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INTRODUCTION TO TELEVISION PRODUCTION

Lecture-1
The Concept of Motion Picture
It started with a $25,000 bet.

5 minutes

Brief Introduction of this course
It’s all about your creative elements.
It’s all about media professionalism.
It’s all about the video production techniques.
It’s all about the art of television production

10 minutes

Television Programming
Objectives
News
Information
Entertainment
Education

3 minutes

Types of TV programs (Overview)
Shows,
Dramas,
Documentaries,
Sports,
Discussion,
Interviews,
Cartoons etc

3 minutes

Who Does What and Why in Television
The Executive Producer
The Producer
The Director
Writer
Director of photography
Lighting Director
Set Designer
Costume Designer
Make up Artist
Operative Cameraman
A/V Engineer
Technicians & Assistants
Editors & Graphic Designers

5 minutes

PRODUCTION PHASES
Three phases,
Preproduction
Production
Post production
roughly characterized as "before, during, and after."

Lecture-1 : 30 minutes

3 minutes

INTRODUCTION TO TELEVISION PRODUCTION
Lecture-2
The Production Sequence
Identify the Purpose of the Production
Analyze your target audience
Identify Demographics to Determine the Acceptability of Content
Check out Similar Productions
Determine the Basic Value of Your Production
Develop a Production Script
Select Key Production Personnel
Decide on Locations
Decide on Talent, Wardrobe and Sets
Obtain Permits, Insurance, and Clearances
Select Video Inserts, Still Photos, and Graphics
Begin Rehearsals and Shooting
Begin Editing Phase
Do Postproduction Follow-Up

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PREPRODUCTION
Idea / brain storming
Research

2 minutes

Where to do Research?
Print Media
Field Research
Interview Research

2 minutes

Finalizing the Research
The top of the issue
The Heart of the issue
The root of the issue
The branches of the issue
Finding challenges

Lecture – 2 : 35 minutes

5 minutes

INTRODUCTION TO TELEVISION PRODUCTION
Lecture-3

PREPRODUCTION
PROGRAM PROPOSALS
Writing the Program Proposal
Get Agreement on Your Proposal
See That Your Proposal Engages the Audience
Get their attention
Hit the target audience
Use audience engaging techniques

5 minutes

Planning Ahead
Production Treatment
The Budget
The Script
The Storyboard
Casting
Recce & Location Surveys
Assessing the Mechanics
The Production Timeline
Fixed Deadlines
Distribution
Contingency Time

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Budgeting
The driving force behind a production is MONEY.

2 minutes

Budget Basics
Above The Line Costs
Below The Line Costs
Contingency

3 minutes
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Cost Factors
Shooting format
Shoot Period
Duration of the program
Story and script
Producer and director
Performers
Production staff
Locations and studio
Production equipment
Raw stock
Miscellaneous
Sound and music
Editing and finishing
Contingency 15%

Lecture – 3 : 40 minutes

10 minutes

INTRODUCTION TO TELEVISION PRODUCTION Lecture-4 PRODUCTION Production Grammar SHOT Elements of Shot Motivation Information Sound Continuity 15 minutes Classifying Shot Long shots Medium Shots Close shots Calculating shots etc 5 minutes Composition Line Tone Balance Unity 15 minutes Lecture – 4 : 35 minutes .

Planning Ahead . the basic idea allows the team members to have a very clear idea about the market segment for which the program is being made for. For example if a director wants to shoot a documentary in which the story depicts ancient times. Sometimes the idea is predetermined or forced from circumstances for example the 911 incident was the baseline story for many movies and programs which were produced. The research methodology varies from program to program. director of photography. will give the idea of how much cost will incur and how much time will be required for the said production. crockery. Successful producers and directors pay special emphasis on researching the material required for making a program. the director must have the knowledge of the cloths. Also. . recording engineers etc. houses etc of that time so that he can direct the production designer to have the props made accordingly. It is imperative for the production team to sit together and work out the details of the program.Optimum Production Mechanics Power Supply Lighting Setup Location Visuals arrangements Sound mechanics Access & Travelling Selection of Crew Call Sheet Consent for shoot Performer’s Clearance Form Costume & Wardrobe Rehearsals Idea/brain storming The production process starts with the idea generation and brain storming. It varies from situation to situation. Research: An important component of preproduction is Research. Idea sharing and suggestions from all the key team members like chief cameraman.

if you’re not excited about it. In the end. there is always room for more research. He may think he has enough information to write a fairly comprehensive script and he would be right. However. Curiosity The best research is done when there is a genuine desire on the part of the scriptwriter to learn more about the subject of his documentary. After all. There are simply no shortcuts that will provide the quality of a well-researched film. historical. what would I want to learn about this subject?  What can I find that is little known on this subject?  If the shooting has not yet started. philosophical. especially when you get that dreaded call about writing a script on the inner components of a diesel generator. has a ‘value’. Suppose a scriptwriter has the footage of a live riot. or for a film on the thoughts and feelings of a celebrity already captured in detail on camera. like a riot. historical and social reasons why that riot may have taken place for some extra context. he may or may not use any of the so-called ‘extra’ information he gathered. the filmmaker’s personal thoughts about his experience and oncamera interviews with people on both sides about their views. what if he did a little study on the political. A scriptwriter could be instructed to write a script on a live event that was shot some time ago. political. He might ask himself. He could even go so far as to place himself in the middle of a riot (highly unadvisable) to get a first-hand perspective on the experience. or meet an expert on riots and get his perspective on what happened and even collect the newspaper coverage of that riot and think about the role of media in that event. how on earth are you going to make hundreds. what information can I gather that would aid the filming process? Quantity Vs Quality . The amount of research a scriptwriter puts in is directly related to the ‘value’ of the film.YOU CAN’T SAY IT ENOUGH! Every film. but inspiration and curiosity go a long way in helping a scriptwriter. “How can I possibly add anything more to the subject information?” Even in films that seem straightforward and detailed information has already been given to the scriptwriter. during and afterwards. Perhaps he could visit the riot site. along with a detailed log of the events that took place before. The scriptwriter must ask himself some important questions:  What have I not yet been told about this subject?  Is everything I have been told the truth? How much do I need to verify?  What would I personally like to know about this subject?  If I were a member of the audience. or if he spoke to a few more people who were involved on that day and who may have seen something he didn’t know about. the first step in the research process would be to develop a healthy interest and curiosity about the subject of the film. shot by the filmmaker. thousands or even millions of people excited? Therefore. This could be social. This is easier said than done. artistic or of some other kind. but his in-depth knowledge on the subject would be extremely valuable in creating an insightful and engaging script. especially a documentary.

is it more relevant than all the other information I have gathered so far?  Will I be able to incorporate this information into the script even if it is relevant to the subject? The ‘Strategy’ Almost every scriptwriter starts off with a research strategy. These words can be used later on in the script. publishing houses and academic institutions. In addition. “Where do I look?” Each scriptwriter has his own sources and approaches for gathering information and many use the same tried and tested ways throughout their careers. The all-important question that usually crops up is. After all. chances are you’ll have a stack of a hundred relevant publications lying in your house waiting to be read. if you are going to write narration. if you were a writing a script for a film on the First World War. It’s important to think about and list down every approach and every source you will use to gather information needed for research. diaries…the list is endless. Any information gathered or lead followed must first be put through a ‘relevancy test’. however a novice scriptwriter should try and train his eye to skim over words and stop to read bits of text which occur to him as something he could put in his script or which sounds interesting and should be kept aside. The scriptwriter must decide which one will be suitable for subject-related information gathering and then physically get hold of the required publication. One of the more important skills of the scriptwriter is to segregate relevant information from the irrelevant. Chances also are you’ll probably not have enough time to read all of them. The usual places to go for finding print material are libraries. digests. The scriptwriter must ask himself:  Is this information or source of information directly related to the subject of my film?  Is it necessary for the audience to know this information?  Will this information add to the overall quality of the film?  Even if it is relevant and will add value. journals. Unless your film is about something extremely specific. The art of scouring through large amounts of print material quickly can only be picked up over time. you could spend a lifetime studying the subject and never meet that script deadline. reports. bookstores. Other places could be antique book stores. of course. It also helps to keep a look out for ‘keywords’ or words that strike a chord because of their meaning. People also keep print material in their houses and that out-of-print. it’s extremely inconvenient to be in the middle of writing a script when a new piece of information crops up. obscure thesis you were looking for could be lying in your neighbour’s house so it never hurts to ask around. you may be . the internet. books. institutions and organizations with archives and.One of the more important questions that scriptwriters have is. A few places to start are: How to do research? Print Research There are millions of places to look in print: Newspapers. “How much research is enough?” The quality of research is far more important than the quantity. The focus of the film and the subject matter it is dealing with must be kept in mind at all times. archives. After all. This can be done by having detailed and on-going communication with the filmmaker at all times. magazines.

