You are on page 1of 90

Instrumentation and Control Systems Basic Guideline

Instrumentation: It is a terminology / technique in process control system is usually comprised


of a system of either Pneumatic and electronic (Analog/Digital: Conventional, Smart, Intelligent,
Hart, profibus, fieldbus, foundation fieldbus) devices for measurement and control for all kinds
process variables (pressure, flow, temperature, level, vibration, analyzer etc) which are pertinent
to the operation of the plant. In most of the case a innovated technology a computer is included
in the instrumentation system provide indication, alarms, automation control, SPEC-200, DDS,
DCS, SCADA, BAILEY Control, PCIMS, CCS, DEHC, VMS, MMS, BMS, TMS, FGS, OMS,
PESS systems etc to handle functions such as respectively data gathering and transmission,
distribution and control, supervisory control, bulk data storage, display, alarms, logging,
computations, and control. Since the advent of integrated circuit electronics, specially the
microprocessor, many more other types of instruments are becoming more intelligent, smart,
foundation fielbus almost computerized.

Instruments Identification: An Instrument may perform a single function such as any gauge
or indicator and a combination of functions such as switch, transmitter, converters, controllers,
control valves, recorders, PLC, DCS, SCADA, Computers, Consoles etc

The Basic Laws and Principles


Amperes Law:
For any close loop, the sum of the
length elements times the
magnetic field in the direction of
the length element is equal to the
permeability time the electric
current enclosed in the loop.

The magnetic field in space around an electric current is proportional to the electric current
which serve as its source, just as the electric field in space is proportional to the charge which
serve as its source.
Archimedes Law (Buoyancy)
Archimedes (298BC-212BC) was the greatest mathematician of ancient time. A native of
Syracuse, Sicily, he was killed during its capture by Romans in the second Punic war.
Archimedes was the first to develop the physical law that is now known as Archimedes Law.
The law explains buoyancy, or why objects seem to lose weight in water or other liquids. This
principle has been applied ever since to test precious metals.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 1 of 90

Archimedes principle is the fundamental natural law of buoyancy, first identified by the Greek
mathematician and inventor Archimedes in the 3rd Century BC. It states that any object floating
upon or submerged in a fluid is buoyed upward by a force equal to the weight of the displaced
fluid. This buoyancy force is caused by the weight of the fluid, which causes the fluid pressure to
increase steadily with increasing depth from the surface. Any submerged object is subject to a
greater pressure force on its lower surface than on its upper surface, creating a tendency for the
object to rise. This tendency is counteracted by the weight of the object, which will sink if it is
heavier than the surrounding fluid and will rise if it is lighter. If object weighs the same as an
equal volume of the fluid, it will be in equilibrium and remain motionless. Buoyancy may be
thought of as the density of a fluid relative to the densities of objects submerged in it. From this
Archimedes Law we find two equation:
Density = Mass Volume
Buoyancy = (Density of Object Density of the fluid) X (Volume of displaced fluid)
The apparent loss in weight of a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the
displaced liquid.
Note: Level buoyancy, hydrostatic etc measurement works on this principle
Boyles (Robert Boyle) Law (Gas Law)
Gas has various properties i.e pressure, temperature, mass and volume.
The relationship between Pressure and Volume is called Boyles Law.
First law - Pressure of a vessel will remain same and volume if the temperature is not change
or in other words It describes the inversely proportionalship between the absolute pressure and
volume of a gas if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system.
Second Law Product of a pressure and volume for a gas is constant for a fixed amount of gas
at affixed temperature. i.e. For a fixed amount of a gas kept at a fixed temperature Pressure and
Volume are inversely proportional (while one increases the other decreases).
P V = Constant
P1V1 = PfVf
Charles (Jacquis Charles 1800 century in France) Law (Gas Law)
Charles law stated that volume of a gas is directly proportional to the temp of the gas provide the
amount of gas and pressure are held constant.
V T = Constant
V1T1 = V2T2

Farads Law:
Any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage (emf) to be
"induced" in the coil. No matter how the change is produced, the voltage will be generated. The
change could be produced by changing the magnetic field strength, moving a magnet toward or
away from the coil, moving the coil into or out of the magnetic field, rotating the coil relative to
the magnet, etc.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 2 of 90

Hocks Law :
Robert Hooke (1635-1703) English scientist graduate of Cambridge University having an
excellent talent especially for mathematics, he served as a professor of Geometry at Gresham
College. He experimentally verified that the center of gravity of the earth traces an ellipse around
the Sun, discovered a star of the first magnitude in Orion, and revealed the renowned Hocks
Law in 1678.
In most material a proportional relation is found between stress and strain borne, as long as the
elastic limit is not exceeded. This experiment was revealed by Hooke in 1678 and thus it is called
Hocks Law or the Law of Elasticity. This stress limit to which a material maintains this
proportional limit. Each material has a different proportional limit and elastic limit. Most of
todays theoretical calculation of material strength are based on this law and are applied to design
machinery and structure.
Hocks Law I (Horizontal Spring Law):
Hocks Law II (Vertical Spring Law):
Law of elasticity is an approximation that states the extension of a spring in direct proportional
with the load added to it as long as this load does not exceed the elastic limit. (it is named after
17th century, British physicist Robert Hooke) pressure is measured in an Elastic medium.
Note: Pressure gauge works on this principle, measuring pressure in an elastic medium.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 3 of 90

Lenz's Law
When an emf is generated by a change in magnetic flux according to Faraday's Law, the polarity
of the induced emf is such that it produces a current whose magnetic field opposes the change
which produces it. The induced magnetic field inside any loop of wire always acts to keep the
magnetic flux in the loop constant. In the examples below, if the B field is increasing, the
induced field acts in opposition to it. If it is decreasing, the induced field acts in the direction of
the applied field to try to keep it constant.

Pascals Law:
Pascals Law States that when there is an increase in pressure at any point in a confined fluid,
there an equal increase at every other point in the container.
P = F/A
P1 = P2 (since the pressure equal though out)
P = F1/A1 = F2/A2 ( since pressure is equal to force per unit area)
Note: Dead weight tester works on this law
Newtons Laws of Motion:
Newtons first Law: Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of
motion unless on external force is not applied to it.
Second Law: The relationship between an objects mass m its acceleration a, and the applied
force f is f=ma. Acceleration and force are vector (as indicated by their symbols being displayed
in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the
acceleration vector.
Third Law: For every Action there is an equal and opposite Reaction.
Bernoullis Principle:
A change (rise/fall) in pressure in a flowing fluid must always be accompanied by a change
(decrease/increase) in the speed and conversely if any change (increase/decrease) in the speed of
the fluid results in the change (decrease/increase) in the press.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 4 of 90

Bernoullis Principle:
This an important Law involving the movement of a fluid through a pressure difference. Suppose
a fluid is moving in Horizontal direction and encounter a difference pressure. This difference in
pressure will result in net force, which by Newtons 2 nd Law will cause an acceleration of the
fluid. The fundamental relation;
Work done = Change in kinetic Energy
In this situation can be written as;
Change in pressure X Area X Distance = Change in Kinetic Energy
Which is further more can be explained;
Change in Pressure + (Kinetic Energy / Volume) = 0
In other word;
Pressure + (Kinetic Energy / Volume ) = Constant
Arislole Law:
The relationship between an objects mass (m) its volume v and the applied force is f,
then f=mv
Galileo ( Law of fall)
The law deals with the falling of bodies. The law of parabolic fall claims that the distance
traveled by a falling body is directly proportional to the square of the time it takes to fall.
For example: A stone falling for twice as long as another stone will travel four times the distance.
A ball falling for three seconds will travel nine times the distance traveled by a ball falling for
one second.
X (Distance) = a (Factor) X t (Time) 2
How does the law work?

In order to convince yourself that the law is correct, you are invited to conduct a series of
laboratory tests. In the laboratory you may determine the angle of the inclined plane, the distance
to be traveled by the ball, etc.
A reminder - the law of fall states that the distance traveled by a falling body is directly
proportional to the square of the time it takes to fall. This law leads to the conclusion that the
speed of a body increases in direct proportion to the passage of time.

Innovations of the law of fall...


In the period before Galileo, scientists thought that force causes speed, as claimed by
Aristotle. Galileo showed that force causes acceleration. On the basis of the law of parabolic

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 5 of 90

fall, Galileo reached the conclusion that bodies fall on the surface of the earth at a constant
acceleration, and that the force of gravity which causes all bodies to move downward is a
constant force. In other words, a constant force does not lead to constant speed but to constant
acceleration.
Galileo's claim that force causes acceleration is inseparable from his claim that bodies do not
require a cause to continue their movement. This latter claim states that a body in motion will
continue its motion so long as no factor disturbs that motion. This principle is called the
principle of inertia.
The law of parabolic fall was an innovation in that it claimed that
the speed of a body will continue to increase endlessly. Contrary
to the claims of the natural philosophers of his period, Galileo claimed
that a body will not attain a certain speed which will remain constant
but will continue accelerating until it comes into contact with the ground.
This claim is of course true so long as one ignores air resistance,
which can be very significant for certain bodies and at high speeds.
it is important to remember that Galileo's law of fall claims that bodies fall at a constant
acceleration, i.e., that their speed increases by equal increments within equal time periods, and
that the distance traveled by them in equal time periods is not equal.
For example: A falling ball, in the second second of its fall, will travel a distance three times as
great as the distance it traveled during the first second; in the third second it will travel a distance
five times that of the first second; in the fourth second it will travel a distance seven times that of
the first second.

If during the first second, the ball traveled a distance of 10 cm, it will travel a distance of 30 cm
during the second, of 50 cm during the third second, 70 cm during the fourth second, and so on...
Mathematically:

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 6 of 90

Ohms Law:
Which defines the relationship between Power (P), Voltage (E), Current (I), and Resistance (R).
One ohm is the resistance value through which one volt will maintain a current of one ampere.
Current (I): Current is the flow what flows on a wire or conductor like water flowing down in the
river. Current flows from negative to positive on the surface of a conductor. Current is measured
in Ampere (A) or Amps.
Voltage (V or E): Voltage is the difference in electrical potential between two points in a circuit.
It is the push or pressure behind current flow through a circuit, and it is measured in Volts (V).
Resistance (R): Resistance determines how much current will flow through a component.
Resistor are used to control voltage and current levels. A very high resistance allows a small
amount of current to flow. A very low resistance allows a large amount of current to flow.
Resistance is measured in ohms ().
Power (P): Power is the amount of current time the voltage level at a given point. It is measured
in wattage or watts (W).
Ohms Formula for conversion:
Volts (E)
Resistance (R)
Power (P)
Ampere (I)
2
E = PXR
R = V/I
P=V /R
I = V/R
E=P/I
R = V2 / P
P = I2 X R
I = P/V
2
E=I/R
R=P/I
P=VXI
I = P/R
Kirchhoffs Law:
Kirchhoffs circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the conversation of change and energy
in electrical circuit and were first described in 1845 by Gustav Kirchhoff widely used in
electrical engineering, they are also called Kirchhoffs Rules or simply Kirchhoffs Law. Both
circuit rules can be directly derived from Maxwells equations but Kirchhoff precede Maxwell
and instead generalized work by George Ohm.
Kirchhoff has introduced two principles one is called Current Law and another is Voltage law.
Kirchhoff Current Law (KCL or first law)
The principle of conservation of electric charges implies that, At any point in electrical circuit
that does not represent a capacitor plate, the sum of current flowing towards that point is equal to
the sum of current flowing from that point. Or in other word The current entering in any
junction is equal to the current leaving that junction.
Example:
i1+ i4 = i2 + i3
n
IK = 0
k=1
n
ik= 0
k=1

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 7 of 90

Kirchhoff Voltage Law (KVL or second law)


The direct sum of the electrical potential differences around any closed circuit must be zero or
in other word, The sum of all the voltage around the loop is equal to zero)
n
VK = 0
k=1
n
VK = 0
k=1
Example; solution of that circuit:
V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 =

Measurement Definition for Process Variables with photos


What is Measurement?
Measurement is the most important part in any processing plant. Any decision made on what the
plant should do is based on what the measurement tell us. In the context of process control, all
controller decision are similarly based on measurement
With the advent of computer, it is now possible to do inferential measurement, meaning telling
the value of a parameter without actual measuring it physically. It should however, be
remembered that inferential measurement algorithms are also based on physical measurements.
Therefore, rather than rendering measurement redundant, they have made measurement all the
more important. Types of measurement may be categorized as following:

Pressure Measurement:
The measurement of pressure is considered the basic process variable in that it is utilized for
measurement of flow (difference of two pressure), level (head or back pressure), and even
temperature (fluid pressure in a filled thermal system).
All pressure measurement consist of two basic parts: a primary element, which is in contact,
directly or indirectly with the pressure medium and interacts with press changes; and a secondary
element, which translates / transmit this interaction into appropriate value for use in indicating,
recording, controlling, monitoring etc.
For details please refer to device forth coming. Two wire capacitance technique as an example:
Process pressure is transmitted through isolating diaphragms and silicon oil filled fluid to a
sensing diaphragm in the center of the cell. The sensing diaphragm is a stretched spring element,
that deflect in response to different pressure across it. The displacement of the sensing diaphragm
is proportional to the differential pressure. The position of the sensing diaphragm is detected by
capacitor plates on both sides of the sensing diaphragm. The differential capacitance between the
sensing diaphragm and the capacitor plates is converted electronically to a 4-20 mA dc signal
and for foundation fieldbus type it gives 0-100% digital output.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 8 of 90

Bourdon Tube:
Bourdon Tubes are circular shaped tubes with oval cross section. The
pressure of the medium acts on the inside of the tube. The outward
pressure on the oval cross section forces it to become rounded. Because
of the curvature of the tube ring, the bourdon tube then bends as
indication of the direction of the arrow. Due to their robust construction,
bourdon are often used in harsh environment and high pressure, but can
be used for very low pressure as well, the response time however, is
slower than the bellows or diaphragm

Bellows:
Bellows type pressure elements are constructed of tubular
membranes that are convoluted around the circumference. The
membrane is attached at one end to the source at the other end an
indication device or instrument. The bellows element can provide a
long range of motion (stroke) in the direction of the arrow when
input pressure is applied.
Diaphragm
A Diaphragm is a circular-shaped convoluted membrane usually very thin
made of rubber that is attached to the pressure fixture around the
circumference. The pressure medium is on one side and the indication
medium is on the other. The deflection that is created by pressure in the vessel
would be in the direction of the arrow indicated. Diaphragms provide fast
acting an accurate pressure indication. However the movement or stroke is not
as large as the bellow

Capsules:
The capsules consist of two circular shaped, convoluted
membrane sealed tight around the circumference. The pressure
acts on the inside of the capsule and the generated stroke
movement is by the direction of the arrow. If it is fixed only at
the air inlet it can expand like a balloon. This arrangement is not
much different from the diaphragm except that is expands both
sides (ways)
Piston
The pressure acts directly on the piston and thus compresses the
spring. The position of the piston is directly related to the
pressure. A window in the outer case allow the pressure to be
indicated. This type is used in hydraulic where ability to
withstand shock, vibration and sudden pressure changes is
needed. The piston movement may be connected to a secondary
device to convert movement into the output signal either
pneumatic or electronics
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 9 of 90

Pressure Transducer/Transmitter:
There are so many types of pressure transducer but most commonly used are pneumatics and
electronics. Following are the types of Electronics / electrical transmitters
-Pneumatics
-Electronics Transmitter (3-15psi, or 0.2 to 1Kg / 0.2 to 1Bar)
-strain Gauge types (4-20mA, or 1-5Volts FF type)
-Piezo Electric Types (4-20mA or 1-5Volts or FF type)
-Capacitance Type (4-20mA or 1-5Volts or FF type)
-Inductive Types (4-20mA or 1-5Volts or FF type
Pneumatics
Electronics
Flow Measurement:
Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid or gas movement. It can be measured in a
variety of ways. Modern innovations in the measurement of flow rate incorporate electronic
devices that can correct for varying pressure and temperature (i.e. density) conditions, nonlinearities, and for the characteristics of the fluid.
Numerous innovated technologies and as well as old types of flowmeters are available for
process control systems. In general, the equipment can be classified as differential pressure,
positive displacement, Velocity, and Mass meters etc.
Differential pressure devices include Orifices, Venturi tubes, Flow nozzles, Pitot Tubes, Elbowtab meters, Target Meters, Anubars and variable area meters: Differential-head meters measure
flow inferentially from the differential pressure caused by flow through a primary element.
Flow is proportional to the square root of the differential pressure produced. This differential is
sensed by diaphragm, bellow or manometers etc.
Orifice Plate (works on Bernoullis principle):
It is basically a plate with a hole throughout. It is placed in between two
pipe thus constrict the flow. It uses the same principle as venture meter in
the differential pressure relates to the velocity of the fluid flow.
Advantage of orifice plates include good repeatability, ease of
installation, use of one transmitter regardless of pipe size, low cost, the
wide variety of types and materials available, and the relative ease with
which they can be changed. Limitation of orifice plates include their
susceptibility to damage by foreign material entrained in the fluid and to
erosion. A straight run of upstream and down stream piping is required
for an orifice plate. The sharp (square) edged concentric orifice plate is
the most commonly used. Eccentric or segmental orifice plates should be
used for very dirty fluids or slurries or wet gases; quadrant orifices
should be used for viscous liquid. Types Corner taps and Vena contracta
taps

Venturi tubes / Flow tubes


are used where high capacity and minimum head loss
are critical factors. Their advantages are good
repeatability, low permanent loss, applicability to
slurries and dirty fluids, and use of one type of
transmitter regardless of pipe size. The limitation of
venture and flow tubes include high cost (they are
generally the most expensive P producer) and the size
and weight of the installation, which may require
additional support. A straight run of upstream and
downstream piping is required for a venture or flow
tube.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 10 of 90

Flow Nozzles:
are used less frequently than the orifice plates.
Their principal advantages are good repeatability,
low permanent head loss, and approximately 65%
greater flow capacity for a given diameter than can
be obtained under the same condition with an
orifice plate, and use of one type of transmitter
regards of pipe size.
Elbow Meters:
are used in installations where velocity is sufficient and high
accuracy is not required. Advantage of elbow meters include
good repeatability, high level of economy, ease of installation,
ability to be bidirectional, very low pressure loss, minimum
requirement for upstream piping, and used of one type of
transmitter regardless of pipe size. Limitation of elbow meters
include their lack of fitness for low-velocity services, poor
accuracy, and low differential for given flow rates.
Pitot Tubes (Works Bernoullis Principle) :
A Pitot tube is a flow measuring instrument used to measure fluid flow
velocity by determining the stagnation pressure. They are used where
minimum pressure drop is required and accuracy is not of prime
concern. Advantages of pitot tubes very low cost, availability of
averaging types, use of one type transmitter regardless of pipe size, and
ability to be added on stream with a hot tap. Limitation of pitot tubes
include their requirement for a low range P Transmitter and their
dependence on flow profile for accuracy, it requires a larger tap size,
and installation requires special attention to clearances. A straight run
upstream and downstream piping is required for a pitot tube.
Anubar:
An Anubar is very similar to a pitot tube. The
difference is that there is more than one hole into the
pressure measuring chambers. The pressure in the high
pressure chamber represents an average of the velocity
across the pipe. Anubars are more accurate than pitot
tubes as they are not as position sensitive to the
velocity profile of the fluid
Variable Area Meters (Rotameters): Work on the principle that a float within a vertical tapered tube
will assume a position that is a function of the flow rate through the tube from the bottom. The float
must have a density greater than that of the measured fluid. The annular area through which the flow
must pass is the difference between the internal area of the taper tube at the point of balance and the
area of the float head. Since the internal area of the tube increases constantly and is continuously

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 11 of 90

variable from bottom or top, whereas the float head are remains constant, the term variable area is used
to describe this type of meter. At a constant differential pressure, flow is directly proportional to area.

Magnetic meters (Faradas Law):


The operation of magnetic flowmeter is based
upon Farads Law which states that, The voltage
induced across any conductor at it moves at right
angle through magnetic field is proportional to the
velocity Formula E vVXBXD where E= The
voltage generated in the conductor, V=Velocity of
Conductor, B=magnetic field, D=length of
Conductor
The most common flow measurement apart from
mechanical flowmeter is the magnetic type,
commonly referred to as a mag meter or an
electromag. A magnetic field is applied to the
metering tube, which results in a potential
difference proportional to the flow velocity
perpendicular to the flux times. The magnetic flow
meters requires a conducting fluid i.e. water and
electrical insulating pipe surface e.g. rubber lined
non-magnetic steel tube. They are obstructionless
meters that measure the volumetric rate of flow or
any liquid that has the required electrical
conductivity. Rate is determined using faradays
law of electromagnetic induction.

Turbine meters: measure volumetric fluid flow with a pulse train output, the frequency of
which is picked up magnetically from a rotor located in the flow stream and is linearly related
to flow rate.
Positive displacement meters include piston, oval gear, nutating-disk, and rotary vane:
measures flow by mechanically trapping successive volumetric segments of the liquid passing
through the meter body.
Mass flow meter:
is the mass of substance which passes through a given surface per unit time. Its
unit is mass divided by time, so kg/sec in SI and slug/sec or pound/sec in US
customary units. It is usually represent by the symbol m. it can be calculated
from density of the substance, the cross section area though which the substance
is flowing, and its velocity relative to the area of interest.
m = . V. A or, m = . Q
The symbol for mass flow rate is Newtons notation for a derivative m=dm/dt
Coriolisusing the coriolis effect that causes a laterally
vibration tube to distort a direct measurement of
mass flow can be obtain in a coriolis flow
measurement. Furthermore, a direct measure of the
density of the fluid is obtained. It can be very
Basic Guideline
I&C (M.A.Shahzad)
accurate irrespective of the type of gas or liquid
that is measured.

