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SYLLABUS

EE2356 - MICROPROCESSOR AND MICRO CONTROLLER LABORATORY


AIM
1. To understand programming using instruction sets of processors.
2. To study various digital & linear

8-bit Microprocessor
1. Simple arithmetic operations:
Multi precision addition / subtraction / multiplication / division.
2. Programming with control instructions:
Increment / Decrement, Ascending / Descending order, Maximum / Minimum of numbers,
Rotate instructions - Hex / ASCII / BCD code conversions.
3. Interface Experiments:
A/D Interfacing.
D/A Interfacing.
Traffic light controller.
4. Interface Experiments: Simple experiments using 8251, 8279, 8254.
8-bit Microcontroller
5. Demonstration of basic instructions with 8051 Micro controller execution, including:
Conditional jumps, looping
Calling subroutines.
Stack parameter testing
6. Parallel port programming with 8051 using port 1 facility:
- Stepper motor and D / A converter.
7. Study of Basic Digital ICs
(Verification of truth table for AND, OR, EXOR, NOT, NOR, NAND, JK FF, RS FF,D FF)
8. Implementation of Boolean Functions, Adder / Subtractor circuits.
9. Combination Logic; Adder, Subtractor, Code converters, Encoder and Decoder
10. Sequential Logic; Study of Flip-Flop,Counters(synchronous and asynchronous),Shift
Registers

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS
Ex.
No
1

4
5
6

7
8

8 BIT MICROPROCESSOR (8085)


1(a) 8- bit Addition
1(b) 8 bit Subtraction
1(c) 8- bit Multiplication
1(d) 8- bit Division
2(a) Ascending order
2(b) Descending order
2( c) Largest of a given numbers
2(d) Smallest of a given numbers
3(a) Code Conversion: ASCII to Hexadecimal
3(b) Code Conversion: Hexadecimal to ASCII
3(c) Code Conversion: Hexadecimal to Binary
3(d) Code Conversion: Hexadecimal to BCD
4(a) Interfacing: ADC with 8085
4(b)Interfacing: DAC with 8085
Interfacing: Traffic Light Controller with 8085
6(a)Interfacing: 8251 with 8085
6(b) Interfacing: 8279 with 8085
6(c) Interfacing: 8253 with 8085
MICROCONTROLLER(8051)
7(a) Sum of elements in an array
7(b) Sum using Stack
7( c) Sum using call option
8(a) Interfacing: Stepper Motor with 8051
8(b) Interfacing: DAC with 8051

STUDY OF BASIC DIGITAL ICS


9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Verification of truth table for AND, OR, EXOR,


NOT, NOR, NAND, JK FF, RS FF,D FF
Implementation of Boolean Functions, Adder /
Subtractor circuits
Code converters, Encoder and Decoder
Study of Flipflops
Counters(synchronous and asynchronous), Shift
registers
Differentiator, Integrator
Timer IC applications

Page
No.

8085 MICROPROCESSOR

Ex.No: 1

SIMPLE ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS

AIM:
To write an assembly language program to add, subtract, multiply and divide the given
data stored at two consecutive locations using 8085 microprocessor.
A. 8 BIT DATA ADDITION:
ALGORITHM:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Initialize memory pointer to data location.


Get the first number from memory in accumulator.
Get the second number and add it to the accumulator.
Store the answer at another memory location.

FLOW CHART:

START

[C]

00H

[HL]

4500H

[A]

[M]

[HL]

[HL]+1

[A]

[A]+[M]

Is there a
Carry ?

NO

YES
[C]

[C]+1

[HL]

[HL]+1

[M]

[A]

[HL]

[HL]+1

[M]

[C]

STOP

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105

OPCODE LABEL
START

MNEMONIC
MVI

OPERAND COMMENT
C, 00
Clear C reg.

LXI

H, 4500

Initialize HL reg. to
4500

MOV

A, M

4106

INX

4107

ADD

4108
4109
410A

JNC

L1

Transfer first data to


accumulator
Increment HL reg. to
point next memory
Location.
Add first number to
acc. Content.
Jump to location if
result does not yield
carry.

410B
410C

INR
INX

C
H

410D

MOV

M, A

410E

INX

410F
4110

MOV
HLT

M, C

L1

Increment C reg.
Increment HL reg. to
point next memory
Location.
Transfer the result from
acc. to memory.
Increment HL reg. to
point next memory
Location.
Move carry to memory
Stop the program

B. 8 BIT DATA SUBTRACTION


ALGORITHM:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Initialize memory pointer to data location.


Get the first number from memory in accumulator.
Get the second number and subtract from the accumulator.
If the result yields a borrow, the content of the acc. is complemented and 01H is added
to it (2s complement). A register is cleared and the content of that reg. is incremented
in case there is a borrow. If there is no borrow the content of the acc. is directly taken as
the result.
5. Store the answer at next memory location.

5
FLOW CHART:

START

[C]

00H

[HL]

4500H

[A]

[M]

[HL]

[HL]+1

[A]

[A]-[M]

NO
Is there a
Borrow ?

YES
Complement [A]
Add 01H to [A]

[C]

[C]+1

[HL]

[HL]+1

[M]

[A]

[HL]

[HL]+1

[M]

[C]

STOP

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105

OPCODE LABEL
START

MNEMONIC
MVI

OPERAND COMMENT
C, 00
Clear C reg.

LXI

H, 4500

Initialize HL reg. to
4500

MOV

A, M

4106

INX

4107

SUB

4108
4109
410A

JNC

L1

Transfer first data to


accumulator
Increment HL reg. to
point next mem.
Location.
Subtract first number
from acc. Content.
Jump to location if
result does not yield
borrow.

410B
410C

INR
CMA

410D
410E
410F

ADI

01H

INX

4110

MOV

M, A

4111

INX

4112
4113

MOV
HLT

M, C

L1

Increment C reg.
Complement the Acc.
content
Add 01H to content of
acc.
Increment HL reg. to
point next mem.
Location.
Transfer the result from
acc. to memory.
Increment HL reg. to
point next mem.
Location.
Move carry to mem.
Stop the program

C. 8 BIT DATA MULTIPLICATION:


ALGORITHM:
LOGIC: Multiplication can be done by repeated addition.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Initialize memory pointer to data location.


Move multiplicand to a register.
Move the multiplier to another register.
Clear the accumulator.
Add multiplicand to accumulator
Decrement multiplier
Repeat step 5 till multiplier comes to zero.
The result, which is in the accumulator, is stored in a memory location.

FLOW CHART:
START

[HL]4500

B M

[HL] [HL]+1

A 00

C 00

[A] [A] +[M]

Is there
any carry

NO

YES
C C+1

B B-1

NO

IS B=0
YES
A

A
[HL]

[HL]+1

[M]

[A]

[HL]

[HL]+1

[M]

[C]

STOP

10

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
4100
4101
4102
4103

OPCODE LABEL
START

MNEMONICS OPERAND COMMENT


LXI
H, 4500
Initialize HL reg. to
4500
MOV

B, M

4104

INX

4105
4106
4107
4108

MVI

A, 00H

Transfer first data to


reg. B
Increment HL reg. to
point next mem.
Location.
Clear the acc.

MVI

C, 00H

Clear C reg for carry

ADD

410A

JNC

NEXT

410B
410C
410D
410E
410F
4110
4111
4112

INR
DCR
JNZ

C
B
L1

Increment C reg
Decrement B reg
Jump to L1 if B is not
zero.

INX

4113

MOV

M, A

4114

INX

4115

MOV

M, C

4116

HLT

Increment HL reg. to
point next mem.
Location.
Transfer the result from
acc. to memory.
Increment HL reg. to
point next mem.
Location.
Transfer the result from
C reg. to memory.
Stop the program

4109

L1

NEXT

Add multiplicand
multiplier times.
Jump to NEXT if there
is no carry

11

D. 8 BIT DIVISION:
ALGORITHM:
LOGIC: Division is done using the method Repeated subtraction.
1. Load Divisor and Dividend
2. Subtract divisor from dividend
3. Count the number of times of subtraction which equals the quotient
4. Stop subtraction when the dividend is less than the divisor .The dividend now becomes
the remainder. Otherwise go to step 2.
5. stop the program execution.

12

FLOWCHART:

A M

START

B 00

[HL]4500

[HL] [HL]+1

M A-M

[B] [B] +1
NO

IS A<0
YES

A A+ M

B B-1

[HL]

[HL]+1

[M]

[A]

[HL]

[HL]+1

[M]

[B]

STOP

13

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
S 4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105

OPCODE LABEL

MNEMONICS OPERAND COMMENTS


MVI
B,00
Clear B reg for quotient
LXI

H,4500

Initialize HL reg. to
4500H

MOV

A,M

INX

SUB

4108
4109
410A
410B
410C
410D
410E

INR
JNC

B
LOOP

ADD
DCR
INX

M
B
H

410F

MOV

M,A

4110

INX

4111

MOV

M,B

4112

HLT

Transfer dividend to
acc.
Increment HL reg. to
point next mem.
Location.
Subtract divisor from
dividend
Increment B reg
Jump to LOOP if
result does not yield
borrow
Add divisor to acc.
Decrement B reg
Increment HL reg. to
point next mem.
Location.
Transfer the remainder
from acc. to memory.
Increment HL reg. to
point next mem.
Location.
Transfer the quotient
from B reg. to memory.
Stop the program

4106
4107

LOOP

OBSERVATION:
14

ADDITION:
S.NO
1
2

INPUT
ADDRESS
DATA
4500
4501
4500
4501

OUTPUT
ADDRESS
DATA
4502
4503
4502
4503

INPUT
ADDRESS
DATA
4500
4501
4500
4501

OUTPUT
ADDRESS
DATA
4502
4503
4502
4503

INPUT
ADDRESS
DATA
4500
4501
4500
4501

OUTPUT
ADDRESS
DATA
4502
4503
4502
4503

INPUT
ADDRESS
DATA
4500
4501
4500
4501

OUTPUT
ADDRESS
DATA
4502
4503
4502
4503

SUBTRACTION:
S.NO
1
2
MULTIPLICATION:
S.NO
1
2
DIVISION:
S.NO
1
2

15

RESULT:
Thus the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of two numbers was
performed using the 8085 microprocessor.
16

Ex.No: 2

SORTING OF AN ARRAY

AIM:
To write an assembly language program to arrange an array of data in ascending and
descending order and to find the smallest and largest data among the array.