however the scriptwriter must also gather perspective. is a must for every film. They can provide the scriptwriter with not only knowledge but the benefit of their experience. a different perspective. it is integral that a scriptwriter get an accurate picture of the visual information in the film. Who knows? Somebody may give you a gem of an idea. Interview research. or to locations where events took place earlier or will take place in the future. a scriptwriter will be called upon to write a script about something he knows nothing about. directly and indirectly. Interview Research Nine times out of ten. but the scriptwriter must keep a look out for all things visual that can be incorporated as images within the script. Field Research Since film is a visual medium. the people met. Not one but many. Consequently. Inner Worlds & Metaphors Every scriptwriter has a different personality. The culture of the area should be learnt. The scriptwriter could attend related events or even put himself into places where the people in the film will be or would have been. The best way to gain perspective is to speak to people directly and indirectly connected with the subject. Normally.exploring the idea of including visuals of print material in your film as well. Imagination is the biggest talent and tool . you must keep it aside for future reference. then the scriptwriter can speak to people who were involved with the events. If there are specific events in the film. the first person or people to seek out are the experts on the subject at hand. in which case you must select and isolate this material carefully for filming later. The scriptwriter must first decide whom to speak to and what to ask them. He could go to the various locations in which the film will be shot. He could even go to museums. Factual knowledge can usually be easily attained from print and field research. by people and therefore a human perspective is imperative for any film. The selection of people should be varied to get different. which is basically meeting people and asking them questions. These little details will help you design the script in a more artistic and insightful way. even opposing. the details noted. This is often one reason why filmmakers come to a specific writer to write their scripts again and again. The ‘field’ exists only in relation to the subject of the film and therefore the options are endless and should be visited upon the scriptwriter’s discretion. The questions to ask them should cover a range of ideas and should typically include factual and emotional elements as well as opinions and insights. How to gather field material when on location is subjective to the film. Once the writer reaches a location. Once you gather this knowledge. Films are a medium for people. It always helps to listen to any ideas they may have about how you can ‘treat’ the film conceptually. art galleries or any kind of public viewing space where he could gather information. irrespective of whether you incorporate their opinions into the script or not. it is important to look out for things which might be relevant to the script. types of information from each. to note things like where the sunlight comes from at what time and what the sounds are heard around the area. It also helps when on a shooting location. every scriptwriter has something unique to contribute to a film. You could track events as they happened or look for clues that could reveal facts much like a detective. These conversations should be recorded carefully and relevant points should be kept aside.

lets call them Ted and Sue. their sounds. where are they spotted. Although not for everybody. Digging Deep Every scriptwriter wants to write a brilliant script and it’s a well known fact that some profound investigation needs to be done for this to be accomplished. could make you think about the conquest of a robotic age over humaneness. Do they love. with horns blaring and drivers swearing. migratory patterns and when they go. The writer could find out the history of the Orcas and the role that humans played in it. their behavior. Or the same sight. intelligence. Here is an example of the kinds of research material he might look for: The ‘Top’ of the issue The top of the issue includes the facts. The ‘Heart’ of the issue The scriptwriter could find out more insightful details about the whales as living creatures and fellow mammals. a very effective approach at the research stage can be to look within oneself and gather the benefits of past experiences and try and create an emotional stance on the matter at hand.of the scriptwriter. It could be completely unrelated to the object or concept it invokes a memory of. Metaphors or parallels exist all around us in our lives. So what exactly is digging deep and going beyond the facts? What exactly is the scriptwriter looking for and how can it be defined? There are a few ways of looking at these concerns. You could see a highway ridden with rush hour traffic and be reminded of thousands of ants filing in an out of an anthill carrying food. but still portray it in a meaningful way. The possibilities and metaphors around us are endless. but are the aunts. The scriptwriter could delve into scientific research being done on the whales by interviewing two marine researchers. killer whales and their appearance. do they hate? Why do they beach themselves all together – is it really collective suicide because they mourn their dead like us humans? What kinds of relationships do they have among each other? Yes. On a spiritual level. Sometimes. activities. a couple who live and work on the New Zealand coast. meditating upon the inner world within oneself can be a powerful way of harnessing knowledge locked within the sub-conscious mind and perhaps. a mother whale is attached to her calf. if one believes so. just waiting to be picked out by an inventive and imaginative writer. Ted and Sue could even take the scriptwriter on a whale observing expedition. the uncles? What do they say to each other when they click and whine? Have Ted and Sue ever come into close contact with any whale? Did they feel a connection? How did the whale react to human contact and was it significant in terms of its emotional value? What did the scriptwriter feel when he looked at a whale for the first time and did he get a sense of the ‘spirit’ of the creature? The ‘Root’ of the issue . the power of the collective unconscious or the cosmos. Suppose a scriptwriter is researching a film on the migratory killer whales or Orcas off the New Zealand coast. where he would experience the whales first hand and also get an idea of what could be shot for the film. we see something that reminds us of something else or inspires us in a particular way.

for instance. This assumes both knowledge of the prime directive and the target audience. Making a Program Proposals . then how?” and possibly even. What is being done by people that is hurting their health and causing their numbers to decline. when explored in a film. This tragic and brutal past was because of people. is incomplete when there is nothing introduced that challenges it.e. that everybody needs to get on board to save the killer whale and help them flourish in the oceans. The ‘Branches’ of the issue The scriptwriter could try and find related issues that would add value to the film. The possibilities of branching out to explore the issue in greater detail are endless. Or go in the opposite direction and talk to a person who has killed a killer whale or eaten one. The scriptwriter should then choose which of the details add value to the film. the scriptwriter must ask. Finding Challenges An issue. “What can people (i. the audience) do to help?” Identifying target audience: Most of the productions are designed keeping in view the market segment to which the program is intended for. Could their subsequent conservation by people later on be a result of guilt? The scriptwriter could ask what larger role this film could have and the answer might well be to aid in conserving the Orcas for the future by dispelling myths and increasing awareness.The scriptwriter would find out that the whales have a tragic history because of the excessive whaling that took place in past decades. This could the message of the film. who hunted them almost to extinction. The scriptwriter must study the challenges facing the killer whale and their survival as a species. like changing temperatures in the waters of the Antarctic? How about large sharks and the threat they pose? Then. liking and psyche of the viewer. ‘Is it possible for the killer whales to triumph over these challenges?” and “If they can. and it ends up being a key to your professional success. With the television perspective. it must in some way affect the audience emotionally. if at all? Are there any challenges put forth by nature that they have to overcome. defining the market segment means that the presentation of that particular program will be according to the tastes. For example while making a program for children producers and directors often use bright colors with animated figures etc. Does the migration of the whales have any effect on the surrounding ecosystems? How about thinking about the spirit of travel or of the ocean itself? Perhaps talk to a person or a group of people who have saved a beached killer whale in the past. In order for your program to have value and a lasting effect.

It is a skill which comes with observation. it's difficult for someone to say later. Script writing or. TV is still based on the written word. The more knowledgeable a person is. in the case of a feature-length dramatic production. .The first step in a complex production is to write a clear and succinct summary of your ideas. Once everyone agrees on the treatment or program proposal. "This isn't what we agreed on. scriptwriting can be broadly defined as writing the dialogue and relevant directions for a production. the treatment or program proposal must engage the interest of readers and go a long way toward convincing them of the probable success of the production. As scripts are used for a variety of purposes in a number of settings. G etting the go-ahead on a proposal affords everyone a bit of insurance. the basic story line." Finally. just the process of putting things down on paper allows you to better organize and clarify your ideas. Although it's a visual medium. What does that mean? It shows how the script is important in a television production. there are specific criteria or formal structures that are often unique to a given type of script. Only the shooting is left”. For example. The script writing techniques are different in television production than in films. When you get down to it. Script Writing When a well known director was asked about his film. learning and acquiring knowledge. After the finalization of the idea and defining of its market segment the content is given a shape in written format which forms a script. in the case of a dramatic production. key production personnel must understand the basics of scripts before they can create a production. a screenplay for a film might include camera specific terminology---such as pan. he said “Well! My film is complete. a treatment can run up to many pages. In the same way. Writing the contents down in a sequential form helps the production team to understand the chain of events. Anyone reading a program proposal or treatment should be able to get a clear idea of the entire production. research. your ability to write and effectively communicate your ideas end up being the most important criterion for success. or. zoom or deep focus---that would not appear in the script for a play. a better writer he is. Keep in mind that writing for the electronic media is not the same as writing for the print media. A simple program proposal may be just a couple of pages or. A program proposal or treatment should cover the essence of the production. more commonly. Often.