Page 12 of 90

Vortex meters (Van Karman Vortex Street): This one of the method of flow measurement
involves placing a bluff body (called a shedder bar) in the path of the fluid. As the fluid passes
this bar, disturbance in flow called vortices are created. The vortices trail behind the cylinder,
alternatively from each side of the bluff body. This vortex trail is called Van Karman Vortex
Street after Von Karmans 1912 mathematic description of the phenomenon. The frequency at
which these vortices alternate sides is essentially proportional to the flow rate of fluid. Inside,
atop or down stream of the shedder bar is a sensor for measuring the frequency of the vortex
shedding. This sensor is often a piezoelectric crystal, which produces a small, but measurable,
voltage pulses every time a vortex is created. Since the frequency of such a voltage pulse is also
proportional to the fluid velocity, a volumetric flow rate is calculated using the cross section area
of the flow meter. The frequency is measured and flow rate is calculated by the flowmeter
electronics:
f = SV/L,
Where f = the frequency of the vortices
L = the characteristics length of the bluff body
V = the velocity of the flow on the bluff body
S = Strouhal number which is essential a constant for a given
body shape within its operating limit .
Vortex meters Use an obstruction in the flowing stream
to generate a vortex train of high and low pressure areas.

Ultrasonic (Doppler, Transit Time)


Doppler: It operates on the Doppler shift principles, whererby the
transmitter frequency is altered linearly by having reflected from
particles and bubbles in the fluid. The net result is a frequency shift
between transmitter and receiver frequency that can be directly
related to the flow velocity. If the pipe Inner Diameter is known, the
volumetric flowrate can be calculated. Doppler type requires a
minimum amount of solid particles or air in the process to achieve
measurement.

Transit Time: Measurement are made by sending burst of


signals through a pipe. The measurement of the flow is
based on the principles that sound waves traveling in the
direction of flow of the fluid requires less time than when
traveling in the opposite direction. At zero velocity the
transit time or delta T is zero. If it is known: diameter of the
pipe the pipe wall thickness and the pipewall material the
angle of the reflection can be calculated automatically and
we will know how far apart space are transducers. The
difference
in transit
of the ultrasonic signals is an
Basic Guideline
I&C times
(M.A.Shahzad)
indication for the flowrate of the fluid.

Page 13 of 90

Flow meter: It measures the difference of the transit time of ultrasonic pulses propagating in and
against flow direction. This time difference is measure for the average velocity of the fluid along
with the path of ultrasonic beam. By using the absolute transmit time both the average fluid
velocity and the speed of sound can be calculated. Using the two transit time t up and tdown and the
distance between receiving transmitting transducers L and indication angle one can be write the
equation:
V = L/2 sin () X tup-tdown/tup.tdown and C = L/2 X tup+tdown/tup.tdown
Velocity meters consist of turbine, vortex shedding, electromagnetic, and sonic designs.
Mass-meters include Coriolis and thermal types. The measurement of liquid flows in open
channels generally involves weirs and flumes.
Flow Switch (magnetic): Force of liquid or air flow against a verified flow vane mounted in a
line causes a vane to pivot to a horizontal position, moving an attraction sleeve into the field of a
switch magnet. This pulls the magnet towards the sleeve and actuate the switch on or off.
Temperature Measurement:
Temperature Measurement Law:
Temperature can be measured via a diverse array of sensors. All of them infer temperature by
sensing some change in a physical characteristic. There are three medium to measure the
temperature:1.Radiation, 2. Optical 3. (?) Six types with which temperature are likely to come
into contact are: Thermocouple, Resistance temperature detector (RTD/thermistors), Infrared
Radiators, bi-Metallic devices, liquid filled, Gas filled and change of state devices.
Bimetallic Type:
It is a well known principle that if two metal are rigidly joined together as a two
layer strip and heat, the difference in the expansion rate cause the strip to bend.
In the industrial type, the strip is twisted into a long thin coil inside a tube. One
end is fixed at the bottom of the tube and the other turns and moves a pointer on
a dial. The outward appearance is very similar to the pressure type. They can
made to operate limit switch and set off alarm or act as a thermostat

Liquid Filled
These kinds of thermometers are filled type, either a liquid such as
Mercury or an evaporating fluid such as used in refrigerators. In both
cases the inside of the sensor head and the connecting tube are
completely full. Any rise in temperature produce expansion or
evaporation of the liquid so the sensor becomes pressurized. The
pressure is related to the temperature and it may be indicated on a
simple temperature gauge scale. Ways and means exist to convert the
pressure into an electrical signal. The movement may also directly
operate a thermostat. They can be fitted with switches too

Gas Filled
The ordinary glass thermometer even is also a complete gas filled system
Temperature measuring instrument. Again the bulb is the sensor but the
column of liquid and the scale on the glass is the processor and indicator.
Mercury is used for hot temperature and colored alcohol for cold
temperature. Following are the problems with gas filled systems:
1. Brittles, 2.Mecury solidifies as -40oC, 3. Alcohol boils at around
120oC, 4. Accurate manufacture is needed and this makes accurate on
expensive, 5. it is easy for people to make mistake reading them.
This is not used much in Industry but if used protected by a shield from
Basic
Guideline
I&C (M.A.Shahzad)
14 of 90
accidental
breakage.
In order to measure temperature something inside Page
a
pipe are placed in thermowell

Level Measurement:
Level measuring Sensors are used to detect liquid or powder levels, or
interfaces between two different density liquids. These level
measurements can be either continuous or points values represented with
various output options. Continuous level sensors are devices that
measures level within a specified range and give output of a continuous
reading of level. Point level sensors devices mark a specific level,
generally used as high/low alarm or switch.
Multiple points sensors can be integrated together to give a stepped
version of continuous level. These level sensors can be either plain
sensors with some sort of electrical output or else can be more
sophisticated instruments that have displays and sometimes computer
output options. The measuring range is probably the most important
specification to examine when choosing a level sensor. Field adjustability
is a nice feature to have for tuning the instrument after installation.
Depending on the need of the application, level measuring/sensing
devices can be mounted a few different ways. These sensors can be
mounted on the top, bottom or side of the container holding the
substances to be measured. Among the technology and terminology for
measuring level are air bubbler, Capacitance admittance, differential
pressure, electrical conductivity or resistivity, mechanical or magnetic
floats/displacers, optical units, pressure membrane, radar or microwave,
radio frequency (RF), Rotation paddle, ultrasonic or sonic and vibration
or tubing fork types etc. analog outputs level sensors can be current or
voltage signals. Also possible is a pulse or frequency. Another option is to
have an alarm output or a usually serial or parallel. Another option is to
have an alarm output or a usually serial in state of switches. Computer
signal outputs that are possible are or video displays. Control for the
devices can be analog with switches, dials and computers. Digital with
menus, keypads and buttons; or controlled by a computer etc.

Buoyancy Level control (measuring principle):


As the buoyancy force on a displacer charges
with liquid level movement, a range spring
supporting the displacer extends or compresses
moving a magnetic ball (float/displacer) which is
connected linked to the flapper and nozzle. A
magnet carriage within the controller head
follows the ball producing a change in output.
Application: Feed water, steam-drum, de-aerator,
and Hot-wells etc.

Pneumatic

Electronic

Level switch displacer / float type: Liquid level movement change the buoyancy force on a
displacer suspended from a range spring. The force change on spring causes it to expand or
contract moving an attraction sleeve into or out of the field of the switch magnet to actuating the
switch function either on or off.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 15 of 90

Level Gauge (magnetic): A float containing a magnet rises and falls with the liquid levels
increasing and decreasing respectively. As the float moves, this action (information) is
transferred to the indication rail mounted on the outside of the tube. The white and red indication
flaps represent air and liquid accordingly.
Radar Level Measurement: The basic concept of the Radar works off on the idea of a reflection
of energy. The Radar sends out a signal, as seen to the right and the signal is then back to the
Radar. The stronger that the reflected signal is the larger the particles or level or volume etc.
Basic Terminology of Radar measurement:
PRT Pulse Repetition Time
PRF Pulse Repetition Frequency
DC Duty cycle
Frequency
Wavelength
Band-width
Peak-power
Average power
Radio Frequency (RF) Level measurement (capacitance type- measuring principle):
As the level media rises and valve in the tank, the
amount of capacitance changes between the probe and
the ground reference also rises and falls. The
electronics converts this capacitance change into a
continuous level measurement if it is transmitter or
controller if it is switch, it just changes the contact on
or off depending on requirement.
C = E(KA/D), Where, C = Capacitance in pF,
E= constant known as the absolute permittivity of free
space, K = Relative dielectric constant of the
insulating material, A= effective are of the conductor,
d= distance between the conductor
Ultrasonic Level Measurement (measuring principle):
The sonic monitors level (or volume) of liquids, solids and slurries whichever
contracting the monitored surface. This is a truly non-contact method of
monitoring. The transducer (known as sensor) which is mounted on the top of
the tank above the highest level and is connected to the controller via a coaxial
cable. The controller transmits an ultrasonic signal through the transducer, direct
toward the monitored surface. The echo, reflected from the monitored surface, is
received by the transducer and passed to the controller. Following a sophisticated
processing, the time to receive the echo is then converted to level, volume, or
distance as required.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 16 of 90

Hydrostatic Head Pressure / Differential Pressure

One of the oldest and most common


method of measurement is to
measure pressure exerted by a
column (head) of liquid in the
vessel. The basic relations are:
P = mHd, or H = mP/d ,
Where, P = Pressure, m = Constant,
H = Head, d = Density

Conductance Type
The conductance method of liquid level
measurement is based on the electrical
conductance of the measured material, which is
usually a liquid that can conduct a current with a
low-voltage source (normally < 20V). hence the
method is also referred to as a conductivity system.
One common way to setup an electrical circuit is
to use a dual-tip probe that eliminate the need for
grounding a metal tank. Such probes are generally
used for point level detection, and the detected
point can be the interface between a conductive
and nonconductive liquid. When the level reach
the upper probe, a switch closes to start the
discharge pump, when the level reaches the lower
probe, the switch opens to stop the pump

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 17 of 90

Standard and Codes for Instrumentation and control systems


International Codes and Standards Practice:
ISO is made up of 157 members which are divided into three categories:1. member bodies,
2. Correspondence Members, 3. Subscribers Member. And ISO Standards categorized by
the ICS are as following:
ISO ICS International Organization for standardization International Classification for Standardization
-ISO ICS 01 Generalities, Terminology, Standardization, Documentation
-ISO ICS 03 Company Organization and management (Excludes ISO9000)
-ISO ICS 03.120.10 ISO 9000 and 10000 Quality management And Assurance
-ISO ICS 07 Mathematics, Natural Sciences
-ISO ICS 11 Health Care Technology
-ISO ICS 13 Environment, Health Protection, Safety (Excludes ISO14000)
-ISO ICS 13.020-ISO 14000 Environmental management
-ISO ICS 17 Metrology and Measurement, Physical Phenomena
-ISO ICS 19 Testing
-ISO ICS 21 Mechanical Systems and Components for General Use
-ISO ICS 23 Fluid Systems and Components for General Use
-ISO ICS 25 Manufacturing Engineering
-ISO ICS 27 Energy And Heat Transfer Engineering
-ISO ICS 29 Electrical Engineering
-ISO ICS 31 Electronics (Laser Equipment etc)
-ISO ICS 33 Telecommunications, Audio, and Video Engineering
-ISO ICS 35 Information Technology (excludes JTC1)
-ISO ICS 37 Image Technology
-ISO ICS 39 Precision machines, Jewelry
-ISO ICS 43 Road Vehicles Engineering
-ISO ICS 45 Railway Engineering
-ISO ICS 47 Shipbuilding and Marine Structure
-ISO ICS 49 Aircraft and Space Vehicle Engineering
-ISO ICS 53 Materials Handling Equipment
-ISO ICS 55 Packaging and Distribution of Goods
-ISO ICS 59 Textile and Leather Technology
-ISO ICS 61 Clothing Industry
-ISO ICS 65 Agriculture
-ISO ICS 67 Food Technology
-ISO ICS 71 Chemical Technology
-ISO ICS 73 Mining and Minerals
-ISO ICS 75 Petroleum and Related Technologies
-ISO ICS 77 Metallurgy (Ferrous and non-Ferrous Metals etc)
-ISO ICS 79 Wood Technology
-ISO ICS 81 Glass And Ceramics Industries
-ISO ICS 83 Rubber And Plastics Industries
-ISO ICS 85 Paper Technology
-ISO ICS 87 Paint and Color Industries
-ISO ICS 91 Construction Materials and Building
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 18 of 90

-ISO ICS 93 Civil Engineering


-ISO ICS 95 Military Engineering
-ISO ICS 97 Domestic and Commercial Equipment, Entertainment, sports
-ISO Other (which includes around 180,000 standards and bodies)
-ISO IEC JTC1 Information Technology Standards
ISO International Organization for standardization, this is one of three International
standards dealing with Quality System requirement . They are as following:
ISO 9001 Quality System: Model for quality assurance in design, development, production,
installation, and servicing - for use when conformance to specified requirements is to be
assured by the supplier during design, development, production, installation and servicing.
ISO 9002 Quality System: Model for quality assurance in production, installation, and
servicing for use when conformance to specified requirements is to be assured by
supplier during production, installation and servicing.
ISO 9003 Quality System: Model for quality assurance in final inspection and test for use
when conformance to specified requirement is to assured by the supplier solely at final
inspection and test.
-ISO 9001 Standard for design, manufacturing, installation and maintenance etc
-ISO 9001:5024 Petroleum Liquid / Gases measurement standard reference condition
-ISO 9001:5167 Measurement of fluid by means of Pressure differential devices
-ISO 9001:5168 Measurement of fluid / flow rate measurement
-ISO 9002
-ISO 9003
AGA American Gas Association (Custody Transfer systems)
-AGA-3 Gas Measurement Committee Report no.3 for Orifice Metering of Natural Gas
-AGA-5 Fuel Gas Energy System Metering
-AGA-7 Fuel Gas by Turbine metering systems
-AGA-NX-19 Part of AGA-3, manual for the determination of super compressibility for Natural Gas
AICHE American Institute for Chemical Engineers (Guideline for the safe automation of
chemical plants, center for chemical
AISC American Institute of Steel Construction
ANSI American National Standard Institute (Pressure / Temperature class rating)
-ANSI A58-1 Minimum design load for building and other structures
-ANSI B16.5 for Pressure and Temperature Rating of Pipe Flanges and Flanged fittings
-ANSI B16.10 dimensions for pipe, valve fitting and flanges
-ANSI B16.11 for forged steel fitting, socket weld and threaded connections
-ANSI B16.34 dimensions for pipe, valve fitting and flanges
-ANSI B31.2 Fuel Gas piping
-ANSI B31.3 Piping Code for pressure piping
-ANSI B31.8 Gas Transmission and distribution piping system
-ANSI C3.9-5 Safety requirement for electrical and measuring control instrumentation
-ANSI C37.90 Relays and Relay systems association with power apparatus.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 19 of 90

-ANSI MC 96.1 Temperature measurement for Thermocouples


-ANSI MC 12.1 Compatibility of Analog Signal for Electronic Industrial process instruments
-ANSI RP 12.6 Installation of Intrinsically safe system
-ANSI B40.1 for Pressure Gauge indicating dial Elastic Element
-ANSI B131.20.1 Pipe Thread for general purposes
-ANSI SP 50.02 Fieldbus standard for use in Industrial control system
-ANSI SP 88 Batch control
-ANSI WC55 Instrumentation Cable and Thermocouples Wires
-ANSI 2530 Orifice metering of natural Gas Custody Transfer
-ANSI S37.8 Standard Specification for Strain Gage force Transducer SMA (Scale manuf Association)
-ANSI S1.4 Sound Level
-ANSI S1.13 Measurement Sound level
-ANSI S2.40 Vibration Severity
-ANSI S5.5 Graphic symbols for process display
-ANSI S18.1 Annunciator sequences and specification
-ANSI S71 Environmental guideline for process measurement and control
-ANSI S84.01 Application of safety instrumented system for the process industries
-ANSI S91.01 Definition of ESD system and control that are critical to maintaining safety in
instrumentation and control system
-ANSI 488 Standard for digital interface for programmable instruments
-ANSI 802.3 Local and Metropolitan Area network
-ANSI 802.4 Token Passing Bus Access method
-ANSI 802.5 Token Ring Access method and physical layer specifications
-ANSI 913 Intrinsically safe apparatus or associated apparatus
-ANSI Z87.1 PPE Eyewear

API American Petroleum Institute


API-RP American Petroleum Institute Recommended Practice
-API RP 6F Production department fire safe
-API RP 500A Classification of Area for Electrical installation in the petroleum industries
-API RP 520 Design and Installation of Pressure System in Refineries
-API RP 521 Guide for Pressure-Relieving and Depressurizing Systems
-API RP 540 Electrical installation in the petroleum industries
-API RP 550 Manual on installation of refinery instruments and control systems.
-API RP 551 For general process all kinds instrumentation installation and measurement.
-API RP 607 Refining Department for fire safe
-API RP 650 Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage
-API RP 752 Management of Hazards Associated with Location of Process Plant Building
-API RP 2000 Venting Atmospheric and Low pressure Storage Tanks
API MPMS American Petroleum Institute Manual of Petroleum Measurement Standard Vol.I & II
-API MPSM 4 Proving systems
-API MPMS 5.2 for Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbon by displacement meter (chap-5, sec-2)
-API MPMS 5.3 for Measurement of Liquid Hydrocarbon by Turbine meter
-API MPMS 5.4 for Metering systems Accessories for liquid Hydrocarbon service
-API MPMS 7 for Temperature Determination
-API MPMS 8 for Sampling systems
-API MPMS 9 for Density determination systems
-API std 2508 Design and construction of Ethan and Ethylene Installation
-API std 2510 Design and construction of LP Gas Installation
-API std 2530 / 14.3 for Natural Gas Fluid measurement
-API std 1615 Installation of underground Petroleum Storage system
-API std 1631 Interior Lining of underground storage tank

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 20 of 90

-API std 2610 Design construction, operation, maintenance, and inspection of terminal and Tank facility

ASA Acoustical Society of America


-ASA 47 Sound Level
-ASA 118 Measurement Sound Level
-ASA 150 Vibration Severity
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Engineer (Standard
15 safety code for mechanical refrigeration ANSI approved)
-ASHRAE std 41.1-74 HVAC System and application
-ASHRAE std 55-81 HVAC System and application
-ASHRAE std 62-81 HVAC system and application
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineer (Pressure vessel design, manufacturing and testing)
-ASME Section I for power Boiler instrument/level gauge installation and measurement
-ASME Section VIII for pressure vessel instrument/level gauge installation and measurement
-ASME B1.20.1 for Pipe Thread, general purposes (inch)
-ASME B31.1 for Power Piping
-ASME B31.3 for Chemical Plant / Petroleum Refining Piping addenda through B31.3B
-ASME B31.4 for Liquid Transportation system for Hydrocarbon, liquid petroleum Gas, Anhydrous
Ammonia, and Alcohol
-ASME B40.1 for Pressure Gauge indicating dials Elastic Element
-ASME B40.3 Bimetallic actuated Thermometers
-ASME B131.20.1 Pipe Thread general purpose
-ASME B16.5 Press Temperature rating for pipe and flanges fittings
-ASME PTC 19.3 Performance Test code for Temperature measurement

ASTM (American Society for Testing and materials),


-ASTM A36 Specification for structural steel
-ASTM A193 / A193M standard spec Stainless steel / Alloy steel Nuts-bolts for Hi Temp/Press
-ASTM A194 / A194M standard spec carbon steel / Alloy steel Nuts-bolts for Hi Temp/Press
-ASTM A320 / A320M standard spec Stainless steel / Alloy steel Nuts-bolts for low Temp/Press
-ASTM A325 Specification for high strength bolts for structural steel joints
-ASTM A389 standard specification for steel casting, alloy, special heat treatment, for pressure containing
parts, suitable for high temperature service
-ASTM A525 Specification for general requirements for zinc coated steel sheet by hot deep process

AWS American Welding Society


-AWS-D1-1 Structural Steel Welding code.

BS British Standard
-BS 6755 part-2 Fire safe (fire test Qualification)
BSI British Standard Institute
CCITT Consultative Committee on Telephone and Telegraph
-CCITT V.24 List of definition for interchange circuit between data terminal equipment and data
circuit terminating system.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 21 of 90

CE Conformite Europeene CE Marking is the symbol


as it is shown on the top of the
product. The letters "CE" are the abbreviation of French phrase "Conformit Europene"
which literally means "European Conformity". The term initially used was "EC Mark" and it
was officially replaced by "CE Marking" in the Directive 93/68/EEC in 1993. "CE Marking" is
now used in all EU official documents.
1. CE Marking on a product is a manufacturer's declaration that the product complies with
the essential requirements of the relevant European health, safety and environmental
protection legislation, in practice by many of the so-called Product Directives.*
*Product Directives contains the "essential requirements" and/or "performance levels" and "Harmonized
Standards" to which the products must conform. Harmonized Standards are the technical specifications
(European Standards or Harmonization Documents) which are established by several European standards
agencies (CEN, CENELEC, etc).
CEN
stands
for
European
Committee
for
Standardization.
CENELEC stands for European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization.

