its unhealthy to
be in a toxic cultural environment
They sell values, they sell images, they sell concepts of love and sexuality, of
success, and perhaps most important: normalcy.

Source E
Sheehan, M. (2013, April 1). The Effects of Advertising and the Medias Portrayal of
the Thin Ideal on College Womens Self-Image. Retrieved September 23,
2016, from
Reflection: This source focused primarily on the effects of thin ideal media (a topic
that was also explored in my source A) on college women. I found it interesting that
the study focused on college women because college women are at the ages where
theyre most conscious of, yet still susceptible to the effects of these advertisements.
The methods used in Sheehans study were also intriguing because they did not only
study womens self esteem after viewing thin-ideal media, but college womens
overall self-esteem. Through her study, I could see the differences between how
different body type portrayals in media affected a confident woman vs. a woman
often prone to insecurities. The only limitation to this study is that Sheehans sample
size only represented college women, not women of all ages.
Description: This source is 41 pages long, and took me about 2 hours to read and
take notes on. It contained an abstract, an appendix, a Works Cited page, and a
survey questionnaire that the student used to conduct her research.
Validation: This source is a thesis written by a senior social work student, Mary
Sheehan, at Providence College. It was reviewed by professors at Providence
College for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts in
Social Work.
Locating this source: I located this source by googling thin ideal media.
Intended Audience: The intended audience for this source is likely a mature,
educated audience who are interested in the field of psychology. This is a college
thesis, and thus it reads as a scholarly, erudite piece of work.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: Sheehan proposed a general hypothesis (women
are negatively affected by the thin ideal) and detailed her mixed methods study to
both prove her hypothesis and to negate another proposal (the media can positively

motivate women). Her study consisted of a survey that measured college womens
self esteem before and after viewing thin ideal media and various portrayals of
body types. She discussed the questions and answers from her study, including
Describe how this image makes you feel about yourself, and It makes me never
want to eat again. Sheehan also discussed the limitations of her study and
implications for future practice, policy, and research.
Quotes: It is a difficult thing to reduce and to stop, but the more professionals in
counseling, advertising, marketing, and education, in addition to parents and
educators are being made aware of the issue, the more steps that can be taken
towards a common understanding of the impact that media images can have on
womens self-esteem.
...the majority of participants believed that society has taught them that the ideal
body type is skinny and beautiful and fat on the body is not acceptable, which is
what the researcher had hypothesized.
The concept of thin ideal is a widespread term used to describe the specific body
type that has been understood to be the ideal shape of a woman Models in
advertisements and fashion magazines represent an unrealistic, unhealthy, and
underweight body type that does not match up to the actual average body type of an
American is implied in statistics regarding eating disorders and
compulsive exercise that some people believe that they need to live in a particular
manner that helps them look like these thin ideal models. The thin ideal
contributes to the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated
Disorders (2012) statistic on students that 95% of those who have eating disorders
are between the ages of 12 and 25 (p. 1).

Source F
Kilbourne, J. (1999). Deadly persuasion: Why women and girls must fight the
addictive power of advertising. New York, NY: Free Press.
Reflection: This book, along with Jean Kilbournes other works, are probably going
to be some of the strongest influences on my Capstone project. It included not only
studies done and theories observed but also personal anecdotes and parables,
which made the book readable and refreshing. I really liked how, at the beginning of
the book, Kilbourne talked about her personal venture into advertising and wrote
about the outrage she felt when she started collecting, documenting, and speaking
out against sexist ads. The chapters in this book spanned more than just the way
ads portray women, and this could contribute to the subtopics that I use for future
speeches and timed writings.
Description: I checked this book out at Sienna Branch Library in September, and its
314 pages long. I took about 4 hours to get through the book while taking notes.
Validation: This book was written by Jean Kilbourne, an esteemed author and
creator of the Killing Us Softly film series. She is also a renowned social scientist
who has been recognized for her groundbreaking work on the effects of advertising
(whether it be violence in advertising, womens roles, or alcohol/tobacco).
Locating this source: I searched Fort Bend Libraries database for works by Jean
Intended Audience: Kilbournes intended audience is primarily women and girls
who are interested in learning about advertisings influence. Kilbournes subtitle,
Why Women and Girls Must Fight the Addictive Power of Advertising, suggests that
the book serves as an informative read that alerts women and girls of the addictive
nature of advertisements.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This book was mainly centered on the relationship
between the consumer and the product, and how toxic advertisements could corrupt
these relationships. Kilbourne discusses alcohol and cigarette advertisements as
well as sexually suggestive and objectifying advertisements. She places a huge
emphasis on addiction and expounds upon how advertisers lure consumers to buy
their products and buy into their ideas. Her book is easily readable, yet deeply
educational and profound. Kilbourne even spoke about her own struggle with
cigarette addiction in order to reveal how these ads have affected her own life. She
included a multitude of advertisements throughout the book, of which she dissected,