A. ASCENDING ORDER
ALGORITHM:
1. Get the numbers to be sorted from the memory locations.
2. Compare the first two numbers and if the first number is larger than second then I
interchange the number.
3. If the first number is smaller, go to step 4
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until the numbers are in required order

17

FLOWCHART:

[HL] [HL] + 1
[C] [C] 01 H

YES
STA
RT

A
[B]
04H
[HL]
[8100H]

[C]

04H
[A]

[HL]
[HL
[HL] + 1

IS
[A] <
[HL]?
N
O
[D]
[HL]

[HL]
[A]

[HL]
[HL] - 1

[HL]
[D]

18

IS
[C] = 0?

NO

YES
[B] [B]-1

IS
[B] = 0?

NO

YES
STOP

19

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
S
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107

OPC
ODE

LABEL MNEMONICS OPERA


COMMENTS
ND
MVI
B,04
Initialize B reg with
number of comparisons
(n-1)
LOOP 3
LXI
H,4200 Initialize HL reg. to
4200H
MVI

C,04

MOV

A,M

4108

INX

4109
410A
410B
410C
410D

CMP
JC

M
LOOP1

MOV

D,M

410E

MOV

M,A

410F
4110

DCX
MOV

H
M,D

INX
DCR
JNZ

H
C
LOOP2

DCR
JNZ

B
LOOP3

4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
411A

LOOP2

LOOP1

HLT

Initialize C reg with no.


of comparisons(n-1)
Transfer first data to
acc.
Increment HL reg. to
point next memory
location
Compare M & A
If A is less than M then
go to loop1
Transfer data from M to
D reg
Transfer data from acc
to M
Decrement HL pair
Transfer data from D to
M
Increment HL pair
Decrement C reg
If C is not zero go to
loop2
Decrement B reg
If B is not Zero go to
loop3
Stop the program

20

B. DESCENDING ORDER

ALGORITHM:
1. Get the numbers to be sorted from the memory locations.
2. Compare the first two numbers and if the first number is smaller than second then I
interchange the number.
3. If the first number is larger, go to step 4
4. Repeat steps 2 and 3 until the numbers are in required order

WCHART:
FLO

21

[HL] [D]
[HL] [HL] + 1
[C] [C] 01 H
ST
AR
T

[B]

04H
[HL]
[8100H]

NO

[C]

04H
[A]
[HL]

[HL
[HL] + 1

IS
[A] <
[HL]?
Y
E
S
[D]
[HL]

[HL]
[A]

[HL]
[HL] - 1
22

IS
[C] = 0?

NO

YES
[B] [B]-1

IS
[B] = 0?

NO

YES
STOP

23

PROGRAM:
ADDRE OPCO LABEL
SS
DE
4100
4101
4102
LOOP 3
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
LOOP2
4108
4109
410A
410B
410C
410D
410E
410F
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
411A

LOOP1

MNEM
ONICS
MVI

OPER
AND
B,04

LXI

H,4200

MVI

C,04

MOV
INX

A,M
H

CMP
JNC

M
LOOP1

MOV
MOV
DCX
MOV
INX
DCR
JNZ

D,M
M,A
H
M,D
H
C
LOOP2

Transfer data from M to D reg


Transfer data from acc to M
Decrement HL pair
Transfer data from D to M
Increment HL pair
Decrement C reg
If C is not zero go to loop2

DCR
JNZ

B
LOOP3

Decrement B reg
If B is not Zero go to loop3

HLT

COMMENTS
Initialize B reg with number
of comparisons (n-1)
Initialize HL reg. to
4200H
Initialize C reg with no. of
comparisons(n-1)
Transfer first data to acc.
Increment HL reg. to point
next memory location
Compare M & A
If A is greater than M then go
to loop1

Stop the program

24

C. LARGEST ELEMENT IN AN ARRAY


ALGORITHM:
1. Place all the elements of an array in the consecutive memory locations.
2. Fetch the first element from the memory location and load it in the accumulator.
3. Initialize a counter (register) with the total number of elements in an array.
4. Decrement the counter by 1.
5. Increment the memory pointer to point to the next element.
6. Compare the accumulator content with the memory content (next
element).
7. If the accumulator content is smaller, then move the memory content
(largest element) to the accumulator. Else continue.
8. Decrement the counter by 1.
9. Repeat steps 5 to 8 until the counter reaches zero
10. Store the result (accumulator content) in the specified memory location.

25

FLOW CHART:
START

[HL] [8100H]

[B] 04H
[A] [HL]
[HL [HL] + 1

NO

IS
[A] < [HL]?
YES
[A] [HL]
[B] [B]-1

IS
[B] = 0?

NO

YES
[8105] [A]
STOP

26

PROGRAM:
ADDRE
SS
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
410A
410B
410C
410D
410E
410F
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114

OPCO
DE

LABEL

LOOP1

LOOP

MNEM
ONICS
LXI

OPER
AND
H,4200

MVI

B,04

MOV
INX

A,M
H

CMP
JNC

M
LOOP

MOV
DCR
JNZ

A,M
B
LOOP1

STA

4205

HLT

COMMENTS
Initialize HL reg. to
4200H
Initialize B reg with no. of
comparisons(n-1)
Transfer first data to acc.
Increment HL reg. to point
next memory location
Compare M & A
If A is greater than M then go
to loop
Transfer data from M to A reg
Decrement B reg
If B is not Zero go to loop1
Store the result in a memory
location.
Stop the program

27

D.SMALLEST ELEMENT IN AN ARRAY


ALGORITHM:
1. Place all the elements of an array in the consecutive memory locations.
2. Fetch the first element from the memory location and load it in the accumulator.
3. Initialize a counter (register) with the total number of elements in an array.
4. Decrement the counter by 1.
5. Increment the memory pointer to point to the next element.
6. Compare the accumulator content with the memory content (next
element).
7. If the accumulator content is smaller, then move the memory content
(largest element) to the accumulator. Else continue.
8. Decrement the counter by 1.
9. Repeat steps 5 to 8 until the counter reaches zero
10. Store the result (accumulator content) in the specified memory location.

28

FLOW CHART:
START

[HL] [8100H]

[B] 04H
[A] [HL]
[HL [HL] + 1

YES

IS
[A] < [HL]?
NO
[A] [HL]
[B] [B]-1

IS
[B] = 0?

NO

YES
[8105] [A]
STOP

29

PROGRAM:
ADDRE
SS
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
410A
410B
410C
410D
410E
410F
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114

OPCO LABEL
DE

LOOP1

LOOP

MNEM
ONICS
LXI

OPER
AND
H,4200

MVI

B,04

MOV
INX

A,M
H

CMP
JC

M
LOOP

MOV
DCR
JNZ

A,M
B
LOOP1

STA

4205

HLT

COMMENTS
Initialize HL reg. to
4200H
Initialize B reg with no. of
comparisons(n-1)
Transfer first data to acc.
Increment HL reg. to point
next memory location
Compare M & A
If A is lesser than M then go
to loop
Transfer data from M to A reg
Decrement B reg
If B is not Zero go to loop1
Store the result in a memory
location.
Stop the program

30

OBSERVATION:
A. ASCENDING ORDER
INPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204

OUTPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204

B. DESCENDING ORDER
INPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204

OUTPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204

C. SMALLEST ELEMENT
INPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204

OUTPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4205

D. LARGEST ELEMENT
INPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4200
4201
4202
4203
4204

OUTPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4205

31

RESULT:
Thus the sorting operations of arranging an array in ascending, descending order and
the largest and smallest element were found using the 8085 microprocessor.

32

Ex.No: 3

CODE CONVERSIONS
AIM:
To write an assembly language program to perform the conversions of ASCII to
hexadecimal number, hexadecimal to ASCII, hexadecimal to decimal number, binary to
hexadecimal number and hexadecimal to binary number.

A.ASCII TO HEXADECIMAL
ALGORITHM:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Start the program


Load the data from address 4200 to A
Move data from accumulator to C
Move data from M to HL pair to accumulator
Subtract the data 30 from A
Decrement content of register
Stop the program if C is zero
Jump to Step 5
End the program

33

FLOWCHART:
Start

Set the ASCII value

Subtract 30 from A

Decrement the register content

Check
for
Carry?

YES

NO
Subtract 07 from A

Store the hex value

Stop

34

PROGRAM:
ADDRE
SS
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
410A
410B
410C
410D

OPCO
DE

LABEL

LOOP 1

MNEM
ONICS
LDA

OPER
AND
H,4200

COMMENTS

MOV C,A
LXI

4F
H,4201

Move data from A to C


Load address 4201 in HL

LXI

D,4301

Load address 4301 in DF

MOV A,M
SUI

30

Move data from M to A


Subtract 30 from A

STAX D

410E

DCR C

410F
4110
4111
4112

JZ
INX H

4113

INX D

4114
4115
4116
4117

JMP
LOOP

HLT

Load data 4200 to A

LOOP

Store data from


accumulator to DE
Decrement from C
register
Stop program if C is 0

LOOP 1

Increment HL register
pair
Increment DE register
pair
Jump to 410A
Stop

35

B. HEXADECIMAL TO ASCII
ALGORITHM:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Start the program


Load the data from address 4200 to A
Move data from accumulator to C
Move data from M to HL pair to accumulator
Add the data 30 to A
Decrement content of register
Stop the program if C is zero
Jump to Step 5
End the program

36

FLOWCHART:

Start

Set the ASCII value

Add 30 to A

Decrement the register content

Check
for
Carry?

YES

NO
Store the decimal value

Stop

37

PROGRAM:
ADDRE
SS
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
410A
410B
410C
410D

OPCO
DE

LABEL

LOOP 1

MNEM
ONICS
LDA

OPER
AND
H,4200

COMMENTS

MOV C,A
LXI

4F
H,4201

Move data from A to C


Load address 4201 in HL

LXI

D,4301

Load address 4301 in DF

MOV A,M
ADI

30

Move data from M to A


Subtract 30 from A

STAX D

410E

DCR C

410F
4110
4111
4112

JZ
INX H

4113

INX D

4114
4115
4116
4117

JMP
LOOP

HLT

Load data 4200 to A

LOOP

Store data from


accumulator to DE
Decrement from C
register
Stop program if C is 0

LOOP 1

Increment HL register
pair
Increment DE register
pair
Jump to 410A
Stop

38

C. HEXADECIMAL TO BINARY
ALGORITHM:
1. Start the program
2. Move the content of memory to accumulator
3. Move data 0B o register B
4. Increment the content of HL register pair
5. Rotate the accumulator right
6. Jump to the specified address if carry generated
7. Move 00 to memory
8. Jump to specified address if there is no zero
9. Move 01 to memory
10. Jump to specified address if there is no zero
11. End the program

39

FLOWCHART:
Start
Load address in HL pair

Move data from M to A

Initialize counter B to 08

Increment HL register pair

Rotate accumulator right

Check for
Carry?

