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TECHNOLOGY

IV SEM

REGULATION 2013

PREPARED BY

Mr.MULLAINATHAN.N

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I sincerely thank our respected chairman, Dr. G.KATHAMUTHU, G.K.M

Group of Educational Institutions for all his efforts and administrations in

educating us in his prestigious institution.

I

take

this

opportunity

to

thank

our

CEO,

Dr.SUJATHA

to complete this manual.

I express my sincere thanks to our Director, Dr.K.JAGANATHAN,

M.Tech., Ph.D., and our Principal Dr.C.Chelappan,M.E.,Ph.D., for providing

appropriate facilities for completing this manual.

I wish to extend my grateful acknowledgement and sincere thanks to my

Head of Department Dr. J.V.SAI PRASANA KUMAR ,Ph.D., for his constant

motivation encouragement and criticism in completing this manual.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

2. Frictional loss in laminar flow through pipes.

3. Frictional loss in turbulent flow through pipes.

4. Calibration of a subsonic Wind tunnel

5. Determination of lift for the given airfoil section.

6. Pressure distribution over a smooth circular cylinder.

7. Pressure distribution over a rough circular cylinder.

8. Pressure distribution over a symmetric aerofoil.

9. Pressure distribution over a cambered aerofoil.

10. Flow visualization studies in subsonic flows.

EXPERIMENT 1

A) APPLICATION OF BERNOULLI EQUATION- ORIFICEMETER

AIM:

To determine the co-efficient discharge through orifice meter

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Orifice meter

2. Differential U tube

3. Collecting tank

4. Stop watch

5. Scale

FORMULAE :

1. ACTUAL DISCHARGE:

Q act = A x h / t

(m3 / s)

2. THEORTICAL DISCHARGE:

Q th = a 1 x a 2 x 2 g h / a 12 a 22

(m3 / s)

Where:

A = Area of collecting tank in m2

h

a 2 = Area of the throat in m2

g

= Specify gravity in m / s2

= (H1 ~ H2) (s m / s 1 - 1)

Where:

H1 = Manometric head in first limb

H2 = Manometric head in second limb

(i.e.) Liquid mercury Hg = 13.6

s1 = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1

3. CO EFFICENT OF DISCHARGE:

Co- efficient of discharge = Q act / Q th

(no units)

DESCRIPTION:

Orifice meter has two sections. First one is of area a 1, and second one of area a2, it does

not have throat like venturimeter but a small holes on a plate fixed along the diameter of pipe.

The mercury level should not fluctuate because it would come out of manometer.

PROCEDURE:

1. The pipe is selected for doing experiments

2. The motor is switched on, as a result water will flow

3. According to the flow, the mercury level fluctuates in the U-tube manometer

4. The reading of H1 and H2 are noted

5. The time taken for 10 cm rise of water in the collecting tank is noted

6. The experiment is repeated for various flow in the same pipe

7. The co-efficient of discharge is calculated

h cm rise of water t

Actual

discharge Q

act x 10-3

m3 / s

Mean Cd =

Theoretical discharge

m3 / s

Qth x 10-3

Co-efficient of

discharge Cd

(no unit)

HgH1 cm of HgH2 cm of

Diameter in mm

Manometric reading

S.no

RESULT:

B)APPLICATION OF BERNOULLI EQUATION VENTURIMETER

AIM:

To determine the coefficient of discharge for liquid flowing through venturimeter.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Venturimeter

2. Stop watch

3. Collecting tank

4. Differential U-tube

5. Manometer

6. Scale

FORMULAE:

1. ACTUAL DISCHARGE:

(m3 / s)

Q act = A x h / t

2. THEORTICAL DISCHARGE:

Qth = a 1 x a 2 x 2 g h / a 12 a 22

(m3 / s)

Where:

A = Area of collecting tank in m2

h

a 2 = Area of the throat in m2

g

= Specify gravity in m / s2

= (H1 ~ H2) (s m /s 1 - 1)

Where:

H1 = Manometric head in first limb

H2 = Manometric head in second limb

s m = Specific gravity of Manometric liquid

(i.e.) Liquid mercury Hg = 13.6

s1 = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1

3. CO EFFICENT OF DISCHARGE:

Co- efficient of discharge = Q act / Q th

DESCRIPTION:

(no units)

Venturi meter has two sections. One divergent area and the other throat area. The

former is represented as a

Venturi meter and it passes to the throat area the value of discharge is same at a 1 and a 2 .