It is more specifically targeted at the visual. The major components of a screenplay are action and dialogue. The characters. narrative arts. They generally pass through multiple revisions. Screenplays differ from traditional literature conventions. .Storyboard It is a visual display of the action elements in a script prepared in conjunction with the script. a theatrical play etc. and screenwriters are called on to incorporate suggestions from directors. producers. Screenplays may be adapted from novels or stage plays or developed from original ideas suggested by the screenwriters or their collaborators. when first introduced in the screenplay. to add the dimension of sight to the script. whereas a script can involve a blueprint of "what happens" in a comic. A screenplay differs from a script. particularly for commercials. and others involved in the filmmaking process. it will also point out flaws in the script or weaknesses in the concept. Screenplay Written text that provides the basis for a film/television production. screenplays may not involve emotionrelated descriptions and other aspects of the story that are. may also be described visually. Used as a visualization of the commercial for client approval. visual within the end-product. The storyboard is a sequential series of illustrations depicting the key action called for by the script. it also helps in estimating costs for the commercial. and can act as a guide in the actual shooting of the commercial. such as film and television. however. with the "action" being "what we see happening" and "dialogue" being "what the characters say". Additionally. Screenplays usually include not only the dialogue spoken by the characters but also a shot-by-shot outline of the action. an advertisement. in fact.

camera directions and notes may be inserted by the Director. News Scripts While appearing natural on screen. Instructions lean toward the necessary audio components that need to accompany a given scene and may also give direction to the voice actor about how a line should be delivered. When a scene is omitted. The components of the script the anchors do not read aloud generally include directions for the production staff about when to run a clip or to cut to a live anchor in the field. A map helps you on your way and prevents you from getting lost. reports crazy Dog Audio Theatre. often sharing terminology. uncharted areas off the beaten track.The shooting script A pre-shoot or shooting script is like carrying a map when you set out on a road trip. You may discover wonderful. its number is retired so that it won't be assigned to any newly added scenes. You may stumble across many unseen barriers or unexpected surprises. Once a script has been approved for production. and each scene is assigned a number to provide a convenient way for the various production departments to reference individual scenes. The dialogue is also different in that it includes more descriptive language about the surroundings to help establish setting. providing a visual guideline for the shoot. It uses the same format and elements as a post-shoot script and can be as comprehensive or generic depending on the information available to the scriptwriter at that stage. News scripts tend to be bare-bones affairs that provide informational content. You may decide to go in one direction or the next or perhaps even a third. Scripts for Different Programs Audio Drama Scripts for audio dramas share a number of components with screenplays and the scripts for stage plays. There tends to much more extensive use of the so-called narrator to provide third person perspective than in other fictional scripts. A shooting script is a conceptual map for your shooting journey. most news anchors are provided with scripts to read via teleprompters. Documentary Drama . It consolidates research and outlines the film’s story.

and stars.Script . light. TALENT Anyone who appears on camera or before the microphone. (2) The smallest unit of a script. generally involved in television production. AMBIENT: The prevailing location environment. ANALOG: An electronic signal that is constantly varying in some proportion to either sound. AUDITION: A talent tryout session for directors and producers to watch and listen to prospective performers before casting them in a production.Location Hunting/Sets . we use 25 frames a second in video production.Identifying target audience (likes and dislikes) . LECTURE 2 Pre-Production . However.Idea/Brain Storming . See Above-the-Line Costs. audio dramas and screenplays. We will conclude this lecture here and in the next session. Others Other types of scriptwriting include producing story/dialogue for video games. BELOW-THE-LINE COSTS: Those production costs of a cast and crew and their work. These scripts tend to follow the same general patterns as plays. the background noise present at a location. audio. This theatrical retelling of facts began in the early days of broadcasting when practical concerns and unwieldy equipment made it difficult to shoot live events. CREW: A class of people who work at a common activity. Most modern documentaries include some form of event recreation. education films. writers. or a radio frequency. and stars. ASPECT RATIO: The mathematical ratio between the vertical and the horizontal measurements of a frame of video or film.Research . director.This style mixes the techniques of drama and the factual elements of documentary. director. See Belowthe-Line Costs. video. FRAME: Complete video picture. Real events are acted out by professional actors in controlled settings in an obviously constructed style. ACTUALITY: Reporting of a news story on the actual location. writers.Makeup and Wardrobe . Normally. it is used even today. PROPERTIES (Props) Functional set furnishings that play a part in a video or film program RACKEE: A pre-visit to the location to finalize the production setup ABOVE-THE-LINE COSTS: Production costs relating to producer. SHOT (1) One continuous roll of the recorder or camera. online content such as podcasts or marketing materials and even commercials. in audio. Glossary SCRIPT The complete manuscript of all audio copy and visual instructions of a program. or multimedia production. we will continue our discussion about the pre-production elements. whether it is a film. with the exception of the producers.Discussion with key crew members .

As a story begins. It sets the tone and mood for the program and hints at surprises that lie ahead by raising the right questions in the minds of the audience. For example. The leader could be spurred to then organize his people to ensure the government doesn’t sell their precious natural water supply. 5. Creates the element of consequence. creating imbalance relative to the previous way. It is a dynamic and fully developed event. The beginning sets the audience up for all the events about to occur in any video production. setting the story on its way into the middle. A good beginning reveals the subject and issue at hand to the audience in such a way that they become keen to see the events that follow in a program. A ‘hook’ is something that demands attention and places the program contextually in space and time. tells a story. A script is not just a compilation of words. both in a story and audiovisual sense. Creates an audiovisual ‘hook’ to catch the audience’s interest. fiction or documentary. the forces at play are arranged in a particular way. Every film. Cause and effect will direct the audience and increase their understanding of the subject matter.Screen Play/Shot Divisioning . whether it’s hip-hop or classical. The inciting incident is any event that swings reality in either a negative or positive way. The leader obtaining the knowledge that his community’s water supply was in trouble is the inciting incident. 2. not something vague. These elements when woven together with audiovisual elements create a good production. the innate story is as variable as it is constant. whether they are balanced or not.15% Contingency A Story Music. THE MIDDLE . A painting would be just a collage without a story. It is a compilation of conceptual elements that tell a story. It sets up the flavour of things to come. The Inciting Incident is often a common feature used in the beginning to start a story. which is one event leading to another. 4. Creates curiosity among the audience. Shows change or the promise of change. It is this message around which the entire program is built going forward..Budgeting . Story has three broad structural elements: A Beginning Middle An End THE BEGINNING The importance of a good beginning cannot be stressed enough. Establishes the ‘core assertion’ of the story. It is an incident that radically upsets the balance of forces within the story. which is the point the producers wants to make through the video and the message he wants to communicate to the audience. 3. This storytelling technique is useful because the forces within the film must then react to the inciting incident. A good beginning does these things: 1. This incident upset the balance of forces and impelled them to react. would just be noise without a story. the leader of a small desert community could be informed that a large corporation was planning to buy the nearest oasis from the government. The beginning always addresses the issue at hand and introduces the subject to the audience. effectively creating a water crunch in his community. which is one of the inherent elements of story.Casting . Across art forms.

