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# AE 6412 AERODYNAMICS LABORATORY

TECHNOLOGY

## DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

IV SEM
REGULATION 2013
PREPARED BY
Mr.MULLAINATHAN.N

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I sincerely thank our respected chairman, Dr. G.KATHAMUTHU, G.K.M
Group of Educational Institutions for all his efforts and administrations in
educating us in his prestigious institution.
I

take

this

opportunity

to

thank

our

CEO,

Dr.SUJATHA

## BALASUBRAMANIAN, MBA., Ph.D ., for the kind cooperation in helping us

to complete this manual.
I express my sincere thanks to our Director, Dr.K.JAGANATHAN,
M.Tech., Ph.D., and our Principal Dr.C.Chelappan,M.E.,Ph.D., for providing
appropriate facilities for completing this manual.
I wish to extend my grateful acknowledgement and sincere thanks to my
Head of Department Dr. J.V.SAI PRASANA KUMAR ,Ph.D., for his constant
motivation encouragement and criticism in completing this manual.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

## 1. Application of Bernoullis Equation venturimeter and orifice meter.

2. Frictional loss in laminar flow through pipes.
3. Frictional loss in turbulent flow through pipes.
4. Calibration of a subsonic Wind tunnel
5. Determination of lift for the given airfoil section.
6. Pressure distribution over a smooth circular cylinder.
7. Pressure distribution over a rough circular cylinder.
8. Pressure distribution over a symmetric aerofoil.
9. Pressure distribution over a cambered aerofoil.
10. Flow visualization studies in subsonic flows.

EXPERIMENT 1
A) APPLICATION OF BERNOULLI EQUATION- ORIFICEMETER
AIM:
To determine the co-efficient discharge through orifice meter
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. Orifice meter
2. Differential U tube
3. Collecting tank
4. Stop watch
5. Scale
FORMULAE :
1. ACTUAL DISCHARGE:
Q act = A x h / t

(m3 / s)

2. THEORTICAL DISCHARGE:
Q th = a 1 x a 2 x 2 g h / a 12 a 22

(m3 / s)

Where:
A = Area of collecting tank in m2
h

## a 1 = Area of inlet pipe in, m2

a 2 = Area of the throat in m2
g

= Specify gravity in m / s2

## H = Orifice head in terms of flowing liquid

= (H1 ~ H2) (s m / s 1 - 1)
Where:
H1 = Manometric head in first limb
H2 = Manometric head in second limb

## s m = Specific gravity of Manometric liquid

(i.e.) Liquid mercury Hg = 13.6
s1 = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1
3. CO EFFICENT OF DISCHARGE:
Co- efficient of discharge = Q act / Q th

(no units)

DESCRIPTION:
Orifice meter has two sections. First one is of area a 1, and second one of area a2, it does
not have throat like venturimeter but a small holes on a plate fixed along the diameter of pipe.
The mercury level should not fluctuate because it would come out of manometer.
PROCEDURE:
1. The pipe is selected for doing experiments
2. The motor is switched on, as a result water will flow
3. According to the flow, the mercury level fluctuates in the U-tube manometer
4. The reading of H1 and H2 are noted
5. The time taken for 10 cm rise of water in the collecting tank is noted
6. The experiment is repeated for various flow in the same pipe
7. The co-efficient of discharge is calculated

## Time taken forSec

h cm rise of water t

Actual
discharge Q
act x 10-3
m3 / s

Mean Cd =

Theoretical discharge
m3 / s
Qth x 10-3

Co-efficient of
discharge Cd
(no unit)

HgH1 cm of HgH2 cm of

Diameter in mm

S.no
RESULT:

## The co efficient of discharge through orifice meter is (no unit)

B)APPLICATION OF BERNOULLI EQUATION VENTURIMETER
AIM:
To determine the coefficient of discharge for liquid flowing through venturimeter.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1. Venturimeter
2. Stop watch
3. Collecting tank
4. Differential U-tube
5. Manometer
6. Scale
FORMULAE:
1. ACTUAL DISCHARGE:
(m3 / s)

Q act = A x h / t
2. THEORTICAL DISCHARGE:
Qth = a 1 x a 2 x 2 g h / a 12 a 22

(m3 / s)