2. CE Marking on a product indicates to governmental officials that the product may be


legally placed on the market in their country.
3. CE Marking on a product ensures the free movement of the product within the EFTA &
European Union (EU) single market (total 28 countries), and
4. CE Marking on a product permits the withdrawal of the non-conforming products by
customs and enforcement/vigilance authorities
CEC Canadian Electric Code
CEN European Committee for standardization
-CEN 94/9/EC Standard for Temperature Transmitter
CENELEC European committee for Electrotechnical Standardization
-CENELEC 94/4/EC standard for Temperature Transmitter
-CENELEC EN 50529 Specification of protection provided by enclosure IP code for MOV
CGA Compressed Gas Association
-CGA C15 Procedure for Cylinder design proof and service performance tests

CSA Canadian Standard Association


-CSA C22.2 No. 157 Intrinsically safe and Nonincendive equipment for hazardous location
-CSA-1 Enclosures are intended for indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection
against limited amount of falling dirt. This is not specially identified in CSA standard
-CSA-2 Enclosures are intended for indoor use primarily to provided a degree of protection
against amounts of falling water and dirt.
-CSA-3 Enclosures are intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection
against rain, sleet, windblown dust, and damage from external ice formation.
-CSA-3R Enclosures are intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection
against rain, sleet, windblown dust, and damage from external ice formation and must
have a drain hole.
-CSA-3S Enclosure intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection against
rain, sleet, windblown dust and to provide for operation of external mechanism when
ice laden.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 22 of 90

-CSA-4 Enclosures are intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of
protection against windblown dust and rain, splashing water, hose directed water; and
damage from external ice laden.
-CSA-4X Enclosures are intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of
protection against corrosion, windblown dust and rain, splashing water, hose directed
water; and damage from external ice formation.
-CSA-5 Enclosures are intended for indoor use primary to provide a degree of protection against
settling airborne dust, falling dirt, and dripping non-corrosive liquids.
-CSA-6 Enclosures are intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of
protection against hose-directed water, the entry of water during occasional temporary
submersion at a limited depth; and damage from external ice formation.
-CSA-6P Enclosure are intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of
protection against hose-directed water, the entry of water during prolonged
submersion at a limited depth; and damage from external ice formation.
-CSA-12 Enclosures are intended for indoor use primarily to provide a degree against circulating
dust, falling dirt, and dripping non-corrosive liquids.
-CSA-12K Enclosures with knock-nuts are intended for indoor use primarily to provide a degree
of protection against circulating dust falling dirt, and dripping non-corrosive liquids.
-CSA-13 Protection against dust (not harmful) and water from all direction
CSD Custom Standard Directorate Canada (Load-Cell Terminology and Test Procedure
Recommendation for Radio Frequency interface Test Procedure Recommendation)
DIN Deutsches Institut fur Normaung (German Institute for Standardization)
Founded in 1917 as NADI (Normenausschuss der deutschen industrie Standard Committee
of German Industry), in 1926 the NADI was renamed DNA (Deutsches Normenaussschuss
German Standard Committee), in 1975 the DNA finally renamed DIN. Its head office is
in Berlin. Since 1975 it has been recognized by German government as national standard
body and represents German interests at international and European level
EIA Electronic Industries Association (Electronic Data communication)
-EIA RS 232 Interface between Data Circuit Terminating Equipment employing Serial Binary
Data link charge
-EIA RS 232-C Mechanical and Electrical Characteristics for connection
-EIA RS 232-D Mechanical and Electrical characteristics for connection
-EIA RS 422 Electrical Characteristics of balanced voltage digital interface circuit
-EIA RS 423-A Electrical Characteristics of unbalanced voltage digital interface circuit.
-EIA RS 530 High speed 25 position interface for Data terminal equipment and data circuit
terminating equipment.
-EIA RS 449 General purpose 37 position and 9 position interface data terminating equipment
and data circuit terminating equipment employing serial Binary data interchange.
-EIA RS 485 Electrical Characteristics of Generator and Receivers for use in Balanced Digital
multipoint systems
EPA Environmental Protection Agency (National Emission Standard for Hazardous air Pollutant
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 23 of 90

FCI Fluid Control System


-FCI 70-2 standard for control valve seat leakage
FCS Federal Communication Commission
FM Factory Mutual (Listing of approved Equipment)
-FM-AS Electrical equipment as intrinsically safe for class 1, division 1 Area or non-incindary
class 1 division 2 Area
-FM-DS-5-1 Data sheets for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous locations
-FM-DS-5-10 Protective Grounding of Electrical power systems and equipments
-FM-DS-14-10 Protective Grounding of Electrical power systems and equipments
-FM-DS-5-32 Data sheets for Electronic computer systems
-FM Class 3610 Approved standard Intrinsically safe apparatus
-FM 6033 Fire safe
ICEA Insulated Cable Engineers Association
-ICEA S-66-524 Cross linked Thermosetting polyethylene insulated wires and cables for
transmission and distribution of electrical energy.
-ICEA S-66-552 Instrument Cables and Thermocouples wires
IEC International Electrotechnical Commission: The IEC is the world's leading organization
that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related
technologies collectively known as Electrotechnology. Wherever you find electricity and
electronics, you find the IEC supporting safety and performance, the environment, electrical
energy efficiency and renewable energies. The IEC also manages conformity assessment systems
that certify that equipment, systems or components conform to its International Standards.
-IEC SP50 Fieldbus standards
-IEC 751 standard for calibration Tables for RTDs
-IEC 529 Specification for degree of protection provided by enclosure Ingress protection code
(IP rating) for motor operated instruments and other related to it.
-IEC 1131-3 part 3 PLC programming Language
IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
-IEEE-Std-488.1 Digital interface for programmable instrumentation
-IEEE-Std-488.2 Codes, formats, protocols and common commands for use with 488.1
-IEEE Std 518 Guideline for the installation of electrical equipment to minimize electrical noise
inputs to controller from external sources
-IEEE-Std-730.1 Software Quality Assurance Plans
-IEEE-Std-802.3 Local and Metropolitan Area Network
-IEEE-Std-802.4 Token passing Bus Access Method
-IEEE-Std-802.5 Token Ring Access method and physical layer specifications
-IEEE Std-1100 RP for powering and grounding sensitive electrical equipment
IES Illuminating Engineering Society (for lighting Handbook)
IP Ingress Protection
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 24 of 90

The IEC IP classification system designates the degree of protection provided by an enclosure
against impact of water or and dust penetration (ingress). It (IP) has two number in most cases,
first Number is protection against solid object, and second Number is protection against water.
ISA The Instrumentation System and Automation / Instrument Society of America
-ISA S5.5 Graphic Symbols for process display
-ISA S12.1 Definition and information pertaining to electrical instrument in hazardous classified location
-ISA S12.4 Instruments purging for reduction of Hazardous area classification
-ISA S18.1 Annunciator sequences and specifications
-ISA S20 Specifications forms for process measurement and control instruments. Primary elements and final
control elements (control valves)
-ISA S50.1 Compatibility of Analog signals for electronics industrial process instruments
-ISA S51.1 Process instruments Terminology
-ISA S71.04 Environmental guideline for process measurement and control
-ISA S84.01 Application of safety instrumented system for the process industries
-ISA S91.01 Definition of ESD system and Control that are critical to maintain safety in Instrument & control
-ISA MC 96.1 Standard for Temperature measurement TC/RTD
-ISA RP 12.6 Installation of intrinsic Safety instrument system for hazardous classified location
-ISA RP 12.10 Area classification in hazardous (classified) locations
-ISA RP 12.12 Electrical equipment for use in class 1, division 2 (classified) locations
-ISA RP 60.1 Control Center Facility
-ISA RP 60.3 Control Center Facility
-ISA RP 60.4 Control Center Facility
-ISA RP 60.6 Control Center Facility
-ISA RP 60.8 Control Center Facility
-ISA RP 60.9 Control Center Facility
-ISA RP 60.10 Control Center Facility
-ISA RP 60.11 Control Center Facility
-ISA MC 96.1 Temperature measurement for Thermocouples
-ISA SP 50 Standard for signal compatibility of electrical instruments
-ISA SP 50.02 Fieldbus standards for use in industrial control systems
-ISA SP 88 Batch control
-ISA 75.03 Face to face dimension for integral flanged globe style control valves bodies (ANSI class: 125,
150, 250, 300 and 600)
-ISA 75.04 Face to face dimension for flangeless control valves (ANSI Class: 150, 300 and 600)
-ISA 75.11 standard for Inherent flow characteristics and rangeability of control valves
-ISA 75.17 standard for Control valve aerodynamic noise prediction

ISI Indian Standard Institute


JSA Japanese Standard Association
JIS Japanese Industrial Standards
IEC-APC Activities Promotion Committee of Japan
JNLA Japan National Laboratory Accreditation System
MSHA Mine Safety and Health Administration
MSS Manufacturers Standardization Society of the valve and fitting industries
-MSS SP-6 Standard finishes for contact faces of pipe flanges and connecting and flanges of valves and fittings
NACE National Association Corrosion Engineer (for corrosion control)
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 25 of 90

-NACE MR-01-75 Sulfide Stress cracking resistance metallic materials for oil field equipments
NBS National Bureau of Standards Handbook-44 construction and performance of Electronic Scales
NEC National Electric Code, (Electrical Installation, Tray, Conduit, Equipment, instrument s etc)
-NEC 70 Standard for switching devices
-NEC 500 Purge and pressurized enclosures
-NEC 501 Electrical wiring Termination

NEMA National Electric Manufacturers Association (For Electrical Equipment Enclosures)


-NEMA-1 Enclosures are intended for indoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection
against limited amount of falling dirt
-NEMA-2 Enclosures are intended for indoor use primarily to provided a degree of protection
against amounts of falling water and dirt.
-NEMA-3 Enclosures are intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection
against rain, sleet, windblown dust, and damage from external ice formation.
-NEMA-3R Enclosures are intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection
against rain, sleet, windblown dust, and damage from external ice formation and must
have a drain hole.
-NEMA-3S Enclosure intended for outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of protection
against rain, sleet, windblown dust and to provide for operation of external
mechanism when ice laden.
-NEMA-4 Enclosures are intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of
protection against windblown dust and rain, splashing water, hose directed water; and
damage from external ice laden.
-NEMA-4X Enclosures are intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of
protection against corrosion, windblown dust and rain, splashing water, hose directed
water; and damage from external ice formation.
-NEMA-5 Enclosures are intended for indoor use primary to provide a degree of protection
against settling airborne dust, falling dirt, and dripping non-corrosive liquids.
-NEMA-6 Enclosures are intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of
protection against hose-directed water, the entry of water during occasional temporary
submersion at a limited depth; and damage from external ice formation.
-NEMA-6P Enclosure are intended for indoor or outdoor use primarily to provide a degree of
protection against hose-directed water, the entry of water during prolonged
submersion at a limited depth; and damage from external ice formation.
NOTE: The following NEMA-7, 8, 9, and 10 types are occasionally appear on spec
-NEMA 7 Enclosures are intended for indoor use in location classified as class I, Group A, B, C,
or D as defined in the NEC (National Electric Code)
-NEMA 8 Enclosure are for indoor or outdoor use in location classified as Class I, Group A, B,
C, or D as defined in the NEC
-NEMA 9 Enclosures are intended for indoor use in location classified as Class II, Group E, F,
and G as defined in the NEC
-NEMA 10 Enclosures are constructed to meet the applicable requirement of the Mine Safety and
Health Administration (MSHA)
-NEMA-12 Enclosures are intended for indoor use primarily to provide a degree against
circulating dust, falling dirt, and dripping non-corrosive liquids.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 26 of 90

-NEMA-12K Enclosures with knock-nuts are intended for indoor use primarily to provide a
degree of protection against circulating dust falling dirt, and dripping non-corrosive
liquids.
-NEMA-13 Protection against dust (not harmful) and water from all direction
-NEMA ICS-6 Enclosure for Industrial system and Controls
-NEMA WC 55 Instrumentation cables and Thermocouples wires
NFPA National Fire Protection Association (Flammable & Combustible Liquid code)
-NFPA No.10 Fire Fighting systems: Portable fire Extinguishes
-NFPA No.11 Fire Fighting Systems:
-NFPA No.12 Fire Fighting Systems
-NFPA No.12A Fire Fighting Systems
-NFPA No.13 Fire Fighting Systems: Sprinkler systems, installation
-NFPA No.14 Fire Fighting Systems: Standpipe and Hose systems
-NFPA No.15 Fire Fighting Systems: Water Spray Fixed Systems
-NFPA No. 30 Flammable and combustible liquid code (standard for safety and loss prevention)
-NFPA No. 49 Area Classification for National Electric Code
-NFPA No. 58 Storage and Handling of LPG (standard for safety and loss prevention)
-NFPA No. 68 Venting of Deflagration (standard for safety and loss prevention)
-NFPA No. 69 Explosion preventing system (standard for safety and loss prevention)
-NFPA No. 70 National Electric Code (standard for safety and loss prevention)
-NFPA No.72E Fire Fighting Systems: National Fire Alarm Code
-NFPA No.75 Standard for the protection of Electronic Computer / data processing
-NFPA No. 77 Static Electricity
-NFPA No. 78 Lightening Protection Code
-NFPA No.80 Fire Fighting Systems
-NFPA No. 101 Life Safety Code (standard for safety and loss prevention)
-NFPA No. 110 Emergency and standby Power systems (standard for safety and loss prevention)
-NFPA No. 203M Roof Coverings and Roof Deck Construction
-NFPA No 220 Types of Building Construction
-NFPA No. 325 Fire Hazard property of flammable liquids, gases, and volatile solids
-NFPA No.325M Area Classification for National Electric Code
-NFPA No.493 Intrinsically safe Apparatus in division1 Hazardous location
-NFPA No.496 Standard for purge and pressurized enclosure for electrical equipment in hazardous classified location
-NFPA No.497A Classification of Class I, Class II and gases, vapors, and dusts for electrical
installations and equipment in chemical process transmission.
-NFPA No.497B Classification of Class I, Class II and gases, vapors, and dusts for electrical
installations and equipment in chemical process transmission.
-NFPA No.497M Classification of Class I, Class II and gases, vapors, and dusts for electrical
installations and equipment in chemical process transmission.
-NFPA No.704M Area Classification for National Electric Code
-NFPA No. 8501 Single Burner Boiler Operation
-NFPA No.8502 Prevention of Furnace Explosion/implosions in multiple Burner Boiler Furnace
-NFPA No. 8504 Atmosphere fluidized bed boiler operation
-NFPA No. 8506 Standard on Heat recovery steam Generation (HRSG) system
OIML Organization Internationale De Metrologie Legale
-OIML IR-3 Metrology Regulation for non-Automatic Weighing machines
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 27 of 90

-OIML IR-28 Technical Regulation for non-Automatic Weighing machines


-OIML IR-60 Metrology Regulation for Load-cell state department of Weight & Measures
OSHA Occupational Safety & Health Administration (Code of federal regulation)
-OSHA Section 1910.95 Sound Pressure Level
-OSHA Section 1910.102 Contact Lenses for eyewear
-OSHA Section 1910.133 PPE Eyewear
-OSHA Section 1910.134 Eye / Face Protection
PEI Petroleum Equipment Institute (Australia),
-PEI-RPI 100 Installation underground liquid storage system
PIP Process Industry Practices
-PIP PCCFL001 standard for Flow measurement criteria
-PIP PCEFL001 standard for Flow Measurement Guideline
RCER Royal Commission Environmental Regulation
SAES Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard
SAMA Scientific Apparatus Manufacturers Association
-SAMA PMC 33.1 Electromagnetic Susceptibility Test
-SAMA PMC 22.1 Functional diagramming of Instrumentation and control systems
SMA Scale Manufacturing Association (Standard for weights and Measures)
SASO Saudi Arabian Standard Organization
SES Sabic Engineering Standard
S.I. units (Standard International Units)
UL Underwriter Laboratory (Listing of approved Equipment for Intrinsically Safe installation)
-UL 913 Intrinsically safe apparatus or associated apparatus
-UL 746C Polymeric material use in Electrical equipment evaluations
FPS Standard unit of pressure in English
YPC Yansab Engineering Standards
.
The Purpose of Instrumentation and control: The basic purposes of this sections to provide:
A ready reference of definitions and symbols associated with instrumentation & control
Engineering basic guidelines and design information for good process measurement,
transmission, distribution, supervisory, signal indication, and control responses
A reference of terminology which pertain to the instrumentation and control in process
control system for Gas, Petrochemical, chemical, Oil refining, bulk storage, power
generation etc.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 28 of 90

1. What is QA/QC ?
Ans: QA/QC means, "Quality Assurance/ Quality Control." The purpose of this (QA/QC) is to
establish the sequence of requirement for the quality of material, quality of works, its
inspection, and records as per standard project specification practice.
2. What is QM (Quality Manual)?
Ans: QM is the details of Quality Management Manual, which contains the following:
- QMS (Quality Management System)
- QA/QC Management Responsibility
- Resource Management
- Production Realization
- Measurement,
- Analysis and
- Improvement
3. What is QMS (Quality Management System)?
Ans: QMS is a quality policy and objective to standardize and to improve continual its
effectiveness and management performance of the system in a good quality / safe manner.
The contains of QMS may be as following:
- Quality Management Manual (QMM)
- Standard Procedure / method statement (QCP/WP/MS)
- Design Manual
- Standard Specification (ISS/IDS/IDD etc)
- Engineering Design and drawing/diagrams
- Quality Records / format (QC dossier)
4. What is QMM (Quality Management Manual)?
Ans: QMM provides a frame work for the QMS and describe the scope and the interaction
between the process of QMS and address the requirement of international codes/standards
and refers standard work procedure related to each and every requirement.
5. What is Work-Procedure or Method-statement (WP/MS)?
Ans: WP/MS is a general terms for procedures which are prepared for addressing the specified
way to carry out an activity or process in a safe / secure and good quality workmanship
manner, including the key activities in the Quality Manual (QM).
Or
Work-Procedure or Method-statement is the standard work practice reference. The purpose
of this is to provide detail knowledge of direction guideline to insist for good workmanship
and implementation of quality work at site. Before commencement of any execution
activities at work site the person in-charge should conduct tool-box detail training by
explaining the WP/MS for safe execution of job scope. The WP/MS is also describe the
details about safe working practice in accordance with the plant safety Manual to use right
PPE, Tools, Material, procedure i.e. the manufacturer instruction Installation and operation
manual to prevent personal injury as well as equipment damage. During site construction,
fabrication, installation, testing etc every employee should take care by follow the working
procedure as the detail are mentioned in the WP/MS in safe & good quality workmanship
manner.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 29 of 90

6. What is Design Manual?


Ans: Design Manual describes technical requirement in preparation of design output and gives
guidance for project quality works and safe monitoring.
7. What is Standard Specification (ISS/ISD/IDD)?
Ans: It is a general term of technical information document to specify requirements, criteria,
methods etc which are required for design-engineering, manufacturing, procurement,
construction, inspection, application, operation etc.
8. What is engineering Drawing?
Ans: It is a general terms of detail engineering / design to specify the clear concept of designs
infrastructure, work-frame, a guideline for manufacturing, installation, erection, inspection
etc of complete plant, system, subsystem, skids, process, lines etc.
9. What are Design drawing & Engineering documents? Explain.
Ans: Design (all kinds of drawing) and Engineering (all kinds of process data, sizing, load
calculation, material data, class, rating etc) are the universal language and action for an
Engineer to insist for suitable material selection, adequate installation, proper sizing etc to
implement quality in work with good workmanship manner. For detail please refer to
Design / Engineering details which are coming forth.
10. What is QR/QVD/TR?
Ans: It provides the evidence, which ensure the QMS has been implemented on worksite and
work has been done in good quality manner, in safe and secure way to avoid inconveniences,
hazards, loss, risk etc. prior to commissioning or operation.
OR
QR (Quality Record) / QVD (Quality verification Document) / TR (Test Record) are the
same terminology for QC check report/record. This document is an essential part for any
QA/QC personal. All finding, results etc should be noted down as report for record. All QCCheck datas i.e all points mentioned in spec, ITP, and WP/MS according to required and
approved grade/level: Inspection, witness, hold-point, review, surveillance, document to
ensure all comply fully. Any observation, deviation, non-compliance, damage, etc must be
noted down very specifically in its comment column to communicate the concern department
/ person to take necessary corrective preventive action for rectification.
11. What is progress Measurement Procedure?
Ans: Validity and purpose of this procedure describes how EPC contractor establishes physical
progress and progress curve for Basic Engineering, detail Engineering, Procurement,
Execution / construction, commissioning and start-up of the project.
12. What is QSE ?
Ans: It is Quality, safety, Health and Environment Protection (QSE), manual which describes the
policy of QSE and extra ordinary importance in worksite and details of safety supply and
economical in the proceeding state of the art. They are as following:
HSE Program : MSDS Material safety data sheet or through JSA Job safety analysis.
Quality Procedure ITP / WP (Inspection Test Plan / Working procedure etc)
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 30 of 90

Contract Review
-Project organization
-Reporting
-Project control
-Change Order
- Design Review
-Technical design
- Design modification manufacturing documents etc.
Document Control:
-Project Numbering Procedures
-Drawing Numbering Procedures
NCR (non-conformity control)
Corrective / Preventive Measures
Handling, storage, packing, Marking, dispatching, receiving and Un-packing etc
QSE records (QC dossier)
QSE audits (auditing as per approved quality plan)
13. What is the basic responsibilities of a QA/QC personal?
Ans: To ensure correct material used, execution of works and their quality, qualified manpower
and all documents, drawings and quality reports comply fully with scope of work, standard
approved specs, work procedure and completion Schedule.
14. What are the basic required documents for a QA/QC personal?
Ans: The basic required documents for a QA/QC personal are as following:
ITP: (Inspection Test Plan)
The quality check level (inspection/witness/surveillance/review/Hold point etc)
WP: (Work Procedure)
The Standard procedure how to execute the works.
P&ID:(Piping Inst diagram)
As a reference to ensure that the work is as per standard drawing.
MTC:(Material Test Certificate)
To ensure that material complies the PES standard specs.
Calibration Report:
To ensure Parameters are function checked as per IDS.
PP:(Plot Plan / Layout)
To ensure that Insts are installed as per P&ID and PP as per convenience.
Hook-up Drawing:
To ensure that remote connection of pneumatic is done correctly.
Wiring diagrams:
To ensure that wiring is done correctly.
ILD:(Instrument Loop Diagram)
To ensure that the sequential wiring is done correctly.
IDS/ISS:(Inst Data sheet/Spec sheet) To ensure that the Insts comply with the basic requirement.
RFI/AFI/FIR/FIN:(Request for Inspection)
To conduct the inspection of completed works
QR/QVD/TR:(Quality Record) To maintain the quality records of completed works etc
QCO/DR:(Quality Control Observation/Discrepancy) To issue a warning in case of little discrepancy or observation
NCR:(Non-Compliance Report)
To issue Warning in case of serious violation of standard.
15. What ITP's and QCP? Give a brief?
Ans:
ITP: This Document informs about the level of quality check (surveillance, inspection,
witness, hold points, review, or document Required etc) means works are being
done in proper work sequences and quality manner.
QCP: This procedure addresses the activities to be executed and requirement in details.
16. What is NCR? Why does it need for a QA/QC personal?