PROCEDURE:

1. The pipe is selected for doing experiments

2. The motor is switched on, as a result water will flow

3. According to the flow, the mercury level fluctuates in the U-tube manometer

4. The reading of H1 and H2 are noted

5. The time taken for 10 cm rise of water in the collecting tank is noted

6. The experiment is repeated for various flow in the same pipe

Co-efficient

(no unit) of discharge Cd

HgH1 cm of HgH2 cm of

Manometric reading

Time taken for h cm rise

x 12.6 x 10-2H=(H1~H2)

Manometric head sec

of water t

Actual

discharge Q

act x 10-3

m3 / s

Mean Cd =

Theoretical

discharge

m3 / s

Qth x 10-3

Diameter in mm

S.no

RESULT:

The co efficient of discharge through Venturimeter is (no unit)

EXPERIMENT 2

FRICTIONAL LOSS IN LAMINAR FLOW THROUGH PIPES

AIM:

To find the friction f for the laminar flow through the given pipe.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. A pipe provided with inlet and outlet and pressure tapping

2.

3.

4.

Stopwatch

5.

Scale

FORMULAE:

1. FRICTION FACTOR ( F ):

f = 2 x g x d x h f / l x v2

(no unit)

Where,

g = Acceleration due to gravity

(m / sec2)

(m)

(m)

(m / s)

(m)

= h1 ~ h2

Where

h1 = Manometric head in the first limbs

h2 = Manometric head in the second limbs

2. ACTUAL DISCHARGE:

Q =Ax h / t

(m3 / sec)

Where

A = Area of the collecting tank (m2)

h = Rise of water for 5 cm

(m)

(sec)

3. VELOCITY:

V=Q/a

(m / sec)

Where

Q = Actual discharge

A = Area of the pipe

(m3/ sec)

(m2)

DESCRIPTION:

When liquid flows through a pipeline it is subjected to frictional resistance(laminar

flow). The frictional resistance depends upon the roughness of the pipe. More the roughness of

the pipe will be more the frictional resistance. The loss of head between selected lengths of the

pipe is observed.

PROCEDURE :

1.

The diameter of the pipe is measured and the internal dimensions of the collecting

tank and the length of the pipe line is measured

2.

Keeping the outlet valve closed and the inlet valve opened

3.

The outlet valve is slightly opened and the manometer head on the limbs h 1 and h2

are noted

4.

The above procedure is repeated by gradually increasing the flow rate and then the

corresponding readings are noted.

RESULT :

x 10-2 (no unit)

m/sVVelocity

Mean f =

m2 / s 2

V2

fFriction

x 10-2 factor

S.no

Diameter of

pipe mm

t sec

of water

h1 x 10-22h2 x 10- x 10-2hf = (h1-h2)

Manometer readings

m3 / s

EXPERIMENT 3

FRICTIONAL LOSS IN TURBULENT FLOW THROUGH PIPES

AIM:

To find the friction f for the turbulent flow through the given pipe.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. A pipe provided with inlet and outlet and pressure tapping

2.

3.

4.

Stopwatch

5.