explained, and cited in her argument that ads are alluring and intoxicating. At the end
of the book, Kilbourne makes a convincing call to action and expresses
disappointment at the trivialization of movements for political change in the world of
Quotes: Advertising encourages us not only to objectify each other but also to feel
that our most significant relationships are with the products that we buy.
The fact is that much of advertisings power comes from this belief that advertising
does not affect us.
Women are portrayed as sexually desirable only if they are young, thin, carefully
polished and groomed, made up, depilated, sprayed, and scented...and men are
conditioned to seek such partners and to feel disappointed if they fail.
Advertising is both a creator and perpetuator of the dominant attitudes, values,
and ideology of the culture, the social norms, and myths by which most people
govern their behavior.

Source G
Newsom, J. S., Scully, R. K., Dreyfous, G. W., Johnson, S. E., Congdon, J., Holland,
E., Cvetko, S., ... Ro*Co Films Educational (Firm). (2011). Miss
Representation. Sausalito, Calif.: Ro*co Films Educational.
Reflection: This film was eye-opening, thought-provoking, and profound. The
voiceovers and interviews dramatically (albeit for a good reason) highlighted the
unfairly pervasive sense of indignancy at our sexist media. I thought it was pretty
cool how interviews with women such as Lucy Liu and Katie Couric were included,
as well as interviews with Nancy Pelosi and Professor Erica Falk, because this
revealed that women from many different backgrounds and occupations were aware
of the unfairness of our modern media. I enjoyed watching this documentary
because it didnt focus on the abstract way that media portrays women it actually
provided real, recent examples of the bias in our media. This documentary made me
think about my Capstone project and realize that it could go beyond just an
advertising aspect my project could be about the portrayals of women, whether real
(like Hillary Clinton) or fabricated (like in many advertisements), in the general
Description: I took 2 hours to watch this documentary, often taking time to pause
and take notes on what I watched. This documentary was 1.5 hours long and was a
comprehensive evaluation consisting of interviews,
Validation: Miss Representation was written, directed, and produced by Jennifer
Siebel Newsom. Newsom is a Stanford University graduate and American filmmaker
and director. Her documentary has
Locating this source: I searched Fort Bend Libraries database for documentaries
and films about misogyny and sexism, similar to Jean Kilbournes Killing Us Softly.
Intended Audience: This documentary could be applied to a wide audience of
mature men and women who are willing to learn about the importance of women in
media and the way that the media devalues and objectifies them.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: Miss Representations focus was primarily on the
negative, stereotypical portrayals of women in the media, and about the lack of
representation of positive role models. It included interviews from prominent women
working in or being portrayed in media, including Katie Couric and Rachel Madden.
Many different examples of this were provided, including comparisons were made
between the media portrayals of women such as Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin,
interviews with women in television networking and movie directing, and interviews
with actresses speaking out about their experiences with sexism. A large portion of
the film was comprised of voiceovers combined with clips from movies or news
channels, effectively teaching and showing the audience about the misogyny in
media. It discusses the many negative archetypes and tropes that women fulfill in

television shows, movies, etc. Overall, the entire documentary was a massively
influential piece of work that was both a powerful exposition and an inherent call-toaction.
Quotes: I worry about how much pressure my daughters feel in a society that
features anorexic actors, models, or television stars. We get conditioned to think that
this is what women should look like, so that even people of average weight and size
get [body dysmorphia] (Katie Couric)
You keep seeing the same body type over and over again because those are the
body types that generate the purchase of all these beauty products, and those are a
futile pursuit of this idealized body (Dr. Gigi Durham)
Theyll say Madonna is tremendously empowered, or Angelina Jolie, but they all
embody that exact same definition of sexuality. I mean, when you really think about it
though, Hillary Clinton is tremendously empowered, or, you think of women
CEOs, you know, women who are empowered in lots of different kinds of ways, but
you dont see them represented. You dont get that message that you dont have to
use your sexuality to attain empowerment in the world (Dr. Gigi Durham)