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 31 of 90

Ans: NCR means Non-Compliance Report, QA/QC personal has reserve the right to issue a
warning if the contractor doesn't comply or violate with the standard procedure, spec,
drawing, workmanship, engineering, design mean Total Quality Management system. It
Insists for good quality and thus implementation of standard code and practices.
17. What are general Q/A Work Procedure?
Ans: The general sequence of activities will be as follows:
: Receiving Drawing and Documents?
: Reproduction of Drawings
: Issuing of Drawing to site IFC (issued for construction)
: New-Issuing New Revision
: Shredding of Drawings
: Redlining Drawings
: Transmittal of redlines to Client (As-built)
: Restricted access to the DCO
: Work Permit prior to start the works
: Records
18. What are common PPE required? Give a brief?
Ans: Followings are the common PPE for a safe and quality works-standard procedure:
Qualification: Awareness about all kinds of safety std/codes and work procedure
Experience : Qualified for the work's execution
Use (PPE): Proper equipments and tools shall be used to avoid injuries/loss.
Safety shoe, helmet, glass, gloves, earplugs, harness, proper tools and
certified equipments.
19. What are revision Level?
Ans: They may be as following:
(i) PDR Preliminary Design Review (Hardware Revision Level)
(ii) CDR Critical Design Review (Software Revision Level)

20. What are redlining? Brief their color coding?


Ans: In case of any change occur to the standard approved drawing while the project is being
constructed or tested the relevant drawing will be "redlined". Following color coding shall
be used for this purpose:
Red:
If any addition required in the drawing as revision
Green: If any Deletion is required from the drawing as revision
Blue:
If any comments is added in the Drawing as revision.
21. What are mean by Inspection, Surveillance, witness and Hold point?
Ans: Inspection: Construction Team can proceed for next sequence of work execution without
QC Check ( no RFI/AFI required for either EPC or PMT) and QR can be review and
signed off. i.e. if calibration is inspection then contractor will proceed for installation
without calibration QC check and even QR not signed off.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 32 of 90

Surveillance: Construction Team can proceed for next sequence of work execution after
Random QC Check, since some parts of the total contains only required to be inspected
( RFI/AFI required for EPC and PMT) and QR can be signed off after random QCCheck. i.e. if calibration is Surveillance then some of its instruments need to be checked
by QC (EPC/PMT) and then all QR will be signed based on random inspection after
signing off calibration QR contractor will process for next work sequence which is
Installation.
Witness:
Construction Team can offer RFI/AFI after 100% completion of activity and
cannot proceed for next work sequence execution unless otherwise 100% QC check is
conducted by EPC/PMT QC inspector, and then the next sequence of work can be
executed after QR signed off. i.e. If calibration is Witness, in this case contractor will
not proceed for installation unless all instruments are witness by QC inspector
(EPC/PMT) and then QR is signed off as well by QC inspectors.
NOTE: Construction team can proceed if QC is not available as per time mentioned in
RFI/AFI.
Hold Point: Construction Team can offer RFI/AFI after 100% completion of activity and
cannot proceed for next work sequence execution unless otherwise 100% QC check is
conducted by EPC/PMT QC inspector, and then the next sequence of work can be
executed after QR signed off. i.e. If calibration is Hold Point, in this case contractor
will not proceed for installation unless all instruments are inspected/witnessed by QC
inspector (EPC/PMT) and ensure QR is signed off as well by QC inspectors.
NOTE: Construction team cannot proceed even if QC is not available as per time
mentioned in RFI/AFI, inspection is must, construction team has to wait until
inspection is completed.
22. What are the mandatory parties are involved in any project execution of ITPs Plan?
Ans: They may be as following:
Owner / Client / Principal (PMT Project management Team): The Client is the party that
initiates the project and ultimately pays for its design and construction. The client
will generally specify the technical requirements (ideas).
Consultant: The principal may also include an agent or consultant authorized to act for, and
on behalf of the Client (PMT)
PMC Project management Contractor: PMC is the main contractor responsible for all
design and engineering concern, implementation and operation as specified in the
contract by PMT.
EPC Engineering Procurement Construction Contractor: EPC is the party that carries out
all or part of the design, engineering, procurement, construction, commissioning,
or management of project with system training etc
Vendor / Manufacturer : Vendor is the party who manufactures or supplies equipment and
services to perform the duties specifies by the contractor (EPC).
Sub-contractor: Sub-contractor is the party who assigned for construction activities of the
facility / plant by EPC.
23. What is difference between hazardous and non-hazardous Areas?
Ans: Hazardous: A Hazardous location is defined as an area where a potential for fire or
explosion exists due to the presence of flammable gases, liquids or vapors,
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 33 of 90

combustible dusts or fibers and flying in sufficient quantities to produce an


explosion or ignitable mixture.
Non-Hazardous: An Area where no risk of presence of any kinds exposition.
24. What are different kinds of approved certification for classified Zone? Explain.
Ans: Weather Proof
Dust Proof
Water Tight
Explosion Proof: A certification in which a device that is capable of withstanding an
explosion of gas/ or vapor within it and prevent the ignition of an explosive gas or vapor
that may surround it.
Fire Proof: A fireproof Enclosure is a custom designed and manufactured ceramic fiber
insulated stainless steel enclosure which protect by minimizing the radiant, convective
and conductive heat transfer from the fire to the protected equipment. Typical fire test
temperature rise in a UL-1709 fire test is 70-110oF (21-43.3oC) for hydrocarbon it is
2000oF (1093oC) and API-607 is for Test Temperature Criteria.
Intrinsic Safety (I.S): Design methodology for a circuit or an assembly of circuit in
which any spark or thermal effect produced under normal operation and specified fault
condition does not ignite explosive atmosphere.
25. What is Hermetically Sealed Device?
Ans: A device which is sealed against the entrance of an external atmosphere and in which the
seal is made by fusion i.e. Pick-up coils, RTD, Thermocouple, and other sensing and
measuring devices etc.
26. What is the use of Liquid filled Gauge?
Ans: Liquid Filled gauges are used where excessive vibration is encounter. Liquid filled gauges
should have small vapor space for thermal expansion of the filled fluid.
27. What is ISO ? Explain some of its standards?
Ans: ISO means International Standard Organization. Some of them are as below: ISO:9000,
ISO:9001, ISO:9002, ISO:9003, ISO:9004 etc.
About the Author David Hoyle C Eng. MRAes, FCQI is an International Quality Management
Consultant, author and a Director of the charted Quality Institute.
David Hoyle, who participated in the year 2000 revision of ISO 9000, has worked in quality
management for over 30 years in a number of industry sectors, including aerospace, automotive,
and computers. He is a Chartered Engineer, Fellow of the Chartered Quality Institute, Member of
the Royal Aeronautical Society and a Lead Auditor registered with the IRCA. As an established
management consultant he has assisted both large and small organizations achieve ISO 9000
certification in the USA and in Europe, and has delivered quality management training courses in
many parts of the world. He is a Director of Transition Support Ltd, a company which provides
consultancy, facilitation and training services moving towards business excellence, and sits on
various Boards and Panels for the Chartered Quality Institute, as well as writing articles for
Quality World magazine.
Completely revised to align with ISO 9000:2000, this handbook remains the
most comprehensive book available on this series of international standards.
ISO 9000 Quality Systems Handbook is an essential guide to enable organizations to understand
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 34 of 90

and satisfy ISO9001 :2000 requirements and apply the principles that underpin this radical
revision of the family of standards. Unlike other books on the subject, each section, clause and
requirement is analyzed in detail with practical guidance provided for its implementation.
The handbook is written for those establishing a single management system as well as for those
upgrading existing quality management systems. It is written in an easy to-follow format and
style suitable for students, practitioners, discerning managers, instructors and auditors. It offers
a
range
of
solutions
that
would
be
acceptable
in
many
industries.
Based on the third edition of ISO 9001 published in December 2000, it details the differences
from the 1994 version and includes compliance and improvement , questionnaires, tips for
implementers, process flow charts and a glossary of terms.
ISO 9001:2000 is an international standard that gives requirements for an organization's Quality
Management System ("QMS"). It is part of a family of standards published by the International
Organization for Standardization ("ISO") often referred to collectively as the "ISO 9000 series".
For this reason, you may sometimes hear your suppliers refer to being "ISO 9000 certified", or
having an "ISO 9000-compliant QMS". This will normally mean that they are claiming to have a
QMS meeting the requirements of ISO 9001:2000, the only standard in the ISO 9000 family that
can be used for the purpose of conformity assessment. It is important to understand however,
that ISO is the body that develops and publishes the standard - ISO does not "certify"
organizations,
as
will
be
explained
later
in
this.
The objective of ISO 9001:2000 is to provide a set of requirements that, if they are effectively
implemented, will provide with confidence that the supplier can consistently provide goods and
services that meet the needs and expectation and comply fully with applicable regulation.

What is ISO 9001?


The requirements cover a wide range of topics, including your supplier's top management
commitment to quality, its customer focus, adequacy of its resources, employee competence,
process management (for production, service delivery and relevant administrative and support
processes), quality planning, product design, review of incoming orders, purchasing, monitoring
and measurement of its processes and products, calibration of measuring equipment, processes to
resolve customer complaints, corrective/preventive actions and a requirement to drive continual
improvement of the QMS. Last but not least, there is a requirement for your supplier to monitor
customer perceptions about the quality of the goods and services it provides.
ISO 9001:2000 does not specify requirements for the goods or services you are purchasing. That
is up to you to define, by making clear your own needs and expectations for the product. You
might, for example, refer to product specifications, drawings, national or international product
standards, supplier's catalogues or other documents as appropriate.
28. What are Zone classification? Give a brief?
Ans: Zone classification is to define the area of hazards, they are as below;
Zone 0: A zone in which an explosion gas/air mixture is continuously present or present
for extended periods, during normal operation.
Zone 1: A zone in which an explosive gas/air mixture is likely to occur in normal
operation.
Zone 2: A zone in which an explosive gas/air mixture is not likely to occur in the
normal operation and, if it occurs, it will only exists for a short time.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 35 of 90

Zone 10: A zone in which an explosive dust atmosphere is present continuously or for
extended periods of time.
Zone 11: A zone in which there is a likelihood that explosive atmospheres may occur
for short periods due to unsettled dust layers.
29. What are Area Classification? Give a brief?
Ans: As per NEC and NACA, following are the hazard classification:
Class I: Location in which flammable gases or vapors may be present in the
atmosphere in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixture.
Class I gases/vapors are divided into four following groups:
Group A: Presence of Acetylene
Group B: Presence of Hydrogen, butadiene, ethylene oxide etc.
Group C: Presence of Ethylene, cyclo-propane, Carbon Mono-oxide etc
Group D: Presence of Gasoline, acetone. Butane, propane, alcohol, natural gas
(methane), etc.
Class II : Location in which the presence of combustible dusts are in the air in
sufficient quantity to ignite or explode.
Class II conductive/non-conductive dust are divided into three as below
Group E: Presence of metal dusts (aluminum, magnesium and chemical dust etc.
Group F: Presence of black carbon, charcoal, coal or coke dust etc.
Group G: Presence of non-conductive dust (foam, starch, combustible plastics etc.)
Class III: Location in which easily ignitable fibers or flying are present but are not
likely to be in suspension in air in quantities sufficient to produce ignitable
mixture.
Division- 1: The Hazards are present continuously or periodically under normal
operation condition.
Division 2: The Hazards are only presents during accidental or abnormal
condition.

30. What are the standard height to install the instruments?


Ans: Standard height to install the instruments is 1.4 meter, but it can vary less or more as per
location's convenience.
31. What are the standard nozzles orientation for process measurements?

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 36 of 90

Gas Measurement

Liquid & Steam

For Vertical Pipe Installation, the tap can be at


any radial position around the pipe circumference
for gas should be vertical and for liquid sand

steam should be down as shown in the figure

32. What are the sequences of Work and their inspections? Describe in proper order.
Ans: They are as following:
FAT- Factory acceptance test inspection
UI Unpacking inspection (material receiving inspection)
BI Bench Test inspection (calibration/configuration test inspection)
PI Prior to installation inspection (Tray, tubing, cabling, etc)
AI After Installation inspection ( cable test, tubing pressure test etc)
LT Loop test inspection
SAT Site acceptance test inspection
CC Construction completion inspection / Walk through inspection
LU- Lineup inspection for pre-commissioning (after cc)
MC Mechanical completion inspection
TO-Punch item clearing inspection (prior to Turn over)
RFSU- Ready for start-up (Pre-commissioning)
CSU (Commissioning and Start up)
RAT/Startup Run acceptance test inspection / Start-up
Production / operation
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 37 of 90

Shut-down
33. What is Installation basic requirement? Explain precaution prior and after installation.
Ans: Installation: It is very hard to explain or define Installation all together at same time but in
simple way we can explain standard instrument hook-up the parameter with process, sub-system
or any system as per approved drawing is called Installation. Usually there are two types of
installation: inline and offline or remote.
They basic precaution for instrumentation Installation could be as following:
Material: Ensure that material is as per spec and suitable to use.
Calibration: Ensure that parameter is functioning fine prior to take it for site to install.
Location: Ensure the location is as per P&ID and elevation is per approved Layout: All
instrument remote type should be mounted as close as possible to the process connection,
consistent with required accessibility, operability, maintainability, visibility and not be
subject to vibration, invisible and obstacle to walkway etc.
Instrument Height: Instrument should be mounted as closer to grade than 1.2 to 1.5 mtr
unless specified or approved.
Nozzle orientation: for Gas must be vertical or 45o below vertical, for Liquid must be
horizontal or 45o below horizontal, for steam must be horizontal or 45 above horizontal
in normal cases for exceptional it may vary upon mutual agreement only.
Instrument: instrument must above tape for Gas, below tape for liquid and steam.
Instrument Installation: most instruments are susceptible to damage, abnormal wear, or
malfunction if mounted in a location where the are subject to vibration. If any part of the
flow system or equipment is subject to vibration, the affected instrument should be
provided with vibration free stanchion/support/bracket etc.
Impulse Line: Tubing for remote devices should be as short as possible, 3 feet for closecoupled transmitters and preferably not more than 20 feets (6mtrs). Slope should be at
least 1 inch per foot (12:1) for liquid /steam services towards instrument and for gas
towards process.
Impulse Tubing for Gas service: Instrument and impulse line for gas service must be free
from liquid pocketing and slope should be towards process since instrument is mounted
above process taping.
Impulse Tubing for Liquid service: Instrument and impulse line for liquid service must be
free from air trapping and slope should be towards instrument since instrument is
mounted below process taping.
Impulse tubing for Steam service: Instrument and impulse line for steam service must be
provided with Seal-pot (condensate port) to avoid damage of device by heat and slope
should be towards instrument since instrument is mounted below process.
Access Field Mounted: for maintenance purpose all locally mounted devices shall be
easily accessible, operable, maintainable, and removable from grade, platform, fixed
walkway or fixed ladder etc.
Local Panel mounted: Where several instruments are installed within a small area,
consideration shall be given to mounting them on a common local panel / board and
sunshade shall be provided to avoid calibration drift if they are in open area.
Differential type Instrument: Should not be installed in a service where the measured
liquid gravity will vary widely and often, magnetic, PDmeter or turbine should be used.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 38 of 90

Displacer type Instrument: should be always be installed in a manner to permit removal


without disconnecting major process piping, shall be installed in external chamber with
block and drain valves. Shall never be considered for vessels which are subject to high
vibration.
Indication: Instrument Indicator should always be installed in front means visible for
manual station, obstacles to see unacceptable.
Cable way: Tray/Conduit: Cable way must be made of adequate fitting and all standards
accessories even site fabricated fitting and accessories are acceptable as long as they
comply to standard bending radius and sharp bending must be avoided.
Cabling: Proper segregation must be maintain for power, signal, control, TC etc cable and
slaking, twisting, crossing, and sharp bending must be avoided and loop shall be provided
at the end of instrument for easy removal of instrument.
Cable dress: Cable must be dress nicely with cable tie (the approved material)
Transmission: Hydrocarbon or other process fluids should not be piped to any
instruments located in a control room. Standard industry practice is to convert the process
variable to an electrical or pneumatic signal and transmit the signal to remote receiving
instruments.
Seal / Gland: If cable is being run through conduit then seal fitting must be provide for
Zone 0 and zone 1 area, if Tray is used then cable should be connected to instrument
through gland.
Wiring: Wiring must be done in such a manner that shrinkable ferrules shall be provided
with from/To address (cross ferruling) for easy maintenance.
Name plate: Name plate must be provided of Stainless steel as well as Phenolic with clear
alpha-numeric number as per approved drawing and must be readable.
Purging Sealing : When viscous liquids or pressure of corrosive, slurry, or freezing
process fluids are measured or when plugging is possible where solid exist, an instrument
may be sealed, purged, or protected by a diaphragm seal or protector.
Steam Heat tracing: The need for heating depends on the severity of the winters in the
locality to prevent freezing. Since steam is normally available in the plant process unit,
steam heating has the advantage of being readily accessible steam. Steam supplies highdensity heat from condensation, and large quantities of heat can be obtained from a single
tracer line. On the other hand, steam delivers heat at a temperature that corresponds to the
saturated steam pressure in the tracer
Electrical Heat Tracing: Electrical heating selection care must be exercised to ensure that
they are not potential source of ignition. Several types of cables are available (mineral
Insulated MIC, and self limiting)
Insulation/protective covering: The entire tracing system for impulse lines should be
carefully insulated and waterproofed. Particular care should be used at the point of
measurement and at the entry into insulated enclosure. A durable protective cover should
be used where stainless steel tubing is used, chloride-free insulation must be specified to
prevents stress corrosion cracking.
34. What is meant by FAT?
Ans: FAT: Factory Acceptance Test: The Final test at the Vendors facility of the integrated
system being purchased, is called Factory Acceptance Test

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 39 of 90

35. What is Material Receiving or un-packing (UI)?


Ans: It is one of the part of initial stage inspection which is being conduct whenever any
material, instrument, equipment etc arrive at warehouse or working site. Material should be
checked as per project specification and purchase order, and materials must be handled as per
recommended storage and handling.

