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REGENT COLLEGE HIGHER EDUCATION.

BTEC UNIT 1 Business


Environment

UNIT 1: BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT [BE]

PEARSON -BTEC QUALIFICATIONS - HIGHER NATIONAL


DIPLOMA AWARD IN BUSINESS
UNIT CODE: Y/601/0546
QCF:
LEVEL4
CREDIT VALUE: 15 CREDITS.
Lecture Note One
_________________________________________________________________________________

Lecture Note Prepared by: Israel O.


AIM
The aim of this unit is to provide learners with an understanding of different
organisations, the influence of stakeholders and the relationship between
businesses and the local, national and global environments.
UNIT ABSTRACT
Organisations have a variety of
LEARNING OUTCOME
On successful completion of this lecture a learner will:
LO.1:Understand the organisational purposes of Business
UNIT LESSON PLANThis is crucially following the actual unit contents,
otherwise known
as Assessment Criteria (AC).
This lecture will attempt to show the learner how to:
AC 1.1: Identify the purposes of different
typescriteria
of
Assessment
(Very essential)

Organisations

Note very carefully what you are required to know in this AC 1.1:
Categories of Organisations:legal structure; type e.g. private company,
public company, government, voluntary organisation, co-operative, charitable;
Sectors (primary, secondary and tertiary)
LESSON PLAN ONE
Week: 1

Course: HND Level 4

Subject: BUSINESS

Room:

ENVIRONMENT

Date:28/09/2015

Last week session:New Group


and New semester
Tutor: Israel Oyedele

Time: 10:00 am

Class size: 20-30

Unit:1

Prior Learning:HNC L4
Btec Business Certificate
Lesson Aim: AC 1.1: Identify the purposes of different types of Organisations
Links to other units:
Learning

Cohort: SEPT-2015

With all other management units within the HND specification

Detail of objectives:

Assessment Strategies

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Environment
objectives:
All will

(tick as applicable)
Question & Answer ---quiz

Identify the purposes of different types of


Organisations

Revision Exercise
Individual Learning
Review.
Group/ Individual
Presentation
Assignment / homework
Tests / exercises
Jigsaw

All will
All will

Teaching and Learning Techniques Planned (tick as applicable)

Whole class teaching


Pair / group work
Individual project work
Role-play exercises
Case study
Presentation
Discussion
Workshop
Practical exercise

Practical demonstration
Using video / TV
Radio / audio tapes
Data projector
Whiteboard
Computer / IT
PowerPoint
Debate
Flip chart

Other generic issues to be addressed - None


Health & Safety Risk Assessment:

None, but the basics were explained.

Inclusion / differentiation / Diversity


Needs:

Differentiated learning activity: Separate worksheet for dyslexic learner


Content

Timing

Outcome/

Teaching Methods

Student Activity

Method of
Assessme

Objective

Key Skills
Resources

nt

Discussion onUnderstanding
of how to
access
information and
knowledge
needs

To create an
active
environment
To ensure
understandin
g of last
lesson
AC
1.1Identify
the purposes
of different
types of
Organisation
s

Break
Group
activities/Group
discussions

10-10:05am

Icebreaker

10:0510:10am

Recap

10:1011:30am

11:3012noon
12noon12:35pm

12:35-13:25

Lecture/Discussi
ons on LO 1

13:25-13:40

Short Quiz

Whole class

Case study

Teaching/
white board

Question
for Tutor
from last
lesson

Q&A

White
board

Problem
solving

White
board

Listening

Lecture
notes on the
white board
Question
for Tutor
from this
lecture

Q&A

PPT
Slides

Listening

-PowerPoint
presentation

Break

Break

Break

Break

Break

Break

How
information
can be
gathered

PowerPoint
presentation

Questions
from
learners

Group
work

PPT
slides

Listening

Group
Activity

Group work

Group
feedbac
k

Flip
chart

Team
work

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Environment
13:40-13:45

Open session

For
questions

On the two
AC 1.1

13:45-14:00 [Summary and Guided learning/reading for next


lesson]
End of Session
Homework: To do some basic reading on AC 1.1

Tutors session evaluation

AC 1.1:Identify the purposes of

different types of Organisations


An organisation refers to the way in which people
Organisation defined

are grouped and the way in which they operate to


carry out the activities of the business.

But in getting Down to Business (good background)


The main objective here is to: Identify the main participants of business, the functional purposes that
most businesses perform, and the external forces that influence
business activities.

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A business is any activity that provides goods or services to consumers for the purpose of
making a profit.

