Stress and Strain for Solid Mechanics or Mechanics of Materials.

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Stress and Strain for Solid Mechanics or Mechanics of Materials.

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 77

Topics:

Introduction

Main Principles of Statics

Stress

Normal Stress

Shear Stress

Bearing Stress

Thermal Stre

RIGID BODIES

(Things that do not change shape)

DEFORMABLE BODIES

(Things that do change shape)

FLUIDS

in an equilibrium

Incompressible

Dynamics :

1. Kinematics concerned

with the geometric aspects

of the motion

2. Kinetics concerned

with the forces causing the

motion.

Compressible

Mechanics of Materials :

The study of the relationships

between the external loads

applied to a deformable body and

the intensity of internal forces

acting within the body.

1.1 Introduction

External Loads

Body Force

- developed when one body exerts a force on

another body without direct physical contact

between the bodies.

- e.g earths gravitation (weight)

Surface Forces

- caused by direct contact of one body with

the surface of another.

concentrated force

Axial Load

Normal Stress

Shear Stress

Bearing Stress

Allowable Stress

Deformation of Structural under Axial Load

Statically indeterminate problem

Thermal Stress

relationship between the external loads applied

to a deformable body and the intensity of

internal forces acting within the body.

specific plane (area) passing through a point.

Strain = describe the deformation by changes in

length of line segments and the changes in the

angles between them

()

cross section of the load-carrying member.

: can be either compressive or tensile.

Shear Stress : stress which acts tangent to the cross section of

()

the load-carrying member.

: refers to a cutting-like action.

1.1 Introduction

Normal Stress,

normal to A

= P / A

A positive sign will be used to indicate a tensile stress

(member in tension)

stress (member in compression)

(a)

(b)

Unit: Nm -

N/mm2 or MPa

Stress ( ) = Force (P)

N/m2 or Pa

Cross Section (A)

Assumptions :

1. Uniform deformation: Bar

remains straight before and

after load is applied, and

cross section remains flat or

plane during deformation

2. In order for uniform

deformation, force P be

applied along centroidal axis

of cross section C

11

1.4 Axial Loading Normal Stress

FRz Fz ;

dF dA

A

P A

P

A

= average normal stress at any point

on cross sectional area

P = internal resultant normal force

A = cross-sectional area of the bar

12

1.4 Axial Loading Normal Stress

section subjected to internal resultant force P

Internal Loading

Section member perpendicular to its longitudinal axis at pt

where normal stress is to be determined

Draw free-body diagram

Use equation of force equilibrium to obtain internal axial

force P at the section

Average Normal Stress

Determine members x-sectional area at the section

Compute average normal stress = P/A

13

1.4 Axial Loading Normal Stress

Example 1.1:

Two solid cylindrical rods AB and BC are welded

together at B and loaded as shown. Knowing

that d1=30mm and d2=20mm, find average

normal stress at the midsection of (a) rod AB,

(b) rod BC.

Example 1.2

Two solid cylindrical roads AB and BC are welded

together at B and loaded as shown. Knowing

that d1 = 30 mm and d2 = 50 mm, find the

average normal stress in the mid section of (a)

rod AB, (b) rod BC.

contraction of a line segment per unit of

length

= L / Lo

L = elongation

Lo = length

* L=

normal st rain

L

Example 1.3:

Determine the corresponding strain for a bar of

length L=0.600m and uniform cross section

which undergoes a deformation =15010-6m.

150 10 m

6

250 10 m / m

L

0.600m

6

250 10 @ 250

P=12kN. The cable has an effective cross sectional area of

160mm, and the strut has an area of 340mm.

(a) Calculate the normal stresses in the cable and strut.

(b) If the cable elongates 1.1mm, what is the strain?

(c) If the strut shortens 0.37mm, what is the strain?

(20mm x 40mm) and length, L=2.8m. If an

axial force of 70kN is applied along the

centroidal axis of the bar cross sectional area,

determine the stress and strain if the bar end

up with 4m length.

70kN

70kN

2.8m

the load-deformation behavior of the

material.

Data from tensile test can be plot into stress

and strain diagram.

Example of test specimen

- note the dog-bone geometry

28

to subject a specimen to tension,

compression, bending, etc. loads and

measure its response

29

Stress-Strain Diagrams

properties of materials that can be deduced

from the stress-strain diagram are illustrated

in figure above.