Scale

FORMULAE:

1. FRICTION FACTOR ( F ):

f = 2 x g x d x h f / l x v2

(no unit)

Where,

g = Acceleration due to gravity

(m / sec2)

(m)

(m)

(m / s)

= h1 ~ h2

Where

h1 = Manometric head in the first limbs

h2 = Manometric head in the second limbs

2. ACTUAL DISCHARGE:

Q =Ax h / t

(m3 / sec)

Where

A = Area of the collecting tank (m2)

h = Rise of water for 5 cm

(m)

(m)

(sec)

3. VELOCITY:

V=Q/a

(m / sec)

Where

Q = Actual discharge

A = Area of the pipe

(m3/ sec)

(m2)

DESCRIPTION:

When liquid flows through a pipeline it is subjected to frictional resistance. The

frictional resistance depends upon the roughness of the pipe. More the roughness of the pipe

will be more the frictional resistance. The loss of head between selected lengths of the pipe is

observed.

PROCEDURE :

5.

The diameter of the pipe is measured and the internal dimensions of the collecting

tank and the length of the pipe line is measured

6.

Keeping the outlet valve closed and the inlet valve opened

7.

The outlet valve is slightly opened and the manometer head on the limbs h 1 and h2

are noted

8.

The above procedure is repeated by gradually increasing the flow rate and then the

corresponding readings are noted.

RESULT :

1.The frictional factor f for given pipe =

t sec

of water

m3 / s

m/sVVelocity

m2 / s 2

V2

fFriction

x 10-2 factor

Mean f =

S.no

Diameter of

pipe mm

Manometer readings

EXPERIMENT 4

CALIBRATION OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL

AIM

To estimate the test section speed characteristics of the subsonic wind tunnel with

respect to the RPM of the drive motor

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Subsonic wind tunnel with electronic speed control, Pitot static tube, U tube water

manometer, Thermometer, Aneroid barometer.

THOERY

The speed at the test section is measured with the help of a pitot static tube. The static

and total pressure tappings are connected to the two limbs of the U tube water manometer.

The speed measurement in a subsonic wind tunnel is based on the Bernoullis equation

for incompressible flow viz.

ps+ v2 = po

Where ps = static pressure of the stream N/m2

po = total pressure N/m2

v = velocity of flow m/s

= density of air kg/m3

The air density is to be estimated every time from the equation of state =P/RT

P = Barometric pressure N/m2

R = Gas constant 287 N-m / Kg oK

T = Ambient temperature oK.

The difference between the total pressure and static pressure is given by the reading of

the U tube manometer in millimeters of water column. This should be converted to pressure in

N / m2, (1 mm of H2O = 9.81 N / m2)

The tunnel is run at different RPM of the motor and the corresponding value of the test

section speed is estimated from the reading of the manometer.

Barometer reading:

= P/RT kg / m3

Sl.No

RPM

Temperature:

K.

N / m2

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

The subsonic wind tunnel used in this experimental has a test section size of

600 mm x 600 mm. The entrance section is of 1800 mm x 1800 mm size, leading to a

contraction ratio of 9:1. The diffuser area ratio is 6:1.

The 20 HP motor runs a fixed pitch 4 bladed fan of 1500 mm diameter. The maximum

RPM of the motor is 1400.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

EXPERIMENT 5

DETERMINATION OF LIFT FOR THE GIVEN AEROFOIL SECTION

AIM

To find the Cl and CD for a given airfoil at various angle of attacks for constant speed.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Wind tunnel and aerofoil model.

THEORY

twisting force as well as lift. A typical example is illustrated by the pressure distribution pattern

developed by this cambered (nonsymmetrical) airfoil:

The upper surface has pressures distributed which produce the upper surface lift. The lower

surface has pressures distributed which produce the lower surface force. Net lift produced by

the airfoil is the difference between lift on the upper surface and the force on the lower surface.

Net lift is effectively concentrated at a point on the chord called the Center Of Pressure.