YES

NO
Move data from 00 to M

Move data from 01 to M


Decrement B register

NO
If B=0?
YES
Stop

40

PROGRAM:
ADDRE
SS
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106

OPCO
DE

LABEL

MOV A,M
MVI B
L3

4107
4108
4109
410A
410B
410C
410D
410E
410F
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115

MNEM
ONICS
LXI

OPERAND

COMMENTS

H,4200

Load address in HL pair

08

Move content of M to A
Move 0B to register pair

INX H

Increment the content of


HL pair
Rotate accumulator right
Jump to specified address
if carry

RRC
JC

L1

MVI M
JMP

00
L2

Move 00 to M
Decrement B register

L1

MVI M

01

Move 01 to M

L2

DCR B
JNZ

L3

Decrement B by 1
Jump to the specified
address if no zero

HLT

Stop the program

41

D. BINARY TO HEXADECIMAL
ALGORITHM:
1. Start the program
2. Load the address in HL pair
3. Move the content of memory to accumulator
4. Add the content of accumulator with previous content of accumulator
5. Move the content of B to accumulator
6. Add the content of accumulator with previous content of accumulator
7. Repeat step 6
8. Add B with accumulator content
9. Increment H by 1
10. Move content of M to A
11. End the program

42

FLOWCHART:
Start
Load address in HL pair

Move data from M to A

Add content of A to register B

Add content of A with itself

Add content of A to register B

Increment HL reg pair

Add content of M with accumulator

Increment HL reg pair content

Move content of M to accumulator

Stop

43

PROGRAM:
ADDRE OPCO
SS
DE
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104

LABEL

MNEM
ONICS
LXI
MOV M,A
ADD A

4105

MOV B,A

4106

ADD A

4107
4108
4109
410A
410B
410C

ADD B
INX H
ADD M
INX H
MOV M,A
HLT

OPERAND
H,4150

COMMENTS
Load address in HL pair
Move content of A to M
Add A content with
previous content of A
Move the content from
A to B
Add A content with
previous content of A
Add B content with A
Increment H by 1
Add M content with A
Increment H by 1
Move content of A to M
Stop the program

44

E. HEXADECIMAL TO DECIMAL
ALGORITHM:
1. Start the program
2. Load the address in HL pair
3. Move the content from HL to A
4. Subtract 64 from A
5. Increment BC pair
6. Jump to address 4207
7. Subtract 0A from A
8. Increment HL pair
9. Rotate accumulator left
10. Increment HL pair
11. End the program

45

FLOWCHART:
Start
Load address in HL pair
Initialize D register
Clear accumulator
Move HL to C register
Add 01 with A
Adjust A to BCD
YES

Check
Carry?
NO
Increment D register
Increment C register
NO

Check
Carry?
YES
Store A in 4151 H
Move D to accumulator
Store A in 4150 H

Stop

46

PROGRAM:
ADDRE
SS
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
410A
410B
410C
410D
410E
410F
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
411A
411B
411D
411E
411F
4120
4121
4122
4123
4124
4125
4126
4127
4128

OPCO
DE

LABEL

MNEM
ONICS
LXI H

OPER
AND
4150

LXI B

0000

COMMENTS
Load data from 4150 to HL pair
Load data from address to BC

MOV A,M
SUI

64

Move the content from HL to A


Subtract 64 from A

JC

L1

Stop if A has carry

INR B
JMP

L4

Increment BC
Jump to specified address

L1

ADI

64

Add 64 to A

L3

SUI

0A

Subtract 0A from A

JC

L2

Stop if A has carry

L3

Increment HL
Stop if A has no carry

L4

L2

INR C
JNC
ADI
INX H
MOV M,B
MOV B,A
MOV A,B
RLC
RLC
RLC
RLC
ADD B
INX H
MOV M,A
HLT

0A

Add 0A to A
Increment HL
Move B to M
Move A to B
Move B to A
Rotate accumulator
Rotate accumulator
Rotate accumulator
Rotate accumulator
Add B to A
Increment H by 1
Move content of A to M
Stop the program
47

OBSERVATION:
A. ASCII TO HEXADECIMAL
INPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4201

OUTPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4301

B. HEXADECIMAL TO ASCII
INPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4201

OUTPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4301

C. HEXADECIMAL TO BINARY
INPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4200

MEMORY
LOCATION
4200
4201
4202
4203

OUTPUT
DATA
MEMORY
LOCATION
4204
4205
4206
4207

DATA

D. BINARY TO HEXADECIMAL
INPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4150
4151

OUTPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4152

E. HEXADECIMAL TO DECIMAL
INPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4150
4151

OUTPUT
MEMORY
DATA
LOCATION
4152

48

RESULT:
Thus the assembly language programs for various code conversions are executed using
8085 microprocessor.

49

EX.No:4

4(a) INTERFACING A/D AND D/A CONVERTER WITH 8085


AIM:

To write an assembly language program to convert an analog signal into a digital signal
and a digital signal into an analog signal using an ADC interfacing and DAC interfacing
respectively.
A. ADC INTERFACING WITH 8085
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
SL.NO
1
2
3

ITEM
Microprocessor kit
Power supply
ADC Interface board

SPECIFICATION
8085,Vi Microsystems
+5 V dc
Vi Microsystems

QUANTITY
1
1
1

PROBLEM STATEMENT:
To program starts from memory location 4100H. The program is executed for various
values of analog voltage which are set with the help of a potentiometer. The LED display is
verified with the digital value that is stored in the memory location 4150H.
THEORY:
An ADC usually has two additional control lines: the SOC input to tell the ADC when
to start the conversion and the EOC output to announce when the conversion is complete. The
following program initiates the conversion process, checks the EOC pin of ADC 0419 as to
whether the conversion is over and then inputs the data to the processor. It also instructs the
processor to store the converted digital data at RAM 4200H.
ALGORITHM:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Select the channel and latch the address.


Send the start conversion pulse.
Read EOC signal.
If EOC =1 continue else go to step (3)
Read the digital output.
Store it in a memory location.

50

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
S
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4105
4106
4107
4108
4109
410A
410B
410C
410D
410E
410F
4110
4111
4112
4113
4114
4115
4116
4117
4118
4119
411A
411B
411C
411D
411E
411F
4120
4121

LABEL

MNEMON
ICS
MVI A

OPCO OPERA
COMMENTS
DE
ND
10
Select channel 0 and to
make accumulator low

OUT
MVI A

A, 1818

Output the data


Make accumulator high

OUT

C8

Display the data

MVI A

01

Make 01 to accumulator

OUT

D0

Display the data

00

XOR with accumulator


XOR with accumulator
XOR with accumulator
Make 00 to accumulator

OUT

D0

Load D0 in output port

IN

D8

XRA
XRA
XRA
MVI A

LOOP

C8

A
A
A

ANI

01 01

Do and operation directly

CPI

01 01

Compare with accumulator

JNZ

LOOP

IN

C0

STA

4150

HLT

Jump to specified address

Store the data


End the program

51

ADC- CIRCUIT:

SOC JUMPER SELECTION:

J2 : SOC Jumper selection


J5 : Channel selection
52

OBSERVATION
ANALOG VOLTAGE

DIGITAL DATA ON
LED DISPLAY

HEX
CODE
IN
LOCATION 4150

53

4(b) DAC INTERFACING WITH 8085


APPARATUS REQUIRED:
SL.NO
1
2
3

ITEM
Microprocessor kit
Power supply
DAC Interface board

SPECIFICATION
8085,Vi Microsystems
+5 V dc
Vi Microsystems

QUANTITY
1
1
1

SOFTWARE EXAMPLES
The following examples illustrate how to control the DAC using 8085 and generate
sine wave, saw tooth wave by means of software.
(a) SQUARE WAVE GENERATION:
The basic idea behind the generation of waveforms is the continuous generation of
Analog output of DAC. With 00(HEX) as input to DAC2, the analog output is -5V.
Similarly, with FF (Hex) as input, the output is +5V. Outputting digital data 00 and FF at
regular intervals, to DAC2, results in a square wave of amplitude I5 Volts
ALGORITHM:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Load the initial value (00) to Accumulator and move it to DAC.


Call the delay program
Load the final value (FF) to accumulator and move it to DAC.
Call the delay program.
Repeat steps 2 to 5.

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
S
4100
4101
4102
4103
4104
4107
4109
410B
410E
4112
4114

LABEL

MNEMON ICS

START

MVI A

00

Move 00 to A register

OUT

C8

Load C8 to output port

CALL DELAY
MVI A
OUT
CALL DELAY
JMP START
MVI B
MVI C

DELAY
FF
C8
DELAY
START
05
FF

Call delay program


Load FF to B register

DELAY
L1

OPC
ODE

OPERAND COMMENT

Jump to start of address


Move 05 to B register
Move FF to C register
54

4116
4117
411A
411B
411E

L2

DCR C
JNZ L2
DCR B
JNZ L1
RET

L2
L1

Decrement C
Jump to L2 if no zero
Decrement B register
Jump to L1 if no zero

Execute the program and using a CRO, verify that the waveform at the DAC2 output is a
square-wave. Modify the frequency of the square-wave, by varying the time delay.
(b) SAW TOOTH GENERATION:
ALGORITHM:
1. Load the initial value (00) to Accumulator
2. Move the accumulator content to DAC.
3. Increment the accumulator content by 1.
4. Repeat steps 3 and 4.
Output digital data from 00 to FF constant steps of 01 to DAC1 repeat this sequence again and
again. As a result a saw tooth wave will be generated at DAC1 output.
PROGRAM:
ADDRES
S
4100
4102
4104
4105
4108

LABEL

MNEMON ICS

START
L1

MVI A
OUT
INR A
JNZ L1
JMP START

OPCO OPERAN COMMENT


DE
D
00
Load 00 to accumulator
C0
Load CO in output port
Increment A register
L1
Jump to L1 if no zero
START
Go to START
unconditionally

(c) TRIANGULAR WAVE GENERATION:


ALGORITHM:
1. Load the initial value (00) to Accumulator.
2. Move the accumulator content to DAC
3. Increment the accumulator content by 1.
4. If accumulator content is zero proceed to next step. Else go to step 3.
5. Load value (FF) to accumulator.
6. Move the accumulator content to DAC.
7. Decrement the accumulator content by 1.
8. If accumulator content is zero go to step 2. Else go to step 2.
The following program will generate a triangular wave at DAC2 output.
55

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
S

LABEL

MNEMON ICS

START
L1

MVI L
MOV A,L
OUT
INR L
JNZ L1
MVI L
MOV A,L
OUT
DCR L
JNZ L2
JMP START

L2

OPC
ODE

OPERA COMMENT
ND
00
Move 00 to L register
Load L to a register
C8
Load c8 to output port
Increment L register
L1
Jump to L1 if no zero
FF
Load FF to L register
Move L to a register
C8
Load C8 to output port
Decrement L register
L2
Jump to L2 if no zero
START Go to START unconditionally

56

DAC - CIRCUIT:

WAEFORMS:

57

OBSERVATION:
WAVE FORMS
AMPLITUDE
Square waveform
Saw tooth waveform
Triangular waveform

TIME PERIOD

Result:
Thus the conversion of an analog signal into a digital signal and a digital signal into an
analog signal was done using interfacing of ADC and DAC respectively with 8085.