One must ensure that the middle of the program presents a chain of logic designed to prove its core assertion. unwritten space that is the middle of the play is often a daunting challenge for the scriptwriter. leading to a meandering series of events that lack focus. In a story sense ‘the plot’ is when a story navigates through branching possibilities to choose a path that will lead to a resolution. no matter how small. The audience is left with a rounded and closed. The ‘Plot’ of the Story The words ‘to plot’ literally means to figure out a path to enter or exit a situation. the program starts a plot in one direction and then makes it change direction sometime . some or many questions unanswered and some emotions unfulfilled. The issues at hand must be kept in strict focus and events must be arranged in such a way to ensure that the story keeps moving along and progressing. Open End An open ending is usually one which leaves one. The scriptwriter must make event choices – what to include and what to exclude – and place them in a particular order. For this. It is the primary factor that determines audience opinion about the program they’ve just seen. it needs to have something to link the tail of each sequence to the head of the next sequence. This type of ending is absolute and irreversible and the story cannot be extended. overall experience that leaves nothing further to doubt or question. Generally. The questions left are answerable and the emotions resolvable and all that has gone before has led to clear and limited alternatives that make a certain degree of closure possible for the audience. The plot of the program is designed as a larger whole by the scriptwriter. leaving everything hanging unresolved. to move the story forward towards a goal. usually a reiteration of the core assertion of the story. creating unity between all the elements. If the film were a human body. which is the ultimate point that the film is trying to make. there are two types of story endings in a program: Closed End A closed ending is usually one where all the questions raised in the story are answered and all emotions evoked are satisfied. Every story needs to have a plot. Many scriptwriters focus on the dramatic beginning and end of their program and get confused and lost in the middle. A ‘Transition’ is something held in common by two sequences or counter pointed between them. THE END In the words of Aristotle. we find this linking element in one of two possibilities: what the two sequences have in common.’ The end of a story is what the audience takes home with them. This type of ending relies heavily on audience imagination to fill in the gaps once the lights have come on. Each event and action must be pertinent and in keeping with the subject and tone of the story. Broadly speaking. or what they have in opposition. The end is when the program concludes with a conclusion. There needn’t be dramatic twists and turns or high pressure suspense or shocking surprise. an ending must be both ‘inevitable’ and ‘unexpected. In many cases. The plot always adheres to a ‘controlling idea’. The plot is a unifying force that holds a story together. This ‘tight’ structure will result in a dynamic and interesting middle.The big. then the plot would be the spine. Even when the story portrays chaos. The plot of a story is where every sequence in the story makes the next one inevitable because of their events and design in time. The key to a good middle is structure. The ‘open’ implication doesn’t mean the story finishes in the middle. the plot is what keeps the audience on track. A plot can merely be a selection of events and their patterns displayed through time in the story. Transitions Every story needs to have a seamless progression between sequences for the entire thing to work.

It would be possible to hopscotch through time and space. This is because who or whatever’s POV is shown is the person/thing that is telling the story to the audience. directing the gaffer's (chief electrician) placement of lighting. where do they locate themselves in space to view the action? This is point of view – the angle taken to look at the events and characters. the scriptwriter must make the decision early on as to who will tell the story to the audience. film developing and film printing. For example. picking up bits and pieces of everyone’s experience. The entire staff is given a detailed briefing before the start of actual shoot. if you wanted to show this event in video. However. characters. as a scriptwriter. The responsibilities of major personnel involved can be differentiated as this. One of them couldn’t tell you anything about another’s experience. The scriptwriter’s choice of point of view or POV makes an enormous difference on how the audience views the program. cameras. This decision then binds the story to the limited experience of that entity. The ‘Backstory’ Simply put. in the narrative. The backstory in this would be that the farmer was going about his work but having trouble repaying his debts to the bank when. sound. a story about a farmer trying to stop a bank from repossessing his farmland could very well start with the farmer having a conversation with a lawyer. Once the script has been finalized. Each person on the plane had a different experience and different POV so each one would have a different story to tell. yet sequence by sequence. So. and lenses. show it visually through a dramatized recreation of events or through records of events like newspaper clippings etc. shot composition (in consultation with the director). The Director of Photography has a number of possible duties: selection of film stock. designing and selecting lighting. Selection and briefing of key crew members According to the script the producers/directors make a team and that each of them is responsible for his department. the backstory is the background story that occurred before the start of the program. as the audience look at events happening on screen. Point of View/POV Each story is set in a specific time and place. you would need to narrow down on one or a few of the passengers and only show the event through their eyes. The sweeping change that takes the story from one condition to a changed condition by the end is called the Plot Arc. either visually or verbally.during a program towards a completely new goal. but this would probably make the story sprawl and become unfocused. then we need to finalize the crew. words. one day. he was given a repossession notice and asked to vacate. A few ways of doing this are having characters talk about what happened previously. events etc. their interactions with each other and the environment. . Suppose a number of people had a shared experience like a plane crash. A story is told in many different ways – through visuals. Director of Photography (DOP) A cinematographer who is ultimately responsible for the process of recording a scene in the manner desired by the director. The backstory is crucial in providing the audience with some context for the story and the scriptwriter must provide them with this information at some stage.

Prop makers. Location Hunting/sets After understanding the requirements the first phase is the location finalization. The use of makeup is divided into the following categories/types: . the special effects director and the locations manager (among others) to establish a unified visual appearance to the film. music videos or adverts. The production designer works with the “art department” to implement the scenic elements of that vision. the production designer collaborates with the director and director of photography to establish the visual feel and specific aesthetic needs of the project. The aim is to get quality pictures from the studios and to assist performers in their roles. An art director has countless specialists reporting to them including Construction department which includes carpenters. Set designing is also a very important element of production as a good set will create a better impact on audience as compared to a set which does not appeal. TV programs. He is responsible for overall coordination and supervision of the camera department and related matters including the lighting plan.Production Designer Production designer refers to a person responsible for the overall look of a filmed event such as films. The art director supervises set construction and painting. Many discussion sessions are conducted before the actual start of recording. The production designer guides key personnel in other departments such as the costume designer. Initial ‘rackee’ is done and locations are marked according to the requirements of the script. A director needs to be vigilant while selecting locations. The director sums up the inputs both technical and aesthetical and initiates the production accordingly. painters. they must select the settings and style to visually tell the story. the key hair and make-up stylists. Working directly with the director and producer. provision of electricity etc and also the climate conditions. as well as modifications to existing locations. The chief cameraman plays a vital role in harmonizing the recordings of more than one camera. Other than the above mentioned many other technical staff members are also engaged as per the production requirement. such as changing signs or installing new carpet. sign painters. Production Designers have one of the key creative roles in the creation of motion pictures and television.e. Makeup and wardrobe Contrary to the popular belief the function of makeup is not just to make people look as good as possible in front of camera. Chief Cameraman Is responsible for all the camera work which majorly includes the operations of cameras. From early in pre-production. plasterers. How to create effective set designs will be discussed in detail in the forthcoming lectures. that the selected location is friendly to the technical needs of production i. and scenic artists. riggers and other trades.

working on numerous ambitious Hollywood productions. b). Character This type of makeup is actually done to portray a character and is used extensively in Drama production. . keeping in view the characters stated in the script. or the effect is reduced. In Pakistan casting is mostly done by the director but it is a very specialized job and for big budget productions specialists are hired for casting. Wardrobe Wardrobe in Television Production is not just ironing and cleaning department. Straight: This does not greatly change the appearance of the presenter or performer. Some of them build an impressive career. The experts in this department have technical knowledge of television clothing. c). he should have well established connections with prop providers and other related vendors so that he knows from where to get the required materials/items There are technical issues relating to dress and color selection which will be discussed in the lectures on Cameras. Corrective: This sorts out problems with appearance. namely under hot lights for a long period of time. The aim here is to improve the appearance without giving the impression of being made up. e. actors and their agents once the parts have been cast. Casting director (and/or Casting Assistant. It can be facial reshaping. Use of prosthetics and complex hairdos are done by experts of this field. Casting Specialized personals sit with the production team and analyze the potential artists. lighting bags under the eyes and strengthening the lips. Also.g. Typically this includes removing of ‘shine’ from the foreheads. in addition the "CD" may also remain as liaison between director. Casting Associate) is in-charge of most of the daily work involved in recruiting process during pre-production. They are called ‘Casting Directors’. Casting can be termed as the most important element in production as it greatly affects the outlook of the program. Refurbishing: Most of the makeup wears off after a while. but compensates for the environment we work in. growths and thinning hair etc. It is imperative to have a makeup artist in the studio to keep an eye on the performers throughout the shoot. skin blemishes.a). It includes covering up scars. changing hair etc. and artistic ability to interpret briefs from the directors. A film or TV production if subject to miscasting is often rejected by the viewers.

. In the next session we will be discussing the elements of a video .