36. What is Calibration (Bench test)?


Ans: Calibration is the comparison of input and output value of an instrument as per its
correspondence reference standard. i.e. for Pneumatic Instruments the input will be as per
range and the output for 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% will be respectively 3psi, 6psi, 9 psi,
12psi, and 15psi. And for Electronic Analog and Hart instrument the output will be 4ma, 8
ma, 12ma, 16ma and 20ma these are for standard instrument not for square root type.
37. What is Instrument Installation?
Ans: Instrument should be installed as per approved P&ID, Plot Plan and Hook-up only and after
only the calibration is completed and accepted after material receiving.
38. What is Impulse Tubing Installation?
Ans: Impulse tubing installation is the connection of remote installed instrument and process
taping. It is preferred for impulse tubing connection the primary element to the transmitter to
be as short (close) as possible. This improves speed of response and reduce the possibility of
resonance. This impulse tubing for differential Transmitter should be close together and
lagged if necessary to reduce density variation due to temperature differential.
39. What is cable-way installation?
Ans: There are so many ways to run the cable, i.e. trench, duct, tray, conduit etc. This activities
should be carried out after instrument installation. If the cable is running under ground then it
will called trench, if it is being run through compact mechanical support over ground then
this is called duct, when it is being run through lader or perforated mechanical support over
ground (for armor cable use only) is called tray, when the cable are being run through piping
support either underground or above ground (for non-armor cable use only) is called conduit.
40. What is the basic requirement for cabling?
Ans: Instrument cable shall be routed separately from electrical cables, details are below:
-separation of signal and power cable on parallel run shall be as below:
Power Cable
Instrument signal / control / power cable etc
125VAC or 10A
250 mm
250VAC or 50A
500 mm
440VAC or 200A
750 mm
3.3KVAC or 500A
1250 mm
11KVAC or 800A
4000 mm
-Separation of signal and power cable for crossover should be 250mm as minimum.
41. What is meant by SAT?
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 40 of 90

Ans: SAT: Site Acceptance Test: The final test at the client facility of the integrated system after
receiving at site, is called Site acceptance Test.
42. What is Loop-Check?
Ans: An individual carried out operation test of device after each component of the parameter
has been calibrated, installed, terminated, tested (megger, continuity, pressure etc) and
recorded. The Loop check is a medium of test such as to ensure that the system wiring point
to point (To & From) from field to control console, the system circuit wiring is complete and
functioning fine as per the assigned task in ILD and Hook-upped as per P&ID and layout
drawing.
43. What is Routine Test (Quality Testing Check)?
Ans: Routine Test shall normally carried out prior to energization to ensure that the equipment
and circuit have been installed correctly and safe to energize.
44. What is Electrical Energization?
Ans: Energize the system and final test and check subsequent to energizing to ensure that each
and every circuits/parameters has been installed correctly and safe to operate/energize
45. What is mean by Line-Up?
Ans: Preparation prior to pre-commissioning is called Line-up. The order to start a plant will
begin from setting up utilities and common facilities (off-sites/storage/material handling).
Then a service of process of operation i.e. mechanical running, water operation, cold oil run,
hot oil run, plant air availability etc will come. Prior to these mentioned operation
confirmation of valves condition of instruments are must. Close all isolation and block
valves, close all vent and drain valves, open all equalizing valves etc.
46. What is pre-commissioning (RFSU Ready for Start-up)?
Ans: The series of function test prepared for a circuit /loop which are to be carried out after
putting components in line with test media (i.e. process, skid, unit, sub-system or system) in
static condition.
47. What is CSU (commissioning / Start-up)?
Ans: The series of function test prepared for a circuit / loop which are to be carried out when the
parameters have test media (i.e. process, skid, unit, sub-system or system) in dynamic (under
flow) conditions.
The progress of commissioning and start-up activities have three measuring steps i.e.
(i) Flushing & Blow down of system or sub-systems
(ii) MRT (Mechanical Running Test)
(iii) GTT (General Tightening Test) after N2 purge or system / sub-system purge
The WBS and Step Weight Factor must be agreed prior to commissioning/start-up
48. What is meant by RAT / function-performance test?
Ans: The series of function test for a circuit / loop are to be carried out when process fluid comes
under condition first time in that sub-system or system. It may be explained as following:
RAT / Function-performance test: Run Acceptance Test: The function test
(performance), after commissioning of integrated system upon successful SAT completion
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 41 of 90

which has been fully tested and accepted at site with complete process control system or
sub-system and run test is find to be Ok, is called Run Acceptance Test
49. What is mean by Plant operation / production?
Ans: The series of test for a circuit / loop are to be carried out when the sub-system or system
has satisfied the start-up condition with process fluid which are reached in that particular
system thus ready for production or under operation condition.
50. What is mean by Shut-down?
Ans: The series of test or service for a circuit / loop are to be carried out when the sub-system or
system is isolated/stopped from operation or production
There are two kinds of shut-down one is ESD emergency shut-down due to any failure or
unsafe condition and another is preventive or corrective maintenance shut-down which is
being done periodically i.e. monthly, quarterly, half-yearly or yearly etc.
51. What are inspection points for a cable tray installations.
Ans: Material check as per approved spec, size and type, tray's hook-up, proper distance
structure, tray to tray i.e power/control/and signal/low voltage and high voltage, support and
fixed strongly not shaking,
52. What are Inspection points for field instruments with impulse tubing?
Ans: Materials inspection as per approved spec Material, type and size, Installation as per Hookup, check line route to avoid any obstruction, check tube bending, and Check tube support,
compression fitting of ferrules, and then pressure test (hydrostatic test) shall be done.
53. What are the necessary points to be inspected for cable laying?
Ans: They shall be as following:
Material inspection as per approved materials specification and Purchase order
Cable Types and size as per spec and cable schedule,
Cable meggering and continuity prior to cable pulling and recorded in QVD,
Updated Cable routing drawing shall be available prior to cable laying,
Completion of cable route (tray, conduit or trench etc) prior to cable laying,
Segregation and separation shall be maintain after cable laying (dressing)
Cable bending radius should be as per spec and vendor recommendation
Proper tools and accessories should be used to avoid cable damage
Cable dressing shall be done in goodworkmanship to avoid slaking, twisting etc
Cable numbering (tags) shall be provided as per spec and Dwg,
54. What are inspection points for Junction Box and Marshalling cabinets?
Ans: Material Inspection, type, size as per approved specification, installation hook up for frame,
bracket or stands, fixed properly means shaking free, Name plate, and tag no.
55. What are standards methods of ferrules addressing to and from a Junction Box?
Ans: For to side only terminal's address required which shall be close to terminal either side and
complete information shall be of from side after or before as per left and right side.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 42 of 90

56. What is the standard of installing a Transmitter in Gas Service and why?
Ans: Transmitter in Gas service shall be installed above the process to avoid the malfunctioning
and slope shall be downwards to drain the liquid (condensate) into the process line easily thus to
avoid malfunctioning due to liquid pocketing.
57. What is the standard of installing a Transmitter in Liquid Service and why?
Ans: Transmitter in Liquid service shall be installed below the process and slope should be12:1
towards transmitter to avoid the malfunctioning due to air trapping into the process tubing.
58. What is the standard of installing a Transmitter in Steam Service and why?
Ans: Transmitter in Steam Service shall be installed below the process with condensate / seal-pot
and slope should be downward to the transmitter to avoid steam reaching direct to transmitter
which may cause fatal/damage.
59. How do you determine the correct installation of flow orifice?
Ans: The orifice data (tag) shall be punched in the up stream of orifice, the data (tag) side shall
be in the up-stream of flow direction.
60. Explain why shield of signal cable is not earthed on both sides?
Ans: To avoid the current noise (resonance).
61. What is Final RFI? When it shall be raised up?
Ans: When the activities is completed, and QA/QC department of sub-contractor/contractor are
satisfied that the work detailed in the construction RFI is completed, then request shall be
submitted for inspection to the client QA/QC department.
62. What are the required documents for an inspection?
Ans: Following are the required documents for an inspection:
-RFI (Request for Inspection)
-P&ID for line verification
-PP for location
-Wiring diagram for wiring details
-Data sheet for calibration and pressure test
-Hook-up etc. for remote tubing/air line
-QR, for maintaining record
-WP, work procedure, to check each and every steps as per spec.
-QCO, for issuing in case of little violation
-NCR, for issuing in case of major violation etc
63. What are the required documents for a Remote Loop folder?
Ans: Following are the required documents for a Remote Loop folder:
-Loop package Check list
-ILD (instrument loop diagrams)
-Instruments loop Acceptance record (TR/Test Record)
-P&ID (Piping and Instrumentation diagram)
-ISS/IDS (Inst spec sheet/Data sheet)
-Alarm List
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 43 of 90

-Calibration Record (TR)


-Cable Megger report (Primary prior to pulling)
-Cable Megger report (secondary after pulling)
-Pressure test record (TR)
-MC Check Record (Remote loop) (Green color)
-MC Punch list
-Loop Check Punch list

64. What are the required documents for a Local Loop folder?
Ans: following are the required documents for a local loop folder:
-Loop Package check List
-ILD (if not mechanical loop)
-Cable Megger report (Primary prior to pulling) if not mechanical loop
-Cable Megger report (secondary after pulling) if not mechanical loop
-Alarm list (if not mechanical loop)
-P&ID
-ISS/IDS
-Calibration Record (TR)
-Pressure test Record (TR) if required.
-MC check Record (Local loop) (Green color)
-MC Punch list
-Visual check Punch list / loop check Punch list
65. What is schedule Q?
Ans: Schedule Q is an attachment to the contract, which is the provision of Quality Assurance
and Control, Inspection and Test Plan.
66. What are the various levels of Inspection? Explain.
Ans: They are as following:
- Level of Inspection for Materials:
a. Level 0 Documents requirements only, no Inspection
b. Level 1 Inspection prior to shipping
c. Level 2 Minimum requirements, pre-inspection meetings, one or more unspecified "in
progress" surveillance visits.
d. Level 3 Same as level 2, except that "in progress" surveillance inspection shall be in
regular basis.
e. Level 4 Resident Inspector continuously monitor the works.
- Level of Inspection for Construction phase:
a. Hold Points (H): The inspection activity will not proceed without the presence of
Inspector
b. Witness Points (W): Inspection activities can be proceeded after issuing RFI.
c. Review (R) : Verification of documentation (NMR) on its correctness as per spec and
approved drawings
d. Surveillance (S): inspector has right to conduct random inspection of works
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 44 of 90

e. Inspect (I) / Perform (P) / Test (T): construction can be proceed to next phase without
Client Inspection.
67. What is RFI? When an RFI will be raised?
Ans: Request for Inspection (RFI), RFI shall be raised only when the status of the preliminary
inspection is satisfactory, and the works (items) are Hold or Witness Points.
68. What are summary of Area Classification?
Ans: They are as following
Flammable Material
Flammable Material
Present Continuously
Present Intermittently
IEC
Zone O
Zone 1
CENELEC
Zone 20-Dusts
Zone 21-Dusts
North America
Division 1

Flammable Material
Present abnormally
Zone 2
Zone 22-Dusts
Division - 2

69. What does is mean by Ex-Marking of US (NEC 500):


Explosion proof with I.S. outputs Class I, Division 1, Group ABCD, T5 ?
Ans: Where: Explosion Proof with I.S output ( Method of protection/optional except for I.S)
Class I
(Permitted Class)
Division 1
(Permitted Division/optional except for division 2)
Group ABCD
(Permitted Gas Groups)
T5
(Temperature Class / T5 & T6 optional)
70. What does it mean by Ex-Marking of US (NEC-505): Class I, Zone 1, AExd [ia] IIC T5?
Ans: Where: Class I
(Permitted Class)
Zone 1
(Permitted Zone)
A
(American National Standard)
Ex
(Explosion Protection)
d
(Method Protection)
[ia]
(I.S. output)
II
(Group)
C
(Gas Group)
T5
(Temperature class)
71. What does it mean by Ex-Marking IEC: Exd [ia] II C T5 ?
Ans: Where Ex
( Explosion Protected)
d
(Method Protection)
[ia]
(I.S. output)
II
(Group)
C
(Gas Group)
T5
( Temperature Class)
72. What does it mean by European Ex-Marking CENELEC: EExd [ ia] II C T5?
Ans: Where EEx (European Standard)
D
(Method of Protection)
[ia]
(I.S. output)
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 45 of 90

II
C
T5

(Group)
(Gas Group)
(Temperature class Max Surface Temperature 100oC/121oF)

73. What are Surface Temperature Classification?


Ans: They are As following as per European and American Standards:
Europe
North America
Maximum Surface Temperature
o
o
C
F
T1
T1
450
842
T2
T2
300
572
T2A
280
536
T2B
260
500
T2C
230
446
T2D
215
419
T3
T3
200
392
T3A
180
356
T3B
165
329
T3C
160
320
T4
135
275
T4A
120
248
T5
T5
100
212
T6
T6
85
185
74. What does it mean by this stamping / punching: 2 X 150 RF SS 316 ?
Ans: Where 2
Connection Size
150
Pond per square Inch connection Rating
RF
Connection Facing type (Raised Face)
SS316 Connection Material type (Stainless Steel Grade 316)
75. What is SIL?
Ans: Safety Integrity Level, there are classes for SIL i.e SIL-1, SIL-2, SIL-3 etc it is design as
per safety requirement after Hazop study.
76. What is FTA?
Ans: Fault Tree Analysis
77. What is HIPS?
Ans: High Integrity Process shutdown system
78. What is a Digital Computer? Give a brief.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 46 of 90

Ans: Digital Computers are attractive for many applications in the process control field because
of their speed, accuracy, flexibility, display and logging capabilities and ability to perform
complex calculations and store and transit vast amount of data
79. What are Split control and cascade control?
Ans: Split Control: Action/system in which two or more final control elements are actuated by a
single controller output. For example; in a heating circuit, 0-50% of the controller output
operates a primary heat source and the 50-100% portion of the controller output operates a
secondary heat source.
Cascade Control: A System which has two controllers arranged in such manner that the
output of one controller ( which is called Master) manipulates the set-point input of a
second controller (Which is called Slave) in stead of manipulating a process variable
directly.
80. What is different between Analog computer and Digital computer?
Ans: Analog Computer:
A computing device comprised of functional modules such as amplifiers, multipliers,
dividers, etc; interconnected in such a way as to facilitate the solution of a set of
mathematical expressions or to implement some control strategy. The input to and the
output from an analog computer are continuous signals as contrasted with a digital
computer which updates an output every scan.
Digital Computer:
An electronic Machine for performing calculations on discrete quantities of data. Usually
includes bulk storage devices such disks, tape units etc, in addition to internal memory.
Also includes devices for printing and / or displaying output data.

Process Variables
Q: What is Pressure Element (PE)?
Ans: A device that converts a pressure value into motion or movement ( for pneumatic 3-15 psi ,
any standard electrical signal for convectional type, 4-20mA for Hart type and 0-100% for
foundation fieldbus type). They are as following:
- Bourdon Tube
- Bellows
- Capsules
- Diaphragm
- Piston
- Strain gage
- Manometer
- Capacitance
- Resonant wire
- Piezoelectric etc
Q: What are pressure Scales?
Ans: Gauge pressure, Absolute Pressure and Differential Pressure.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 47 of 90

Q: What are Flow elements:


Ans: They are as following:
- Orifice
- Venturi
- Pitot tube
- Flow nozzle
- Vortex
- Magnetic
- Coriolis
- Ultrasonic
- Positive displacement
- Turbine etc
Q: What is a Flowmeter?
Ans: Flowmeter measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid or gas movement. It can be
measured in a variety of way. Volumetric flow rate is sometime measured in standard cubic
centimeter per minute (sccm), a unit acceptable for use with SI except that the additional
information attached to the unit symbol. The SI standard would be m3/s . the term standard
indicates that the given flow rate assumes a standard temperature and pressure. Many other
similar abbreviations are also in use, i.e. standard cubic feet per minute (ft3/min or ft3/sec). other
units used include gallon/min, ltr/sec, bushel/minute and acre-feet/day.
Another method of flow measurement involves placing an object called a shedder bar in a path of
the fluid. As the fluid passes this bar, disturbances in the flow called vortices are created. The
vortices trail behind the cylinder in two rolls, alternatively from the top or the bottom of the
cylinder. This vortex trail is called the Von Karman Vortex street after Von Karmans 1912
mathematical description of the phenomenon. The speed at which, these vortices are created. The
frequency of produces a small, but measurable, voltage pulse every time a vortex is created. The
frequency of this voltage pulse is also proportional to the fluid flow rate, and is measured by the
flometer electronics.
Modern innovations in the measurement of flow rate incorporate electronic devices that can
correct for varying pressure and temperature (i.e. density) conditions, non-linearity, and for the
characteristics of the fluid.
Q: What are Temperature Element (Temperature Element)?
Ans: TE: A device (made of TC /RTD ) that converts the thermal energy into electrical energy:
-Thermocouple (TC): A Temperature Measuring Element that develops and electrical (millivolt)
voltage when heated because of the combined thermoelectric effect due to dissimilar
composition between two electrically connected conductors (usually wires) and to temperature
difference between the connection (hot junction) and other end of the conductor (cold junction).
-Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD): A Temperature measuring Element in which the sensing
device is a Resistor of a known variation in electrical resistance temp which develops an
electrical (ohms) signal when heated because of the Galvanometer connected to the Resistor.
Q: What is Pressure Switch?
Ans: A device that activates or deactivates an electrical circuit when a pre-selected pressure is
exceeded in a process measurement and control system. They are SPST, DPST, DPDT which are
Single Pole Double Throw, Double Pole Single Throw, Double pole Double Throw respectively
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 48 of 90

Q: What is Pressure Relief Valve?


Ans: A Pressure Relief Valve (PRV/PSV/PZV) is a pressure relief device designed to open and
relieve excess pressure from the process/vessel and to recluse thus prevent the further flow of
fluid after normal condition have been restored.
Q: What is Rupture Disc?
Ans: A non-closing pressure relief device actuated by static differential pressure between inlet and
outlet of the device and designed to function by the bursting of the disc. A rupture disc device is
made of a disc with disc Holder ( in some case it is used without holder)
Q. What is Transmitter? Explain Pneumatic and Electronic Transmitter?
Ans: The prime function of a transmitter is to produce the low energy measurement signal with
sufficient energy that it may be transmitted over an appreciable distance or used as a power
source to a control device. The low energy measurement signal is that position or movement
associated with the action of the process variable on the sensing element (i.e. bellow, diaphragm,
bourdon tube etc).
Pneumatic transmitters operate in a manner similar to proportional controllers. The signal
range of 3-15 psi is the accepted industry standard; however other range may be encountered i.e.
0-100psi, 500-1000 psi, 0.2-1 bar, 0.2-1kg etc.
Measuring principle: The working principle of a pneumatic instrument involves movement of a
flapper and nozzle a given distance in direct response to the sensed input acting upon it via
pneumatic relay. As the input rises the bleed port position of itself toward a closed position
which allows less air to escape (bleed) to atmosphere. Less air to atmosphere dictate more air
building up in the line thus increasing output. This value is then relayed through relay or
measured by the instrument which is pneumatically attached to the transmitter.
Electronic transmitters perform the same function as pneumatic from a low energy process
related signal in converted into a higher energy signal suitable to connect to other instrument in
the system. The output signal of most electronic transmitters are 4-20mA, 10-50mA, 1-5vdc, 010vdc, 2-10vdc, 0.25-1.25vdc etc. Electronic transmitters are also classified as force balanced or
motion balanced types.
OR
A device that transmits a process variable measurement (pressure, flow, level, Temp, vibration,
analyzer etc) into either an electrical signal or pneumatic signal correspondence to its reference
standard suitable for use by an indicating or control system.
Q. What is controller?
Ans: Controller: A device which receives a measurement of the process variable, compares that
measurement with a set point representing the desires control point, and adjusts its output based
on the selected control algorithm to minimize the error between the measurement and the setpoint. If an increase in the measured process variable above the set-point causes an increase in
the magnitude of the controller is said to Direct Acting. If a process variable increase above the
set-point causes decrease in the magnitude of the controller output, the controller is called
reverse Acting.
Q. What is I/P Transducer (converter)?
Ans: Current to Pneumatic Transducer/converter is a device which converts an electrical current
(i.e.4-20ma) to a proportional pneumatic signal for the purpose of interfacing electronic and
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 49 of 90

pneumatic parts of a control system. A typical conventional analog / Hart type I/P Transducer
might convert a 4-20mA signal from an electronic controller to a 3-15psi / 0.2-1.0Bar/0.2-1.0Kg
etc signal to actuate a pneumatic Control valve (final element). And foundation fieldbus Digital
type I/P transducer converts 0 100% signal into 3-15psi / 0.2 1.0Bar / 0.2 1.0Kg etc signal
to actuate the pneumatic control valve.
Q. What is Control Valve (Final Control Element)?
Ans: Final Control Element is that component / device in any process control system (such as
control valve) which directly changes the manipulated variables.
Following are the type of valves body and actuators:
Depending on Body:
- Butterfly Valve: A butterfly valve is a particular type of valve that uses either a circular
vane or a disc as the shut-off mechanism. They have a quick opening / closing quarterturn mechanism that is perpendicular to the direction of flow inside the flow chamber.
Compared with ball valve, butterfly valves dont have pockets to trap fluid when the
valve is in the closed position. Butterfly valve are frequently used as throttling devices,
controlling the levels of flow in various positions; entirely closed, entirely open or
partially open. They can control various substances of air; liquid or solid currents and are
situated on a spindle that allows for flow in a single direction.
Manually operated Butterfly valve have a lever or hand-wheel that allows the operator to
open or close the valve to control the flow. These valves are part of family known as
rotary valves, which are defined by the quarter turn that is used to move from the open to
close position and vice versa. This results in a lower surface friction, which means these
valves can be smaller than others and still operate efficiently.
Butterfly valves are available in numerous closure types and body configurations,
depending on the types of flow control needed. These types of valves are commonly
composed of metals, like aluminum and stainless steel, but also can be made from various
plastics. One kind, flange butterfly valves, can be mounted between flanges. Another, lug
butterfly valves, uses metal inserts that are attached to the valves bolt holes. Using an
independent set of bolts for each flange, this valve assembly is fixed between two
flanges. Finally, wafer style butterfly valves are the cheapest and most popular type of
butterfly valves because of their simplicity and ease of use.
Butterfly valves are used in many form i.e. on-off control valve, control valve with
pneumatic positioner, electronic positioner, foundation fieldbus positioner, Motor
operated, Solenoid operated etc.
Butterfly valves are used in many food transporting and chemical plants where
controllable product flow is required. Other specific industries include HVAC, tertiary
petroleum recovery and industries that use high pressure water. When properly used,
butterfly valves offer many benefits. First of all they are lower priced than many other
types of valves, and generally have a longer life cycle. Butterfly valves are easy to
maintain, are lightweight and compact and are able to handle a wide range of
temperatures. These valves are also very reliable because of their tight shut-off, reducing
the amount of leakage. One of the problem with butterfly valves is that their design
makes it difficult to efficiently and thoroughly clean all residual contaminants. Also,
these valves are not good for use with highly abrasive or corrosive materials, because the
disc can be easily eroded. Overall, instead of said problem and deficiency eventhough
butterfly valves are one of the fastest growing types of valves in the industry
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 50 of 90