When the angle of attack is increased: Upper surface lift increases relative to the lower surface

force. Since the two vectors are not located at the same point along the chord line, a twisting

force is exerted about the center of pressure. Center of pressure also moves along the chord line

when angle of attack changes, because the two vectors are separated. This characteristic of

nonsymmetrical airfoils results in undesirable control forces that must be compensated for if

the airfoil is used in rotary wing applications. When the angle of attack is increased to develop

positive lift, the vectors remain essentially opposite each other and the twisting force is not

exerted. Center of pressure remains relatively constant even when angle of attack is changed.

This is a desirable characteristic for a rotor blade, because it changes angle of attack constantly

during each revolution.

PROCEDURE

1. Mount the aerofoil model on the stand provided in the test section of wind tunnel. The

trailing edge should be faced towards fan.

2. Calibrate the strain gauge balance to indicate an initial value of zero for lift and drag.

3. Note the manometer readings h1 and h2 and lift and drag using digital meter.

4. Find the co-efficient of lift and drag by calculating velocity of flow.

5. Change the angle of attack and repeat the steps 1 to 5.

S.No

Angle of

attack

h1

h2

PLOTS

Plot the graph between Cl & Cd vs Angle of attack

Lift

Drag

CL

CD

PRECAUTIONS

1. Check the manometer level properly without any errors.

2. Take care while increasing the speed.

3. Do not stand behind the wind tunnel while operating it.

EXPERIMENT 6

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OVER SMOOTH CYLINDERS

AIM

To plot the pressure distribution over smooth circular cylinders and infer the effects of

flow separation on bluff shapes.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Subsonic wind tunnel with electronic speed control, smooth cylinder models, angle of

attack changing mechanism, multi channel water manometer.

BASIC THEORY

Circular cylinder is a bluff body which means that its major drag is the one due to flow

separation and the wake behind the body. The drag is less if the width of the wake is less and

vice versa.

When there is flow over the circular shape there is favorable pressure gradient from the

front stagnation point ( = 0odeg) to the highest point ( = 90deg). Then adverse pressure

gradient exists up to the (theoretical) rear stagnation point ( = 180deg). But the flow separates

due to energy wastage on account of viscous friction in the boundary layer and the adverse

pressure gradient. For a smooth cylinder the flow separation occurs almost immediately prior

to = 90deg point and for a rough cylinder the boundary layer which becomes turbulent on

account of surface roughness delays separation. Consequently the wake width is less for a

rough cylinder, resulting in lower drag compared to a smooth cylinder.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The smooth cylinder model which has just four pressure tappings at 90 deg intervals is

mounted in the wind tunnel. The pressure tappings are serially connected to the limbs of the

manometer. The tunnel is run and the readings of the pressure are taken along with the limb

which is open to atmosphere. The static pressure from the pitot static tube is also noted.

The model is rotated by every 15 deg using the angle of attack change mechanism and

the readings are again noted. Thus pressure at = 0, 15o, 30o etc., up to 180o will be recorded.

CALCULATION

The pressures are non - dimensionalised in the form of pressure coefficient (Cp)

defined as

Ps = static pressure of the stream

V2 = dynamic pressure of the stream

= Po - Ps where Po = total pressure of the stream.

Cp values are estimated for every and tabulated for smooth cylinders.

Sl.No

deg

Pi

Pi - P s

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Graphs of Vs Cp are plotted for smooth & rough cylinders and inferences are made.

1.

2.

3.

EXPERIMENT 7

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OVER ROUGH CIRCULAR CYLINDERS

AIM

To plot the pressure distribution over rough circular cylinders and infer the effects of

flow separation on bluff shapes.

APPARATUS REQUIRED

Subsonic wind tunnel with electronic speed control, rough cylinder models, angles of

attack changing mechanism, multi channel water manometer.

BASIC THOERY

Circular cylinder is a bluff body which means that its major drag is the one due to flow

separation and the wake behind the body. The drag is less if the width of the wake is less and

vice versa.