58

EX.No:5

TRAFFIC LIGHT CONTROLLER WITH 8085


AIM

To write an assembly language program to simulate the traffic light at an intersection


using a traffic light interface.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
SL.NO
1
2
3

ITEM
Microprocessor kit
Power supply
Traffic light interface kit

SPECIFICATION
4185,Vi Microsystems
+5 V dc
Vi Microsystems

QUANTITY
1
1
1

ALGORITHM:
1. Initialize the ports.
2. Initialize the memory content, with some address to the data.
3. Read data for each sequence from the memory and display it through the ports.
4. After completing all the sequences, repeat from step2.
A SAMPLE SEQUENCE:
1. (a) Vehicles from south can go to straight or left.
(b) Vehicles from west can cross the road.
(c) Each pedestrian can cross the road.
(d) Vehicles from east no movement.
(e) Vehicles from north, can go only straight.
2. All ambers are ON, indicating the change of sequence.
3. (a) Vehicles from east can go straight and left.
(b) Vehicles from south, can go only left.
(c) North pedestrian can cross the road.
(d) Vehicles from north, no movement.
(e) Vehicles from west, can go only straight.
4. All ambers are ON, indicating the change of sequence.
5. (a) Vehicles from north can go straight and left.
(b) Vehicles from east, can go only left.
(c) West pedestrian can cross the road.
(d) Vehicles from west, no movement.
(e) Vehicles from south, can go only straight.
6. All ambers are ON, indicating the change of sequence.

59

7. (a) Vehicles from west can go straight and left.


(b) Vehicles from north, can go only left.
(c) South pedestrian can cross the road.
(d) Vehicles from south, no movement.
(e) Vehicles from east, can go only straight.
8. All ambers are ON, indicating the change of sequence.
9. (a) All vehicles from all directions no movement.
(b) All pedestrian can cross the road.
BIT ALLOCATION:
BIT

LED

BIT

LED

BIT

LED

PA0
PA1
PA2
PA3
PA4
PA5
PA6
PA7

SOUTH LEFT
SOUTH RIGHT
SOUTH AMBER
SOUTH RED
EAST LEFT
EAST RIGHT
EAST AMBER
EAST RED

PB0
PB1
PB2
PB3
PB4
PB5
PB6
PB7

NORTH LEFT
NORTH RIGHT
NORTH AMBER
NORTH RED
WEST LEFT
WEST RIGHT
WEST AMBER
WEST RED

PC0
PC1
PC2
PC3
PC4
PC5
PC6
PC7

WEST STRAIGHT
NORTH STRAIGHT
EAST STRAIGHT
SOUTH STRAIGHT
NORTH PD
WEST PD
SOUTH PD
EAST PD

60

PATH REPRESENTATION:

CONTROL ----- 0F ( FOR 8255 PPI )


PORT A
----- 0C
PORT B
----- 0D
PORT C
----- 0E

61

PROGRAM :
ADDRES
S
4100

LABEL

MNEMON ICS
MVI A, 41

OPCO OPER
DE
AND
3E
41
A,41

4102

OUT CONTROL

4104

LXI H,DATA_SQ

4107

COMMENT
Move 80 immediately to
accumulator

D3

0F

Output contents of
accumulator to OF port
Load address 417B to HL
register

LXI D,DATA_E

11

41,87

410A
410D

CALL OUT
XCHG

CD
EB

42,41

410E

MOV A,M

7E

410F
4111
4114

OUT PORT A
CALL DELAY1
XCHG

D3
CD
EB

4115
4116
4117
411A

INX D
INX H
CALL OUT
XCHG

13
23
CD
EB

411B

MOV A,M

7E

411C
411E
4121

OUT PORT B
CALL DELAY1
XCHG

D3
CD
EB

4122
4123
4124
4127

INX D
INX H
CALL OUT
XCHG

13
23
CD
EB

4128

MOV A,M

7E

Load address 4187 to DE


register
Call out address
Exchange contents of HL
with DE pair
Move M content to
accumulator
Load port A into output port
Call delay address
Exchange content of HL
with DE pair
Increment the content of D
Increment the content of H
Call out the address
Exchange content of HL
with DE pair
Move M content to
accumulator
Load port B into output port
Call DELAY address
Exchange content of HL
with DE pair
Increment D register
Increment H register
Call specified address
Exchange content of HL
with DE pair
Move M content to
accumulator

0C
66,41

42,41

0D
66,41

42,41

62

4129
412B
412E

OUT PORT C
CALL DELAY1
XCHG

D3
CD
EB

0E
66,41

412F
4130
4131
4134

INX D
INX H
CALL OUT
XCHG

13
23
CD
EB

4135

MOV A,M

7E

4136
4138
4139

OUT PORT C
INX H
MOV A,M

D3
23
7E

0E

413A
413C
413F
4142

OUT PORT A
CALL DELAY1
JMP REPEAT
MOV A,M

D3
CD
C3
7E

0C
66,41
04,41

4143
4145
4146

OUT PORT C
INX H
MOV A,M

D3
23
7E

0E

4147
4149
414A

OUT PORT B
INX H
MOV A,M

D3
23
7E

0D

414B
414D
4150
4151
4152

OUT PORT A
CALL DELAY
RET
PUSH H
LXI H,001F

D3
CD
C9
E5
21

0C
51,41

4155

LXI B,FFFF

01

FF,FF

4158
4159

DCX B
MOV A,B

0B
78

415A

ORA C

B1

415B
415E
415F

JNZ LOOP
DCX H
MOV A,L

C2
2B
7D

42,41

1F,00

58,41

Load port C into output port


Call DELAY address
Exchange content of HL
with DE pair
Increment D register
Increment H register
Call specified address
Exchange content of HL
with DE pair
Move M content to
accumulator
Load port C into output port
Increment H register
Move M content to
accumulator
Load port A into output port
Call DELAY address
Jump to specified address
Move M content to
accumulator
Load port C into output port
Increment H register
Move M content to
accumulator
Load port B into output port
Increment H register
Move M content to
accumulator
Load port A into output port
Call DELAY address
Return to accumulator
Push the register H
Load 00 1F in HL register
pair
Load FF FF in DE register
pair
Decrement B register
Move B content to
accumulator
OR content of C with
accumulator
Jump to LOOP if no zero
Decrement H register
Move L content to
accumulator
63

4160

ORA H

B4

4161
4164
4165
4166
4167

JNZ L1
POP H
RET
PUSH H
LXI H,001F

C2
E1
C9
E5
21

55,41

416A

LXI B,FFFF

01

FF,FF

416D
416E

DCX B
MOV A,B

0B
78

416F

ORA C

B1

4170
4173
4174

JNZ LOOP2
DCX H
MOV A,L

C2
2B
7D

4175

ORA H

B4

4176
4179
417A
417B

JNZ L2
POP H
RET
DATA
12 27 44 10 2B
SEQ DB 92 10 9D 84 48
2E 84
48 4B 20 49 04

C2
E1
C9

OR content of H with
accumulator
Jump to L1 if no zero
Pop the register H
Return from subroutine

1F,00

6D,41

6A,41

Push the register H


Load 00 1F in HL register
pair
Load FF FF in DE register
pair
Decrement B register
Move B content to
accumulator
OR content of C with
accumulator
Jump to LOOP2 if no zero
Decrement H register
Move L content to
accumulator
OR content of H with
accumulator
Jump to L2 if no zero
Pop the register H
Return to subroutine

RESULT:
Thus an assembly language program to simulate the traffic light at an intersection using a
traffic light interfaces was written and implemented.
64

EX.No:6

6(a) INTERFACING 8251 WITH 8085


AIM:
To write a program to initiate 8251 and to check the transmission and reception
of character.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. 8085 Microprocessor kit
2. 8251 Interface board
3. DC regulated power supply
THEORY:
The 8251 is used as a peripheral device for serial communication and is
programmed by the CPU to operate using virtually any serial data transmission technique.
The USART accepts data characters from the CPU in parallel format and the converts them
in a continuous serial data stream of transmission. Simultaneously, it can receive serial data
streams and convert them into parallel data characters for the CPU. The CPU can read the
status of USART at any time. These include data transmissions errors and control signals.
Prior to starting data transmission or reception ,the 8251 must be loaded with a
set of control words generated by the CPU.These control signals define the complete
functional definition of the 8251 and must immediately follow a RESET operation. Control
words should be written in to the control register of 8251. words should be written in to the
control register of 8251.words should be written in to the control register of
8251.Thesecontrol words are split into two formats.
1. MODE INSTRUCTION WORD
2. COMMAND INSTRUCTION WORD.
1. MODE INSTRUCTION WORD
This format defines the BAUD rate, character length, parity and stop bits required to
work with asynchronous data communication. by selecting the appropriate BAUD
factor synchronous mode, the 8251 can be operated in synchronous mode.
Initializing 8251 using the Mode instructions to the following conditions.
8 bit data
No parity
Baud rate factor(16X)
1 stop bit
Gives a mode command word of 01001110=4E(X)

65

ALGORITHM
1. Initialize timer (8253) IC
2. Move the Mode command word (4EH) to A reg.
3. Output it port address C2
4. Move the command instruction word (37H) to A reg.
5. Output it to port address C2
6. Move the data to be transfer to A reg.
7. Output it to port address C0.
8. Reset the system
9. Get the data through input port address C0.
10. Store the value in memory
11. Reset the system
PROGRAM:
ADDRES LA
S
BE
L
4100
4102
4104
4106
4108
410A
410C
410F
4111
4113
4115
4117
4119
411B
4200
4202
4205

MNEMON OPC OPE


COMMENT
ICS
ODE RAN
D
MVI A
36
Move 36 to A
OUT
CE
Output contents of accumulator to CE
port
MVI A
0A
Move 0A to accumulator
OUT
C8
Output contents of accumulator to C8
port
MVI A
00
Move 00 to accumulator
OUT
C8
Output contents of accumulator to C8
port
LXI H
4200 Store 4200 address in HL register pair
MVI A
4E
Move 4E to accumulator
OUT
C2
Output contents of accumulator to C2
port
MVI A
37
Move 37 to accumulator
OUT
C2
Output contents of accumulator to C2
port
MVI A
41
Move 41 to accumulator
OUT
C0
Output contents of accumulator to C0
port
RST1
IN
C0
Input the contents from port C0 to
accumulator
STA
4150 Store the output from accumulator to
4150
RST1

66

SYNCHRONOUS MODE:
S2

S1

EP

PEN

L2

L1

B2

B1
0

5
BIT

6
BIT

7
BIT

8
BIT

PARITY ENABLE
1-Enable
0-Disable
EVEN PARITY GENERATION
0-Odd
1-Even

EXTERNAL SYNC DETECT


1-Sysdetect is an input
0- Sysdetect is an output
SINGLE CHARACTER SYNC
1-Single sync character
0- Double sync character

67

ASYNCHRONOUS MODE:
S2

S1

EP

PEN

L2

L1

B2

B1
0

Synch
mode

(1 X)

(16 X) (64 X)

5
BIT

6
BIT

7
BIT

8
BIT

PARITY ENABLE
1-Enable
0-Disable
EVEN PARITY GENERATION
0-Odd
1-Even

Invalid

61BIT

1.5BIT

2 BIT

68

OBSERVATION:
MEMORY LOCATION

INPUT DATA

OUTPUT DATA

RESULT:
Thus the program to initiate 8251 was written and the transmission and reception of
character was checked by interfacing 8251 with 8085.