Gate Valve: A gate valve or sluice valve, as it is sometimes known, is a valve that opens
by lifting a round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. The distinct
feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar. The
gate faces can form a wedge shape or they can be parallel. Gate valves are sometimes
used for regulating flow, but many are not suited for that purpose, having been designed
to be fully opened or closed. When fully open, the typical gate valve has no obstruction in
the flow path, resulting in very low friction loss.
Gate Valves are characterized as having either a rising or nonrising stem. Rising stems
provide a visual indication of valve position. Nonrising stems are used where vertical
space is limited or underground.
Bonnets provide leakproof closure for the valve body. Gate valve may have a crew-in,
union or bolted bonnet. Screw-in bonnet is the simplest, offering a durable, pressure tight
seal. Union bonnet is suitable for applications requiring frequent inspection and cleaning.
It also gives the body added strength. Bolted bonnet is used for larger valves and higher
pressure applications.
Another types of bonnet construction in a gate valve is pressure seal bonnet. This
construction is adopted for valves for high pressure service, typically in excess of 15Mpa
(2250psi). the unique feature about the pressure seal bonnet is that the body-bonnet joint
seals improves as the internal pressure in the valve increases, compared to other
constructions where the increase in internal pressure tends to create leak in the bodybonnet joint.
Gate valve normally have flanged ends which are drilled according to pipeline
compatible flange dimensional standards. Cast Iron, Cast Carbon Steel,. Gun metal,
stainless steel, Alloy-steel and forged steels are different materials in which gate valves
are made available.
Globe Valve: Globe valves are named for their spherical body shape. The two halves of
the valve body are separated by an internal baffle which has an opening forming a seat
onto which a movable disc can be screwed into close (shut) the valve. In globe valves, the
disc is connected to a stem which is operated by screw action. When a globe valve is
manually operated, the stem is turned by a handwheel. Although globe valves in the past
had the spherical bodies which gave them their name, many modern globe valves donot
have much of a spherical shape, but the term globe valve is still often used for valve that
have such an internal mechanism. In plumbing, valves with such a mechanism are also
often called stop valves since they donot have the global appearance, but the term stop
valve may refer to valves which are used to stop flow even when they have other
mechanism or designs.
Globe valves are typically two-port valves. Ports are openings in the body for fluid
flowing in or out. The two ports may be oriented straight across from each other on the
body, or oriented at an angle such as a 90o angle. Globe valves with ports at such an angle
are called angle globe valves.
A bonnet provides leakproof closure for the valve body. The threaded section of stem
goes through a hole with matching threads in the bonnet. Globe valves may have a screwin, union, or bolted bonnet. Screw-in bonnet is the simplest bonnet, offering a durable,
pressure-tight seal. Union bonnet is suitable for applications requiring frequent inspection
or cleaning. It also gives the body added strength. A bonnet attached with bolts is used for
larger or higher pressure application.
Globe Valves are used for application requiring throttling and frequent operation. For
example, glove valves or valves with a similar mechanism may be used as sampling

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 51 of 90

valves, which are normally shut except when liquid samples are being taken. Since the
baffle restricts flow, they are not recommended where full, unobstructed flow is required.
Economical globe valves or stop valves with a similar mechanism used in plumbing often
have rubber washer at the bottom of the disc for the seating surface, so that rubber can be
compressed against the seat to form a leak-tight seal when shut.
Other different types of valve usually are called globe style valves because of the shape
of the body or the way of closure for the disk. As an example typical swing check valves
could be called globe type. Many globe valves have a class rating that corresponds to the
pressure specification of ANSI 16.34. Bibcocks and sillcocks are variation of globe or
stop valves used in plumbing.
Ball Valve: A ball valve (like butterfly valve, one of a family called quarter turn valves) is
a valve that opens by turning a handle attached to a ball shape inner mechanism inside the
valve. The ball has a hole or port through out the middle so that when the port is in line
with both ends of the valve, flow will occur. When the valve is closed, the hole is
perpendicular to the end of the valve, and flow is blocked. The handle position indicate
the valves position.
Ball valves are durable and usually work to achieve perfect shutoff even after year of
disuse. They are therefore an excellent choice for shutoff applications (and are often
preferred to globe valves and gate valves for this purpose). They donot offer the fine
control that may be necessary in throttling applications but are sometimes used for this
purpose. The body of ball valves may be made of metal, ceramic, or plastic. The ball may
be chrome plated to make it more durable.
There are three general body styles of ball valves: split body, top entry, and welded.
There are three general types of ball valves: full port, standard port, and reduced port.
A full port ball valve has an oversize ball so that the hole in the ball is the same as the
pipeline resulting in lower friction loss. Flow is unrestricted, but the valve is larger.
A standard port ball valve is usually less expensive, but has a smaller ball and a
corresponding smaller port. Flow through this types of valves is one pipe size smaller
than the valves pipe size resulting in slight restricted flow.
A Reduced port ball valve, flow through the valve is two pipe sizes smaller than the
valves pipe size resulting in restricted flow.
A trunnion ball valve has a mechanism means of anchoring the ball at the top and the
bottom. Manually operated ball valves can be closed quickly and thus there is a danger of
water hammer (feedback pressure). Some ball valves are equipped with an actuator that
may be pneumatic, electronics (I/P), electrically operated (MOV) etc. these valves can be
used either for on/off or flow control. A pneumatic flow control valve is also equipped
with a positioner which transform the control signal into actuator position and valve
opening / closing accordingly.
Check Valves (Non-Return Valves): Check valves also referred to as non-return valves
or one-way directional valves, are very simple valves that allow fluid, air or gas to flow
in only one direction. When the fluid moves in the predetermined direction, the valves
opens. Any backflow is prevented by the movable portion of the valve. A swinging disc,
ball, plunger or poppet moves out of the way of the original flow. Since these devices are
slightly larger than the through hole, the pressure of backflow will cause them to tightly
sealed, preventing reversal of flow. Gravity or a spring assists in the closing of the valve.
Check valves are indispensable in every area of life. Domestically, they are found in
devices such as faucets, toilets and dishwashers. Without them, fresh water would be
impossible and common plastics would be unheard of. Industries, use them to control

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 52 of 90

flows of all types from the thinnest gas to radio active materials, from molten metal to
highly corrosive materials. Check valves can range in size from less than an inch in
diameter to 30 feet across. The simplest check valves can be purchased at the local
hardware store, but they also be precision designed for highly sophisticated system.
As aforementioned, check valves use different means of preventing backflow. Swing disc
valves are typically used with liquids, such as slurries, that can easily damage the valve
seat. They may be installed either vertically or horizontally, but a lever and counterbalanced is recommended. When vertically installing swing disc, ball check valves use a
ball with a small hole in the middle, which can be either free-floating or spring-loaded.
These valves have a wide variety of application. They are more resistant to plugging than
other valves, and thus can be used to handled even fluid that deposit gummy residue. A
check valve may also utilize a plunger, which is spring-loaded and usually used to
prevent backflow of pressurized gases, or backpressure. A poppet in check valve is spring
loaded and typically installed in systems that require prevention of backpressure. Because
check valves have so many applications, they are made of a wide variety of materials.
Some companies exclusively manufacture plastic check valves. Other companies produce
check valves made of brass; electroless nickel plated brass, and stainless steel. The
components of valves may be made of different materials, such as cast iron or bronze,
depending on the application. Specialized valves may also be constructed of Teflon.
Elastomer products may also be used to construct valves
- Needle Valve: Needle valves are variations of globe valves where instead of a separate
attached disc piece, the internal end of the stem is conically tapered to act as the disc to
fit into a matching seat for fine flow adjustment.
Air operated (Depending on action):
Electrical operated (Depending on action):
- Solenoid Operated Valve (SOV): Solenoid valves are electro-mechanical devices that use
a wire coil and a movable plunger, called a solenoid, to control a particular valve.
Solenoid valves are electrically operated devices that control the flow of liquids. The
solenoid controls the valve during either the open or closed positions. Thus, these kinds
of valves donot regulate flow. They are used for the remote control of valves for
directional control of liquids. Solenoid valves have two main parts: the solenoid and the
valve. After the coil receives a electrical supply, the actuating magnetic field is created.
The magnetic field acts upon the plunger, resulting in the actuation of the valve, either
opening (for normally close type) or closing (for normally open type) it.
There are two types of solenoid valves: direct acting and pilot operated.
Direct acting: Direct acting solenoid valves have a plunger that is in direct contact with
the primary opening in the body. This kinds of plunger is used to open and close the
orifice.
Pilot Operated: This types of solenoid valve works with a diaphragm rather than a
plunger. This valves uses different pressure to control the flow of fluids. The air venting
valve is opened to allow the pressure to equalized and permit the fluids to flow through.
The design of solenoid valves allow them to have many applications. Their most common
use is as water valves, oil valves, gas valves, steam valves, solvents valves, cryogenics
valves, air and vapors valves as well as many other application as hydraulic valves and
pneumatic valves. Typical environments for solenoid valves are in medical and
biomedical equipments, analytical instrumentation, semiconductors, HVAC and other
industrial OEM environments. A unique feature that solenoid valves have is the automatic
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 53 of 90

triggering from remote locations by different voltage, making them useful in rough or
hazardous locations.
Important points to consider when looking for solenoid valves are proportionality,
linearity, frequency response, repeatability, power consumption, leakage, life expectancy
and cost. With so many types of solenoid valves and other related valves, the application
requirements are very important. Because solenoid valves are designed to perform
operations, ranging from water valves, air valves, pneumatic valves or sued in application
such as ones to restrict, meter and maintain the flow of liquid and gaseous materials, they
are widely used in vastly different fields and industries.
Motor Operated (MOV):

Introduction of Control System, Hardware, firmware, software etc


Actuator: A device which accepts the output from a control system and moves a final control
element (usually) a valve) to change a process condition.
Adaptive Control: Method of control whereby tuning (response) of the control system is varied
with the process condition, unlike other control where tuning is manual and remain constant.
Algorithm: Mathematical representation of the action performed by a controller such as
proportional (P), integral (I), derivative (D) or combination of those modes (P+I, P+D, P+I+D).
Alphanumeric: A character set that contains both letters and digits and perhaps other character
such as punctuation mark.
Analog Computer: A computing device comprised of function modules such as amplifiers,
multipliers, and dividers etc, interconnected in such a way as to facilitate the solution of a set of
mathematical expressions or to implement some control strategy. The input to and the output
from an analog computer are continuous signals as contrasted with a digital computer which
updates an output every scan.
Attenuation: An increase or decrease in signal magnitude between two points or between two
frequencies.
Bellow: A pressure sensing Element of generally cylindrical shape whose walls contain deep
convolution and for which the length changes when a pressure differential is applied
Baud Rate: The number of bits or discrete pieces of information transmitted per second.
Bourdon Tube: A pressure sensing Element consisting of a twisted or curved tube (c-shaped,
Helical, or may be spiral) of non circular cross section which tends to be straightened by the
application of internal pressure.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 54 of 90

Byte: Abbreviation for binary digit. A single character in a binary number, represented by zero
(0) or one (1)
Cascade Control: A complex loop control system in which, two Controllers are arranged in such
a manner that the output of one controller (master) manipulates the set-point input of a second
(slave) controller instead of manipulation a process variable directly.
Cold Differential Test Pressure (CDTP): The pressure at which a pressure relief valve is
adjusted to open the test stand. The CDTP includes correction for the service condition of back
pressure or temperature or both
Control Action Derivative (Rate / D): Control action in which the controller output is
proportional to the rate of change of the input.
Control Action Integral (Reset / I): Control action in which the controller output is proportional
to the time integral of the error signal.
Control Action Proportional (P): Control action in which the controller output has a linear
relationship to the error signal.
Data Base: A collection of values for process variables, set points, scaling factors, control
parameters, limits, constants, identifies, etc. for access by the application programs in a
computer-based control system.
Data High-way: A high-speed serial or parallel data path which connects several units of a
distributed control or data collection system.
Diaphragm: A sensing element consisting of a thin usually circular, plate which deformed by
differential pressure applied across the plate.
Direct Digital Control (DDC): A control system in which a digital computer is used as the sole
controller and its output is used to set the final control element. This is in contrast to supervisory
control i.e. Accuload Preset controller, Geoflow Controller, Contrec flow-meter, Daniel flowmeter etc
Dead Band: The range through which an input may vary without changing the output. In a
mechanical instrument such as a meter movement or strip chart recorder, the dead band is caused
by friction and slack or play in the readout mechanism. In a controller, dead band is a zone
around the set-point in which the measurement may vary without initiating a compensating
controller response.
Dead Time: The interval of time lag between the initiation of a controller output or stimulus and
the start of the resulting observable process response.
Dedicated Control: Using one controller to control one process variable.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 55 of 90

Derivative Control: A mode of control using an algorithm which anticipates when a process
variable will reach its desired control point by sensing its rate of change. This allows a control
change to take place before the process variable overshoots the desired control point.
Derivative Time: The time difference by which the output of a proportional-derivative (P+D)
controller leads the controller input when the input changes linearly with time.
Digital Computer: An electronic machine for performing calculations on discrete quantities of
data. Usually includes bulk storage devices such as disks, tape units etc, in addition to internal
memory. Also includes devices for printing and or displaying output data.
Distributed Control System (DCS): A Control system in which the degradation or failure of
any single parameter signal will affect only the control loop, or related loops, in which it
operates.
Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM): A memory device with information
placed into it during manufacture that cannot be altered by the computer. It can only be erased
and re-programmed with its proper compatible test equipment.
Error Signal: The signal resulting from the difference between the set-point reference signal and
the process variable feedback signal in a controller.
Feedback Control: A type of control whereby the controller receives a feedback signal
representing the condition of the controlled process variable, compares it to the set-point, and
adjusts the controller output accordingly.
Feedforward Control: A type control which takes corrective action based on disturbance before
the process variable is upset.
Gain: The ratio of change in output divided by the change in input that caused it. Both input and
output must be in the same units; hence gain is a dimensionless number
Hierarchy: The ranking or precedence of the elements in a supervisory system. For example, a
lower ranking element such as local controller affects only one variable while a higher ranking
element such as a computer might affect many variables sub-system or system or whole plant.
Hysteresis: Different between upscale and downscale output in any instrument response when
subjected to the same input approached from opposite direction (rising and falling, backward and
forward etc.).
Integral (Reset ) Control: A control algorithm which tempts to eliminate the offset (caused by
proportional control) between the measurement and set-point of the controlled process variable.
Integral (Reset) Time: The proportionality constant in the equation relating the controller output
to the error for integral control CO = Ki (PV-SP) dt.
Where, Ki = Kp / Ti . Kp is the integral gain of the controller. Ti is the time required to produce a
change in controller output equal to the change in error input.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 56 of 90

Integral Windup / Winddown: It is also called Controller windup / winddown or reset


Windup. Saturation of the controller output at its maximum positive or negative value due to an
error signal existing for an excessive period of time. Can be caused by the controller being left
on automatic when the measurement transmitter is out of service
Intrinsically Safe: Refer to equipment or wiring which is incapable of releasing sufficient
electrical or thermal energy under either abnormal or normal conditions to cause ignition of a
specific hazardous atmospheric mixture in its most easily ignited concentration.
Input / Output (I/O) Device: Input / Output devices are used to enter data into and receive data
from a computer or microprocessor based control system. For examples are analog and digital
input and output devices for handling process measurements and conditions as well as business
type devices such as terminals, printers, plotters etc.
Manometer: It is based on the principle of difference in hydrostatic pressure on two liquid
columns. Pressure applied to the surface column causes an elevation in the liquid surface. The
amount of elevation is read by a linear scale and it may be converted into pressure by an
appropriate multiplier. All three types pressure (positive, negative and pressure differential) can
be measured by manometer. It provides accurate means of pressure measurement and are used as
calibration standard for shop and field instrument.
Meniscus: The concave or convex surface, caused by surface tension at the top of a liquid
column, i.e as in a Manometer.
Noise: In process instrumentation control system, unwanted component of a signal (i.e. current,
vibration, fluctuation, flittering, overload, etc) or variable. Noise may be expressed in units of the
output or in percent of output span.
Offset: The steady-state deviation of the controlled variable from set-point, usually caused by a
disturbance or a load change in a system employing a proportional-only controller such as a level
controller. Offset will eventually be reduced to zero by the integral action in a P+I or P+I+D
controller.
P-Controller: A controller which produces proportional control action only.
Parallel Data: Data Transmission where all data bits of a data word are processed at once.
P+D Controller: A controller which produces proportional plus derivative (rate) control action
at the same time while in operation.
P+I Controller: A controller which produces proportional plus integral (reset) control action at
the same time while in operation.
P+I+D Controller (PID): A controller which produces proportional plus integral (reset) plus
derivative (rate) control action all together at the same time while in operation.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 57 of 90

Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM): A device with information placed into it during
manufacturing that can not be altered by the computer through any mean. It can, however be
reprogrammed using special compatible test kit only.
Proportional Band (PB): The change in the controller error signal required to produce a full
range change in output due to proportional control action. It is reciprocal of gain expressed as
percentage PB (%) = 100/k
Proportional Control: A mode of control using an algorithm which causes the output of a
controller to change in linear fashion as the error signal (process variable set-point difference)
changes.
Pulsation Damper: A device installed in gas or liquid piping system to smooth out fluctuations
due to pulsating flow or pressure
Random Access Memory (RAM): Memory which contains no pre-programmed information but
is loaded and / or altered by the computer system. It is of a volatile nature in that all the
contents are lost when electrical power is removed. RAM memories are usually provided with
battery back-up power system with respect to time.
Ramp: An increase or decrease of a variable at a constant rate of change with respect to time.
Increase variation is called Ramp up, and Decrease is called Ramp-down.
Reset Rate: The inverse of integral time, usually expressed as repeats per minute.
Read Only Memory (ROM): Memory with information placed into it during manufacturing
which cannot be altered by any means.
Serial Communication / Link: Sending bits of information in succession along a single circuit
(pair of wires in a ribbon)
Set-Point (SP): The desire and required value at which a process variable to be controlled.
Software: A set of programs and associated data tables which causes the hardware components of
a computer system to perform the desired tasks.
Split-Range: Action in which two or more final control elements are actuated by a single
controller output. For example, in a heating circuit 0-50% of the controller output operates a
primary heat source and the 50-100% portion of the controller output operates a secondary heat
source or it could be 0-30%, 30-60% and 60-100% etc.
Steady State: The condition when all process properties are constant with time, transient
responses having died out.
Supervisory Control: A method of computer control whereby a computer or master station
provides set-points to individual controllers which independently perform the actual control
algorithms.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 58 of 90

Telemetry / Remote Control: A technique which allows a measured quantity to be transmitted


and interpreted at a remote location (far from the measuring location) by a remote control
system. Form or types of Telemetry/remote control systems include analog, digital, frequency,
and pulse etc.
Word, Computer: A group of bits treated as a unit and capable of being stored in one computer
location. Some common word lengths are 8 bits, 16 bits, and 32 bits etc.