When there is flow over the circular shape there is favorable pressure gradient from the

front stagnation point ( = 0odeg) to the highest point ( = 90deg). Then adverse pressure

gradient exists up to the (theoretical) rear stagnation point ( = 180deg). But the flow separates

due to energy wastage on account of viscous friction in the boundary layer and the adverse

pressure gradient. For a smooth cylinder the flow separation occurs almost immediately prior

to = 90deg point and for a rough cylinder the boundary layer which becomes turbulent on

account of surface roughness delays separation. Consequently the wake width is less for a

rough cylinder, resulting in lower drag compared to a smooth cylinder.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The cylinder model which has just four pressure tappings at 90 deg intervals is

mounted in the wind tunnel. The pressure tappings are serially connected to the limbs of the

manometer. The tunnel is run and the readings of the pressure are taken along with the limb

which is open to atmosphere. The static pressure from the pitot static tube is also noted.

The model is rotated by every 15 deg using the angle of attack change mechanism and

the readings are again noted. Thus pressure at = 0, 15o, 30o etc., up to 180o will be recorded.

CALCULATION

The pressures are non - dimensionalised in the form of pressure coefficient (Cp)

defined as

Ps = static pressure of the stream

= Po - Ps where Po = total pressure of the stream.

Cp values are estimated for every and tabulated for smooth cylinders.

Sl.No

deg

Pi

Pi - P s

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Graphs of Vs Cp are plotted for smooth & rough cylinders and inferences are made.

1.

2.

3.

QUESTIONS

1) What will be the plot of Vs Cp for a cylinder in ideal flow (zero viscosity)?

2) From the plot of Vs Cp for smooth and rough cylinders what can you infer?

3) Sketch the pressure distribution round a circular cylinder in ideal flow and in real flow?

EXPERIMENT 8

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OVER SYMMETRIC AEROFOIL

AIM:

To plot the pressure distribution over a symmetric aerofoil.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Subsonic wind tunnel, Symmetric aerofoil model, multichannel manometer, pitot static tube.

PROCEDURE:

The symmetric aerofoil model is provided with pressure tappings on the upper and

lower surfaces at specified chord locations. It is mounted in the wind tunnel first at zero angle

of attack. The pressure tappings are serially connected to the limbs of the multichannel

manometer. The tunnel is run at a convenient RPM and the pitot static tube as well as the

static pressure readings are noted. The readings on the multichannel manometer are recorded

along with that of a tube open to atmosphere.

The angle of attack of the model is changed and again the readings on the manometer

are recorded.

CALCULATION:

The pressure recorded at different locations of the aerofoil are reduced to pressure

coefficients. The Cp values for each angle of attack are plotted as Cp Vs x/c for upper and

lower surfaces.

OBSERVATIONS:

atm. pressure: --------N / m2

= p /RT = ---------Kg / m3

RPM: ---------------

= o (T/To) = -------------- =

Temperature: -----------------------oK

Chord C of model = -------------------- m.

----------------

NS

----------m2

vc

Reynolds no = ------- = --------

Sl.No

x/c

pi ps

Cp = --------po ps

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The area under the curve of Cp upper and Cp lower gives the lift coefficient CL.

= 0 deg

= ----- deg

CL = ------------------CL = --------------------

(If CL at = 0 deg is not zero, reasons for the discrepancy must be given)

The Cp distribution on the aerofoil for = 0 deg and = ----- deg are also plotted.

QUESTIONS:

1. Why end plates are provided for the model?

EXPERIMENT 9

PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OVER CAMBERED AEROFOIL

AIM:

To plot the pressure distribution over a cambered aerofoil.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

Subsonic wind tunnel, cambered aerofoil model, multichannel manometer, pitot - static

tube.