30

and strain

Point A = proportional limit (PL)

The ratio of stress to strain in this linear region

of stress-strain diagram is called Young Modulus

or the Modulus of Elasticity given

< PL

Unit: MPa

Point B = yield point

Point B-C = specimen continues to elongate without any increase in

stress. Its refer as perfectly plastic zone

Point C = stress begins to increase

Point C-D = refer as the zone of strain hardening

Point D = ultimate stress/strength ; specimen

begins to neck-down

Point E = fracture stress

31

Point O to A

Point C to D

Point D to E

At point E

by dividing the applied load by the specimen

original cross sectional area.

True stress is calculated using the actual cross

sectional area at the instant the load is

measured.

31

does not have clear yield point likes

structural steel. Therefore, stress value

called the offset yield stress, YL is used

in line of a yield point stress.

determine by;

Drawing a straight line that best fits the data in initial (linear)

portion of the stress-strain diagram

Second line is then drawn parallel to the original line but offset

by specified amount of strain

The intersection of this second line with

the stress-strain curve determine the

offset yield stress.

32

have low tensile stress value but high in

compressive stress. Stress-strain diagram for

brittle material.

33

P

E AE

PL

AE

With variations in loading, cross-section or material

properties,

PL

i i

i Ai Ei

it returns to its original dimensions after unloading .

Any material which deforms when subjected to load

and returns to its original dimensions when unloaded

is said to be elastic.

If the stress is proportional to the strain, the material

is said to be linear elastic, otherwise it is non-linear

elastic.

Beyond the elastic limit, some residual strain or

permanent strains will remain in the material upon

unloading .

The residual elongation corresponding to the

permanent strain is called the permanent set .

34

called the elastic recovery.

35

subjected to uniform tension, it stretches axially but

contracts laterally along its entire length.

Similarly, if the material is subjected to axial

compression, it shortens axially but bulges out

laterally (sideways).

36

Poisson's ratio,

radial

lateral

axial

longitudinal

-ve sign is used since longitudinal elongation (positive strain) causes

lateral contraction (negative strain) and vice versa.

Example 1.6

A 10 cm diameter steel rod is loaded with 862 kN by

tensile forces. Knowing that the E=207 GPa and =

0.29, determine the deformation of rod diameter

after being loaded.

Solution

p

862x103 N

109.7 MPa

1

A

2

2

(0.1) m

4

in rod, =

Lateral strain,

109.7 MPa

0.00053

207x103 MPa

l ( a ) o.29(0.00053)

0.000154

l ( D) (0.000154)(0.1)

0.00154cm

38

3.

properties of an experimental plastic. The test

specimen is a 15 mm diameter rod and it is

subjected to a 3.5 kN tensile force. Knowing that an

elongation of 11 mm and a decrease in diameter of

0.62 mm are observed in a 120 mm gage length.

Determine the modulus of elasticy, the modulus of

rigidity, and Poissons ratio of the material.

49

Shear stresses are produced by equal and opposite parallel forces not in line.

The corresponding forces tend to make one part of the material slide over the

other part. These forces are called shearing forces.

Shear stress is tangential to the area over which it acts.

V

member AB.

The corresponding average shear stress is,

ave

V

V

V = resultant forces

uniform.

rivet, pin ) may be subjected to single or double shear

Double Shear

Single Shear

ave

P F

A A

P F

ave

A 2A

body by inducing shear strains

The shear strain, is a measure of the angular

distortion of the body.

x

L

(units: degrees, radians)

44

on the points of contact or bearing

surfaces of the members they

connect.

The resultant of the force distribution

on the surface is equal and opposite to

the force exerted on the pin.

Corresponding average force

intensity is called the bearing stress,

P

P

b

A td

Modulus of Rigidity.

Value of shear modulus can be obtained from the linear

region of shear stress-strain diagram.

Unit : Pa

modulus of rigidity (G) can be related as

E

2(1 )

48

Because

a result of tension or compression, the volume of the

body also changes within the elastic limit.

Consider a rectangular parallel piped having sides a,

b and c in the x, y and z directions, respectively.