Introduction of instrument and Control System (Pneumatic/Electronics)


Process Control Term Definitions Summary:
A control system is a technology, methodology or terminology of integrated elements whose
function is to maintain a process variable at a desired value of within a desired range of value.
Control system input is the stimulus applied to a control system from an external source to
produce a specified response from the control station. Control system output is the actual
response obtained from a control station. There are mostly two types of loops are used i.e. An
open loop control system is one which the control action is dependent on the output. And
another type is a Closed Loop control system is one in which control system is independent of
the output. There are so many types of closed loops e.g. Feed forward, feed backward, cascade,
ration, Vibration control, Compressor control, Machine control, Split Range, Burner management
control, etc. For example feedback is information in a closed-loop control system about the
condition of a process variable. There are most two very important part of the variable one is
called a control variable which is the process variable that is maintained at a specified value or
within a specific range. The next vital part is a Manipulated Variable is the process variable
that is acted on by the control system to maintain the controlled variable at the specified value or
within the specified range.
Q: What is Control System?
Ans: A Control system is a technique which has sets of automated devices ( sensors, controllers,
control valves with operating system i.e. DCS, PLC, SCADA, RTU/MTU etc) to manage,
command, direct or regulate the behavior of the
variables
which
integrated
For whole
example,
the storage
Tankare
level
is the or
interconnected with in the system.
controlled variable. A manipulated
In general terms there are two types of control system
which
are process
widely used
and thus
variable
is the
variable
that known,
is
Logic/sequential or Feedback/linear control system.
acted on by the control system to
maintain the controlled variable at the
Q: What is Automation Control System? Explainspecified
with an example?
value or within the specified
Ans: An automation control system is a preset Closed-Loop
system
thatrated
requires
range. In this control
example,
the flow
of no
operator action. This assume the process remains the
in thewater
normal
range
for
the
control
system.
supplied to the tank is the An
automation system has two process variables associated
it: controlled
variable ofand a
manipulatedwith variable.
Function
manipulated variable. A controlled variable is the automatic
process variable
that
is
maintained
at specified
control in any automation
value or within a specified range.
system, the four basic functions that
occur are: Measurement Comparison,
computation correction in the water level
control system in the example above, the
level transmitter measures level within
the tank. The level transmitter sends a
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)
of 90to the
signal representing thePage
tank59level
level control device, where it is compared
to a desire

Tank levels. Elements of Automation control the three functional elements needed to perform the
functions for this type of Automation control systems are: A measuring element (sensor +
Transmitters) an error detection element (controller) and a Final element (control valve).
Q: What are the types of Control modes in an automation control systems?
Ans: They are as following:
1. Logic Control (sequential Control)
2. On-Off Control
3. Linear Control (feedback Control)
Proportional Control
Under damped Furnace Example
Over damped Furnace Example
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 60 of 90

PID Control
Proportional + Derivative action (Rate action)
Proportional + Integral action (Reset action)
Proportional +Integral + Derivative
Q: What is logic gate?
Ans: A Digital circuit with one or more input voltage but only one output voltage. There are six
types of most commonly used logic gates are: And, Nand, Or, Nor, Interver, Ex-Or
Q: What is Logic Control (sequential Control)?
Ans: A automated fully Logic control system which may trigger a series of mechanical actuators in
the correct sequence to perform the assigned task. i.e. Logic controllers may respond to switches,
light sensors, etc are historically implemented by electrical network or relays, and design with a
notation called ladder logic, which causes the machinery to perform same operation. They are
quite easy to design and can handled very complex operations. Today most such systems are
constructed with PLC devices. Some aspects of logic system design make use of Boolean logic.
Q: What is On-Off control?
Ans: An Automated control system in which feedback of measured variables (mv) fully control the
set-point (sp) of whole operating system i.e. any switching device is a simple on off control when
it reaches to its measured variable activated (set position), set point actuated either on or off as
per requirement and vise versa when measured variable de-activated (reset), set-point goes back
to normal operation.
Q: What is Linear Control (Feedback Control)?
Ans: An automated control system use of linear feedback to produce a control signal
mathematically based on either variable, with a view to maintain the control process with in an
acceptable operating range. The output from linear variable primary element to transmitters into
the controlled process may be in the form of a directly variable signal such as a final control
element (valve) that may be o or 100% open/close or anywhere in between. Sometime it is not
feasible and so, after calculating the current required operate
An Automated control system, a control loop, including sensors, control algorithms and
actuators, are arranged in such a fashion as to control to regulate the variables at a set point or
reference value, i.e. This control may increase the supply to a furnace when measured
temperature is dropped.
Q: What is proportional Control?
Ans: Proportional control is a system are based on the difference between required set-point and
measured variable of control variable. This difference is called offset. Power is applied indirect
proportional to the current measured offset, in the correct sense so as to tend to reduce the offset
(and so avoid positive feedback). The amount of corrective action that is applied for a given
offset is set by the gain or sensitively of the control system. At low gain only a small corrective is
applied when error are detected. i.e. when control the temperature of an Industrial furnace, it is
usually better to control the opening of the fuel valve in proportional to the current needs of the
furnace. This helps avoid thermal shock and applies heat more effectively.
Q: What is mean by under-damped furnace example?
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 61 of 90

Ans: Let take furnace as example, suppose the temperature is increasing towards a set-point at
which, say, 50% of the available power will be required for steady state. At low temperatures,
100% of available power is applied. When the measured variable is within, say 10 o of the setpoint the heat input begins to be reduced by the proportional controller. (Note that this implies a
20o proportional ban PB from full to on power input, evenly spread around the set-point value).
At the set-point the controller will be applying 50% power as required, but astray stored heat
within the heater sub-system and in the wall of the furnace will keep the measured temperature
rising beyond what is required. At 10 o above Set-point, system reach the top of the proportional
band (PB) and now power is applied, but the temperature may continue to rise even further more
before beginning to fall back. Eventually as the measured value falls back into the PB, heat is
applied again, but now the heater and the furnace wall are too cool and the temperature fall too
low before its fall is arrested, so that the oscillations continue.
Q: What is mean by Over-damped furnace example?
Ans: The Temperature oscillations that an under-damped furnace control system produces are
unacceptable for many reasons, including the waste of fuel and time (each oscillation cycle may
take many minutes), as well as the likelihood of serious overheating both the furnace and its
contents.
Suppose that the gain of the control system is reduced drastically and it is restarted. As the
temperature approaches, say 30o below set-point (60o proportional band), the heat input begins to
be reduced, the rate of heating of the furnace has time to slow and, as the heat is still further
reduced, it eventually is brought upto set-point, just as 50% power input is reached and the
furnace is operating as required. There was some wasted time while the furnace crept to its final
temperature using only 52% then 51% of available power, but at least no harm was done. By
carefully increasing the gain (i.e. reducing the width of the PB) this over-damped and sluggish
behavior can be improved until the system is critically damped for this set-point temperature.
Doing this is known as tuning the control system. A well-tuned proportional furnace
temperature control system will usually be more effective than on-off control, but will still
respond slower than the furnace could under skillful manual control.
Q: What is Integral control action?
Ans: The Integral term magnifies the effect of long-term steady errors, applying ever-increasing
effort until they reduce to zero. In example of the furnace above working at various temperatures,
if the heat being applied does not bring the furnace up to set-point, for whatsoever is the reason,
integral control increasingly moves the proportional band relative to the set-point until the timeintegral of the measured variable error is reduced to zero and the set point is achieved.
Q: What is Derivative Control action?
Ans: The derivative control part is concerned with the rate-of-change of the error with time: if the
measured variable approaches the set-point rapidly, then the actuator is backed off early to allow
it to coast to the required level; conversely if the measured value begins to move rapidly away
from the set-point, extra effort is applied in proportional to that rapidity - to try to maintain it.
Derivative makes a control system behave much more intelligently. On systems like the
temperature of a furnace, or perhaps the motion-control of a heavy item on any moving machine,
the derivative action of a well-tuned PID controller can allow it to reach and maintain a set-point
better than most skilled human operators could.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 62 of 90

If derivative action is over applied, it can lead to oscillations too. An example would be a
temperature that increased rapidly towards SP, then halted early and seemed to shy away from
the set-point before rising towards it again.
Q: What is PID control?
Ans: Proportional, Integral, Derivative (PID) control requires real-time system feedback. It
controls monitors the error between the desire variable value and the actual value, and adjusts
the control system operation accordingly.
For Example, apart from sluggish performance to avoid oscillations, another problem with
proportional band only control is that power application is always in direct proportional to
the error. i.e. above we assumed that the set temperature could be maintained with 50%
power. What happens if the furnace is required in a different application where a higher set
temperature will require 80% power to maintain it? If the gain was finally set to a 50 o PB,
then 80% power will not be applied unless the furnace is 15 o below setpoint, so for this other
application the operators will have to remember always to set the setpoint temperature 15 o
higher than actually needed. This 15o figure is not completely constant either: it will depend
on the surrounding ambient temperature, as well as other factors which affect heat loss from
or absorption within the furnace.
Let take a look to another example for PID control, PID can be describe as a set of rules with
which precise regulation of a closed loop control system is obtained. Closed loop control
means a method in which real-time measurement of the process being controlled is desired is,
in fact, being realized. The mission of the controlling device is to make the measured value
usually know as the process variable equal to the desired value, usually known as the setpoint. The very best way of accomplishing this task is with the use of the control algorithm
we know as PID
In its basic form, PID involves three
mathematical
control
function
working together: Proportional, Reset
(integral), Rate (Derivative). The
most important of these proportional
control, determines the magnitude of
the difference between the setpoint
and process variable (known as
error), and then applies appropriate
proportional changes to the control
variable to eliminate error. Many
control system will in fact, work quite
well with only proportional control.
Integral controls examines the offset
of setpoint and the process
variable over time and correct it
when and if necessary. Derivative
control monitors the rate of change of
the process variable and consequently
Make changes to the output variable to accommodate changes. Each of the three control
function is governed by user defined parameter. These parameters vary immensely from one
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 63 of 90

control to another and as such need to be adjusted to optimize the precision of control. The
process of determining the values of these parameters is known as PID tuning.
PID tubing, although considered black magic by many, really is, off course, always a welldefined technical process. There are several different method of PID tubing available, any of
which will tune any system. Certain PID tuning methods require controller action when an
error is introduced to a PID controller, the controllers response is a combination of the
proportional, integral and derivative actions, as shown in the figure. Assume the error is due
to a slowly increasing measured variable. As the error increases, the proportional action of
the PID controller produces an output that is proportional to the error signal. The reset action
of the controller produces an output whose rate of change is determined by the magnitude of
the error. In this case, as the error continues to increase at a steady rate, the reset output
continues to increase its rate of change. The rate action of the controller produces an output
whose magnitude is determined by the rate change.
Q: What is Loop Tuning?
Ans: If the PID (proportional, Integral and Derivative) controller parameters (the gain of PB,
I and D terms) are chosen incorrectly, the controller process input can be unstable, i.e. its
output diverges, with or without oscillation, and it is limited only by saturation or mechanical
breakage. Tuning a control loop is the adjustment of its control parameters (gain/PB, I
gain/Reset, D gain/rate) to the optimum values for the desired control response.
The Tuning parameters are as following:
- Kp: Proportional gain larger Kp typically means faster response since the larger the
error, the larger the PB term compensation. An excessively large PB gain will lead to
process instability and oscillation.
- Ki : Integral gain Larger Ki implies steady state error are eliminated quicker. The tradeoff is larger overshoot: any negative error integrated during transient response must be
integrated away by positive error before we reach steady state.
- Kd: Derivative gain Larger Kd decreases overshoot, but slows down transient response
and may lead to instability due to signal noise amplification in the differentiation of the
erro.
There are various Tuning methods, i.e. Manual Tuning, Ziegler-Nichols method, PID
Software Tuning, and Cohencoon etc.
- Manual Tuning: If the system must remain online, one tuning method is to first set the
I and D value to zero. Increase the PB until the output of the loop oscillates, then PB
should be left to be approximately half of that value for a Quarter amplitude decay
type response. Then increase I until any offset is correct in sufficient time for the
process. However, too much I will cause instability. Finally, increase D, if required,
until the loop is acceptably quick to reach its reference after a load disturbance.
However, too much D will cause excessive response and overshoot. A fast PID loop
tuning usually overshoots slightly to reach the setpoint more quickly; however, some
system cannot accept overshoot, in which case an overshoot closed-loop system is
required, which will need a P setting significantly less than half that of the P setting
causing oscillation.
Effect of Increasing Parameters
Parameter
Rise Time
Overshoot
Setting Time
S.S.Error
Kp
Decrease
Increase
Small Change
Decrease
Ki
Decrease
Increase
Increase
Eliminate
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 64 of 90

Kd

Small Decrease

Decrease

Decrease

None

Ziegler-Nichols method: Another tubing method is formally known as the ZieglerNichols method, introduced by John G.Ziegler and Nathaniel B.Nichols. As in the
above method, the I and D gains are first set to zero. The P gain is increased until it
reaches the critical gain Kc at which the output of the loop starts to oscillate. Kc
and the oscillation period Pc are used to set the gain as following;
Ziegler-Nichols method
Control Type
Kp
Ki
Kd
P
0.5.Kc
PI
0.45.Kc
1.2Kp / Pc
PID
0.6.Kc
2Kp / Pc
KpPc / 8

PID Software Tuning: Most modern industrial facilities no longer tune loops using the
manual calculation methods discussed above. Instead, PID tuning and loop
optimization software are used to ensure consistent results. These software packages
will gather the data, develop process models, and suggest optimal tuning. Some
software packages can even develop tuning by gathering data from reference changes.
Mathematical PID loop Tuning includes an impulse in the system, and then uses the
controlled systems frequency response to design the PID loops values. In loops with
response time of several minutes, mathematical loop tuning is recommended, because
trial and error can literally take days just to find a stable of loop values. Optimal
values are harder to find. Some digital loop controllers offers a self-tuning feature in
which very small setpoint changes are sent to the process, allowing the controller
itself to calculate optimal tuning values.

Q: What is basic principle of control loop?


Ans: A familiar example of a control loop is the action taken to keep ones shower water at the
ideal. Temperature, which typically involves the mixing of two process streams, cold and
hot water. The person feels the water to estimate its temperature. Based on this
measurement they perform a control action: using the cold water tap to adjust the process.
The person would repeat this input-output control loop, adjusting the hot water flow until
the process temperature stabilized at the desired value.
Feeling the water temperature is taking a measurement of the process value or process
variable (PV). The desire temperature is called setpoint (SP). The output from the
controller and input to the process (the tap position) is called the manipulated variable
(MV). The difference between the measurement and the setpoint is the error (e), too hot or
too cold and by how much.
As a controller, once decides roughly how much to change the tap position (MV) after one
determines the temperature (PV), and therefore the error. This first estimate is the
equivalent of the proportional action of PID controller. The integral action of PID controller
can be thought of as gradually adjusting the temperature when it is almost right. And
Derivative action can be thought of as noticing the water temperature is getting hotter or
colder, and how fast, anticipating further change and tempering adjustment for a soft
landing at the desired temperature (SP)
Making a change that is too large when error is small is equivalent to high gain controller
and will lead to overshoot. If the controller were to repeatedly make changes that were too
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 65 of 90

large and repeatedly overshoot the target, this control loop would be termed unstable and
the output would oscillate around the setpoint in either a constant, growing, or decaying
sinusoid. A human would not do this because we are adaptive controllers, learning from
the process history, but PID controllers do not have the ability to learn and must be set up
correctly. Selecting the correct gains for effective control is known as tuning controller.
If a controller starts from a stable state at zero error (PV=SP), then further changes by the
controller will be in response to changes in other measured or unmeasured inputs to the
process that impact on the process, and hence on the PV. Variable that impact on the process
other than the MV are known as disturbances. Generally controllers are used to reject
disturbances and / or implement setpoint changes. Changes in feed water temperature
constitute a disturbance to the shower process.
In theory, a controller can be used to control any process which has a measurable output
(PV), a known ideal value for that output (SP) and an input to the process (MV) that will
affect the relevant PV. Controllers are used in industry to regulate temperature, pressure,
flow, pressure and practically every other variable for which a measurement exists. a
Q: What is feed-forward and feed-backward control system?
Ans: Feedforward: Feedforward control does not require a sensor and provide direct control
compensation from the reference signal.

Feed Forward control

Feed Backward Control

Q: What is meant by control loop?


Ans: The device part of Process variable parameters in the methodology of control system, is
called a control loop.
Q: What is different between Open loop and Close loop?
Ans: Open Loop: A loop system which operates direct without any feedback and it generates the
output in response to an input signal
Close Loop: A loop system which uses a measurement of the output signal through feedback
and a comparison with the desired output to generate an error signal that is
applied to the actuator of Final control element (control valve).
Q: what is Cascade control loop?
Ans: A complex loops control system in which, two Controllers are arranged in such a manner that
the output of one controller (master) manipulates the set-point input of a second (slave)
controller instead of manipulation a process variable directly.
Q: What is ESD control loop?
Ans: This is also complex loops but different in function which acts in emergency, which uses a
measurement of the output signal through feedback and failure in any desired output to
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 66 of 90

generate an error signal which is applied to the actuator of final control element thus the
whole system goes shut-down.
Q: What are types of control systems? Explain -PLC, DCS, SCADA, Telemetry, DDC etc?
Ans: Computer based control process system is called Microprocessor control system. The brief of
PLC, DCS and SCADA and so many other are as following:
PLC: Programmable Logic Control system,
Before the advent of solid-state logic circuits, logic control system were designed and built
exclusively around electromechanical relays. Relays are far from obsolete in modern
design, but have been replaced in many their form roles as Logic-Level control devices,
relegated most often those application demanding high current and/or high voltage
switching.
When engineering firms developed their version of this device and it eventually came to
known in non-proprietary terms as a PLC. The purpose of a PLC was to directly replace
electromechanical relays as logic emulate the interconnection of many relays to perform
certain logic tasks.
A PLC has many input terminals, through which it interprets high and Low logical
states from sensors and switches. It also has many output terminals which it outputs
high and Low signals to system for its function ON/OFF control. In effort to make
PLCs easy to program, their programming language was design to resemble to reading
ladder logic schematic would feel comfortable programming a PLC to perform the control
function.
PLCs are industrial computers, and as such their input and output signals are typically120
voltsAC, just like the electromechanical control relays they were designed to replace.
Although some PLCs have the ability to input and output low-level DC voltage signals of
the magnitude used in logic gate circuit, this is the exception and not the rule.
Signal connection and programming standards vary somewhat between different models of
PLC, but they are similar enough to allow a generic introduction to PLC programming.
PLC's are used in practice with the aim of achieving a higher degree of availability or fault
tolerance. The types are as follow:
Fault Tolerant: 1 out of 2 system objective: Reduce the probability of losses of production
by switching to a standby system.
Fail safe: 2 out of 2 system objective: Protect life, the environment and investment by
safely disconnecting to a secure "off" position.
DCS: Distributed Control System
Any Control system in which the degradation or failure of any single element (parameter)
will effect only the control loop or related loops (sub-system) in which it operates.
Or
In a DCS installation the controllers and measurement circuits are modularized in small
group (e.g. eight controllers per module) for greater security against failure. The controllers
exist in a combination of hardware and may be part of a control scheme programmed in a
master DCS system. The controller may also receive set points from a separate supervisory
computer system. DCS systems support a variety of communication methods, such as high
speed Data Highway serial data transmission concept which can interface to many
different computer. Any digital first level control system must be backed up by a battery
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 67 of 90

powered UPS (uninterrupted Power Supply) to prevent loss of control the process during
AC power-line interruptions.
SCADA: Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition
A method of computer control system whereby a computer or master station provides setpoints to individual controllers, which independently perform actual control algorithm.
RTU-MTU Telemetry system: Remote Telemetry Unit-Master Telemetry Unit:
A technique which permits/controls a measured quantity to be transmitted and interpreted
at a distance (Remote Location) from the measuring location form, or type of Telemetry
includes analog, digital, frequency, and pulse etc
DDC: Direct Digital Controller
A control Technique in which a digital computer is used as the sole controller and its output
is used to sets the final control element. This is in contrast to supervisory control system.
Q: What are the types of signals?
Ans: They are: Pneumatic signal, Analog signal, digital signal, pulse signal etc.
Q: What is Pulse I/O and explain its measuring principle?
Ans: A somewhat separate class of digital I/O is pulse input/output, which is typically associated
with frequency, counting or totalization applications. Pulse input might be used to count the
rotation of a tubular flowmeter; pulse output might be used to drive a stepping motor.
Pulse inputs are handled in much the same way as digital logic inputs, but the output of the
sensing circuit is normally connected to a computer rather than a specific bit position in the input
register. Successive pulses increment or decrement the counter. Add an elapsed time measure and
a frequency or pulse rate can readily be determined. Similar to an A/D (analog to digital
converter), a counter is characterized by its number of bits-an, N-bit counter can accumulate upto
2N discrete events. Thus a 16-bits counter can count 216 = 65536.
Q: What is digital input (D/I) signal?
Ans: The most common type of D/I (digital input) is contact closure. Essentially a sensor or switch
of some type of closes or opens a set of contacts in accordance with some process change. A
applied electrical signal then determined whether the circuit is open or close. Current flows if the
circuit is closed, registering a 1 in a transistor at the computer interface. Conversely, an open
circuit retains a high voltage (low current/no current), registering a 0 at the transistor.
Another type D/I useful in data acquisition application is the hardware trigger. This allows on
external event a high reactor temperature, perhaps, or low tank level to control data collection. If
during routine operation data is only being acquired for archival storage on a once per second
basis, a hardware trigger can be used to boost the data acquisition rate during an upset until
normal conditions are restored.
Many types of D/I signals from switches closures, Relay contacts, or TTL compatible
interfaces can be read directly by digital I/O cards. Other types of input may require some signal
conditioning, most likely to reduce higher-level voltage changes to TTL levels.
Q: What is digital Output (D/O) signal?
Ans: At its simplest, a digital output (D/O) provides a means of turning something on or off.
Application range from driving a relay to turning on an indicator lamp to transmitting data to
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 68 of 90

another computer. For latching output a 1 typical causes the associated switch or relay to latch,
while a 0 causes the switch to unlatch. Devices can be turned on or off, depending on whether
the external contacts are normally open or normally closed.
Q: What is conventional / microprocessor based?
Ans: A device got standard microprocessor based protocol and is not compatible for any other
protocol i.e. smart, hart or foundation fieldbus etc. Its calibration is standard (manual zero/span
adjustment).
Q: What is Smart family?
Ans: An Smart family devices got to have communication called smart version, means
compatible, operable, main tenable etc through the smart protocol. It can not be calibrated or
operate without this communication.
Q: Does having a DCS capable of supporting HART I/O do any good if field instrument is
not smart? or do smart instruments just provide that much more information over a nosmart version?
Ans: Field instruments can be smart without HART or any communication protocol. Smart also
refer to the compensation and field rangeability that a smart transmitter can do versus those that
are not smart.
If field instruments are not HART compatible, there is no advantage, even if DCS has HART
capable I/O, other than the advantage of adding new field instruments which are HART type
version compatible.
Q: What is HART type?
Ans: A device got to have communication and configuration through HART communicator only
for analog and digital communication is called HART type version, means configuration
though HART communicator 275 and Field communicator 375 calibrator only.
Q: What is profibus (process field Bus 1997)?
Ans: Profibus is a standard for fieldbus communication in automation technology
(I/O+HMI+sensors) and was first promoted (1989) by BMBF (German Department of education
and research). There are two type of profibus one is DP and another one is PA.
Q: What is Profibus DP (decentralized peripherals)?
Ans: This is most common used fieldbus. It is used to operate sensors and actuators via a
centralized controller in process control technology. The many standard diagnostic option in
particular are focused on here. Other areas of use include the connection of distributed
intelligence i.e. the networking of multiple controllers to one another (similar to FMS). Data
rates upto 12mbits/s on twisted pair cable or fiber optics are possible.
Q: What is profibus PA (process Automation)?
Ans: This is of lesser used. It is used to monitor measuring via process control system in
ProComm engineering. This profibus variant is ideal for explosion hazardous area (i.e. zone
classification). Here a weak current flow through bus lines in an IS (intrinsically safety) so that
explosion sparks are not created, even if a malfunction occurs. The disadvantage of this is the
slower data transmission rate of 31.25kbits/s.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 69 of 90

Q: What is fielbus type instrument?