Where:
A = Area of collecting tank in m2
h

## a 1 = Area of inlet pipe in m2

a 2 = Area of the throat in m2
g

= Specify gravity in m / s2

## H = Orifice head in terms of flowing liquid

= (H1 ~ H2) (s m /s 1 - 1)
Where:
H1 = Manometric head in first limb
H2 = Manometric head in second limb
s m = Specific gravity of Manometric liquid
(i.e.) Liquid mercury Hg = 13.6
s1 = Specific gravity of flowing liquid water = 1
3. CO EFFICENT OF DISCHARGE:
Co- efficient of discharge = Q act / Q th
DESCRIPTION:

(no units)

Venturi meter has two sections. One divergent area and the other throat area. The
former is represented as a

## water or any other liquid flows through the

Venturi meter and it passes to the throat area the value of discharge is same at a 1 and a 2 .
PROCEDURE:
1. The pipe is selected for doing experiments
2. The motor is switched on, as a result water will flow
3. According to the flow, the mercury level fluctuates in the U-tube manometer
4. The reading of H1 and H2 are noted
5. The time taken for 10 cm rise of water in the collecting tank is noted
6. The experiment is repeated for various flow in the same pipe

Co-efficient
(no unit) of discharge Cd

## 7. The co-efficient of discharge is calculated

HgH1 cm of HgH2 cm of

Time taken for h cm rise
x 12.6 x 10-2H=(H1~H2)
of water t

Actual
discharge Q
act x 10-3
m3 / s

Mean Cd =

Theoretical
discharge
m3 / s
Qth x 10-3

Diameter in mm
S.no
RESULT:
The co efficient of discharge through Venturimeter is (no unit)

EXPERIMENT 2
FRICTIONAL LOSS IN LAMINAR FLOW THROUGH PIPES

AIM:
To find the friction f for the laminar flow through the given pipe.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. A pipe provided with inlet and outlet and pressure tapping
2.

3.

## Collecting tank with piezometer

4.

Stopwatch

5.

Scale

FORMULAE:
1. FRICTION FACTOR ( F ):
f = 2 x g x d x h f / l x v2

(no unit)

Where,
g = Acceleration due to gravity

(m / sec2)

(m)

(m)

(m / s)

## h f = Loss of head due to friction

(m)

= h1 ~ h2
Where
h1 = Manometric head in the first limbs
h2 = Manometric head in the second limbs
2. ACTUAL DISCHARGE:
Q =Ax h / t

(m3 / sec)

Where
A = Area of the collecting tank (m2)
h = Rise of water for 5 cm

(m)

## t = Time taken for 5 cm rise

(sec)

3. VELOCITY:
V=Q/a

(m / sec)

Where
Q = Actual discharge
A = Area of the pipe

(m3/ sec)
(m2)

DESCRIPTION:
When liquid flows through a pipeline it is subjected to frictional resistance(laminar
flow). The frictional resistance depends upon the roughness of the pipe. More the roughness of
the pipe will be more the frictional resistance. The loss of head between selected lengths of the
pipe is observed.
PROCEDURE :

1.

The diameter of the pipe is measured and the internal dimensions of the collecting
tank and the length of the pipe line is measured

2.

Keeping the outlet valve closed and the inlet valve opened

3.

The outlet valve is slightly opened and the manometer head on the limbs h 1 and h2
are noted

4.

The above procedure is repeated by gradually increasing the flow rate and then the

RESULT :
x 10-2 (no unit)

m/sVVelocity

Mean f =

m2 / s 2

V2

fFriction
x 10-2 factor

S.no

Diameter of
pipe mm

## Time for 5cm rise

t sec
of water
h1 x 10-22h2 x 10- x 10-2hf = (h1-h2)

m3 / s

## Qact x 10-3Actual discharge

EXPERIMENT 3
FRICTIONAL LOSS IN TURBULENT FLOW THROUGH PIPES
AIM:
To find the friction f for the turbulent flow through the given pipe.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
1. A pipe provided with inlet and outlet and pressure tapping
2.

3.

## Collecting tank with piezometer

4.

Stopwatch

5.