58

and lateral contractions of b and c in the x, y, and

z directions respectively. Hence,

Initial

body

Final volume, Vf = (a + a)(b - b)(c - c)

= abc(1 + )(1 - )2

59

very small),

Final volume, Vf = abc(1 + - 2)

Change in volume,

V = Final Volume - Initial Volume

= abc(1 + - 2 ) - abc

= abc(1 + - 2 - 1)

= abc( - 2 )

= Vo (1 - 2 )

Hence,

V

Vo

(1

2 )

(1 2 )

60

stress x, y and z.

Since all strain satisfy << 1, so v = x + y + z

x =

1

x ( y z )

E

y =

1

y ( x z )

E

z =

1

z ( x y )

E

1 2

(

E

)

61

Example 2.1

A titanium alloy bar has the following original dimensions: x =

10cm; y = 4cm; and z = 2cm. The bar is subjected to stresses x

= 14 N and

y = - 6 N, as indicated in figure below. The

remaining stresses (z, xy, xz and yz) are all zero. Let E = 16

kN and = 0.33 for the titanium alloy.

(a)Determine the changes in the length for

x, y and z.

(b) Determine the dilatation, v.

y

6N

14 N

14 N

x

z

6N

62

Applied load that is less than the load the member can fully support.

(maximum load)

analysis of a member is use a number called the Factor of Safety (FS).

FS

Fal l ow

FS > 1

Allowable-Stress Design

allow

F f ai l

yield

FS

or allow

yield

FS

63

fig. (a), two unknown axial reactions

occurs, and the force equilibrium equation

becomes;

F 0;

FB FA P 0

In this case, the bar is called statically

indeterminate, since the equilibrium

equation are not sufficient to determine

the reactions.

the relative displacement of one end of the bar

with respect to the other end is equal to zero

since the ends supports are fixed. Hence;

A / B 0

the relationship between the forces acting on

the bar and its changes in length are known as

force-displacement relations

A / B 0,

PL

AE

A B 0

FB FA P 0, FA P FB

Realizing that the internal force in segment AC is +FA, and in segment CB,

the internal force is FB. Therefore, the equation can be written as;

FA L AC FBL CB

0

AE

AE

FA L AC FBL CB

AE

AE

F L

AE

FA B CB

AE

L AC

F L

FA B CB

L AC

F L

P FB B CB

L AC

L

P FB CB AC

L AC L AC

F L

P B CB FB

L AC

L L AC

P FB CB

L AC

P FB CB 1

L AC

P FB

L

AC

L

FB P AC

L

Example 2.2:

FX 0,

FA FB 20(103 )N 0................(1)

FB 20(103 ) FA

B / A 0.001m

A B 0.001m

FA L AC FBL CB

0.001m

AE

AE

FA (0.4m )

FB(0.8m)

0.001m

0.0025m 2 200 109 Nm 2 0.0025m 2 200 109 Nm 2

or

FA (0.4m ) FB (0.8m ) 3927.0N................( 2)

Substitute eq (1)int o eq ( 2)

FA (0.4m ) ( 20, 000N FA )(0.8m ) 3927.0N

FA 16.6kN

FB 3.39kN

Example 2.3:

Solution:

Fy 0,

FA FC FE 15(103 ) N 0................(1)

CCW M C 0

FA ( 0.4) 15(103 )( 0.2) FE ( 0.4 ) 0 ...........( 2)

ACE move to inclined line ACE

E

A E

C

0. 8

0.4

C E A E

0. 4

0.8

E

C E A

0. 4

0. 8

0 . 4 A 0 .4 E

C

E

0. 8

C 0.5 A 0.5 E

FC LCD

1.5 105 E st

FC (0.5)

1.5 105 E st

FA L AB

FE L EF

0. 5

0

.

5

5

5

2.5 10 E st

2.5 10 E st

FA ( 0.5)

FE ( 0.5)

0. 5

0

.

5

5

5

2.5 10 E st

2.5 10 E st

FC

10 103 FA 10 103 FE

33.33 103

FC 0.3FA 0.3FE .................eq( 3)

Fy 0,

FA FC FE 15(103 )N 0................(1)

CCW M C 0

FA (0.4) 15(103 )(0.2) FE (0.4) 0 ...........( 2)

FC 0.3FA 0.3FE .................eq(3)

FA FC FE 15(10 )N 0................(1)

3

3

3

15(103 ) 1.3FA

FE

1.3

FE 11.538(10 ) FA .......................eq( 4)

3

FA (0.4) 3(103 ) (0.4) 11.538(103 ) FA 0

7.615103

FA

0.8

9.519(103 )

9.52kN

9.52kN

FE 11.538(103 ) FA

11.538(103 ) 9.52(103 )

2.02 kN

Re place FE 2.02 kN int o eq(3)

FC 0.3FA 0.3FE

0.3(9.519(103 ) 0.3( 2.02 103 )

3.462 kN

dimensions.