For example:When Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak created Apple Computer in Jobs family
garage, they started a business.
The product was the Apple I, and the companys founders hoped to sell their computers to
customers for more than it cost to make and market them. If they were successful (which
they were), theyd make a profit.

Before we go on, lets make a couple of important distinctions concerning the terms in our
definitions.

First, whereas Apple produces and sells goods (Mac, iPhone, iPod, iPad),
many businesses provide services. Your bank is a service company, as is your
Internet provider. Hotels, airlines, law firms, movie theaters, and hospitals are
also service companies. Many companies provide both goods and services.
For example, your local car dealership sells goods (cars) and also provides
services (automobile repairs).

Second, some organizations are not set up to make profits. Many are
established to provide social or educational services. Such not-for profit (or
non-profit)-voluntaryorganizations include the St Giles Trust, Financial
Ombudsman Service, Water Aid UK, Higher Education Funding Council for
England(HEFCE), and many colleges and universities.

Most of these organizations, however, function in much the same way as a


business. They establish goals and work to meet them in an effective, efficient
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manner. Thus, most of the business principles introduced in this text also
apply to non-profits.
Business and Its Environment

Business Participants and Activities


Every business must have one or more owners whose primary role is to invest money in the
business. When a business is being started, its generally the owners who polish the
business idea and bring together the resources (money and people) needed to turn the idea
into a business.
The owners also hire employees to work for the company and help it reach its goals.
Owners and employees depend on a third group of participantscustomers. Ultimately, the
goal of any business is to satisfy the needs of its customers in order to generate a profit for
the owners.

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Functional Areas of Business


The activities needed to operate a business can be divided into a number
of functionalareas: management, operations, marketing, accounting, and finance. Lets
briefly explore each of these areas.

Management

Managers are responsible for the work performance of other people. Management involves
planning for, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling a companys resources so that it
can achieve its goals. Managers plan bysetting goals and developing strategies for
achieving them. They organizeactivities and resources to ensure that company goals are
met. They staff the organization with qualified employees and direct them to accomplish
organizational goals. Finally, managers design controls for assessing the success of plans
and decisions and take corrective action when needed.

Operations
All companies must convert resources (labor, materials, money, information, and so forth)
into goods or services. Some companies, such as Apple, convert resources
into tangible productsMacs, iPhones, iPods, iPads. Others, such as hospitals, convert
resources into intangible productshealth care. The person who designs and oversees the
transformation of resources into goods or services is called an operations manager. This
individual is also responsible for ensuring that products are of high quality.

Marketing
Marketing consists of everything that a company does to identify customers
needs and designs products to meet those needs. Marketers develop the
benefits and features of products, including price and quality. They also decide
on the best method of delivering products and the best means of promoting
them to attract and keep customers. They manage relationships with customers
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and make them aware of the organizations desire and ability to satisfy their
needs.

Accounting
Managers need accurate, relevant, timely financial information, and accountants
provide it. Accountants measure, summarize, and communicate financial and
managerial information and advice other managers on financial matters. There
are two fields of accounting. Financial accountants prepare financial statements
to help users, both inside and outside the organization, assess the financial
strength of thecompany. Managerial accountants prepare information, such as reports on
the cost of materials used in the production process, for internal use only.

Finance
Finance involves planning for, obtaining, and managing a companys funds. Finance
managers address such questions as the following: How much money does the company
need? How and where will it get the necessary money? How and when will it pay the money
back? What should it do with its funds? What investments should be made in plant and
equipment? How much should be spent on research and development? How should excess
funds be invested? Good financial management is particularly important when a company is
first formed, because new business owners usually need to borrow money to get started.
Ref: - Danielle M. Testa, Apple, Inc.: An Analysis of the Firms Tumultuous History, in Conjunction
with the Abounding Future (Lehigh University), November 18, 2007.

Categories of Organisation:in terms of (legal


structure)
1. The Sole Trader -

A sole proprietorship is a business owned by only one person.

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Its the easiest and cheapest type of business to form: if youre using your own name as the
name of your business, you just need a license to get started, and once youre in business,
youre subject to few government regulations.

Advantages of Sole Proprietorships


As sole owner,

You have complete control over your business.

You make all important decisions, and youre generally responsible for all day-to-day
activities. In exchange for assuming all this responsibility,

You get all the income earned by the business.

Profits earned are taxed as personal income, so you dont have to pay any special
federal and state income taxes.

Disadvantages of Sole Proprietorships


For many people, however, the sole proprietorship is not suitable. The flip side of enjoying
complete control, for example, has having to supply all the different talents that may be
necessary to make the business a success. And
If you die, the business dissolves.
You also have to rely on your own resources for financing: in effect, you are the
business, and any money borrowed by the business is loaned to you personally.
Even more important, the sole proprietor bears unlimited liability for any losses
incurred by the business.