Here is a sample of an estimated budget preparation sheet. DESCRIPTION 1 STORY AND SCRIPT 2 PRODUCER AND DIRECTOR 3 PERFORMERS 4 PRODUCTION STAFF 5 LOCATIONS AND STUDIO 6 PRODUCTION EQUIPMENT 7 RAW STOCK 8 LABORATORY 9 MISCELLANEOUS Totals Sub Total 10 SOUND AND MUSIC 11 EDITING AND FINISHING Sub Total Total Contingency 10% Grand Total Glossary . ESTIMATED PICTURE BUDGET SUMMARY YOUR COMPANY TITLE DATE PREPARED: Producer: Director: 2 P Budget By: Approved By: Prep Period: Shoot Period: Post: Format:1 Length (min.): Days Days Weeks NO.

film. COLOR BARS Electronically generated pattern of precisely specified colors for use in standardizing the operation of video equipment. ARC Movement of the camera in a semicircular pattern. usually green or blue. BREAKDOWN SHEETS A listing of facilities.CUE (1) Signal to start talking. or whatever the script calls for. COLOR CONTRAST Visible differences between adjacent colors. A specific type of effects generator ignores the blue or green background so that the foreground subject appears in front of the other signals. and personnel needs for production at a specific setting called for in the script. The copy is keyed into a window at the bottom of the frame. BLOCKING Working out talent and camera positions during a rehearsal. which is filled out during script breakdown. in terms of hue and saturation. BRIGHTNESS The intensity of light. at a specified spot. the central crisis in a drama. BOOST To raise or increase the level of a signal or portion of the signal. CHROMA The color portion of the video signal that includes both hue and saturation. adjusting the shades and tints of colors to compensate for an incorrect exposure or to create an effect. and so on. CHROMA KEY A method of combining two or more levels of pictures from more than one source. (2) To cut or restrict. BLEED Space beyond the critical or essential area that may be seen on some television receivers but not on others. equipment. CLIMAX The decisive point in a drama. (2) To ready material to be played back or edited by running and stopping a tape. CHROMINANCE (Chroma) The color portion of the video signal. COLOR CORRECTION During the postproduction phase of a visual project. CLOSED-CAPTION A form of teletext designed to permit the hearing impaired to read the dialogue and a description of the action of a program. CHRONOLOGY The timing sequence of events in a story. The process depends on the background behind the foreground subjects being a solid single color. LECTURE 3 SCRIPT/SCREENPLAY WRITING Idea development Character development Formatting techniques Creating characters Building a Character Story and character Beginnings and Endings Setting up the story Plot points The scene The sequence Building the storyline What is a Screenplay? Writing the screenplay Adaptation Story structure LECTURE # 3 . COLOR HARMONY Colors that create a pleasing impression when used or presented together. A special decoder attached to or built into the receiver is necessary to be able to view the copy. record. material. moving. where the central conflict becomes so intense that it must be resolved. CLIP (1) A single sequence of frames.

Those who write for print enjoy some advantages their broadcast counterparts don't have. . The first phase starts with: a. disappointments and betrayals are the grist for the mill of your creativity. paragraphs. However. the listener/viewer is distracted while figuring out what was said. The newspapers are filled with dramas. Many writers keep file folders filled with possible stories. keep in mind that writing for the electronic media is not the same as writing for print. Scripts come in different shapes and forms which will be discussed under different topics. It is a skill which comes with observation. research. small threads that can form a basis of a great script. fantasies. Also. SCRIPT WRITING Script writing forms an essential part of all multimedia projects and helps us in outlining the structure and content of those projects. italics. and boldface type guide the reader. Dreams. The gist of the matter here is that a competent writer always keeps his eyes and ears open and is a keen observer of what goes around him. easily understandable and are implicit. a reader can go back and reread a sentence. What is script writing? Once the idea is finalized it has to be put on paper. If a sentence isn't understood in electronic media. The aforementioned and script formats will be discussed in detail in the subsequent lecture. Many scriptwriters find ideas from newspaper articles. such things as chapter divisions. conflicts. subheadings. Different situations when coupled with a good idea of imagination. Idea Development: Where do ideas come from? The world in brimming with fascinating stories. With the written word. Part of your training as a writer consists of finding the clues. can lead to new ideas. For example. Preproduction and its components: 1. b. It is very important that the dialogues or the sentences written in the script are simple. goals as well as failures.or worse. hints. what is his background. For example while making an infomercial some time the hosts speak the brand name or its characteristics too fast due to which the interest of the audience is lost and they are unable to relate the previous sentence with the forthcoming. A script is the realization of the basic idea and in a written form. dynamic characters and important issues. And the spelling of sound-alike words can indicate their meaning. learning and acquiring knowledge.e. ideas can come from any one regardless of who he is. The more knowledgeable a person is. a better writer he is. how educated he is and to which class he belongs to. however. Script writing is a sophisticated piece of work involving creativity. dramatic characters and intriguing ideas.In this session we will discuss about the first stage of making a programme i. the meaning is lost -. observation and research. hopes.

"There are less concerns about good grammar in advertising" should be "fewer concerns. Facts must be taut. In broadcast style.. Often. Avoid dependent clauses at the beginning of sentences. one thing is very clear that the idea is to get the word across so that it conveys the meaning the way it is intended to or as required by the mood of the situation depicted in the script.and become accepted. which is common in newspaper writing. "Whom. remember that the active voice is preferred over the inactive or passive voice. "Irregardless" can be found in a couple of dictionaries -. Nouns and verbs are preferred over adjectives and specific words over general ones. So in view of the above mentioned example. In writing your scripts.. "Close proximity" is becoming accepted. intangible.. and making it easy for an audience to understand." Fewer relates to things you can count or which are tangible.three dots. a script should crackle. An extra helping of commas is often used to provide clues to phrasing. If you can clearly see what is happening on the screen.. For example to present a horror scene in a radio drama it is very important that the situation is buildup/developed by establishing the ambience. complete sentences are not used. we want to know from the beginning who's doing the "saying. Things which were deemed "wrong" at one point can eventually come into regular use -.Things are different when you write for the ear." even when correctly used in speech. why are you staring out the window?"). Such usage is sometimes inconsistent with proper written form. ... Ellipses. now sounds stilted. you don't always follow standard rules of punctuation.even though it's not seen as acceptable." If viewers see one thing and hear another. this is hardly the case with TV. That said.are commonly used to designate pauses. Keep in mind the basic guideline of correlating audio and video because viewers are accustomed to having what they see on the screen relate to what they hear -. this can get downright annoying. where you can see what is taking place. Although radio drama had to slip many things into the dialogue to tip off the listeners to what they could not see ("Shazia. verbs strong and active.generally in the form of dialogue or narration. the English language is constantly changing. less to things you can not. things get confusing.just as they are not in normal conversation. even though proximity means close. In radio it is imperative that the whole situation is not only depicted in a clear more understandable way but also presented in a way which will make the listeners imagine and visualize a situation. This entails making it easy for an announcer to read. In order to deliver narration in a conversational style. Even though you want audio and video to relate. Attribution should come at the beginning of sentences rather than at the end. The most common technique to effectively portray this situation is by using sound effects. so it's redundant. watch out for the "see him run" approach where the audio states the obvious.

The best approach in presenting crucial information in an instructional production is first to signal the viewer that something important is coming. Do not tell viewers what they should be feeling by using adjectives. and you'll bore them. present the information as simply and clearly as possible.The trick is to write slightly off the pictures. "Guess what. . such as the make of the car and the type of trees being cut down. reinforce the point through repetition or with an illustration or two.. 3. 5. After you write it. The more researched a program is. This technique involves a delicate balancing act. Next. use well-known terms.. Do not give everything away right at the beginning. This is imperative especially in dramas and fiction. Not only is the amount of information you communicate important. Maintain interest by spreading these "nuggets" throughout the story." 7." If the story's facts don't make such things obvious.. Use the active voice: subject. While making sure you bring the most interesting and surprising elements of the story to the forefront of your story." "amazing. This means that. you'll lose your audience. Then. but also the rate at which it is presented. too slowly. he may add sad background music or other visual effects rather then making the character say that what happened to him was tragic. and object. Cut out every unnecessary phrase and word. more clearly it can portray a situation. give the viewer a chance to process each idea before moving on to the next. making certain nothing is deleted that would hurt the story if it were gone. Remember that nouns and verbs are stronger than adjectives and adverbs. such as "tragic. Include defining details. Write (tell!) the story as if you were trying to catch the interest of a friend. For example while describing a tragic scene a director should put in elements that will create an emotional atmosphere like the talent should look grim and sad. but.. your audience probably would not know what ENG and AB-roll mean. 4. If you move too rapidly.. your words are not so far removed from what is being seen that you split viewer attention. c. 2. set it aside for at least ten minutes and concentrate on something else. verb." and "stunning. In information-centered productions. Avoid jargon. while you do not describe the pictures.. Ten News writing Guidelines Here are ten guidelines for writing news: 1. 6. For example. especially shopworn adjectives. Try mentally following up on the phrases. you might want to reexamine your approach." or "This may be hard to believe. Then go back and review the story with a fresh perspective.

