You are on page 1of 43

Reinforced Cement Concrete (CT-312)

Design of stair

UNIVERSITY OF SARGODHA
Engr M. Irfan

What is vertical movement or vertical circulation?

Circulation is a movement of human and goods


between interior spaces in the building to the
entrance or exit.
Can be channeled through several types
passageway, corridor, stairs, ramps, etc.
Vertical circulation is movement of human and
goods between stories of a building
Engr M. Irfan

Ladder, Stair, Ramp

Engr M. Irfan

Ladder, Stair, Ramp


Ladder
A series of narrow horizontal steps fixed between two upright of wood
or metal, on which a person usually climbs up or climbs down facing
the ladder. Usually fixed in an upright, near vertical position or more
at a shallow slope for ease of use. Therefore, it only occupy the least
floor area.
Stair
A set of steps formed to make it possible to pass to another level on
foot by putting one foot after the other on alternate steps to climb up
or down the stair.
Ramp
A ramp is a surface, sloping uniformly as an inclined plane up and
down which a person may pass on foot between levels. Formed at a
slope of at least 1:20. Thus, it occupies a considerable area, usually
adjacent to a long, low building.
Engr M. Irfan

TYPES OF STAIR
Stair Spanning Transversely.
Cantilever
Simply Supported (Steps On two walls etc.)

Stair Spanning Longitudinally


Straight
L- Shape
T- shape
Dog legged etc.

Engr M. Irfan

STRAIGHT FLIGHT STAIR


Stairways > 600mm between
handrails Slope not less than
26.50 & not more than 450
STRAIGHT TWO-FLIGHT
STAIR WITH HALF-LANDING
Stair constructed in flights
straight or curved horizontally
Number of rises not to exceed
18 in a flight; not more than 36
rises without a change in
direction
Engr M. Irfan

QUARTER-TURN STAIR
WITH LANDING
The stair which turn at right
angle after one flight

DOGLEG STAIR WITH


HALF-LANDING
Head clearance min 2000mm
vertically from nosing of tread
Nosing of tread must be highlighted

Engr M. Irfan

OPEN-WELL STAIR WITH


TWO QUARTER LANDINGS
Each rise not less than 150mm &
not more than 215mm Each going
not less than 215mm & not more
than 305mm
QUARTER-TURN STAIR
WITH WINDERS
Length & width must be not less
than
the
stairway
Landing
minimum
vertical
clearance
2000mm Every access landingstanding space at least 600 mm
clear of cross-traffic or door swing .
Engr M. Irfan

SPIRAL STAIR WITH


CENTRAL COLUMN
Radius to centre line of stairway
not less than 600mm; where
radius to centre line is less than
3000mm, maximum width of
curved stairway 750mm

CIRCULAR STAIR WITH


CENTRAL WELL
Each Going not less than
215mm & not more than
305mm
Engr M. Irfan

GEOMETRIC STAIR (90)


TURN
45 000 < R x G < 48 000
Tread width must not be less
than the going and there must be
an overhang of at least 10mm

Engr M. Irfan

10

Latest Stair
This section is a showcase of the more recent stairs that are
use nowadays. The combination of glass, timber, stainless steel, wires
are being used widely. The large landing at the bottom of the stair, the
combination of both open and closed risers

Engr M. Irfan

11

Feature Stair
Feature stairs can be either classic or contemporary in design
because what defines them is not so much their style as their
prominence and importance to the interior design as a whole.
Feature stairs are a statement, they represent the designers
commitment to complete harmony of the space.

Engr M. Irfan

12

Contemporary Stair
Contemporary stairs offer the designer opportunities that
classic designs
dont individuality and design.
Contemporary design can be gloriously simple using clean lines or
gracefully curved.

Engr M. Irfan

13

Curved Stair
Curved staircases that have a highly complex structure, must
also meet in-depth building regulations. It can be a paradox that the
staircase must marry perfectly with the space provided and appear
simple and almost effortless when completed.