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Sole Proprietorship and Unlimited Liability, -the principle of unlimited personal liability
means that if the company incurs a debt or suffers a catastrophe (say, getting sued for
causing an injury to someone), the owner is personally liable. As a sole proprietor, you put
your personal assets (your bank account, your car, maybe even your home) at risk for the
sake of your business. You can lessen your risk with insurance, yet your liability exposure
can still be substantial.
Sole Proprietorship and Unlimited Liability

http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/business_enterprise/sole_proprietorships
_partnerships_corporations.html (accessed January 27, 2012).

Partnership
A partnership (or general partnership) is a business owned jointly by two or more people.

Setting up a partnership is more complex than setting up a sole proprietorship, but its still
relatively easy and inexpensive. The cost varies according to size and complexity. Its
possible to form a simple partnership without the help of a lawyer or an accountant, though
its usually a good idea to get professional advice. Professionals can help you identify and
resolve issues that may later create disputes among partners.

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The Partnership Agreement


The impact of disputes can be lessened if the partners have executed a wellplanned partnership agreement that specifies everyones rights and responsibilities. The
agreement might provide such details as the following:

Amount of cash and other contributions to be made by each partner

Division of partnership income (or loss)

Partner responsibilitieswho does what

Conditions under which a partner can sell an interest in the company

Conditions for dissolving the partnership

Conditions for settling disputes

Unlimited Liability and the Partnership


Each partner is personally liable not only for his or her own actions but also for
those of all partnersa principle calledunlimited liability.

Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs)

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Many people are understandably reluctant to enter into partnerships because of unlimited
liability. Individuals with substantial assets, for example, have a lot to lose if they get sued
for a partnership obligation (and when people sue, they tend to start with the richest
partner).

To overcome this defect of partnerships, the law permits a limited partnership, which has
two types of partners:
A limited liability partnership has a single general partner who runs the
business and is responsible for its liabilities, plus any number of limited partners
who have limited involvement in the business and whose losses are limited to
the amount of their investment.
Limited liability partners (LLPs), are relatively new innovation being allowed for under the
Limited Liability Partnership Act 2000

Advantages of Partnerships
The partnership has several advantages over the sole proprietorship.
First, it brings together a diverse group of talented individuals who share
responsibility for running the business.
Second, it makes financing easier: The business can draw on the financial resources
of a number of individuals. The partners not only contribute funds to the business but
can also use personal resources to secure bank loans.
Finally, continuity neednt be an issue because partners can agree legally to allow the
partnership to survive if one or more partners die.

Disadvantages of Partnerships
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Still, there are some negatives.


First, as discussed earlier, partners are subject to unlimited liability.
Second, being a partner means that you have to share decision making, and many
people arent comfortable with that situation. Not surprisingly, partners often have
differences of opinion on how to run a business, and disagreements can escalate to
the point of actual conflict; in fact, they can even jeopardize the continuance of the
business.
Third, in addition to sharing ideas, partners also share profits. This arrangement can
work as long as all partners feel that theyre being rewarded according to their efforts
and accomplishments, but that isnt always the case.

Limited Companies

In law, a company is a corporate association having a legal entity in its own right
(i.e. it is distinct from the people who own it, unlike in the case of a sole trader
or partnership).
This means that all property and other assets owned by the company belong to
the company and not to its members (owners).
In the same way, the personal assets of its members/owners (shareholders), do
not normally belong to the business.
In the event of insolvency, an individuals liability is limited to the amount of
money invested in the business; (including any amount remaining unpaid on the
shares for which they have subscribed.
Note:There is an exception where a companys owners have given a personal
guarantee to cover any loans they have obtained from a bank or other
institutions
In the UK, there are several types of limited companies.
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The main types are public limited company (plc) and private company, which
carries the suffix, limited (Ltd).
The main difference between the two is that a plc has shares that are available
for the general public to buy and the company is quoted on the stock market.
In the private company, the shares are not openly available and may be owned
by the founders, family interest and/or the current management.
A company limited by guarantee is owned not by shareholders but by a number
of members, whose liability is limited to the amount of money/contribution in
the event of the company being wound up. Example:professional associations,
research and trade associations. Companies limited by guarantee are most
commonly found in the not-for-profit or the voluntary sector.
Companies are essentially business organisations consisting of two or more
individuals who have agreed to embark on a business venture and who have
decided to seek corporate statusrather than to form a partnership.