Ans: A device which is compatible for foundation fieldbus system, and communicate through field
communicator 375 only. Its configuration, calibration, diagnostic, operation, maintenance is
possible through FC-375 only. It will not work with any other types of communicator unless
otherwise that calibrator is not foundation fielbus compatible.
Q: What is fieldbus Technology?
Ans: Fieldbus is the name of a family of industrial computer network protocol used for Real-Time
distributed control system. Now standardize as IEC61158. a complex automated industrial
system say a manufacturing assembly line usually needs an organization hierarchy of
controller system to function. In this hierarchy there is usually a HMI at the top, where an
operator can monitor or operate the system. This is typically linked to a middle layer PLC via a
non time critical communication system (e.g. Ethernet). At the bottom of the control chain is
fieldbus which link the PLC to the component which actually do the work such as sensors,
transmitters, actuators, electric motors, consoles, switches and control valve etc.
Q: What is Fieldbus FMS (Fieldbus Message Specification 1993)?
Q: What is Profinet?
Ans: Profinet is the standard communication system for industrial Ethernet.
Q: What is Ethernet?
Ans: It is a family of frame based computer Networking technology for LAN (Local Area
Network). The name comes from the physical concept of the Ether. It defines a number of wiring
and signaling standards for the physical layer of the OSI (Open System Interconnection)
networking model, through means of network access at the MAC (media access control), data
link layer (DLL) and Common addressing format.
Q: What is foundation H1 communication?
Ans: FF-H1 is one of the FF protocol (version). It utilizes between twisted pair or fiber optics
media to communicate between multi-nodes (devices) and the controller. The controller requires
only one communication point to communicate with up to 32 nodes, this is a drastic
improvement over the standard 4-20mA communication method which required a separate
communication point for each communication device on the controller system.
Q: What is V-net (Virtual network Protocol)?
Ans: It is a media of communication in which manages multiple physical Network protocols.
When open with an IP address. V-net determines if Host can be reached directly on one of its
physical Networks. If it can, a session on that network is open, if cannot be directly reached an
ERR_XOBJ is returned.
Q: What is Foundation Fielbus system?
Ans: Foundation Fieldbus is an all digital, two-way, multi-drop communication link among
intelligent smart field devices and automation systems. Foundation fieldbus is the local
Area Network (LAN) for instruments used in process automation with built-in capability to
distribute the control application across the network. It was established in 1994 by a merger
of worldFIP North American and the Interoperable system Project (ISP).
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 70 of 90

Q: What is Analog I/O system?


Ans: Analog Input/output (I/O) is the devices process analog signal (e.g. output of transducers)
and output the result in analog format. There are several integral parts of analog I/O examples
may be included for following:
- Analog modules
- Analog I/O board
- Analog I/O Card
- Analog Input card
- Analog output card
- USB Analog I/O etc.
Q: Define the essential parts of Analog I/O system?
Ans: They can be define as following:
Analog I/O Module: It is a device that supports both analog input and analog output.
Analog I/O Board: It allows the data acquisition system to record analog signals from any
transducers and it generate the signal fro any transducer. It also provide serial interface to
high resolution serial A/D converters.
Analog I/O Card: It is the circuit on a printed circuit board (PCB) that is capable of supporting
both analog Input as well as output. An I/O card is that analog output card which is used in
application where the output other than on and off states are generated.
Analog Input card: It is designed to acquire analog data even in harsh electrical with computers
and other compatible devices. It provides four isolated 12-bits differential input channel with
+/- 1 conversion accuracy.
Analog output Card: It converts the digital value generated by software into analog current or
voltage that are used to control brightness of light, to control frequency inverters and motor
control equipments. Analog output card are used to obtain many outputs that are used to
excite analog output transducers.
Q: Explain How does an Analog I/O operate ?
And:
Q: What are Pneumatic Power Supplies?
Ans: The pneumatic power supplies are more commonly known as the instrument air
systems. The main consideration of an instrument air systems are :
(i)
Adequate Capacity: The minimum capacity of the system should be the sum of the
individual requirements of each air-consuming instrument in the system, plus a
supplemental volume for purges, leaks, additions, etc. If accurate consumption figures are
not available, an estimated consumption volume of 0.5 cubic foot/minute for each airconsuming device is usually adequate. The air storage tank should have sufficient capacity
to maintain this rate for about at least five minutes or such time as is considered adequate to
perform an emergency shut-down of the plant or to switch over to a back-up air system
through an air storage volume capacity tank which should be large enough to prevent
excessive cycling of the compressor.
(ii)
Filtering and Regulation: Instrument air systems are normally designed for pressure up to
125 psig and should be protected by relief valves. Instrument air should be free from all
contamination i.e. oil, water, moisture and any hazardous or corrosive gases. Nonlubricated compressor should be used to provide dry air if possible. Where lubricated
compressors are used, an oil removal separator is required. The presence of oil may cause
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 71 of 90

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

instrument contamination and possibly create a combustible mixture. After being


compressed, instrument air must be cooled to remove the major portion of the contained the
water dew point to at least 10oF below the ambient temperature at line pressure. An airfilter
/ reservoir may be required to remove particulate carryover from the dehydrators.
Proper distribution: The air distribution system should be free of any pockets where
liquid could accumulate. If this is not possible, drain valves should be provided in order to
drain the accumulated liquid / moisture. All supply lines should be connected vertically or
at least on the top of the air manifold or header. Instrument air filter-regulator should be
provided at each air-consuming device as well to set the line pressure to the supply pressure
recommended by the instrument manufacturer. This also provides one more stage of
protection from contaminants. Instrument society of America ISA-SP7.3 and ISA-SP7.4 are
references for additional Information.
Non-Air systems: Natural gas can be used instead of Instrument Air in some remote
installations where compressed air is not available. This practice should be avoided if at all
possible due to safety and pollution problems and the additional filtering and clean-up of
the gas which must be done to protect the instruments. The user must be cognizant of all
applicable regulations when considering the use of any combustible gas in instrumentation
air supply service. Some small-scale systems have used bottled nitrogen for instrument gas.
This is quite acceptable, but not-bleed type instruments should be used to keep the
consumption to a minimum.
Hydraulic Power devices: Its actuators are sometime used on valves or rams where very
high thrusts (up to 50,000 pounds) are required for operation. Due to the problems of
transmitting very high pressure signals, a local pump powered by an electric motor is often
used to form what is commonly known as an electro-hydraulic actuator.

Q: What are basics of Instrumentation wiring for control, signal and power supplies system?
Ans: Often the type selection of an instrument is pre-determined whatever is available, or what
will be compatible with the rest of a system. There are cases, however, where the choice to
installed two wire, three wire, four wire, conventional type, hart type or foundation fieldbus
types etc. Installation and interconnection wiring requirements are regulated by the National
Electric Code (NEC), National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), International Electric Code
(IEC) etc for Hazardous and non-hazardous locations. For example Article NEC-500 is
applicable for hazardous locations, and article NEC-725 is for Remote Control and signal circuits
etc. Special attention should be given to article NEC-725. the requirements pertaining to physical
protection of wiring, isolation and spacing of conductors depending upon class, and minimum
wire sizes are often overlooked in an instrumentation wiring installation. The details are as
followings.
Q: What are Power Outages and Interruptions?
Ans: It is usually the responsibility of the consumer, not the electric utility company, to provide
protection for connected electronic equipment against upset such as voltage spikes caused by
lightning, high or low voltage surges, etc. The frequency of power outages and average time for
service to be restored should be determined to assist in the design of electronic power supply
protection and battery backup systems. The power company should be able to provide data about
their re-closure gear (equipment which attempts to restore service after a current surge has
tripped the substation or sectionalizing breakers). Also, a record of power outages in the local
substation area and storm frequency charts will be very useful. A typical re-closure operation
description is as below
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 72 of 90

Re-Closure Attempt
Time
% Successful
First Re-Closure
01. sec or less
84
Second Re-Closure
15 - 45 sec
10
Third Re-Closure
120 sec
1.5
Manual Intervention
4.5
Example:- If a plant can tolerate loss of power to its electronic equipment for six seconds, and
an average of 50 power outages per year is expected, then according to above table 84% of those
outages will be restored on the first reclosure attempt, and the remaining 16% or approximately
eight power outages per year can be expected to disrupt plant operation.
Note: Storm frequency charts are often available from manufacturers of surge arresting devices.
These charts may be used in case power outage records are not available from the power
company. Climatic data for a particular are may be obtained from the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Asheville, North Carolina.
Q: What are standard Power Supply Specifications?
Ans: There are three specification which should be carefully noted are (a) Regulation,
(b) Ripple, and (c) Short-Circuit Protection.
(a) Regulation is an indication of how well power supply output voltage remains constant as the
electrical load is removed and re-connected. Good regulation implies no interaction between
connected devices on the same power supply.
(b) Ripple is the amount of AC vibration on the DC output with a constant load on the power
supply. This is especially critical when the outputs of transmitters are connected to Anlog-toDitital (A/D) converters in a computer or microprocessor based installation. For example, if the
A/D precision allows resolution to the nearest 10millivolts, power supply ripple should be less
than 1/3 of this or 3.3 millivolts, unless the noise can be rejected by the converter.
(c) Short-circuit protection is a means by which the power supply current is limited at a safe
maximum in case the output is accidentally shorted-out at some point. All power supplies should
include short circuit protection to prevent serious damage. Power supplies should always have
the common side of the output separate from chassis ground to permit the common to be
grounded at a single point to a high quality instrument ground.
Q: What is UPS power supply?
Ans: UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supplies), often referred to as battery backed up systems,
should be sized to span the third enclosure time if power supply level must be maintained to
minimized erratic plant behavior. However, if the instrument air compressor is driven by an
electric motor, it usually is not beneficial to maintain battery power past the time the air supply is
depleted. All instrument needs required for an orderly shutdown should be considered. Back-up
power is most economically provided by floating the batteries across the output of the DC
power supplies. The circuits should be designed to prevent over-charging or under-charging of
the batteries as well as to prevent damage to the regulator circuits when the AC input is
disrupted. If the AC input power must be backed up, batteries are used to feed an inverter which
transforms DC power into AC of the proper voltage and frequency. Static switches are available
to automatically switch the power supply input from the normal AC line to inverter when AC line
power is lost. Manufacturer recommendations for environmental requirements must be observed
to assure reliability of electronics power supplies, static switches etc. Regular maintenance of
battery system is mandatory since batteries have a limited life-span compared to other electronic
components and terminal corrosion may cause problems. Standby generators may be required in
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 73 of 90

some installation to permit instrument operations to continue beyond the time limit of the battery
system.
Q: What is CMADA system?
Ans CMADA is Circuit Monitoring and Data Acquisition which monitor and record the
performance of the site electrical distribution Network. The CMADA will not perform any
electrical control function.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 74 of 90

Q: What is the Analog system Cable Arrangement? Give any example.


Ans: The arrange is show as following for analog control system

Q: What is the cable arrangement for Foundation fieldbus system cabling and wiring?
Ans: The arrangement for foundation fieldbus cabling system is shown as following

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 75 of 90

Q: What is the different between Analog and Foundation fieldbus cabling system? Draw.
Ans: The differences are as following:

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 76 of 90

Q: What is the Grounding arrangement for instrumentation and control? Draw


Ans: The grounding arrangement for instrumentation and control system is as following:

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 77 of 90

54. What are the different connection methods for Analog / Foundation Fieldbus instrument?
Ans: They are as following:

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 78 of 90

Two-Wires Transmitter: These are the simplest


and most economical and should be used
wherever load condition will permit. In twowires system the only source of power to the
transmitter is from the signal loop. The 4mA
zero end current is sufficient to drive the
internal circuitry of the transmitter and current
from 4 to 20mA represents the range of the
measured process variable. Or 0-100% for
foundation fieldbus system

Three-Wire Transmitter: Some transmitters


require more power than the signal loop (420mA etc) can supply to support their internal
circuitry. A DC common wire is run from the
instrument to the transmitter. This permits the
transmitter to draw whatever power it needs from
the power supply and produce the desired signal
current at the transmitter output.

Four-Wire Transmitter: Some transmitters


have their own internal power supply and require
no connection to the DC power supply. A
120VAC source is connected directly to the
transmitter and its output signal loop is
connected only to the receiving instrument.
These are often used where an instrument is
added on to an existing instrumentation
installation to avoid adding to the load of the DC
supplies. The disadvantage is it does need AC
power at the instrument side to function.

Process Variables Terminology


Q: What is Pressure? Explain its Terminology.
Ans: Pressure may be defined as the action of a force against an opposing force. Pressure is
usually measured as a force per unit area.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 79 of 90

P=F/A, (where, P=Pressure, F=Force Acting on surface, A= Area of the surface)


Pressure is considered the basic process variable in that it is utilized for measurement of flow
(Differential pressure), level (Head or back pressure), and even temperature (fluid pressure in a
filled Thermal system etc.
Note: Recognized all pressure measurements are Differential by nature.
Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure exerted by the earths atmosphere, i.e. sea level
atmospheric pressure is 14.696 psi
Barometer: Same as atmospheric pressure.
Gauge Pressure: The pressure above atmosphere (14.696 + present pressure psi).
Differntial Pressure: The pressure difference between two points measured above atmosphere.
Vacuum Pressure = The pressure measured Below atmosphere
Compound Pressured: The pressure measure above and below astrosphere
Absolute Pressure : Total pressure measured below and above atmosphere (Full positive and
negative pressure measurement.
Zero Absolute Pressure: Pressure at Full Vacuum is called Absolute Zero.
Zero Elevation: A range in which the zero value of the measured variable of measured signal is
greater than the lower range value.
Zero Suppression: A range in which the zero value of the measure variable is below the lower
range value

- Manometer: Two different pressures


are applied to two separate openings into
a standard scaled transparent vessel
containing liquid i.e. water, mercury etc.
The difference in the heights increment
of decrement of the liquid is used as a
Introduction of Sensing Devices
measure of the different pressure. This
difference
should be corrected for
Pressure
Sensors:
temperature and gravity of the liquid in
the manometer. There are four types of
manometer most commonly used:
Standard Tube Manometer (common use)
Basic press
Guideline
I&C (M.A.Shahzad)
U-Tube
Manometer
(common use)
Inclined Tube Manometer (Furnace draft)
U-Tube Absolute Manometer (Barometer)

with Figure for (Pneumatic/Electronics)

Page 80 of 90

- Bourdon Tubes: A Bourdon tube is a


metallic coil constructed from a metal tube
having the desire elastic quality and
corrosion resistance. The tendency of the
tube to straighten under pressure causes a
mechanical linkage to move a pointer or
initiate
pneumatic
or
electronic
transmission of the measured pressure.
Dampners should be where pulsation is a
problem. Condensate traps should be used
upstream of the device in steam service.
The pressure indicated is gauge pressure
which is relative to that of the type
surrounding. Bourdon gauges are also
available as compound type which indicates
vacuum as well as positive pressure. There are
three types as most common use. (a) C-Tube,
(b) Spiral, and (c) Helix. For reference of these
type refer to the attached picture

Bellows: A tubular device with pleated


sections somewhat like an accordion. It is
flexible along its axis and lengthens or
shortens according to the applied
pressure. The bellow is usually used in
low pressure or vacuum service but can
be used for high pressure as well. They
are often used in force-balance type
Transmitters and other applications where
small displacements
required.
Diaphragm:
A flat or are
curve
seal with a link
attached to an indicator or Transmission
device. A diaphragm may have its own
deflection properties such as with a metallic
type or it may be attached to a spring or other
elastic member such as with non-metallic
diaphragm.
Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 81 of 90

Pressure
Element
for
Electrical
Transducer: The primary sensing element
of many electrical pressure transducers
usually takes the form of a Bourdon tub,
bellows, or diaphragm to generate a
movement which is transmitted to a strain
gauge. A strain gauge is a device using
resistance wire connected in a Wheatstone
bridge configuration to generate an
electrical signal proportional to the
movement and hence proportional to the
process variable being measured. Other
type of electrical pressure Transducer use
properties of inductance, capacitance, or
magnetic coupling to convert a pressure
measurement to an electrical signal.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 82 of 90

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 83 of 90

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 84 of 90

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 85 of 90

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 86 of 90

Design Drawing & Engineer


There are so many branches of design drawing and engineering language, all are not possible to
explain and write about all of them, thats why lets concentrate related to instrumentation and
control system the design drawing and engineering details may be as following:

Drawings:
This is an standard information, certain parts of which are common types of for design /
engineering standard practice (i.e. Symbols, formals, legends, abbreviation etc) are identified
and explained, which assist those whosoever (engineer/project/QA/QC/Planning/Account etc)
may need to as reference or to read and interpret engineering design. The general information
provided in a drawing refers to the information given at the peripheral borders of design/spec
requirement. This category of design/engineering information is available on all the various
classes of design/engineering as reference standards and its inclusion is essential for the use.

Design / Engineering Drawing Typical Contents:


They may be less or more as following:
(a) Drawing Format: It is standard, refer to any drawing for reference
(b) Symbol and abbreviation: Standard symbols and abbreviation should be used.
(c) Name: Drawing Name (Company / Authority) whom the plant is belong
(d) Drawing No. Specific Drawing No should be provided for related design/engineering doc
(e) Sheet No: Sheet no should be specified for easy reference if dwg contain several pages
(f) System / sub-system no: A grid system defined by an alphanumeric code to enable precise
location of an item or area on the design engineering drawing.
(g) A Panel grid the Title (i.e. P&ID, Hook-up, layout etc) and dwg no
(h) Revision no: final revision number should be provided in the drawing if revised
(i) As Built: Equivalent dwg no within in other no as final for revised dwg
(j) Reference: Other reference drawing number for detail information if splitted
(k) Notes: Various number notes of which are annoted on the drawing
(l) Job no: Job number should be provided on the dwg for reference
(m)Identity: Identification of non-standard symbols should be provided if used
(n) Legends: Any other information should be provided in legend for quick reference which
is considered helpful and which doesnot detract from the easy interpretation of drawing

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 87 of 90

- Plot Plan / Layout: The detail of the construction site should be done by referring to the

drawing of Plan / Layout, its section, sub-section, elevation whatever are drawn and
shown on the scale and hence they are called Measure Drawing. The detail for a Plot Plan
is as below:
Site Plan: It is the outline of the proposed construction in relation to the total Plot Plan.
Herein, shows the outer dimension of the plot and the setbacks / open spaces left all
around and also the length are breadth of the proposed construction site.
Location Plan: It shows where the proposed construction should be done. It shows the
details of elevation and exact location of instrument. The reference details could be either
column/I-beam or equipment as per the drawn scale and direction orientation
(North/South/East/West)
Plan: It is the horizontal cutting of a location / layout. It is imagined that the Plot is cut
horizontally at a convenient height and is being seen from Top. However Plan shows the
detail of length and breaths of the Plot, wall, doors, roads, position, gate, steps, stair etc.
Section: It is a cut portion of Plan. It is imagined that the Plot Plan is cut vertically
through a convenient place to show the maximum details of the specific name, location,
equipment etc.
Sub-section / cross section: It is a cut portion of Plan-Section. Which is imagined by cut
vertically as well as horizontally cross section wise to provide the maximum details. They
may be divided into Front View (provides the maximum details of front portion), Side
View Left / Right (provides the maximum details of side portion), Bottom view
(provides the details of the Bottom portion), Back View (provides the details of Bottom
portion), and Top View (provides the details of Top portion etc) which could be imagined
by respectively by Front Cut, Side cut, Bottom cut, Back cut, and Top cut sub sections.
Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID): The detail of any system / sub-systems
design and engineering process piping (size, process to and from with all equipment and
instrument symbols of the system or sub-system) and the details of instruments to and
from used in it for indication, measurement, control, signal, single loop or close loops,
cascade loop, complex loop, instruments types, Alarm, service etc from field to control
center Monitor (DCS/SCADA/PLC etc) with their control wiring, signal wiring, power
wiring symbols etc
Isometric: The detail drawing of system or sub-system or process for fabrication and
installation with complete information i.e. material, size, length, orientation, elevation,
direction, used equipment, used instrument etc.
Process Hook up: The details drawing of an individual instrumentation connection with
process either inline or offline (for remote type installation), with its complete accessories
i.e. root valves, isolation valves, manifolds, tubing, fitting, gaskets, nut/bolts etc.
Installation Details: The detail of typical installation drawing for instrument installation,
fabrication of stanchion, supports, brackets, sunshade, trays, conduits, etc with material
details.
Exploded view: The detail typical assembly or disassembly drawing of any instrument
parts or accessories name.
Fabrication drawing: The details of typical fabrication drawing how to fabricate.
Block Diagram: The detail drawing of complete wiring / cabling in one sheet without
connection detail, wiring type or size etc.

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 88 of 90

- Single line diagram: The detail typical drawing for electrical wiring without connection
details, wiring type or size etc.

- Cable Drum Schedule: The detail about cable length, type, size, manufacturer, to/from,
- Wiring diagram: The detail drawing of wiring to and from with complete details, cable
-

types, size, terminals etc.


Loop Diagram: This is the detail drawing for individual control loop with its complete
connection from field to control system.
Dimensional Drawing: This is the typical dimensional detail drawing of any equipment
or instrument i.e. length, height, width, cable entry details, process connection size and
type, installation type etc.
Airline drawing: The detail typical drawing for Air impulse tubing from Air manifold to
instruments with complete fitting, and its material spec.
Logic drawing
Flow diagram
Logic Narrative details

Engineering:
- Instrument data sheet: This is the details process design and engineering data
- Instrument spec sheet: This the detail spec of particular instrument
- Material test certificate: This is the test certificate of material which certified and
-

testified the detail of material rating and test.


Calibration certificate: This is the certificate detail of any instrument which shows the
details of instrument functionality.
Sizing calculation: This is the calculation used for proper measurement and control
Load calculation: This is the calculation used for proper load handling of material

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 89 of 90

Installation / Fabrication Drawing

Layout drawing / plot plan

Hook-ups drawing

Logic Drawing

Data sheets

******************************* The End***************************************

Basic Guideline I&C (M.A.Shahzad)

Page 90 of 90