69

6(b) INTERFACING 8253 TIMER WITH 8085


AIM:
To interface 8253 Interface board to 8085 microprocessor to demonstrate the generation of
square wave.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. 8085 microprocessor kit
2. 8253 Interface board
3. DC regulated power supply
4. CRO.
.
PROGRAM:
Addre
4100
4102
4104
4106
4108
410A
410C

Opcode Label
3E 36
START:
D3 CE
3E 0A
D3 C8
3E 00
D3 C8
76

Mnemon
MVI
OUT
MVI
OUT
MVI
OUT
HLT

Operand
A, 36
CE
A, 0A
C8
A, 00
C8

Comments
Channel 0 in mode 3
Send Mode Control word
LSB of count
Write count to register
MSB of count
Write count to register

Set the jumper, so that the clock 0 of 8253 is given a square wave of frequency 1.5
MHz. This program divides this PCLK by 10 and thus the output at channel 0 is 150 KHz.
Vary the frequency by varying the count. Here the maximum count is FFFF H. So, the
square wave will remain high for 7FFF H counts and remain low for 7FFF H counts. Thus
with the input clock frequency of 1.5 MHz, which corresponds to a period of 0.067
microseconds, the resulting square wave has an ON time of 0.02184 microseconds and an OFF
time of 0.02184 microseconds.
To increase the time period of square wave, set the jumpers such that CLK2 of 8253 is
connected to OUT 0. Using the above-mentioned program, output a square wave of frequency
150 KHz at channel 0. Now this is the clock to channel 2.

70

CONTROL WORD:
SC1

SC2

RW1 RW0

M2

M1

M0

BCD

SC-SELECT COUNTER:
SC1

SC0

SELECT COUNTER

Select counter 0

Select counter 1

Select counter 2

Read back command

M-MODE:
M2
0
0
X
X
1
1

M1
0
0
1
1
0
0

M0
0
1
0
1
0
1

MODE
Mode 0
Mode 1
Mode 2
Mode 3
Mode 4
Mode 5

READ/WRITE:
RW1

RW0

Counter latch command

R/W least significant bit only

R/W most significant bit only

R/W least sig first and most sig byte

BCD:
0

Binary counter 16-bit

Binary coded decimal counter

71

Result:
Thus the 8253 has been interfaced to 4185p and six different modes of 8253 have
been studied.

72

6(c) INTERFACING 8279 WITH 8085


AIM:

To interface 8279 Programmable Keyboard Display Controller to 8085 Microprocessor.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. 8085 Microprocessor toolkit.
2. 8279 Interface board
3. Regulated D.C. power supply.
PROGRAM:
ADDRES
S

LABEL

MNEMON ICS OPCO


DE

OPERA COMMENT
ND

4100

START

LXI H

4130
4130H
0F

Store the 16 bit address


in HL pair
Move 0F to D register

4103

MVI D

D,

4105

MVI A

10

Move 10 to A

4107

OUT

C2

Output the contents of


A to C2 output port

C2H
4109

MVI A

CC90H

Move CC to A

410B

OUT

C2

410D

MVI A

9090H

Output the contents of


A to C2 output port
Move 90 to A

410F

OUT

C2

4111

LOOP

MOV A, M

Output the contents of


A to C2 output port
Move content of M to
A
Output the contents of
M to A
Call the delay address

4112

OUT

C0

4114

CALL DELAY

DELAY

4117

INX H

Increment H register

4118

DCR D

Decrement D register

73

4119

JNZ LOOP

LOOP

411F

DELAY

MVI B

A0

Jump to specified
address
Jump to START
address
Move a to B register

411C

JMP START

START

4121

LOOP1

MVI C

FF

Move FF to C register

4123

LOOP2

DCR C

4124

JNZ LOOP 1

4127

DCR B

4128

JNZ LOOP 2

412B

RET

Decrement C register
LOOP 1

Jump to LOOP 1 if no
zero
Decrement B register

LOOP 2

Jump to LOOP 2 if no
zero

Pointer equal to 4130 .FF repeated eight times


4130
4131
4132
4133
4134
4135
4136
4137
4138
4139
413
413B
413C
413D
413E
413F

FF
FF
FF
FF
FF
FF
FF
FF
98
68
7C
C8
1C
29
FF
FF

74

SEGMENT DEFINITION:

DATA BUS D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
SEGMETS

dp g

OBSERVATION:
LETTER 7
SEGMENT

DATA BUS
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

HEXADECIMAL
HEXADECIMAL

RESULT:
Thus 8279 controller was interfaced with 8085 and program for rolling display was executed
successfully.

75

MICROCONTROLLER

76

Ex.No:7

7(a) 8051 - SUM OF ELEMENTS IN AN ARRAY


AIM:
To find the sum of elements in an array.
ALGORITHM:
1.

Load the array in the consecutive memory location and initialize the
memory pointer with the starting address.

2.

Load the total number of elements in a separate register as a counter.

3.

Clear the accumulator.

4.

Load the other register with the value of the memory pointer.

5.

Add the register with the accumulator.

6.

Check for carry, if exist, increment the carry register by 1. otherwise,


continue

7.

Decrement the counter and if it reaches 0, stop. Otherwise increment the


memory pointer by 1 and go to step 4.

77

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
4100

OPCODE LABEL MNEMONICS


MOV

OPERAND
DPTR, #4200

4103

MOVX

A, @DPTR

4104

MOV

R0, A

4105

MOV

B, #00

4108

MOV

R1, B

CLR C

C3

410B

INC DPTR

A3

410C

MOVX

A, @DPTR

410D

ADD

A, B

410F

MOV

B, A

4111

JNC

NC

4113

INC

R1

INC

DPTR

4116

MOV

DPTR, #4500

4119

MOV

A, R1

411A

MOVX

@DPTR, A

411B

INC

DPTR

411C

MOV

A, B

411E

MOVX

@DPTR, A

411F

SJMP

HLT

410A

4114

ADD

NC

COMMENT

78

OBSERVATION:
INPUT
4200

OUTPUT
4500

4201
4202
4203

4501

RESULT:
The sum of elements in an array is calculated.

79

7(b) 8051 - SUM USING STACK


AIM:
To find the sum of elements in an array using stack.
ALGORITHM:
1. Start
2. Move the data to stack pointer
3. Move the data to accumulator
4. Move the data to reg B
5. Move the data to DPL
6. Push the value of A to stack
7. Push the value of B to stack
8. Push the value of DPL to stack
9. Halt

80

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
4100

OPCODE LABEL MNEMONICS


MOV SP, #67

OPERAND
67

4103

MOV A, #88

88

4105

MOV B, #66

66

4108

MOV DPL, #43

43

410B

PUSH A

410D

PUSH B

410F

PUSH DPL

4111

SJMP

COMMENT

RESULT:
The sum of elements in an array is calculated.
81

7(c) 8051 - SUM USING CALL OPTION


AIM:
To find the sum of elements in an array using call option.
ALGORITHM:
1. Start
2. Move the data to DPTR
3. Move the data to accumulator
4. Adjacent call 4200
5. Add A & R0
6. Move the 16 bit data from A to DPTR
7. Move the data to accumulator
8. Move the data to R0
9. Return to 4107

82

PROGRAM:
ADDRES
S
4100

OPC
ODE

LABEL

MNEMONICS

OPERAND

MOV DPTR,# 4300

43,00

4103

MOV A, # 00

00

4105

ACALL 4200

42,00

4108

ADD A, R0

410B

MOVX @DPTR,A

410D

SJMP

410F

MOVA,#02

02

4111

MOV R0, #01

01

COMMENT

80

RET

OBSERVATION:
INPUT
4200

OUTPUT
4300

4202

RESULT:
The sum of elements in an array using call option is calculated is calculated.

83

Ex.No:8

8(a) STEPPER MOTOR INTERFACING WITH 8051


AIM:

To interface a stepper motor with 8051 microcontroller and operate it.

THEORY:
A motor in which the rotor is able to assume only discrete stationary angular position is
a stepper motor. The rotary motion occurs in a step-wise manner from one equilibrium position
to the next. Stepper Motors are used very wisely in position control systems like printers, disk
drives, process control machine tools, etc.
The basic two-phase stepper motor consists of two pairs of stator poles. Each of the
four poles has its own winding. The excitation of any one winding generates a North Pole. A
South Pole gets induced at the diametrically opposite side. The rotor magnetic system has two
end faces. It is a permanent magnet with one face as South Pole and the other as North Pole.
The Stepper Motor windings A1, A2, B1, B2 are cyclically excited with a DC current
to run the motor in clockwise direction. By reversing the phase sequence as A1, B2, A2, B1,
anticlockwise stepping can be obtained.
2-PHASE SWITCHING SCHEME:
In this scheme, any two adjacent stator windings are energized. The switching scheme
is shown in the table given below. This scheme produces more torque.
ANTICLOCKWISE
STEP A1

1
2
3
4

1
0
0
1

CLOCKWISE

A2

B1

B2

DATA

STEP

0
1
1
0

0
0
1
1

1
1
0
0

9h
5h
6h
Ah

1
2
3
4

A1 A2

1
0
0
1

0
1
1
0

B1

B2

DATA

1
1
0
0

0
0
1
1

Ah
6h
5h
9h

ADDRESS DECODING LOGIC:


The 74138 chip is used for generating the address decoding logic to generate the device
select pulses, CS1 & CS2 for selecting the IC 74175.The 74175 latches the data bus to the
stepper motor driving circuitry.
Stepper Motor requires logic signals of relatively high power. Therefore, the interface
circuitry that generates the driving pulses use silicon darlington pair transistors. The inputs for
the interface circuit are TTL pulses generated under software control using the Microcontroller
Kit. The TTL levels of pulse sequence from the data bus is translated to high voltage output
pulses using a buffer 7407 with open collector.