Such status could derive from an Act of Parliament or a Royal Charter, but is
almost always nowadays achieved through registration, the terms of which are
laid down in the various Companies Acts. Under the legislation enacted in 1985,
1989, 2006 and 2010
KEY/GROUP EXERCISE
Some of the questions that youd probably ask yourself in choosing the
appropriate legal form for your business include the following:
1 What are you willing to do to set up and operate your business?
2 How much control do you want?
3 Do you want to share profits with others?
4 Do you want to avoid special taxes on your business?
5 Do you have all the skills needed to run the business?
6 Should it be possible for the business to continue without you?
7 What are your financing needs?
8 How much liability exposure are you willing to accept?
No single form of ownershipsole proprietorship, partnership, or
corporationwill give you everything you want. Each has advantages and
disadvantages.
EXERCISE- Analysis
Review the eight questions that youd probably ask yourself in choosing the
appropriate legal form. Rate each of the questions using this scale: [1] not at all
important; [2] not very important; [3] somewhat important; [4] very important;
[5] extremely important. Select the two questions that are most important to
you and the two questions that are least important to you, and explain your
responses to these four questions.

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Other Types of Organisations


Cooperatives

A cooperative (also known as a co-op), (which arose in mid-nineteenth-century


Britain and which gave rise to a consumer cooperative movement dedicated to
the provision of cheap, unadulterated food for its members and a share of its
profits), is a business owned and controlled by those who use its services.
Individuals and firms who belong to the cooperative join together to market
products, purchase supplies, and provide services for its members. If run
correctly, cooperatives increase profits for its producer-members and lower costs
for its consumer-members. Cooperatives are common in the agricultural
community.
For example, some 750 cranberry and grapefruit member growers market their
cranberry sauce, fruit juices, and dried cranberries through the Ocean Spray
Cooperative.
http://www.oceanspray.com/about/cranberry_history.aspx (accessed June 19,
2008).

Primary Secondary and Tertiary Industry/Sector


1. Extractive (primary)
2. Manufacturing (secondary)
3. Services (tertiary).
Extractive industries like farming take out things which are already provided by
nature, for example:
Farmers grow crops
Miners take out fuel, minerals, etc.
Primary industry sometimes produces raw materials, e.g. iron ore (that goes into
making steel) and oil (that makes petrol, plastics, etc.), as well as producing final
products like fish and oranges.
Manufacturing and construction industries make, build and assemble products.
Manufactures will use raw materials and parts from other industries. A semimanufactured product is one that is only part made, and most products involve
several stages of production.
Examples of manufactures are books, furniture, cars, and chocolate and oil rigs.
Service industries are particularly important in modern Britain. Services give
value to people but are not physical goods. Examples of services are banks and
public transport. Services are sometimes classified as direct services (to people),

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e.g. the police, hairdressing, etc. and commercial services (to business), e.g.
business insurance, business post, etc.
However, this is not a very good classification because most business services
like banking and the post are as much used by individuals as by business.
Some businesses concentrate on just one type of activity while others will focus
on a range of activities.
Your local farmer is primarily concerned with primary activity, but he or she may
also do some manufacturing e.g. producing fresh ice cream, butter or yoghurt.
The farmer may also provide a delivery service for fresh products.
A company like Portakabin concentrates on the production and construction of
modular buildings. However, it also provides a range of important services for
customers such as helping them with planning applications, and the
maintenance of services in buildings.
The process of de-industrialisation refers to the declining importance of
manufacturing in a society like our own as service industry becomes more
important.

Charitable Organisations
The law says that charities are organisations that

have exclusively charitable purposes, and


operate for the public benefit

Charitable purposes
The Charities Act 2011 sets out 13 descriptions of charitable purposes, which
include the prevention and relief of poverty, the advancement of education, the
advancement of religion, the advancement of health or saving of lives and
general charitable purposes.

Public benefit
There are two aspects to public benefit; namely the benefit aspect and the public aspect.

Benefit aspect
The benefit aspect means that organisations applying to register as charities
must be able to demonstrate that there work does indeed provide an identifiable
benefit. That benefit must be linked to the organisations purpose, be balanced
against any detriment or harm, and must not be political; as charities may not
have political purposes (this does not prevent charities from taking part in
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political activities, such as campaigning, as a way of pursing a charitable