Source H
Myers, Jr., P. N., & Biocca, F. A. (1992). The elastic body image: The effect of
television advertising and programming on body image distortions in young
women. Journal of Communication. Retrieved September 18, 2012, from
Reflection: Though many of my previous sources discussed thin ideal media, this
source in particular described it comprehensively yet in simple terms. I was able to
understand how extensive the thin body ideal for women was, and how it spanned

steadily across the media. The source went beyond just explaining what a thin body
ideal was and how prevalent it was, however. It discussed the positive stereotypes of
beauty and how these stereotypes were portrayed to be synonymous with an ideal
body, and this made me think about how we as consumers view beauty. Do we
associate it with a thin, flawless body? And is this due to the media images that
weve been exposed to? These questions revealed to me just how influential body
image portrayals in media were, and this will be an interesting point to discuss in my
Capstone project. The paper itself also posed many speculative questions, which
made it different from my other sources in that it reached beyond the conclusions
that it discussed.
Description: This source is 26 pages long, and took me about 2 hours to read and
take notes on. It contained an abstract, an appendix, a Works Cited page, and a
survey questionnaire that the student used to conduct her research.
Validation: This source was written by Philip Myers, a research associate, and
Frank Biocca, director of the Center of Research in Mass Communication at the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Locating this source: I located this source by googling body image women media.
Intended Audience: The intended audience for this source is likely a mature,
scholarly audience interested in the field of psychology or media studies. This is a
college level paper, and thus it should be intended for a mature audience, regardless
of gender. However, it would appeal more to women.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article explored an experimental study in which
two variables (ideal-body programming and ideal-body commercials) and their
effects on females self-perceived body image were measured. This study was done
with a young female audience, and its purpose was to prove the causal relationship
between TV portrayals of the female body and the distorted, self-perceived body
images of these women. Before introducing the study, the source began by
speculating on the connotations of an ideal body, noting that positive stereotypes of
success and beauty were portrayed to be synonymous with a socially ideal body.
The source also went on to examine four content analyses in order to show the
prevalence of thin-ideal body representation in media. Mediums like magazines,
photographs, and television shows were examined throughout these content
analyses. When the source discussed the main study, it provided several graphs
demonstrating the correlation between body perception (using the Body Perception
Index) and body image ads.
Quotes: Advertising does not seek to reconcile individuals with their present body
image; on the contrary, it seeks to foster new desires, needs, and worries, ones that
can be answered by the purchase of a product

In their study of four womens and four mens magazines, the total number of ads for
diet foods was 63 for womens and only 1 for mens.
It is reasonable to imagine that each of these body image messages is just one
strike on a chisel sculpting the ideal body inside a young womans mind.

Source I
Chapman, T. M. (2011). Women in American Media: A Culture of Misperception.
Retrieved October 14, 2016, from
Reflection: This paper was less statistic/research-based and more expository.
Nonetheless, it still constructively contributed to my Capstone project because it
discussed something vital to one of my researched subtopics: the sexualization of
women of color. I was pleased to find that this paper quoted Jean Kilbourne, a
prominent figure whose ideas and research outnumber others in my area of study
during this Capstone project. It also provided specific examples of when and how
minority women were objectified, and I had been looking for these types of examples