84

BLOCK DIAGRAM:

8051
MICROCONTROLLER

8255

DRIVER CIRCUIT

STEPPER MOTOR

REPRESENTATION:

85

PROGRAM :
Addres OPCODE
s
4100

Label

MNEM
OPERAND
ONICS
ORG
4100h

START

MOV

DPTR, #TABLE

LOOP:

MOV
MOVX

R0, #04
A, @DPTR

4106
4108
410A

PUSH
PUSH
MOV

DPH
DPL
DPTR, #0FFC0h

410D

MOVX

@DPTR, A

410E
4110

MOV
MOV

R4, #0FFh
R5, #0FFh

DJNZ

R5, DELAY1

4114
4116
4118
411A

DJNZ
POP
POP
INC

R4, DELAY
DPL
DPH
DPTR

411B

DJNZ

R0, LOOP

411D

SJMP

START

4103
4105

4112

411F

DELA
Y:
DELA
Y1:

TABLE DB
:

09 05 06 0Ah

Comments

Load the start address


of switching scheme
data TABLE into Data
Pointer (DPTR)
Load the count in R0
Load the number in
TABLE into A
Push DPTR value to
Stack
Load the Motor port
address into DPTR
Send the value in A to
stepper Motor port
address
Delay loop to cause a
specific amount of
time delay before next
data item is sent to the
Motor
POP back DPTR value
from Stack
Increment DPTR to
point to next item in
the table
Decrement R0, if not
zero repeat the loop
Short jump to Start of
the program to make
the motor rotate
continuously
Values as per twophase switching
scheme

86

PROCEDURE:
1. Enter the above program starting from location 4100.and execute the same.
2. The stepper motor rotates.
3. Varying the count at R4 and R5 can vary the speed.
4. Entering the data in the look-up TABLE in the reverse order can vary direction of
rotation.

RESULT:
Thus a stepper motor was interfaced with 8051 and run in forward and reverse
directions at various speeds.

87

8 (b) INTERFACING D/A CONVERTER WITH 8051


AIM:

To interface DAC with 8051 to demonstrate the generation of square, saw tooth and
triangular wave.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
SL.NO
1
2
3

ITEM
Microprocessor kit
Power supply
DAC Interface board

SPECIFICATION
4185,Vi Microsystems
+5 V dc
Vi Microsystems

QUANTITY
1
1
1

THEORY:
SOFTWARE EXAMPLES
After going through the software examples you can learn how to control the
DAC using 8051 and generate sine wave, saw tooth wave etc by means of software.
ALGORITHM:
(a) SQUARE WAVE GENERATION:
1. Load the initial value (00) to Accumulator and move it to DAC.
2. Call the delay program
3. Load the final value (FF) to accumulator and move it to DAC.
4. Call the delay program.
5. Repeat steps 2 to 5.

88

DAC - CIRCUIT:

WAVEFORMS:

89

OBSERVATION:
WAVE FORMS
AMPLITUDE
Square waveform
Saw tooth waveform
Triangular waveform

TIME PERIOD

PROGRAM:
The basic idea behind the generation of waveforms is the continuous generation of
Analog output of DAC.
With 00(HEX) as input to DAC2, the analog output is -5V. Similarly, with FF (Hex) as
input, the output is +5V. Outputting digital data 00 and FF at regular intervals, to DAC2,
results in a square wave of amplitude I5 Volts.
ADDRES

LABEL

MNEMON ICS
OPCODE OPERAND COMMENT
MOV DPTR,#FFC8
START MOV A,#00
MOVX @DPTR,A
LCALL DELAY
MOV A,# FF
MOVX @DPTR,A
LCALL DELAY
LJMP START
DELAY MOV R1,#05
LOO[P
MOV R2,#FF
DJNZ R2,HERE
DJNZ R1,LOOP
RET
SJMP START
Execute the program and using a CRO, verify that the waveform at the DAC2 output is
a square-wave. Modify the frequency of the square-wave, by varying the time delay.
(b) SAW TOOTH GENERATION
1. Load the initial value (00) to Accumulator
2. Move the accumulator content to DAC.
3. Increment the accumulator content by 1.
4. Repeat steps 3 and 4.
Output digital data from 00 to FF constant steps of 01 to DAC1 repeat this sequence again and
again. As a result a saw tooth wave will be generated at DAC1 output.

90

PROGRAM:
ADDRES

LABEL
LOOP

MNEMON ICS
MOV DPTR,#FFC0
MOV A,#00
MOVX @DPTR,A
INC A
SJMP LOOP

OPCODE OPERAND

COMMENT

(c) TRIANGULAR WAVE GENERATION


1. Load the initial value (00) to Accumulator.
2. Move the accumulator content to DAC
3. Increment the accumulator content by 1.
4. If accumulator content is zero proceed to next step. Else go to step 3.
5. Load value (FF) to accumulator.
6. Move the accumulator content to DAC.
7. Decrement the accumulator content by 1.
8. If accumulator content is zero go to step 2. Else go to step 2.
The following program will generate a triangular wave at DAC2 output. The program is
self explanatory.
ADDRES

LABEL
START
LOOP1

LOOP2

MNEMON ICS
MOV DPTR,#FFC8
MOV A,#00
MOVX @DPTR,A
INC A
JNZ LOOP1
MOV A,#FF
MOVX @DPTR,A
DEC A
JNZ LOOP2
LJMP START

OPCODE OPERAND

COMMENT

OBSERVATION:
WAVE FORMS
AMPLITUDE
Square waveform
Saw tooth waveform
Triangular waveform

TIME PERIOD

91

Result:
Thus the square, triangular and saw tooth wave form were generated by interfacing
DAC with 8051 trainer kit.

92

Ex. No: 9

STUDY OF BASIC DIGITAL ICS


AIM:
gates.

To verify the truth table of basic digital ICs of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, EX-OR

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No

Name of the Apparatus

Range

Quantity

1.

Digital IC trainer kit

2.

AND gate

IC 7408

3.

OR gate

IC 7432

4.

NOT gate

IC 7404

5.

NAND gate

IC 7400

6.

NOR gate

IC 7402

1
1

7.

EX-OR gate

IC 7486

8.

Connecting wires

As required

THEORY:
a. AND gate:
An AND gate is the physical realization of logical multiplication operation. It is
an electronic circuit which generates an output signal of 1 only if all the input signals
are 1.
b. OR gate:
An OR gate is the physical realization of the logical addition operation. It is an
electronic circuit which generates an output signal of 1 if any of the input signal is 1.
c. NOT gate:
A NOT gate is the physical realization of the complementation operation. It is
an electronic circuit which generates an output signal which is the reverse of the input
signal. A NOT gate is also known as an inverter because it inverts the input.

93

d. NAND gate:
A NAND gate is a complemented AND gate. The output of the NAND gate
will be 0 if all the input signals are 1 and will be 1 if any one of the input signal is
0.
e. NOR gate:
A NOR gate is a complemented OR gate. The output of the OR gate will be 1
if all the inputs are 0 and will be 0 if any one of the input signal is 1.
f. EX-OR gate:
An Ex-OR gate performs the following Boolean function,
A

B = ( A . B ) + ( A . B )

It is similar to OR gate but excludes the combination of both A and B being


equal to one. The exclusive OR is a function that give an output signal 0 when the
two input signals are equal either 0 or 1.
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram
1. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.
2. Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for all gates.
AND GATE
LOGIC DIAGRAM:

94

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7408:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.

INPUT
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

OUTPUT
Y=A.B
0
0
0
1
OR GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

95

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7432 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.

INPUT
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

OUTPUT
Y=A+B
0
1
1
1
NOT GATE

LOGIC DIAGRAM:

96

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7404 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:
S.No
1.
2.

INPUT
A
0
1

OUTPUT
Y = A
1
0

NAND GATE
LOGIC DIAGRAM:

97

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7400 :

CIRCUIT DIARAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.

INPUT
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

OUTPUT
Y = (A. B)
1
1
1
0

98

NOR GATE
LOGIC DIAGRAM:

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7402 :

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:

S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.

INPUT
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

OUTPUT
Y = (A + B)
1
0
0
0
99

EX-OR GATE
LOGIC DIAGRAM

PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7486:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.

INPUT
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

OUTPUT
Y=A B
0
1
1
0

100

RESULT:
.

The truth tables of all the basic digital ICs were verified.

101

EX.NO.10

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ADDER/SUBTRACTOR


AIM:
To design and construct half adder, full adder, half subtractor and full subtractor
circuits and verify the truth table using logic gates.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S. No
1.

Name
IC

Specification
7432, 7408, 7486, 7483

Quantity
1

2.
Digital IC Trainer Kit
1
THEORY:
3.
Patch chords
The most basic arithmetic operation is the addition of two binary digits. There are four
possible elementary operations, namely,
0+0=0
0+1=1
1+0=1
1 + 1 = 102
The first three operations produce a sum of whose length is one digit, but when the last
operation is performed the sum is two digits. The higher significant bit of this result is called a
carry and lower significant bit is called the sum.
HALF ADDER

A combinational circuit which performs the addition of two bits is called half adder.
The input variables designate the augend and the addend bit, whereas the output variables
produce the sum and carry bits.
FULL ADDER:
A combinational circuit which performs the arithmetic sum of three input bits is called
full adder. The three input bits include two significant bits and a previous carry bit. A full
adder circuit can be implemented with two half adders and one OR gate.

102

HALF ADDER
TRUTH TABLE:
INPUT

S.No

A
0
0
1
1

1.
2.
3.
4.

OUTPUT
B
0
1
0
1

S
0
1
1
0

C
0
0
0
1

DESIGN:
From the truth table the expression for sum and carry bits of the output can be
obtained as, Sum, S = A
B ; Carry, C = A . B
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

FULL ADDER
TRUTH TABLE:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

A
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

INPUT
B
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

C
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

OUTPUT
SUM
CARRY
0
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1

103

DESIGN:
From the truth table the expression for sum and carry bits of the output can be obtained
as,SUM = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC;CARRY = ABC + ABC + ABC +ABC
Using Karnaugh maps the reduced expression for the output bits can be obtained as,
SUM

SUM = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC = A

CARRY

CARRY = AB + AC + BC
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

104

HALF SUBTRACTOR

A combinational circuit which performs the subtraction of two bits is called half
subtractor. The input variables designate the minuend and the subtrahend bit, whereas the
output variables produce the difference and borrow bits.
FULL SUBTRACTOR:
A combinational circuit which performs the subtraction of three input bits is called full
subtractor. The three input bits include two significant bits and a previous borrow bit. A full
subtractor circuit can be implemented with two half subtractors and one OR gate.
HALF SUBTRACTOR
TRUTH TABLE:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.