Engr M. Irfan

14

Modern Stair
Modern stairs typically look clean and sleek. They often
incorporate material such as glass and stainless steel and create a focal
point for the home. With so many options now available in stair
components and materials, modern stairs allows the designer to let
their imaginations run wild.

Engr M. Irfan

15

Classic Stair
Classic stairs are reflective and have in the past at times
fallen victim to the parody syndrome where grand designs of say
the Victorian era are reproduced with little regard to detail, form or
truth, only imitation.

Engr M. Irfan

16

Traditional Stair
Creating staircases of style and character, in the true traditions
of a particular architectural era is something that you should only trust
to the experts. Whether you are renovating, extending or building from
scratch in any of the classical styles, you deserve to have attention paid
to the integral design of the stair as well as the finer details.

Engr M. Irfan

17

Commercial Stair
Built commercial stairs for retail business such as cafes,
nursing homes and apartment buildings, to name a few. The high
quality materials should be used, it will ensure that the stairs will
stand the test of time, particularly for commercial stairs which are
subject to high foot traffic.

Engr M. Irfan

18

Engr M. Irfan

19

TECHNICAL TERMS

Pitch
Tread
Going
Riser
Rise
Flight
Landing
Waist

Engr M. Irfan

Winder step
Soffit
Nosing
Head room
Stringers
Hand rail
Newel post
Balusters
20

TECHNICAL TERMS
Open Stair
A stair that has no risers
Risers
The vertical pieces which are the solid infill between the
two treads
Stringers
The main beams that support treads and risers
Tread Bracket
The decorative pieces that fit to the face of a cut stringer
in the more traditional type of stair
Tread Nose
The rounded leading edge of a step
Engr M. Irfan

21

TECHNICAL TERMS
Treads
These are simply the steps you walk on.
Winder Steps
The triangular treads used to change the direction of the
stair, usually around right angle corners
Cut Stringer
Stringers that are cut to follow the profile of the treads
and risers.
Newel Posts
The larger square posts at the start and the corners of a
stair. They are usually turned, fluted, paneled or
decorated in some way.
Engr M. Irfan

22

TECHNICAL TERMS
Balusters
The smaller posts fitted between the stair and the
handrail, usually decorative, and in timber or steel.
Bull-nose Step
The step at the base of a stair which usually has a
protruding semi-circular end.
Capping
The piece of timber that forms the edge or border for the
carpet or other floor coverings, located at the edge of the
floor on upper level
Closed Stair
A stair that has treads and risers.
Engr M. Irfan

23

TECHNICAL TERMS
Handrail
The shaped or moulded piece of timber you hold on to as
you walk up or down the stair.
Handrail Scroll
The decorative handrail piece at the start of the stair that
curls around and sits above the bull-nose step
Handrail Wreaths
The sections that curve around corners to form a continuous
handrail
Landing
The flat platforms usually located where a stair changes
direction.
Engr M. Irfan

24

Engr M. Irfan

25

STAIR GEOMETRY
Stair safety and geometry are related- rhythmic
movement along a straight line is important for safe
ascent or descent

Engr M. Irfan

26

STAIR ANGLES
According to AS 1657-1992 (Fixed platforms, walkways,
stairways & ladders- Design, construction & installation),
stairways should be angled between 26.50 and 450- Thats
between 1 in 2 and 1 in 1

450
26.50

Rise = 1
Going = 2
Engr M. Irfan

Rise = 1
Going = 1
27

STAIRWAY LANDINGS
Stairways landings must be at least 6 inches
(150mm) deep and 1 meter wide must be
provided at after 12 steps.

Engr M. Irfan

28

PLATFORMS AND SWING DOORS


Where doors or gates open
directly on a stairway, provide
a platform that extends at
least 20 inches (0.5m) beyond
the swing of the door.