to use for my next timed writing. Additionally, this source will be immensely helpful in
my process to formulate a speech and infographic due to the numerous quotes and
examples that it included.
Description: This source took about 1.5 hours to read and take notes on. It did not
contain any numbered pages (it was posted like a blog format) but it had an
extensive works cited.
Validation: This source was published on Inquiries Journal, an academic journal for
the social sciences, arts, and humanities. It was written by Taylor M. Chapman, who
graduated in 2014 with a concentration in Psychology from Cleveland Community
College in Shelby, NC.
Locating this source: I searched Google for women portrayal in media.
Intended Audience: Chapmans intended audience is primarily women and girls
who are interested in learning about mass medias influence. It offers a strongly
worded call to action to all consumers and advertisers at the end, suggesting that the
medias negative effects will persist as long as womens bodies continue to be
portrayed negatively.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This paper discusses the negative perceptions of
women perpetuated by the mass media, the various tools used by the media against
these women, and the consequences of their use. The paper cited several quotes
from prominent sociologists (including Jean Kilbourne, a researcher that I myself
have cited several times) to support her main message that mass media has a
profound effect on a persons identity. It expounded upon the gold standards of
beauty, pointing out that the media acts as if being beautiful is the most important
role a woman can fulfill. It mentioned how women of color are affected negatively by
the media, offering examples from Jean Kilbournes book Killing Us Softly. The paper
spanned multiple topics (voice silencing, body modification, violence,
dehumanization) all relevant to the main theme that the media gains power as
women lose it.
Quotes: Women of color are generally considered beautiful only if they approximate
the white ideal including tamed hair, lighter skin tone, and white facial features
An example of this is in cocoa drink advertisements where representations of
women of African origin frequently play on themes of darkness and sexualityin
which both the woman and the drink are signified as hot chocolate (Gill 79). There
is also a trend among advertisers where women of color are often featured in jungle
settings wearing leopard skins as if they were exotic animals (Killing Us Softly).

Mass media affects each member of society because its reach is vast, its bite is
quick, and its message seeps into the very fibers that are woven together to create a
culture of misperceptions about women.

Source J
Pedelty, M., & Kuecker, M. (2014, July 14). Seen to Be Heard? Gender, Voice, and
Body in Television Advertisements. Retrieved October 17, 2016, from
Reflection: Though this article focused on a narrow aspect of womens
representation in the media, I still enjoyed reading about it. It was The research and
content analyses embodied the fact that men were overrepresented in the ad
spectrum, and this was an interesting yet obvious conclusion to make. Honestly, I
dont feel as if I drew that much from this article because it was so specific. However,
it can serve as a point that I can briefly touch upon when speaking about the
unfairness in the media coverage of women.
Description: This research article is 19 pages long, and took me 2 hours to read. I

researched several terms while reading this article, such as scopocentric sexism
and inter-rater reliability. These terms were used in the main study featured.
Validation: This article was published in a journal for Communication and
Critical/Cultural Studies on Taylor & Francis, an accredited publisher. Not much could
be found on its authors, but from the article itself, the research, extensive works
cited, and abstract are scholarly and valid.
Locating this source: I found this article after googling women representation
Intended Audience: The intended audience for this article could be American
consumers, as it mainly discusses the reasons behind why men are primarily
represented and presented to these consumers. It doesnt require a scholars
perspective to understand its assertions, and could serve as a piece of work that
increases the awareness of consumers of this era.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This articles primary focus was the absence of
representation for womens voices in the media. It examined voiceovers, and pointed
out that mens voices dominate them. It introduced the notion of scopocentric
sexism, arguing that it influences when and how gendered voices are presented in
our media today. It included a content analysis that tested two hypotheses: if the
ratio of male to female voices would greater in the voiceover category vs. the
character (speaking role) category, and whether or not women were more likely to be
heard when seen. It was found that both hypotheses were supported by their
collected data. Towards the end, it speculated upon role-reversal ads and even
mentioned the Dove ad campaign, asserting that image primarily determines when
and how womens voices are heard.
Quotes: Consider the voiceover. We found that men perform 80 percent of ad
voiceovers.In other words, the omniscient narrator, the disembodied voice of
reason and authority, is much more likely to be male...However, male dominance is
cut in half for role categories featuring the speaker's body. In other words, the
chances of a woman's voice being heard are greatly increased if her body is also on
A woman's relative agency, her recourse to voice in both the literal and metaphoric
sense, is conditioned by her visual presence
Past content analyses have focused on voiceovers, ignoring other speaking roles,
such as characters and spokespersons. This study included those additional role
definitions in order to answer a basic question: does the presence of a woman's
body increase the chances that her voice will be heard?