Scale

FORMULAE:
1. FRICTION FACTOR ( F ):
f = 2 x g x d x h f / l x v2

(no unit)

Where,
g = Acceleration due to gravity

(m / sec2)

(m)

(m)

(m / s)

## h f = Loss of head due to friction

= h1 ~ h2
Where
h1 = Manometric head in the first limbs
h2 = Manometric head in the second limbs
2. ACTUAL DISCHARGE:
Q =Ax h / t

(m3 / sec)

Where
A = Area of the collecting tank (m2)
h = Rise of water for 5 cm

(m)

(m)

## t = Time taken for 5 cm rise

(sec)

3. VELOCITY:
V=Q/a

(m / sec)

Where
Q = Actual discharge
A = Area of the pipe

(m3/ sec)
(m2)

DESCRIPTION:
When liquid flows through a pipeline it is subjected to frictional resistance. The
frictional resistance depends upon the roughness of the pipe. More the roughness of the pipe
will be more the frictional resistance. The loss of head between selected lengths of the pipe is
observed.
PROCEDURE :

5.

The diameter of the pipe is measured and the internal dimensions of the collecting
tank and the length of the pipe line is measured

6.

Keeping the outlet valve closed and the inlet valve opened

7.

The outlet valve is slightly opened and the manometer head on the limbs h 1 and h2
are noted

8.

The above procedure is repeated by gradually increasing the flow rate and then the

RESULT :
1.The frictional factor f for given pipe =

t sec
of water
m3 / s

m/sVVelocity

m2 / s 2

V2

fFriction
x 10-2 factor

Mean f =

## h1 x 10-2 h2 x 10-2 x 10-2hf = (h1-h2)

S.no

Diameter of
pipe mm

EXPERIMENT 4
CALIBRATION OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL
AIM
To estimate the test section speed characteristics of the subsonic wind tunnel with
respect to the RPM of the drive motor
APPARATUS REQUIRED

Subsonic wind tunnel with electronic speed control, Pitot static tube, U tube water
manometer, Thermometer, Aneroid barometer.
THOERY
The speed at the test section is measured with the help of a pitot static tube. The static
and total pressure tappings are connected to the two limbs of the U tube water manometer.
The speed measurement in a subsonic wind tunnel is based on the Bernoullis equation
for incompressible flow viz.
ps+ v2 = po
Where ps = static pressure of the stream N/m2
po = total pressure N/m2
v = velocity of flow m/s
= density of air kg/m3
The air density is to be estimated every time from the equation of state =P/RT
P = Barometric pressure N/m2
R = Gas constant 287 N-m / Kg oK
T = Ambient temperature oK.
The difference between the total pressure and static pressure is given by the reading of
the U tube manometer in millimeters of water column. This should be converted to pressure in
N / m2, (1 mm of H2O = 9.81 N / m2)

## EXPERIMENT & OBSERVATIONS

The tunnel is run at different RPM of the motor and the corresponding value of the test
section speed is estimated from the reading of the manometer.

= P/RT kg / m3

Sl.No

RPM

Temperature:

## Manometer Reading mm of H2O

K.

N / m2

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

The subsonic wind tunnel used in this experimental has a test section size of
600 mm x 600 mm. The entrance section is of 1800 mm x 1800 mm size, leading to a
contraction ratio of 9:1. The diffuser area ratio is 6:1.
The 20 HP motor runs a fixed pitch 4 bladed fan of 1500 mm diameter. The maximum
RPM of the motor is 1400.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

## A graph of RPM against velocity is plotted.

EXPERIMENT 5
DETERMINATION OF LIFT FOR THE GIVEN AEROFOIL SECTION
AIM
To find the Cl and CD for a given airfoil at various angle of attacks for constant speed.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Wind tunnel and aerofoil model.
THEORY