Engr M. Irfan

29

STAIR CHAIR

Engr M. Irfan

30

HANDRAIL & STAIR RAIL

Engr M. Irfan

31

WHY DO WE NEED STAIRCASE


To protect people from injuries and to facilitates
access during movements from one level to the
another in a building.
CONSIDERATION FOR LOCATION OF STAIR
Stair should be placed at a central place in the
building so as to give shortest access to all rooms.
Architectural consideration in stair are
Accessibility
Function
Comfort
Light
Ventilation
Aesthetics
Engr M. Irfan

32

GENERAL GUIDE LINES FOR STAIR


DESIGN (THUMB RULES)
width of stair should not be less than 1.00m.
The number of steps in a single flight should not be more
than 12.
Pitch of stair should be between 25 degree to 40 degree.
For residential building

Riser = 150 180 mm and Tread = 220 250 mm


For commercial building

Riser = 120 150 mm and Tread = 250 300 mm


width of landing should be 150mm, more than the width
of stair or not less than the width of stair width.
Engr M. Irfan

33

GENERAL GUIDE LINES FOR STAIR


DESIGN (THUMB RULES)
Winder and kite shaped steps should be avoided and
incase found necessary. These should be provided at the
start of a stair.
Hand rail should be 750 to 850 mm in height from the
top of respective step or landing.
The size of rise and tread in a stair should be kept
uniform through out the whole stair.
Minimum of 2100mm of clear headroom is required
above the pitch line .

Engr M. Irfan

34

HOW TO CALCULATE NUMBER OF STEPS


Let
Space Available 2.5 m
Riser = 150 mm
Tread = 250 mm
Solution:
Number of Steps = (2.5/0.250)= 10
Number of Riser = 10+1= 11

Engr M. Irfan

35

LOADING ON STAIR
Dead load
Self weight of stair
Super imposed load
(Floor finish load 50kg/m -100 Kg/m)

Live load
For Commercial > 200 kg/m 300 kg/m
For Residential = 150 kg/m 200 kg/m

Engr M. Irfan

36

HOW TO CALCULATE LOAD OF STAIR


Stair spanning Transversely
Self weight of step = W1+W2
W1=(mean thickness of step) x (density of material)
W2= Floor finish weight
Stair spanning Horizontally
Self weight of stair = W1+W2+W3
weight of step=W1= Thickness x density
Weight of waist=W2= Thickness x density x HP
Weight of floor finish=W3= Thickness x density
Engr M. Irfan

37

FLOW CHART
Span length and loading with respect to horizontal plan

Self weight of slab on horizontal plan and find Mu

Select d min according to support and grade of steel

Design steel and check As min as per ACI code

Provide temperature steel and check against shear

Engr M. Irfan

38

(Longitudinally Spanning)

Example 1

Design the first flight of the stair shown in fig having a reinforcement
footing at bottom. Use C-18 concrete and grade of steel 280 riser and
tread respectively 180mm and 260mm select US customary bar.

Engr M. Irfan

39

SOLUTIONS
span l 1.2 3.12 4.32m
hmin considerin g both ends continuos/fixed l/ 35 125mm
d h 27 98mm
dead load :
125
( 180 2 260 2 )
waist slab weight
x 2400 x
365kg/m2
1000
260
90
step weight
x 2400 216kg/m2
1000
15
floor finish
x 2300 35kg/m2
1000
qD 365 216 35 616kg/m2
qu 11.96 KN / m p er meter width
qu l 2
Mu
22.4 KN .m
10
Engr M. Irfan

40

M AIN STEEL :
d min for singly reinforced section

Mu
78mm 90mm
0.205 fc ' b

assumiing a d/6 15mm


as
a

Mu
983mm2
b f y (d a / 2)
As f y

0.85 fc ' b

17.97 18mm

after 3rd trail we get amount of steel 1000 mm 2


Selected steel # 13@120mm C/C (sp acing ok as p er ACI limits )
Distribution Steel:
0.002bh 0.002 x1000 x120 240mm2
check for shear :
ap p lied shear force Vu qu(l n / 2 d ) 24.66 KN

cVc 0.75 x0.17 fc 'bd 53KN


Vu cV
ok
Engr M. Irfan

41

DETAILING OF STAIR

Engr M. Irfan

42

NOTE:
Transversely spanning stair design as a one way (cantilever) slab.

Engr M. Irfan

43