Source K
Covert, J., & Dixon, T. (2008). A changing view: Representation and effects of the
portrayal of women of color in mainstream women's magazines.
Communication Research, 35(2), 232-256. doi:10.1177/0093650207313166
Reflection: Before, when searching through Google for something relevant to my
next essay topic (women of color in the media), I was only able to find vague studies
or blog posts. This article was immensely useful to me, right off the bat, because it
had the exact same focus as my Capstone topic. It presented content analyses,
which are a general trend of study that Ive seen across many of the sources Ive
looked at. The article didnt only examine media representation of women of color, it
also looked at the reasons behind why they were underrepresented. It also
mentioned actions that our society has taken to become more inclusive of women of
color in the media, citing O magazine as a prominent example. These examples and
conclusions will prove to be immensely valuable to my upcoming speech,
infographic, and timed writing.
Description: I took 2.5 hours to read and take notes on this article. It is 25 pages
long, includes an experiment and study, and has an extensive list of references. It
had a lot of terms that I had to research on my own to understand, such as
subgrouping theories and coding reliability.

Validation: This article was written by two researchers; one at the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill and another at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. It was published by Sage Publications.
Locating this source: I found this article through Trinity Universitys Coates Library
database (I stayed at the university for three weeks and was able to get an account
during my time there).
Intended Audience: This article reads as an informative, scholarly piece of work
that includes numerous studies and data. It would be best intended for an educated,
mature audience and would appeal to women or other scholars interested in the field
of mainstream media study.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article focused on the media representation of
minority women. Different minority groups were discussed; primarily, the article
included information on the media representation of Latina/Hispanic women and
African American women. The article started off by detailing a study done on the
prevalence of women of color in magazines, and presented its own studies designed
to determine whether women of color are underrepresented. These studies also
examined how often white women were represented in relation to minority women. It
presented these representation trends from the time period between 1999 and 2004,
and ended by discussing the limitations and future implications of the study.
Quotes: Stereotyping of people of color continues to be a problem in the media,
and some studies have found that the medias portrayals can influence both White
perceptions of people of color and people of colors self-perceptions
However, according to a 1995 content analysis of magazine advertisements, Blacks
and Latinas were underrepresented in ads in general, and they were even more
underrepresented in counterstereotypical roles in those ads (Taylor et al., 1995). The
most severe underrepresentation occurred in the Latina portrayals.
It is important to acknowledge the increase in the representation of women of color
in mainstream womens magazines, which allows the magazines to more closely
resemble reality as reported in the U.S. Census. These mainstream magazines
appear to be doing a better job reflecting the diverse audience of women they reach.
A growing cultural trend toward diversity may have caused editors to make a
concerted or subconscious effort to include more women of color.

Source L
Taylor, C. R., & Stern, B. B. (2013, May). Asian-Americans: Television
Advertising and the "Model Minority" Stereotype. Retrieved October 19, 2016,
Reflection: I used this article for my timed writing/speech on minority women in the
media. This source spanned a broader spectrum of topics, and it appealed to me
because it discussed my demographic (female, Asian-American). It made a good
point when it discussed how lack of minority representation could lead to eventual
misunderstanding of other cultures. The article also discussed the stigma that Asians
are the model minority and how this stereotype, though perceived to be positive,
was actually harming the depiction of Asian Americans. Not only did it provide
statistics and data from its study, it also made some really powerful conclusions
about marketing representation. The article asserted that when Asians dont see
people like themselves associated with a product or service, theyre likely to feel
neglected by marketers; this same inattention to minority consumers served as the
driving force behind the topic for my (past) timed writing.
Description: This source is 16 pages long, and took me about 1.5 hours to read and
annotate. It contained multiple terms that required further research, such as model
minority and cultivation theory, content analysis graphs, and data from a study.
Validation: This source was written by two marketing professors, Dr. Charles R.
Taylor of Villanova University and Dr. Barbara B. Stern of The State University of
New Jersey.
Locating this source: I located this source by googling minorities in the media.