INPUT
A
0
0
1
1

B
0
1
0
1

OUTPUT
DIFF
BORR
0
0
1
1
1
0
0
0

DESIGN:
From the truth table the expression for difference and borrow bits of the output can be
obtained as, Difference, DIFF = A
B; Borrow, BORR = A . B
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

105

FULL SUBTRACTOR

TRUTH TABLE:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

A
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

INPUT
B
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

C
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

OUTPUT
DIFF
BORR
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
1

DESIGN:
From the truth table the expression for difference and borrow bits of the output can be
obtained as,
Difference, DIFF= ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC
Borrow, BORR = ABC + ABC + ABC +ABC
Using Karnaugh maps the reduced expression for the output bits can be obtained as,
DIFFERENCE

DIFF = ABC + ABC + ABC + ABC = A

BORROW

BORR = AB + AC + BC

106

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:
The connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
Two 4 bit numbers added or subtracted depend upon the control input and the
output is obtained.
Apply the inputs and verify the truth table for thehalf adder or s subtractor and
full adder or subtractor circuits.

RESULT:
Thus the half adder, full adder, half subtractor and full subtractor circuits were designed
and their truth table were verified.

107

EX.NO.11

11(a) CODE CONVERTER


AIM:
To construct and verify the performance of binary to gray and gray to binary.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S. No

Name

Specification
7404, 7486

Quantity

1.

IC

2.

Digital IC Trainer Kit

3.

Patch chords

THEORY:
BINARY TO GRAY:
The MSB of the binary code alone remains unchanged in the Gray code. The remaining
bits in the gray are obtained by EX-OR ing the corresponding gray code bit and previous bit in
the binary code. The gray code is often used in digital systems because it has the advantage
that only one bit in the numerical representation changes between successive numbers.

GRAY TO BINARY:
The MSB of the Gray code remains unchanged in the binary code the remaining bits are
obtained by EX OR ing the corresponding gray code bit and the previous output binary bit.
PROCEDURE:
Connections are given as per the logic diagram.
The given truth tables are verified.

108

BINARY TO GRAY:

GRAY TO BINARY

109

TRUTH TABLE
Decimal
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

D
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Binary code
C B A
0 0
0
0 0
1
0 1
0
0 1
1
1 0
0
1 0
1
1 1
0
1 1
1
0 0
0
0 0
1
0 1
0
0 1
1
1 0
0
1 0
1
1 1
0
1 1
1

G3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Gray code
G2 G1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0

GO
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0

RESULT:
The design of the three bit Binary to Gray code converter & Gray to Binary code
converter circuits was done and its truth table was verified.

110

11(b) ENCODER
AIM:
To design and implement encoder using IC 74148 (8-3 encoder)
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No

Name

Specification

Quantity

1.

IC

74148

2.

Digital IC Trainer Kit

3.

Patch chords

THEORY:
An encoder is digital circuit that has 2n input lines and n output lines. The output lines
generate a binary code corresponding to the input values 8 3 encoder circuit has 8 inputs, one
for each of the octal digits and three outputs that generate the corresponding binary number.
Enable inputs E1 should be connected to ground and Eo should be connected to VCC

PROCEDURE:
Connections are given as per the logic diagram.
The truth table is verified by varying the inputs.

PIN DIAGRAM
1
2N INPUT 2
N-1

1
N OUTPUT

ENCODER
N

111

TRUTH TABLE
E1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1

A0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

A1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

A2
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

INPUTS
A3
A4
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

A5
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1

A6
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

A7
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1

OUTPUTS
D2
D1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

D0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
1

112

11(c) DECODER
AIM:
To design and implement decoder using IC 74155 (3-8 decoder).
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S. No
1.
2.
3.

Name

Specification

IC
Digital IC Trainer Kit
Patch chords

74155

Quantity
1
1
-

THEORY:
A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from n input lines
to 2n unique output lines.
In 3-8 line decoder the three inputs are decoded into right outputs in which each output
representing one of the minterm of 3 input variables. IC 74155 can be connected as a dual 2*4
decoder or a single 3*8 decoder desired input in C1 and C2 must be connected together and used
as the C input. G1 and G2 should be connected and used as the G (enable) input. G is the
enable input and must be equal to 0 for proper operation.
PROCEDURE:
Connections are given as per the logic diagram.
The truth table is verified by varying the inputs.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:
1
N INPUT 2
N

DECODER

N OUTPUT

2N-1
2N

113

TRUTH TABLE

G
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

INPUTS
C
B
X
X
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1

OUTPUTS
A
X
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

2Y0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2Y1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
1

2Y2
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1
1

2Y3
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1
1

1Y0
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1
1

1Y1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1
1

1Y2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
1

1Y3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0

RESULT:
Thus the encoder and decoder circuits were designed and implemented.

114
EX.NO.12

STUDY OF FLIP FLOPS


AIM:
To verify the characteristic table of RS, D, JK, and T Flip flops .
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

S.No
Name of the Apparatus
Range
Quantity
1.
Digital IC trainer kit
1
2.
NOR gate
IC 7402
3.
NOT gate
IC 7404
4.
AND gate ( three input )
IC 7411
5.
NAND gate
IC 7400
THEORY:
6.
Connecting wires
As required
A Flip Flop is a sequential device that samples its input signals and changes its output
states only at times determined by clocking signal. Flip Flops may vary in the number of
inputs they possess and the manner in which the inputs affect the binary states.
RS FLIP FLOP:
The clocked RS flip flop consists of NAND gates and the output changes its state with
respect to the input on application of clock pulse. When the clock pulse is high the S and R
inputs reach the second level NAND gates in their complementary form. The Flip Flop is
reset when the R input high and S input is low. The Flip Flop is set when the S input is high
and R input is low. When both the inputs are high the output is in an indeterminate state.
D FLIP FLOP:
To eliminate the undesirable condition of indeterminate state in the SR Flip Flop when
both inputs are high at the same time, in the D Flip Flop the inputs are never made equal at the
same time. This is obtained by making the two inputs complement of each other.
JK FLIP FLOP:
The indeterminate state in the SR Flip-Flop is defined in the JK Flip Flop. JK inputs
behave like S and R inputs to set and reset the Flip Flop. The output Q is ANDed with K input
and the clock pulse, similarly the output Q is ANDed with J input and the Clock pulse.
When the clock pulse is zero both the AND gates are disabled and the Q and Q output retain
their previous values. When the clock pulse is high, the J and K inputs reach the NOR gates.
When both the inputs are high the output toggles continuously. This is called Race around
condition and this must be avoided.
T FLIP FLOP:
115

This is a modification of JK Flip Flop, obtained by connecting both inputs J and K


inputs together. T Flip Flop is also called Toggle Flip Flop.
RS FLIP FLOP
LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE:
CLOCK
PULSE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

INPUT
S
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

R
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

PRESENT
STATE (Q)
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
D FLIP FLOP

NEXT
STATE(Q+1)
0
1
0
0
1
1
X
X

STATUS

116

LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE:
CLOCK
PULSE

INPUT
D

PRESENT
STATE (Q)

NEXT
STATE(Q+1)

1
2
3
4

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

0
0
1
1

STATUS

117

JK FLIP FLOP
LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE:
CLOCK
PULSE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

INPUT
J
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

K
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1

PRESENT
STATE (Q)
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1

NEXT
STATE(Q+1)
0
1
0
0
1
1
1
0

STATUS

118

T FLIP FLOP
LOGIC SYMBOL:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

CHARACTERISTIC TABLE:
CLOCK
PULSE
1
2
3
4

INPUT
T
0
0
1
1

PRESENT
STATE (Q)
0
1
0
1

NEXT
STATE(Q+1)
0
0
1
0

STATUS

119

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.
2. For all the ICs 7th pin is grounded and 14th pin is given +5 V supply.
3. Apply the inputs and observe the status of all the flip flops.

RESULT:
The Characteristic tables of RS, D, JK, T flip flops were verified.

120

EX.NO.13

13(a)ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTER
AIM:
To implement and verify the truth table of an asynchronous decade counter.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No
1.
2.
4.
5.

Name of the Apparatus


Digital IC trainer kit
JK Flip Flop
NAND gate
Connecting wires

Range
IC 7473
IC 7400

Quantity
1
2
1
As required

THEORY:
Asynchronous decade counter is also called as ripple counter. In a ripple counter the
flip flop output transition serves as a source for triggering other flip flops. In other words the
clock pulse inputs of all the flip flops are triggered not by the incoming pulses but rather by the
transition that occurs in other flip flops. The term asynchronous refers to the events that do not
occur at the same time. With respect to the counter operation, asynchronous means that the
flip flop within the counter are not made to change states at exactly the same time, they do not
because the clock pulses are not connected directly to the clock input of each flip flop in the
counter.
PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 7473:

121

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

TRUTH TABLE:
S.No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

CLOCK
PULSE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

OUTPUT
D(MSB)
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
0

C
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

B
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0

A(LSB)
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0

PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagrams.
2. Apply the input and verify the truth table of the counter.
122

RESULT:
The truth table of the Asynchronous counter was hence verified.

123

EX.NO.13

13(b) SHIFT REGISTERS


AIM:

To implement the following shift register using flip flop


(i)

SIPO

(ii)

SISO

(iii)

PISO

(iv)

PIPO

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No

Name

Specification

Quantity

1.

IC

7474

2.

Digital IC Trainer Kit

3.

Patch chords

THEORY:
A register is used to move digital data. A shift register is a memory in which
information is shifted from one position in to another position at a line when one clock pulse is
applied. The data can be shifted either left or right direction towards right or towards left.
A shift register can be used in four ways depending upon the input in which the data are
entered in to and takes out of it. The four configuration are given as
Serial input Serial output
Parallel input Serial output
Serial input Parallel output
Parallel input Parallel output
RS or JK flip flop are used to construct shift register have D flip flop is used for
constructing shift register.
PROCEDURE:
Give the connections as per the circuit
Set or Reset at the pin 2 which its the MSB of serial data.
Apply a single clock Set or Reset second digital input at pin 2.
Repeat step 2 until all 4-bit data are taken away.