let viewers know where you're going. Rewrite: sentences that are too long tongue-twisting or awkward phrases phrases that could be taken two ways long titles ("The 18-year-old. it will also point out flaws in the script or weaknesses in the concept. expound on it. Do not rely on the sound track to tell the story or explain the video. it also helps in estimating costs for the commercial.8. and some to both.. College Park Central High School sophomore. which concepts are key. some to dramatic productions.  Pace your presentation according to the ability of your target audience to grasp the concepts. This fosters more ideas and generates consensus inside the group. In summary. Read the story aloud (not under your breath). Additionally. and can act as a guide in the actual shooting of the commercial. . particularly for commercials. your clearly stated and verified facts will silence any rational critic.  Engage your audience emotionally.  Provide adequate logical structure. The storyboard is a sequential series of illustrations depicting the key action called for by the script. illustrate it. The basic idea should be obvious from the video.  Give your audience a chance to digest one concept before moving on to another. Used as a visualization of the commercial for client approval. Have you made statements that could be challenged? Ideally. 2. One advantage of using storyboards is that it allows the user to experiment with changes in the storyline to evoke stronger reaction or interest. approachable style.") 9. the audio and video should complement and strengthen each other.  Don't try to pack too many facts into one program. make them care about both the people and content of your production. here are seven general rules to remember in writing for television. placing their ideas on storyboards and then arranging the storyboards on the wall.  Assume a conversational tone by using short sentences and an informal. and when you're going to change the subject.. 10. to add the dimension of sight to the script. Storyboard Visual display of the action elements in a script prepared in conjunction with the script. The process of visual thinking and planning allows a group of people to brainstorm together. Screen the complete audio and video story (package).  After making an important point. At the same time. Some of these apply to instructional productions.

4. simply by looking at a couple of pages. some guidelines are followed. it isn't always necessarily indicative of quality and is something that can more readily be resolved with the final process of post-production. It is more specifically targeted at the visual. as well as the font size and line spacing. producers. While length is important. The characters. Some studios have definitions of the required format written into the rubric of their writer's contract. for example. Unfortunately. an advertisement. there is no single canonical standard for 'studio format' although the definitions of the format are mostly very similar. anywhere in the world. they will assume that the writer is inexperienced and may not read any further.and yet it continues to hold sway. such as film and television. If it is not. and others involved in the filmmaking process. This rule of thumb is widely contested for example a page of dialog usually occupies less screen time than a page of action. Early drafts often include only brief suggestions for planned shots. and screenwriters are called on to incorporate suggestions from directors. within the relevant industries. film editing. . Most experienced readers can tell instantly whether a script is in standard studio format or not. screenplays may not involve emotion-related descriptions and other aspects of the story that are. Screenplays differ from traditional literature conventions. but by the date of production a screenplay may evolve into a detailed shooting script. but throughout the world. when first introduced in the screenplay. Screenplays usually include not only the dialogue spoken by the characters but also a shot-by-shot outline of the action. however. One reason for this is that. Screenplay format There is no unique "rule" for the writing of a screenplay. They generally pass through multiple revisions. are expected to conform to a standard typographical format known widely as studio format which stipulates how elements of the screenplay such as scene headings. may also be described visually. a. a theatrical play etc. The major components of a screenplay are action and dialogue. in which action and gestures are explicitly stated. most screenplays will transfer onto the screen at the rate of approximately one page per minute. a major director is attached to direct). narrative arts. shots and parenthetical matter should be presented on the page. in fact. Screenplay Written text that provides the basis for a film/television production. action. Therefore it is important to know the rules.3. character names. transitions. Ideally a screenplay should be 90-130 pages long. dialog. A screenplay differs from a script. whereas a script can involve a blueprint of "what happens" in a comic. with the "action" being "what we see happening" and "dialogue" being "what the characters say". and it depends enormously on the literary style of the writer -. when rendered in studio format. visual within the end-product. Anything more than 130 pages might set off alarm bells unless there is a substantial balancing factor (for example. Screenplays may be adapted from novels or stage plays or developed from original ideas suggested by the screenwriters or their collaborators. Screenplay for Film Motion picture screenplays intended for submission to mainstream studios.

its number is retired so that it won't be assigned to any newly added scenes. and the script is once again locked. meaning that any subsequent revisions will apply to the first set of revision pages. green and cherry pages. and single-camera sitcoms are essentially the same as for motion pictures. ________________________________________ . Since rewrites often continue throughout principle photography. A number of these programs offer access to online screenwriter communities where you can publish your work for feedback from fellow screenwriters. The shooting script Once a script has been approved for production. When the shooting script is distributed.Screenplays are almost always written using a monospaced font. often a variant of Courier although other fonts are sometimes seen. These programs have been designed to create industry standard screenplays and are used by professional screenwriters. specialized format that derives from radio and the stage play. In this format. Screenplay for Television For American TV shows. like CSI. dialogue is double-spaced. Someone who writes screenplays is a screenwriter. Multi-camera sitcoms use a different. its pages are locked. and each scene is assigned a number to provide a convenient way for the various production departments to reference individual scenes. action lines are capitalized. pink. c. camera directions and notes may be inserted by the Director. The script format for documentaries and audio-visual presentations which consist largely of voice-over matched to still or moving pictures is different again and uses a two-column format which can be particularly difficult to achieve in standard word processors. The process is repeated for each new round of revisions. and scene headings are capitalized and underlined. and many have templates for teleplays and stage plays. at least when it comes to editing. The main difference is that TV scripts have act breaks. When revisions are distributed. The art of writing a screenplay is known as screenwriting and is dealt with separately. When a scene is omitted. Each round of revisions is distributed on different colored paper. The progression of colors varies from one production to the next. most shooting scripts evolve into a rainbow of gold. blue. the pages are swapped into the outstanding drafts. Key-Note: A script for a television program is sometimes called a teleplay. Detailed computer programs are designed specifically for screenplays. the format rules for hour dramas. b. including special bitmapped fonts intended to resemble the output of an old battered typewriter.

A good outline is like a blueprint of your story. they are going to start working to get what they want. Plotting a story can be a lot of fun. The next topic in this regard is the: STORY: An idea that comes to one’s mind as a result of different stimuli that he/she sees around or one’s imagination. You keep asking yourself. and its sequence will differ from that of the plot.Ensure availability of all resources (crew. or you can weave the tangled web in your head.g. PLOT: The first thing any writer should do before starting any serious writing is to craft a plot outline.Potential Problems while Recordings . security etc) Recording for Television LECTURE # 4 In this lecture we will continue with the preproduction process and its elements. or mystery. But you should know the basic plot. the term refers more specifically to the sequence of imagined events that we reconstruct from the actual arrangement of a narrative (or dramatic) plot. In modern narratology.Discussion with Talent/script in advance . The easiest way to plot a story is to know two things: What your characters want. and what the situation is. the story can be translated into other languages and media (e. When the characters are put in a situation. A story is defined as an account or recital of an event or a series of events. Plot is the most important part of a screenplay and is an integral part of the story. The plot extends to include all the things that make the story work. either true or fictitious. "What would happen if this happened?" And you continue throwing your characters into worse and worse situations until they finally cave in or conquer the .Rehearsals .LECTURE 4 Production . It is the engine that drives the story forward on course. You can write out the plot. film) more successfully than the style of the narration could be. It is the hook. As an abstraction. inspirations and desires creates a ‘Story’. The same way an architect would never start building a house without first knowing where he was going. equipment. or engaging "what if" that interests the viewer. "What would this character do in this situation?" or. neither should a writer start building his story without fist knowing where it is going to lead him. Thus the story is the abstractly conceived ‘raw material’ of events which we reconstruct from the finished arrangement of the plot: it includes events preceding and otherwise omitted from the perceived action. however. The plot is the main plan of your story.