If the temperature increases, generally a material expands,

whereas if the temperature decreases, the material will

contract.

If this is the case, and the material is homogenous and

isotropic, it has been found from experiment that the

deformation of a member having a length L can be calculated

using the formula;

Where

1/C)

T=TL

T=change in temperature

L=original length of the member

T=change in length of the member

Example 2.4:

Given: =12x10-6/C

Solution:

FY 0

FA FB F

AB 0

( )

is zero (because the supports do

not move)

To determine the change in

length, remove the upper support

of the bar and obtain a bar is

fixed at the base and free to

displace at the upper end.

AB T F

So the bar will elongate by an

amount T when only

temperature change is acting

And the bar shortens by an

amount F when only the reaction

is acting

( ) AB T F

T F 0

TL

FL

0

AE

3.6 104

F(1)

0.01 ( 200 10 )

2

F(1)

0.012 ( 200 109 )

7.2kN

F 7.2kN

;

72

MPa

A 0.012

Example 2.5

Given:

st 12 106 / C

al 23 106 / C

Est 200 109 Pa

E al 73.1 109 Pa

Fy 0,

st al ...............................eq (2)

( ) st (st )T (st )F

al (al )T (al )F

(st )T (st )F (al )T (al )F

TL

Fst L

F L

TL al

Ast E

A al E

Fst (0.25)

(0.02) ( 200 10 )

2

1.8 104

Fst (0.25)

251.327 106 )

3.45 104

Fal (0.25)

Fal (0.25)

( 206.685 106 )

9.947 1010 Fst 3.45 104 1.21 109 Fal 1.8 10 4

Fst

9.947 1010

2Fst Fal 90(103 )N 0

2( 165.88 103 1.216Fal ) Fal 90(103 )N 0

331.76 103 2.432Fal Fal 90(103 )N 0

3.432Fal 421.76 103

Fal 122.89 kN

Substitute Fal 122.89 kN int o eq (3)

Fst 165.88 103 1.216Fal

165.88 103 1.216(122.89 103 )

16.445 kN

The negative value for F steel indicates that the

force acts opposite to arrow shown.

THE STEEL POSTS ARE IN TENSION and

ALUMINIUM POSTS IS IN COMPRESSION

TUTORIAL 1

and loading shown, assuming a close fit at both

supports before the loads are applied.

66

the steel bar and loading shown, assuming

a close fit at both supports before the

loads are applied.

SOLUTION:

Consider the reaction at B as redundant,

release the bar from that support, and

solve for the displacement at B due to

the applied loads.

Solve for the displacement at B due to

the redundant reaction at B.

the loads and due to the redundant

reaction be compatible, i.e., require that

their sum be zero.

Solve for the reaction at A due to

applied loads and the reaction found at B.

SOLUTION:

Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied

loads with the redundant constraint released,

A1 A2 400 10 6 m 2

A3 A4 250 10 6 m 2

L1 L2 L3 L4 0.150 m

Pi Li 1.125 109

L

E

i Ai Ei

Solve for the displacement at B due to the

redundant constraint,

P1 P2 RB

A1 400 10 6 m 2

L1 L2 0.300 m

A2 250 10 6 m 2

Pi Li

1.95 103 RB

R

A

E

E

i i i

the redundant reaction be compatible,

L R 0

0

E

E

RB 577 103 N 577 kN

B

R A 323 kN

R A 323 kN

RB 577 kN

TUTORIAL 2

Two cylindrical rods, CD made of steel (E=200 GPa) and

AC made of aluminum (E=72 GPa), are joined at C and

restrained by rigid supports at A and D. Determine

(a)

the reactions at A and D (RA=52.9kN, RD= 87.1 kN)

(b)

The deflection of point C (0.086 mm)

67

TUTORIAL 3

At room temperature (21oC) a 0.5 mm gap exists

between the ends of the rods shown. At a later time when

the temperature has reached 1600C, determine

(a)The normal stress in the aluminum rod (a =-150.6

MPa)

(b)The change in length of the aluminum rod (a= 0.369

mm)

69

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