purpose).
Public aspect
Organisations must also be able to show that the public, or sections of the
public, will be the recipients of the benefit the beneficiaries. The trustees must
be able to demonstrate that who can benefit is not unreasonably restricted. For
example, people in poverty cannot be excluded from the benefit.
Most registration cases are straight-forward and clear cut. It is relatively rare for
questions to arise as to an organisations charitable status under law, although
such cases do occur. For example, last year, we won a challenge in the Charity
Tribunal, brought against us by an organisation known as Full Fact, which had
applied to register but which we had turned down. The Tribunal agreed with our
decision that the charitys objects of promoting civic responsibility and
engagement were not exclusively charitable.
It is important to stress that while the quality of a charitys management is not
relevant to its legal status, trustees do have legal duties and responsibilities
towards their charities. We as regulator have a role in ensuring they comply with
those duties and can investigate trustees for non-compliance. In serious cases
we can suspend or remove trustees, or appoint an interim manager to
administer the charity in place of the trustees.
Charitable incorporated organisations (CIOs)
From the beginning of this year, a new legal form has become available to
charities. The purpose and benefits of the CIO have been explained in previous
editions of this column; in short, the structure allows for the benefits of
incorporation without requiring charities to meet all of the associated
administrative burdens, such as registration with Companies House. The legal
framework for CIOs differs to that for other charitable companies and
unincorporated charities, in that the existence of a CIO is determined by its
registration with the Commission. The registration of a CIO establishes it. As
explained, this does not apply to other charities, whose status as such relates
not to registration but legal set up.

Types of charity structure


To set up a new charity, you must decide what sort of legal structure it will have.
Your charity structure is defined by its governing document (the legal document that
creates the charity and says how it should be run).
The type of structure you choose affects how your charity will operate, such as:

who will run it and whether it will have a wider membership


whether it can enter into contracts or employ staff in its own name
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whether the trustees will be personally liable for what the charity does

There are four main types of charity structure:

charitable incorporated organisation (CIO)


charitable company (limited by guarantee)
unincorporated association
trust

You need to choose the right structure for your charity, depending on whether you need it to
have a corporate structure and whether you want to have a wider membership.

About corporate structures


Some charity structures are corporate bodies. If you choose a structure that forms a
corporate body, the law considers your charity to be a person in the same way as an
individual.
This gives your charity the legal capacity to do many things in its own name that a person
can do, such as:

employing paid staff

delivering charitable services under contractual agreements

entering into commercial contracts in its own name

owning freehold or leasehold land or other property


If a charity structure is a corporate body, generally its trustees arent personally liable for
what it does.
If your charity isnt a corporate body (unincorporated):

the trustees are personally liable for what it does


it wont be able to enter into contracts or control some investments in its own name
two or more trustees, a corporate custodian trustee or the charities land holding
service will have to hold any land on your charitys behalf
To be continued in the next lecture

QUESTIONS

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THANK YOU

REFERENCES for BTEC Higher Nationals in Business Edexcel Pearson Education


INDICATIVE READING FOR LEARNERS
Textbooks:
Sawyer M, (ed) The UK Economy: A Manual of Applied Economics, 16th
edition
(OUP Oxford; 2004) ISBN: 9780199266517
Begg D Foundations of Economics, 4th edition (McGraw-Hill Higher
Education,
2009) ISBN: 9780077121884
Morrison J International Business Environment: Global and Local
Marketplaces
in a Changing World (Palgrave Macmillan, 2006) ISBN: 9781403936912
A & C Black Publishers Ltd Whitaker's Almanack 2010, 142nd Revised
edition (A
& C Black Publishers Ltd, 2009) ISBN: 9781408113646
Journals
Harvard Business Review (Harvard Business Publishing)
The Economist (The Economist Newspaper Ltd)
The broadsheet newspapers have daily business sections. Many
business stories
will appear in the news sections.
Websites
www.direct.gov.uk/en/index.htm the governments portal
www.berr.gov.uk has sections on business support,
Europe, Business Law and regional
development as well as other
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materials
www.ac777.dial.pipex.com/bes/index.html Online journal for British
Economy
Survey
www.competition-commission.org.uk/ Competition Commissions web
site regulates competition between
companies in the UK by conducting
in-depth inquiries
www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/journals is a directory of materials that
can be
used for teaching and covers a broad
spectrum of business and economics
www.ofgem.gov.uk/Pages/OfgemHome.
aspx
is the web site of the Office of the
Gas and Electricity Markets. Each
industry regulator has a similar site
www.bized.co.uk/ Bized provides a selection of teaching
and learning resources
www.bbc.co.uk/news/business/ the BBC web sites business section
http://europa.eu/index_en.htm The website of the European Union
www.thetimes100.co.uk includes a number of business and
economics oriented case studies
Videos
Television news, current affairs and business programmes will also
provide
useful additional and up to date material on business and the economy
often
with special features on particular business environment subjects. Many
programmes are archived and can be viewed on demand.

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