## Distribution of pressure over an airfoil section may be a source of an aerodynamic

twisting force as well as lift. A typical example is illustrated by the pressure distribution pattern
developed by this cambered (nonsymmetrical) airfoil:
The upper surface has pressures distributed which produce the upper surface lift. The lower
surface has pressures distributed which produce the lower surface force. Net lift produced by
the airfoil is the difference between lift on the upper surface and the force on the lower surface.
Net lift is effectively concentrated at a point on the chord called the Center Of Pressure.
When the angle of attack is increased: Upper surface lift increases relative to the lower surface
force. Since the two vectors are not located at the same point along the chord line, a twisting
force is exerted about the center of pressure. Center of pressure also moves along the chord line
when angle of attack changes, because the two vectors are separated. This characteristic of
nonsymmetrical airfoils results in undesirable control forces that must be compensated for if
the airfoil is used in rotary wing applications. When the angle of attack is increased to develop
positive lift, the vectors remain essentially opposite each other and the twisting force is not
exerted. Center of pressure remains relatively constant even when angle of attack is changed.
This is a desirable characteristic for a rotor blade, because it changes angle of attack constantly
during each revolution.
PROCEDURE
1. Mount the aerofoil model on the stand provided in the test section of wind tunnel. The
trailing edge should be faced towards fan.
2. Calibrate the strain gauge balance to indicate an initial value of zero for lift and drag.
3. Note the manometer readings h1 and h2 and lift and drag using digital meter.
4. Find the co-efficient of lift and drag by calculating velocity of flow.
5. Change the angle of attack and repeat the steps 1 to 5.

S.No

Angle of
attack

h1

h2

PLOTS
Plot the graph between Cl & Cd vs Angle of attack

Lift

Drag

CL

CD

PRECAUTIONS
1. Check the manometer level properly without any errors.
2. Take care while increasing the speed.
3. Do not stand behind the wind tunnel while operating it.

EXPERIMENT 6
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OVER SMOOTH CYLINDERS
AIM
To plot the pressure distribution over smooth circular cylinders and infer the effects of
flow separation on bluff shapes.
APPARATUS REQUIRED

Subsonic wind tunnel with electronic speed control, smooth cylinder models, angle of
attack changing mechanism, multi channel water manometer.
BASIC THEORY
Circular cylinder is a bluff body which means that its major drag is the one due to flow
separation and the wake behind the body. The drag is less if the width of the wake is less and
vice versa.
When there is flow over the circular shape there is favorable pressure gradient from the
front stagnation point ( = 0odeg) to the highest point ( = 90deg). Then adverse pressure
gradient exists up to the (theoretical) rear stagnation point ( = 180deg). But the flow separates
due to energy wastage on account of viscous friction in the boundary layer and the adverse
pressure gradient. For a smooth cylinder the flow separation occurs almost immediately prior
to = 90deg point and for a rough cylinder the boundary layer which becomes turbulent on
account of surface roughness delays separation. Consequently the wake width is less for a
rough cylinder, resulting in lower drag compared to a smooth cylinder.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
The smooth cylinder model which has just four pressure tappings at 90 deg intervals is
mounted in the wind tunnel. The pressure tappings are serially connected to the limbs of the
manometer. The tunnel is run and the readings of the pressure are taken along with the limb
which is open to atmosphere. The static pressure from the pitot static tube is also noted.
The model is rotated by every 15 deg using the angle of attack change mechanism and
the readings are again noted. Thus pressure at = 0, 15o, 30o etc., up to 180o will be recorded.
CALCULATION
The pressures are non - dimensionalised in the form of pressure coefficient (Cp)
defined as

## Where pi is pressure at any angular location on the model

Ps = static pressure of the stream
V2 = dynamic pressure of the stream
= Po - Ps where Po = total pressure of the stream.
Cp values are estimated for every and tabulated for smooth cylinders.

Sl.No

deg

Pi

Pi - P s

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

## RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Graphs of Vs Cp are plotted for smooth & rough cylinders and inferences are made.
1.
2.
3.