or maybe just reworked. Your outline can be detailed – with scene descriptions and dialogue. The time this draft will take varies considerably from person to person. Instead of writing full scenes. Once you get down to your story’s true “core” you’ll be able to better see what needs to be reworked. and reading through what you’ve written. creating a continuous piece? Are all the scenes in the correct order? Is the pacing right – should a scene maybe be added. you will probably find only minor changes that need to be done. He. its purpose is to give you the main shape of the story – letting you know what you need to get from point A to point B. while. the mad rush to get it written can work in your favor. and ask yourself these questions: Do the scenes switch easily from one to the other. If you aren’t sure about something." and is used by many writers. Part of the problem with plotting is that once you have planned your story through to the end. Any scenes that don’t relate need to be either cut out or reworked so that they do. and read through it again. Remember though. but not get out of control. tea or coffee. Stop in the middle of an idea so you don’t start “cold” the next day. This form of writing is called a "treatment. You'll find by discussing it with others you'll get a lot of ideas and write a more believable screenplay. just a central “idea”.problem. There are always some great scenes you will want to write right away. Fill in these extra scenes until you think you have a fairly well fleshed out story. Also. Jot-down any thoughts you have. for others. Just as Architects get ideas as they build. The first draft isn’t expected to be perfect. along his journey is faced with many problems like theft of his precious items. so will you as a writer. When you think you’re finished. reworking the outline until everything seems to fall into place. so you have several little stories to write for your screenplay. no transport etc and these situations keep on building up until he decides to go back to his village and follow the way of his ancestors. It's fun to ask others what they think someone would do. This way the character's motivations can still drive the story. so you get a brief sketch of the entire story on paper. you know the ending and the thrill of discovery is finished for you. so do it. or brief – with only a few lines describing the main action in each scene. CHARACTERIZATION (Character Building): . When you take out your outline for the final draft. the end scene. In a good novel. This helps solidify them so they don't drift around in space forever. and depends on how detailed you are and how long the book you’re writing is. and then put it aside for a few days to give it a “cooling off” period. loss of cash. As long as you have a blueprint. or deleted? Try to look for a central “theme” in your work – the main point its making or story its telling. put it aside again – this time longer than the first. and never stop when you’ve run out of ideas. Take your time with this stage. every scene some how relates to the main “core. and start revising. When you think you can look at it objectively. For example in a plot a person is depicted who happens to be a villager. A scene added. Try to write a set amount of scenes each day. Start getting your ideas on paper as soon as possible. Start this outline by writing the beginning scene. The way to avoid this is to remember that each scene is a little story in itself. When you do finish this draft. He is a simpleton and travelers to the city with hopes of a better life. This will give you an idea of what other scenes you need. like the beginning or ending. then take it out again. Start the second draft by taking out a pen. For some it might take only days. write brief paragraphs about what is going to happen in the scenes or acts. Then remains the challenge to make each scene develop into a powerful scene. that even your best draft of an outline probably won’t remain completely unchanged. then experiment with it and see what else you can come up with. and all other major scenes you already envision. you can experiment with these changes without damaging the structure. it might take weeks. Which ever method you choose its best to rework it roughly three times. This isn’t necessarily a moral.

set him aside as a secondary character and make another. cruising at a fast food restaurant. it's a new scene. Sometimes scenes just give information. That's how long it took the writer to really get to know his character and that's when he finally began to write. A scene is an unbroken piece of dramatic action that takes place in one setting. Najeeb. Or hate him. They take on a life of their own and make the story work. Those are the same things that screenplay scenes are about. an art show. You really do have to care about the character you create. where were they just prior to this scene and what are your characters going to do the next day? What event will bring each of these people into conflict? How to write a scene: If you told a friend today that one of your classmates. In other words. interesting to you from the start. If he doesn't appeal to you for some reason. it was in a setting: the cafeteria. If you give your characters a past and wants and needs like real people. writers. For example our lead character’s name is Salam. be on probation with the police (or work for them). lawyers. a terrific thing happens. you have to like him. "Made a scene in the college cafeteria with a class mate. the hair stylist . It involved some bit of drama: an argument or emotional behavior. Whatever happened. They can last from a few seconds to several minutes. Now that you've created a person. if needed. Before you write much.Let's make a character. It lasted about three minutes before things cooled off. and what happens to them. Take a pair of scissors and paper and cut out a paper doll. a tractor pull. Perfectly blank cutout." your friend would know what you meant. Lots of scripts spend the first half of the story creating a character. Najeeb had an argument with him or something like that. Next. like seeing a shot of a car speeding to get somewhere. There is usually some conflict . What characteristics do you think you would have to give Salam to make him interesting to yourself? How does he get along with his parents? Is he friendly with his family? Is his grandfather his mentor and best friend? How does he like school? What will he study in college and what influenced him to go that direction? What's the worst thing he has ever done? The best? How does he feel about those things? Who does he really admire.their characters are blank as a paper doll.conflict is the heart of drama. You should find your characters. or not be like you. How many people do you think this blank paper doll is going to interest? Exactly no one! That's why many stories fall flat on their face . Tension builds until one character changes directions or decides to change things. But main scenes are like little stories. Make him just unique enough to get attention. and care about them. put your characters together in a situation. He can even say irreverent things like that! He can be like you. and why? Is he mean and vindictive at times? What made him that way? Is he moral? Immoral? Why? What does your friend really want to happen to him this year? In the next month? Today? Or he can flunk out of college (or make straight A's). work. hang out with all the wrong people: politicians. The scene is the fundamental building block of the screenplay. a trip. Usually at-least one character will change . Scenes in modern popular movies last an average of two minutes. Examples: a non-school competition. if you change to a different place or time.you name it.

listening for movement. A kicks. Use imaginative verbs to convey more than just the action. He enters happy. A punches. You don’t have to describe the arc of motion. you want your viewer to be rolling with the punches. leaves touched. Short sentences = fast reading flow Use short sentences and phrases to make reading flow run faster. Avoid long speeches and monologues so that there is no dragging element. and heard a soft “Oomph. Even a simple phrase like “a flying roundhouse kick” will convey powerful images of a graceful martial arts student in mid-flight. While writing dialogues following things are to be kept in mind: - Use language that is appropriate for your audience and the dialect is of the era that is being depicted. Read over the dialogue and make sure that it is clear. Fast reading pace is essential. logical and understandable. He paused. at most two short sentences. Another point that comes to the mind is that it is imperative that overall pace of the program/video is kept in mind and the dialogues are written in proportion to the visuals. Dialogue Writing: Many people have problems like they talk a lot. Since you only have a sentence or so for each move. B blocks and swings a fist at A.” Conversely. leaves mad. but find dialogue difficult to write. There is no place for a he said.emotional states during the scene. descriptive sentences slow the reading pace. Use only a phrase or a sentence for each move. The whisper of a footstep to his left. Audience gets bored quickly if lengthy sentence are spoken by characters especially in an action movie. Whether people find it difficult or easy. In a fight scene. Dialogue is the words that people say. “He crunched his fist into his face” paints a vivid picture of both the blow and the pain it causes. Writing action/fight scenes Action-Reaction A fight scene is always Action-Reaction. felt his fist connect with muscled flesh. She enters aloof. the angle of the foot. the twisting of the torso. Long. Key-note: . lashed out blindly. swinging with the kicks. Watch out for putting your reaction before your action: Example: B staggered back when A slammed his fist into B’s shoulder. you need to be innovative with how you describe it. reading flow can also become bogged down if there are too many sentences of the same length one after the other: Be creative with your sparse prose. their dialogue usually needs a lot of polishing. just the words. or she felt. He turned. B staggers back.

The storyboard is a sequential series of illustrations depicting the key action called for by the script. either true or fictitious.Shifting focusing . What is a story? A story is defined as an account or recital of an event or a series of events. Screenplays usually include not only the dialogue spoken by the characters but also a shot-by-shot outline of the action. particularly for commercials.What is Script Writing? Once the idea is finalized it has to be put on paper. Script writing is a sophisticated piece of work involving creativity. What is a Screenplay? Written text that provides the basis for a film/television production. _____________________________ LECTURE 5 Camera Functions Portable Cameras Studio Cameras Handholding the camera Supporting the camera The mounting the head Camera Tripods Jibs and Cranes Adjusting the lens aperture Controlling exposure .tonal contrasts .selective exposure Focusing – Principles .What affects the depth of field? Focusing Types . to add the dimension of sight to the script.light levels . observation and research. the main plan that drives the story forward on course. A script is the realization of the basic idea and in a written form.Selective focusing . What is a Plot? A PLOT is an outline or a blueprint of a story. What is a Storyboard? Visual display of the action elements in a script prepared in conjunction with the script.