PROCEDURE:

The cambered aerofoil model is provided with pressure tappings on the upper and lower

surfaces at specified chord locations. It is mounted in the wind tunnel first at zero angle of

attack. The pressure tappings are serially connected to the limbs of the multichannel

manometer. The tunnel is run at a convenient RPM and the pitot static tube as well as the

static pressure readings are noted. The readings on the multichannel manometer are recorded

along with that of a tube open to atmosphere.

The angle of attack of the model is changed and again the readings on the manometer

are recorded.

CALCULATION:

The pressure recorded at different locations of the aerofoil are reduced to pressure

coefficients. The Cp values for each angle of attack are plotted as Cp Vs x/c for upper and

lower surfaces.

OBSERVATIONS:

atm. pressure: --------N / m2

= p /RT = ---------Kg / m3

RPM: ---------------

= o (T/To) = -------------- =

Temperature: -----------------------oK

Chord C of model = -------------------- m.

----------------

NS

----------m2

vc

Reynolds no = ------- = --------

Sl.No

x/c

pi ps

Cp = --------po ps

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The area under the curve of Cp upper and Cp lower gives the lift coefficient CL.

= 0 deg

= ----- deg

CL = ------------------CL = --------------------

The Cp distribution on the aerofoil for = 0 deg and = ----- deg are also plotted.

QUESTIONS:

1. What are two dimensional and three dimensional models?

2. Sketch CL Vs for cambered and symmetric aerofoils? (Give numerical value in

coordinate axis).

EXPERIMENT 10

A)FLOW VISUALIZATION STUDIES IN LOW SPEED FLOWS OVER CYLINDERS

AIM

To visualize the flow over cylinders in low speed flow.

EQUIPMENT

Water flow channel

Cylinder model

Saw dust, Aluminium dust etc.,

PROCEDURE

In the water flow channel, water was filled into a large and shallow tub. The water is

circulated into the viewing section by means of paddles run by a variable speed electric motor.

In this set up, different values of flow velocities could be obtained in the test section. Honey

combs were employed in the water flow passages to eliminate the vortices and eddies. Smooth

and uniform flow was thus established in the test section.

Over a measured length of the channel the time taken by a floating saw dust particle is

noted and the velocity of flow is calculated.

The circular cylinder model was kept in the test area. Saw dust mixed with aluminium

dust was sprinkled ahead of the body and the flow pattern given by the traces of the dust

particles was observed.

The flow velocity was fixed and maintained constant at a particular Reynolds number.

The flow over the cylinder and the wake were observed. The formation and shedding of

vortices on either sides of the wake alternately lead to the formation of the well-known Von

Karman Vortex Street

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

(Include sketches of the flow pattern observed)

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Alternate vortex shedding in the wake region of circular cylinder was visualized and

formation of Von Karman Vortex Street observed.

AIRFOIL AT DIFFERENT ANGLES OF INCIDENCE

AIM

To visualize the flow over cylinders, aerofoils and flat plates in low speed flow.

EQUIPMENTS

(a) Water flow channel

(b) Aerofoil model

(c) sawdust, aluminium dust etc.,

PROCEDURE

In the water flow channel, water was filled into a large and shallow tub. The

water was circulated into the viewing section by means of paddles ran by a variable speed

electric motor. Thus different values of flow velocities could be obtained in the test section.

Honey combs were installed in the water flow passage to eliminate the vortices and eddies.

Smooth and uniform flow is then established in the test section.

Over a measured length of the channel the time taken by a floating saw dust

particle is noted and the velocity of flow is calculated.

Airfoil model was kept in the test area. Saw dust mixed with aluminium dust

was sprinkled ahead of the body and the path taken by the dust particles gives the flow pattern

was observed.

For aerofoil, the smooth flow at low angles of attack and the flow separation / large scale

vortex formation at the leading edge at large angles of attack were visualized.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

(Include sketches of the flow pattern).

CONCLUSION

Flow over an aerofoil and the wake at different angles of incidence were viewed. Stall,

flow separation, reverse flow and vortex shedding were observed for an aerofoil at different

angles of attack.

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