EXPERIMENT 7
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OVER ROUGH CIRCULAR CYLINDERS
AIM
To plot the pressure distribution over rough circular cylinders and infer the effects of
flow separation on bluff shapes.
APPARATUS REQUIRED
Subsonic wind tunnel with electronic speed control, rough cylinder models, angles of
attack changing mechanism, multi channel water manometer.
BASIC THOERY
Circular cylinder is a bluff body which means that its major drag is the one due to flow
separation and the wake behind the body. The drag is less if the width of the wake is less and
vice versa.
When there is flow over the circular shape there is favorable pressure gradient from the
front stagnation point ( = 0odeg) to the highest point ( = 90deg). Then adverse pressure
gradient exists up to the (theoretical) rear stagnation point ( = 180deg). But the flow separates
due to energy wastage on account of viscous friction in the boundary layer and the adverse
pressure gradient. For a smooth cylinder the flow separation occurs almost immediately prior
to = 90deg point and for a rough cylinder the boundary layer which becomes turbulent on
account of surface roughness delays separation. Consequently the wake width is less for a
rough cylinder, resulting in lower drag compared to a smooth cylinder.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
The cylinder model which has just four pressure tappings at 90 deg intervals is
mounted in the wind tunnel. The pressure tappings are serially connected to the limbs of the
manometer. The tunnel is run and the readings of the pressure are taken along with the limb
which is open to atmosphere. The static pressure from the pitot static tube is also noted.
The model is rotated by every 15 deg using the angle of attack change mechanism and
the readings are again noted. Thus pressure at = 0, 15o, 30o etc., up to 180o will be recorded.
CALCULATION
The pressures are non - dimensionalised in the form of pressure coefficient (Cp)
defined as

## Where pi is pressure at any angular location on the model

Ps = static pressure of the stream

## V2 = dynamic pressure of the stream

= Po - Ps where Po = total pressure of the stream.
Cp values are estimated for every and tabulated for smooth cylinders.

Sl.No

deg

Pi

## RPM: ------ Ps ------; Po - Ps = -------

Pi - P s

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Graphs of Vs Cp are plotted for smooth & rough cylinders and inferences are made.
1.
2.
3.

QUESTIONS
1) What will be the plot of Vs Cp for a cylinder in ideal flow (zero viscosity)?
2) From the plot of Vs Cp for smooth and rough cylinders what can you infer?
3) Sketch the pressure distribution round a circular cylinder in ideal flow and in real flow?

EXPERIMENT 8
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OVER SYMMETRIC AEROFOIL
AIM:
To plot the pressure distribution over a symmetric aerofoil.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Subsonic wind tunnel, Symmetric aerofoil model, multichannel manometer, pitot static tube.
PROCEDURE:
The symmetric aerofoil model is provided with pressure tappings on the upper and
lower surfaces at specified chord locations. It is mounted in the wind tunnel first at zero angle
of attack. The pressure tappings are serially connected to the limbs of the multichannel
manometer. The tunnel is run at a convenient RPM and the pitot static tube as well as the
static pressure readings are noted. The readings on the multichannel manometer are recorded
along with that of a tube open to atmosphere.
The angle of attack of the model is changed and again the readings on the manometer
are recorded.
CALCULATION:
The pressure recorded at different locations of the aerofoil are reduced to pressure
coefficients. The Cp values for each angle of attack are plotted as Cp Vs x/c for upper and
lower surfaces.
OBSERVATIONS:
atm. pressure: --------N / m2
= p /RT = ---------Kg / m3
RPM: ---------------

= o (T/To) = -------------- =

Temperature: -----------------------oK
Chord C of model = -------------------- m.

## 2 (po ps) m/s.

----------------

NS
----------m2

vc
Reynolds no = ------- = --------

## = 0 deg & = ------------deg

Sl.No

x/c

pi ps
Cp = --------po ps

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The area under the curve of Cp upper and Cp lower gives the lift coefficient CL.
= 0 deg
= ----- deg

CL = ------------------CL = --------------------

(If CL at = 0 deg is not zero, reasons for the discrepancy must be given)
The Cp distribution on the aerofoil for = 0 deg and = ----- deg are also plotted.
QUESTIONS:
1. Why end plates are provided for the model?