124

SHIFT REGISTER:
_
+5VCC CLR2

D2

CLK

14

12

11

13

PR2

Q2

Q2

10

IC 7474
2

CLK

D1

CLR1

PR1

Q1

GND

Q1

SIPO LEFT SHIFT


Q3

+5VCC
Q2

Q1
4

10
9

Q0

12

IC 7474

IC 7474
11
13

12

IC 7474
3

10
9

11
13

D IN

IC 7474
3
1

+5VCC

CLK

SIPO RIGHT SHIFT

125

SISO
DOUT

+5VCC

10
9

12

10

IC 7474

IC 7474
11

IC 7474
3

13

12

IC 7474
11

13

D IN

+5VCC

CLK

PIPO
Q2

Q1

Q0

Q2

SISO
Data input = 1100
Clock
0
4
8
12
16

Serial input
0
1
1
0
0

Serial output
0
1
1
0
0
126

PIPO
Clock

Parallel input

Parallel output

A
0

B
0

C
0

D
0

QA
0

QB
0

QC
0

QD
0

SIPO
Left shift
No of clk pulse

Serial input Din

Parallel output

0
1
2
3

0
1
1
0

Q3
0
0
0
0

Q2
0
0
0
1

Q1
0
0
1
1

Q0
0
1
1
0

4
5
6
7
8

1
0
0
0
0

1
1
0
1
0

1
0
1
0
0

0
1
0
0
0

1
0
0
0
0

Right Shift
No of clock pulse

Serial input Din

0
1
2
3

0
1
1
0

4
5
6
7
8

1
0
0
0
0

Parallel output
Q3 Q2 Q1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
0
0
0

1
1
0
0
0

0
1
1
0
0

Q0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
0

127

RESULT:
Thus the SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO shift registers were designed and implemented.

128

EX.NO.14

14(a) DIFFERENTIATOR
AIM:

To design a Differentiator circuit for the given specifications using Op-Amp IC 741.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Name of the Apparatus


Function Generator
CRO
Dual RPS
Op-Amp
Bread Board
Resistors
Capacitors
Connecting wires and probes

Range
3 MHz
30 MHz
0 30 V
IC 741

Quantity
1
1
1
1
1

As required

THEORY:
The differentiator circuit performs the mathematical operation of differentiation; that is,
the output waveform is the derivative of the input waveform. The differentiator may be
constructed from a basic inverting amplifier if an input resistor R1 is replaced by a capacitor C1.
The expression for the output voltage is given as, Vo = - Rf C1 (dVi /dt)
Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 0 out of phase with the
input signal. A resistor Rcomp = Rf is normally connected to the non-inverting input terminal of
the op-amp to compensate for the input bias current. A workable differentiator can be
designed by implementing the following steps:
1. Select fa equal to the highest frequency of the input signal to be differentiated. Then,
assuming a value of C1 < 1 F, calculate the value of Rf.
2. Choose fb = 20 fa and calculate the values of R1 and Cf so that R1C1 = Rf Cf.
3. The differentiator is most commonly used in waveshaping circuits to detect high
frequency components in an input signal and also as a rateofchange detector in FM
modulators.
PIN DIAGRAM:

129

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF DIFFERENTIATOR:

DESIGN:
Given fa = --------------We know the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB, fa = 1 / (2 Rf C1)
Let us assume C1 = 0.1 F; then
Rf = _________
Since fb = 20 fa, fb = --------------We know that the gain limiting frequency fb = 1 / (2 R1 C1)
Hence R1 = _________
Also since R1C1 = Rf Cf ; Cf = _________
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. + Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-Amp IC.
3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator, appropriate
input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the Op-Amp.
4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage waveforms
are plotted in a graph sheet.

130

OBSERVATIONS:
Input - Sine wave
S.No.
Amplitude
( No. of div x Volts per div )
Input
Output
Input Square wave
S.No.
Amplitude
( No. of div x Volts per div )
Input
Output

Time period
( No. of div x Time per div )

Time period
( No. of div x Time per div )

DIFFERENTIATOR:

Amplitude

INPUT SIGNAL:

Time Period

Amplitude

OUTPUT SIGNAL:

Time Period

131

RESULT:
The design of the Differentiator circuit was done and the input and output waveforms
were obtained.

132

14(b) INTEGRATOR
AIM:
To design an Integrator circuit for the given specifications using Op-Amp IC 741.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No
Name of the Apparatus
1.
Function Generator
2.
CRO
3.
Dual RPS
4.
Op-Amp
5.
Bread Board
6.
Resistors
7.
Capacitors
8.
Connecting wires and probes

Range
3 MHz
30 MHz
0 30 V
IC 741

Quantity
1
1
1
1
1

As required

THEORY:
A circuit in which the output voltage waveform is the integral of the input voltage
waveform is the integrator. Such a circuit is obtained by using a basic inverting amplifier
configuration if the feedback resistor Rf is replaced by a capacitor Cf . The expression for the
output voltage is given as,
Vo = - (1/Rf C1) Vi dt
Here the negative sign indicates that the output voltage is 180 0 out of phase with the
input signal. Normally between fa and fb the circuit acts as an integrator. Generally, the value
of fa < fb . The input signal will be integrated properly if the Time period T of the signal is
larger than or equal to Rf Cf. That is,
T R f Cf
The integrator is most commonly used in analog computers and ADC and signal-wave
shaping circuits.
PIN DIAGRAM:

133

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF INTEGRATOR:

DESIGN:
We know the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB, fb = 1 / (2 R1 Cf)
Therefore fb = _____
Since fb = 10 fa, and also the gain limiting frequency fa = 1 / (2 Rf Cf)
We get, Rf = _______ and hence R1 = __________
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. + Vcc and - Vcc supply is given to the power supply terminal of the Op-Amp IC.
3. By adjusting the amplitude and frequency knobs of the function generator, appropriate
input voltage is applied to the inverting input terminal of the Op-Amp.

134

4. The output voltage is obtained in the CRO and the input and output voltage waveforms
are plotted in a graph sheet.
OBSERVATIONS:
S.No.

Amplitude
( No. of div x Volts per div )

Time period
( No. of div x Time per div )

Input
Output
MODEL GRAPH:
INTEGRATOR:

Amplitude

INPUT SIGNAL:

Time Period

Amplitude

OUTPUT SIGNAL:

RESULT:
The design of the Integrator circuit was done and the input and output waveforms were
obtained.

135

EX.NO. 15

AIM:
IC.

15(a) TIMER IC APPLICATIONS - I


(ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR)
To design an astable multivibrator circuit for the given specifications using 555 Timer

APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S. No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Name of the Apparatus


Function Generator
CRO
Dual RPS
Timer IC
Bread Board
Resistors
Capacitors
Connecting wires and probes

Range
3 MHz
30 MHz
0 30 V
IC 555

Quantity
1
1
1
1
1

As required

THEORY:
An astable multivibrator, often called a free-running multivibrator, is a rectangularwave-generating circuit. This circuit do not require an external trigger to change the state of
the output. The time during which the output is either high or low is determined by two
resistors and a capacitor, which are connected externally to the 555 timer. The time during
which the capacitor charges from 1/3 Vcc to 2/3 Vcc is equal to the time the output is high and is
given by,
tc = 0.69 (R1 + R2) C
Similarly the time during which the capacitor discharges from 2/3 Vcc to 1/3 Vcc is
equal to the time the output is low and is given by,
td = 0.69 (R2) C
Thus the total time period of the output waveform is,
T = tc + td = 0.69 (R1 + 2 R2) C
The term duty cycle is often used in conjunction with the astable multivibrator. The
duty cycle is the ratio of the time tc during which the output is high to the total time period T.
It is generally expressed in percentage. In equation form,
% duty cycle = [(R1 + R2) / (R1 + 2 R2)] x 100

136

PIN DIAGRAM:

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF ASTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR:

137

DESIGN:
Given f= 4 KHz,
Therefore, Total time period, T = 1/f = ____________
We know, duty cycle = tc / T
Therefore, tc = -----------------------and td = ____________
We also know for an astable multivibrator
td = 0.69 (R2) C
Therefore, R2 = _____________
tc = 0.69 (R1 + R2) C
Therefore, R1 = _____________
PROCEDURE:
1. Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.
2. + 5V supply is given to the + Vcc terminal of the timer IC.
3. At pin 3 the output waveform is observed with the help of a CRO
4. At pin 6 the capacitor voltage is obtained in the CRO and the V0 and Vc voltage
waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.
OBSERVATIONS:

S.No

Waveforms

Amplitude
( No. of div x
Volts per div )

Time period
( No. of div x
Time per div )
tc

1.

Output Voltage , Vo

2.

Capacitor voltage , Vc

td

138

MODEL GRAPH:

pO/

voltage

Vcc

T (ms)

voltage

pCacitor

2/3 Vcc

1/3 Vcc
TON

TOFF

RESULT:
The design of the Astable multivibrator circuit was done and the output voltage and
capacitor voltage waveforms were obtained.

139

15(b) TIMER IC APPLICATIONS II


(MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR)
AIM:
To design a monostable multivibrator for the given specifications using 555 Timer IC.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
S.No
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Name of the Apparatus


Function Generator
CRO
Dual RPS
Timer IC
Bread Board
Resistors
Capacitors
Connecting wires and probes

Range
3 MHz, Analog
30 MHz
0 30 V
IC 555

Quantity
1
1
1
1
1

As required

THEORY:
A monostable multivibrator often called a one-shot multivibrator is a pulse generating
circuit in which the duration of the pulse is determined by the RC network connected
externally to the 555 timer. In a stable or stand-by state the output of the circuit is
approximately zero or at logic low level. When an external trigger pulse is applied, the output
is forced to go high (approx. Vcc). The time during which the output remains high is given by,
tp = 1.1 R1 C
At the end of the timing interval, the output automatically reverts back to its logic low
state. The output stays low until a trigger pulse is applied again. Then the cycle repeats.
Thus the monostable state has only one stable state hence the name monostable.
PIN DIAGRAM:

140

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF MONOSTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR:

DESIGN:
Given tp = 0.616 ms = 1.1 R1 C
Therefore, R1 = _____________
PROCEDURE:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Connections are given as per the circuit diagram.


+ 5V supply is given to the + Vcc terminal of the timer IC.
A negative trigger pulse of 5V, 2 KHz is applied to pin 2 of the 555 IC
At pin 3 the output waveform is observed with the help of a CRO
At pin 6 the capacitor voltage is obtained in the CRO and the V0 and Vc voltage
waveforms are plotted in a graph sheet.

OBSERVATIONS:
Amplitude
( No. of div x
Volts per div )

S.No

Time period
( No. of div x
Time per div )
ton

1.

Trigger input

2.

Output Voltage , Vo

3.

Capacitor voltage , Vc

toff

141

MODEL GRAPH:

RESULT:
The design of the Monostable multivibrator circuit was done and the input and output
waveforms were obtained.

142