Intended Audience: The intended audience for this source is likely a mature,
scholarly audience interested in the field of marketing studies. This is a college level
paper; thus it could be best interpreted by an age demographic of college-level
students or older.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article explored a wide variety of topics,
ranging from stereotyping in print media to barriers to acculturation and assimilation.
However, its main focus was Asian American representation in the media. It
discussed the importance of the proportionality criterion (which states that total
minority representation should correlate with their proportion in the total population).
The article later went on to discuss another term, cultivation theory, in which a
culture accepts distorted media portrayals of a minority more readily when it has little
contact with that group. The article also discussed the stigma that Asians are the
model minority and how this stereotype, though perceived to be positive, was
actually harming the depiction of Asian Americans. The article additionally provided,
in length, details about a content analysis study done with television advertisements.
This studys purpose was to discover the extent of the underrepresentation of
minorities. The study found that Asian-Americans, especially female AsianAmericans, were the most severely underrepresented. It concluded by detailing the
consequences of this lack of representation and its effects on the female AsianAmerican population.
Quotes: The concept frequency of representation is evaluated by means of the
proportionality criterion, which states that total minority representation should
approximate the minoritys proportion in the population
The related finding is that Asian-Americans, especially women, tend to be minor or
background figures more frequently than other minorities...The results are especially
skewed for Asian women, who appear in background roles in 36.2% of the ads in
which they appear, the highest proportion of any group
Low visibility may send the signal that Asian-American women are overlooked by
society, and although the message is probably unintentional, advertisers need to
become aware of its consequences

Source M
Lawless, J. L., & Fox, R. L. (2012, January). Men Rule: The Continued
Under-Representation of Women in U.S. Politics. Retrieved October 26, 2016,
Reflection: This article, through its use of relevant commentary, up-to-date research,
and sound arguments, will likely be a major influence on my upcoming timed writing
and speech. At first, I was discouraged by the sheer number of graphs and statistics
that the article offered near the beginning. However, as I read on, I realized that it
had much more to offer. The article discussed two prominent political figures, Sarah
Palin and Hillary Clinton (both of which incited my initial interest in pursuing this
topic). Palin and Clintons appearances in the media have sparked a debate over
whether women are held to a double standard in political media; a few of my other
sources discuss this as well. Overall, this article will prove to be very useful to me in
upcoming days as I write my timed writing and eventual speech.
Description: This source is 32 pages long, and took about 2 hours to read and take
notes on. It contained an executive summary, several chapters discussing key
factors of the research done, and two appendixes.
Validation: This source was procured by two professors: Jennifer L. Lawless,
Associate Professor of Government at American University, and Richard L. Fox,
Associate Professor of Political Science at Loyola Marymount University. It was
published by the Women and Politics Institute in Washington D.C.
Locating this source: I searched for women portrayal in politics on Google
Intended Audience: Lawless and Foxs intended audience is likely adult men and
women who express an interest in learning about political influence. Because the
article mainly discussed women in the political sphere, this could be most relevant
for people in politics, like constituents, lobbyists, politicians, etc.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article started off by making a clear main point:

women remain severely underrepresented in U.S. political institutions. It later laid out
seven factors that contributed to the gender gap. These factors ranged from aspects
affecting womens political ambition to influences on womens decision-making. The
article went over all seven of these factors in depth, and offered insight about the
gender differences in perceptions of the political system. It pointed out the disparity
between men and womens political ambition, stating that women were far more
likely to express doubt about the political atmosphere than men were. It also shed a
light on how Clinton and Palins candidacies, and biased media coverage, affected
the way women viewed the electoral arena. The last few factors went over how
women were less likely to receive encouragement to run for office and how this
encouragement could change perceptions of a highly competitive, sexist political
Quotes: Today, if we glance at the television screen, peruse the newspaper, listen
to the radio, or scan the Internet, we might be tempted to conclude that women have
made remarkable gains...But these famous faces obscure the dearth of women who
hold elective office in the United States. When the 112th Congress convened in
January 2011, 84 percent of its members were men.
Clinton and Palins campaigns also provided many potential candidates with a
window into how women are treated when they run for office. And what women of
both political parties saw likely confirmed some of their worst fears about the
electoral arena. More specifically, the data presented in Figure 4 reveal that roughly
two-thirds of female potential candidates believe that Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin
were subjected to sexist media coverage.
..majorities of female respondents contend that, during the campaigns, too much
attention was paid to Clinton and Palins appearances. In terms of perceptions of
bias, roughly half of the female potential candidates believe that Sarah Palin faced
gender bias from voters; more than 80 percent feel the same way about Hillary