EXPERIMENT 9
PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OVER CAMBERED AEROFOIL
AIM:
To plot the pressure distribution over a cambered aerofoil.
APPARATUS REQUIRED:
Subsonic wind tunnel, cambered aerofoil model, multichannel manometer, pitot - static
tube.
PROCEDURE:
The cambered aerofoil model is provided with pressure tappings on the upper and lower
surfaces at specified chord locations. It is mounted in the wind tunnel first at zero angle of
attack. The pressure tappings are serially connected to the limbs of the multichannel
manometer. The tunnel is run at a convenient RPM and the pitot static tube as well as the
static pressure readings are noted. The readings on the multichannel manometer are recorded
along with that of a tube open to atmosphere.
The angle of attack of the model is changed and again the readings on the manometer
are recorded.
CALCULATION:
The pressure recorded at different locations of the aerofoil are reduced to pressure
coefficients. The Cp values for each angle of attack are plotted as Cp Vs x/c for upper and
lower surfaces.
OBSERVATIONS:
atm. pressure: --------N / m2
= p /RT = ---------Kg / m3
RPM: ---------------

= o (T/To) = -------------- =

Temperature: -----------------------oK
Chord C of model = -------------------- m.

## 2 (po ps) m/s.

----------------

NS
----------m2

vc
Reynolds no = ------- = --------

## = 0 deg & = ------------deg

Sl.No

x/c

pi ps
Cp = --------po ps

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The area under the curve of Cp upper and Cp lower gives the lift coefficient CL.
= 0 deg
= ----- deg

CL = ------------------CL = --------------------

The Cp distribution on the aerofoil for = 0 deg and = ----- deg are also plotted.
QUESTIONS:
1. What are two dimensional and three dimensional models?
2. Sketch CL Vs for cambered and symmetric aerofoils? (Give numerical value in
coordinate axis).

EXPERIMENT 10
A)FLOW VISUALIZATION STUDIES IN LOW SPEED FLOWS OVER CYLINDERS
AIM
To visualize the flow over cylinders in low speed flow.
EQUIPMENT
Water flow channel
Cylinder model
Saw dust, Aluminium dust etc.,
PROCEDURE
In the water flow channel, water was filled into a large and shallow tub. The water is
circulated into the viewing section by means of paddles run by a variable speed electric motor.
In this set up, different values of flow velocities could be obtained in the test section. Honey
combs were employed in the water flow passages to eliminate the vortices and eddies. Smooth
and uniform flow was thus established in the test section.
Over a measured length of the channel the time taken by a floating saw dust particle is
noted and the velocity of flow is calculated.
The circular cylinder model was kept in the test area. Saw dust mixed with aluminium
dust was sprinkled ahead of the body and the flow pattern given by the traces of the dust
particles was observed.
The flow velocity was fixed and maintained constant at a particular Reynolds number.
The flow over the cylinder and the wake were observed. The formation and shedding of
vortices on either sides of the wake alternately lead to the formation of the well-known Von
Karman Vortex Street
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
(Include sketches of the flow pattern observed)
CONCLUDING REMARKS
Alternate vortex shedding in the wake region of circular cylinder was visualized and
formation of Von Karman Vortex Street observed.

## B) FLOW VISULISATION STUDIES IN LOW SPEED FLOWS OVER

AIRFOIL AT DIFFERENT ANGLES OF INCIDENCE
AIM
To visualize the flow over cylinders, aerofoils and flat plates in low speed flow.
EQUIPMENTS
(a) Water flow channel
(b) Aerofoil model
(c) sawdust, aluminium dust etc.,
PROCEDURE
In the water flow channel, water was filled into a large and shallow tub. The
water was circulated into the viewing section by means of paddles ran by a variable speed
electric motor. Thus different values of flow velocities could be obtained in the test section.
Honey combs were installed in the water flow passage to eliminate the vortices and eddies.
Smooth and uniform flow is then established in the test section.
Over a measured length of the channel the time taken by a floating saw dust
particle is noted and the velocity of flow is calculated.
Airfoil model was kept in the test area. Saw dust mixed with aluminium dust
was sprinkled ahead of the body and the path taken by the dust particles gives the flow pattern
was observed.
For aerofoil, the smooth flow at low angles of attack and the flow separation / large scale
vortex formation at the leading edge at large angles of attack were visualized.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
(Include sketches of the flow pattern).
CONCLUSION
Flow over an aerofoil and the wake at different angles of incidence were viewed. Stall,
flow separation, reverse flow and vortex shedding were observed for an aerofoil at different
angles of attack.