Source N
Byerly, C. M., & Ross, K. (2006). Women and media: A critical introduction. Malden,
MA: Blackwell Pub.
Reflection: This article was one of the most wordy sources that Ive ever come
across. It critiqued womens relationships to the media from a feminist standpoint,
and used many terms that required me to go to a dictionary to find out the meanings.
However, judging from the Table of Content and the text itself, it covered a lot of the
same things I wanted to cover in my Capstone journey, such as womens media
enterprises and the journey from politics to the media. Overall, it served as as a
useful, albeit difficult to comprehend, source to get information from. It could also aid
me in my future timed writings, in which Id like to discuss the roles that women play
in television.
Description: This book sample is 25 pages long, and took me 2 hours to read.
Validation: This article was published in a journal for Communication and
Critical/Cultural Studies on Taylor & Francis, an accredited publisher. Not much could
be found on its authors, but from the article itself, the research, extensive works
cited, and abstract are scholarly and valid.
Locating this source: I searched for women portrayal in politics on Google
Scholar and found this eBook.
Intended Audience: The intended audience for this article should be mature,
educated scholars who are able to think critically and examine different viewpoints.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article first offered a detailed history of women
in the media. It offered research and theoretical work that took place in the past, as
far back as 1970. In the subsequent chapter, it discussed womens representations
in contemporary media. It observed genres such as crimes, soaps, and fantasy
narratives in order to show the endurance of gendered stereotyping. It pointed out
the various roles women play in these genres, and pointed out the highly eroticized
nature of some of these roles. The book also discussed the representation of women
in fact-based programming, such as news stations, magazines, and film.

Quotes: Like Tuchman et al.s work, they found that advertising, television, films,
news, and other genres in Western nations, as well as those in Africa, Asia, and
Latin America, disproportionately emphasized womens traditional domestic roles or
treated them as sex objects.
It was arguably [Honor] Blackmans highly eroticized performance as a secret agent
who wore kinky black leather that boosted the shows popularity, and generated the
suggestion of a feminist hero However, this was often undermined by lingering
close-ups of Blackmans leather-clad curves- made to order for the male gaze.
Progress inevitably occurs alongside recalcitrance, and backlash is a predictable
part of these events.

Source O
Carroll, S. J. (1985). Women as candidates in American politics. Bloomington:
Indiana University Press.

Reflection: This eBook discussed, in great detail, the problems that women face in
our current democracy and political system. Its study was interesting to read about; it
was trying to prove if a woman being elected would lead to a greater representation
of womens interests (such as abortion/pro-life interests) in our political system.
Description: I took 2.5 hours to read and take notes on this article. It is 25 pages
long, includes an experiment and study, and has an extensive list of references. It
had a lot of terms that I had to research on my own to understand, such as
subgrouping theories and coding reliability.
Validation: This article was written by two researchers; one at the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill and another at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign. It was published by Sage Publications.
Locating this source: I searched for women portrayal in politics on Google
Intended Audience: This article reads as an informative, almost speculative piece
and includes studies, contentions, and data. It would be best intended for an
educated audience, of whom are interested in Americas political system and the
representation of women.
Arguments/Topics Discussed: This article focused on many aspects of womens
representation in politics. The representation of womens interests were discussed,
as was the representation of women in officeholding positions. The book featured
several studies throughout; primarily, a study done on women candidates was
carried out. The study examined whether female candidates possessed attitudinal
predispositions that would lead them to represent womens interests if elected. It also
provided evidence that stated that American women perceive that they do not have
as much opportunity as men to participate in policymaking. It emphasized that, as
seen through the lack of women in visible leadership positions, our political system
discourages meaningful participation by women.
Quotes: ...the evidence indicates that predominantly male governing bodies
frequently have failed to act in response to womens interests on policy issues
dealing with women.
Unfortunately, the assumption that women had no interests distinct from those of
men was pervasive throughout society for so long that there is little public opinion
data on policy issues dealing with women prior to recent years.
As these examples illustrate, predominantly male governing bodies... have [rarely]
responded to an objective notion of the interests of women and pursued policies to
further the welfare of their female constituents.