Executive producers vary in involvement. casting. set design. Some executive producers have hands-on control over every aspect of production. It is often the producer who is responsible for the show's overall quality and survivability. responsibility and power. rather than creative content Production assistant assists in the matters of production like log keeping and schedules etc Production Managers manage all the requirements like transports. props. some manage the financial aspect of the project. some supervise the producers of a project. participating in activities such as screenwriting. accommodations permissions for locations etc. Supervisors. THE PRODUCTION TEAM The Producing Team consists of personnel whose interdependency and support of each other are necessary for the creation of motion pictures and television programs. . while others are involved in name only. but upon acceptance they focus on business matters.Moving the camera . The producing team is comprised of Producers and all those on the career path to becoming Producers. such as budgets and contracts.Range of angles LECTURE # 5 Production The production processes is the actual recording/shooting to obtain footage to depict the contents of the script. & Coordinators for visual effects and creativity Post-Production Supervisors & Managers look after all the post production work like editing graphics. Producer is to coordinate and control all aspects of production. Some producers take more of an executive role. Co-executive producer is the second in seniority to executive producer Supervising producer supervises other producers) Coordinating producer coordinates two or more producers Co-producer works with other producers Consulting producer assists writers. ranging from show idea development and cast hiring to shoot supervision and fact-checking. Other producers are more involved with the day-to-day workings. and even directing.Focal length and lens angle Varying the lens angle . in that they conceive new programs and pitch them to the networks. sometimes specializing in a particular subject Associate producer runs day-to-day operations Segment producer handles one segment of a program Line producer handles a practical aspect. Visual Effects Producers. coordinate the production and postproduction activities and responsible for maintaining the projects sequencing. including: Executive producer is a major role in the entertainment industry but one that is ambiguous and often difficult to define clearly. though the roles depend on the particular show or organization. mixing etc Production & Post-Production Coordinators.

Other then that discussions about frame making. Research allows the director to think of an idea from many different aspects and angles. beliefs. Sr. The more research oriented approach a director uses the more effective and realist product he gets. This awareness comes from studying the character through research and observation. technical and planning discussion sessions with all the key crew members like the Director of Photography (DOP).e. the selection of the colors of the set. lighting and screen play may also be done with the camera crew before starting. it is essential for a producer/director to keep in mind the traditions. . For that a director must first be fully aware about the character himself.and many more… Research Research is important in every field of production stating from preproduction to postproduction. life style and ideology of people for whom his/she is making a program. Other then technical knowledge a director must research on the details of his scenes and try to make them as original as laid-down in the script. Rake visits are conducted by the producer/director and locations are short-listed according to the demand of the story/script. Also. Editing Incharge. in a sense that any element of production whether it is the script or any action (scene) does not adversely appeal to the audience or challenges their beliefs or hurts them in any way. props and many other things that will make the screen attractive enough for children. For example a production meant for infants or small children requires a totally different approach i. meaning that the requirement of the outfit of a certain character should be according the demand of script. Research is imperative in every kind of programming. Location Hunting Finalization of locations should be done prior to the recording. Other then depicting a program in its originality. is a director’s job also. Discussion with key crew members Before starting a production it is important to have creative. Chief Makeup Artist etc. Identifying target audience (likes and dislikes) A well researched script will allow the director to understand the mood and temperament of the audience for whom the program is being produced for. For shooting it is imperative that the director is well aware of all the aspects of filming and video recording. music. Special effect supervisor. Cameraman. He should be careful while making a production. A director must give proper briefing to his technical staff. Similarly a grim subject requires sad music and somewhat gloomy ambiance for creating the desired atmosphere. a director must keep in mind the technical and aesthetical aspects of the presentation. Also. Briefing the concerned talent about his character and telling him the way to execute it. Stunt coordinator. Makeup and Wardrobe It is imperative for a director to discuss the clothing of its characters both esthetically and technically. it is recommended that a director must keep his chief cameraman with him while sorting locations.

Similarly some bright colors distract viewers and can result in the under exposed face.problems LECTURE # 6 SHOT What is a shot? A continuous block of unedited footage from a single point of view is defined as a shot. A 10% contingency amount should be kept aside for hidden expenses. down to the last penny should be made before starting the production. Budgeting Detailed budget. ___________________________________ LECTURE 6 Camera Functions (Continued)… Lens angel and perspective Lens angles .wide-angle lens Zoom lens .design . Motivation .narrow-angle lens . Elements of a shot A shot must have six necessary elements if it is to be cut/edit with the next shot for the formation of a scene. Neglecting these elements while shooting can cause problems in the post production and will also create dissatisfaction and disbelief in the minds of the viewers.Technically speaking some colors/fabrics saturate in certain cameras. The casting should be according to the age and character.limitation .normal lens . Casting It is necessary for a director to be very careful while casting. A director must avoid any personal favorers and likings while casting and it should be on merit. It is also regarded as the smallest possible unit when recording.

Information Each shot must have new information for the audience which should be addition to the last piece of information. The audience needs this information if the story is to develop. A person is often employed to check that continuity is maintained since reshooting embarrassing lapses in continuity can be prohibitively expensive. how is the room. It produces a picture in mind more suited to the individual person’s expectation then does vision. Sound is more immediate and more abstract. with sound. Types of Continuity • • • • Continuity of Content Continuity of Movement Continuity of Position Continuity of Sound ____________________________________________ LECTURE 7 Elements of a Shot . For example. in vision eyes chose what to see whereas. Composition The composition of the shot depends on three things i.e.Motivation gives the editor the reason to cut to the next shot. Motivation can be in visual or sound or both. Over the years certain standards have evolved for farming which are generally used by the film makers and are accepted by the audience. For example a person sitting a room. every shot different from the previous will give additional information about the person like where is he sitting. It is important to hear what you see then to see what you hear. Each new shot have a new camera angle. which side of the character is the window etc. framing the illusion of depth and the subject or objects within the frame. Sound Sound differs from vision in one of the most important way i. a scene where an actor is wearing a hat when seen from one camera angle and not from another would lack continuity. ears have no choice. For example a person reading a book. 180° rule.e. rule of the thirds Continuity The degree to which a movie is self-consistent. a slight movement of his hands can be a reason for the editor to cut to the close shot of the book’s page that the person is about to flip. Camera Angle The term camera angle describes the position from which the audience looks at the object or subject.

shape and relative positions in the frame. restriction. they will influence the viewers feelings about what they are seeing . painted or imaginary (formed by the arrangements of objects or people).• • • • • • Motivation/Reason Information Composition Sound New Camera Angle Continuity What is a Shot? Classifying shots . - Light-toned backgrounds effect is simple. movement. Balance is affected by its tonal values. Dark-toned backgrounds are generally dramatic. Tone: Whether tonal areas in the screen are direct (a wall covering. elegance. structural. cheerful. LECTURE # 7 The basics of Composition Line: Whether the various lines running through a picture are real. If one takes a straight-on shot of a scene containing such lines the picture will reflect these characteristics.Vertical straight lines give an impression of formality. visual rhythm and can some time also look weak. Balance: An unattractively composed picture is usually balanced about its center. or indirect (through light and shade due to light distribution) they directly effect the mood and pictorial balance of s shot. stability and rest. forceful and even drab Background tones and colors effect the apparent tones of the subject itself. openness. .Horizontals can impart a feeling of breath.General classification Long shots Medium Shots Close shots Calculating shots etc. . delicate.Defining a shot . somber.Curved lines convey an impression of beauty. their size. lively and open. height. seeming lighter against dark and darker against light. . clothing).

The angle and composition varies with the objective of the shot as to which part of the frame needs to be highlighted. In these cases the outline of the object in the front merge with the background and presents a full of partial fusion. In Composition Avoid Dimensional Mergers Happen when the background merges with the foreground resulting in a de-shaped object. rather than scattered around as separate items. Elements of Composition Clearly Establish Your Objectives There has to be an objective of every shot that is taken and similarly composition. Convey Meaning through Colors and Tones Sometimes colors can say more than expected. . determining perspective helps in composing a shot in a more organized and precise manner. Use of Visual Perspective Subjective or objective. Single Center of Interest It is imperative to determine a single focal point that is the main objective of the shot so that it is clearly visible to the viewers. Colors and tones are used to upsurge a situation and to buildup the frame of mind of the viewers. Observe Proper Subject Placement Subject placement should be according to the standards so that the angles of the cameras can portray them clearly. Border Mergers When due to poor lighting or color similarities the object in the foreground losses it boundaries to the background it is know as border mergers.Unity: This is the principle of arranging subjects within the same as interrelated groups.

is known as a reverse angle. The new shot. There should be just a little room above a person's head in a shot. then Ali should be facing right at all times. even when Hassan is off the edge of the frame. . so that Hassan is now on the left side and Ali is on the right. Crossing the 180 degree line The 180° rule is a basic film editing guideline that states that two characters (or other elements) in the same scene should always have the same left/right relationship to each other. it is called crossing the line. Example In the example of a dialogue. and Hassan should always be facing left. and break the flow of the scene.Headroom & Noseroom Headroom is the spance Leave the proper amount of noseroom and headroom in front of and above the person you're shooting. do not have a shot where there's excessive empty space above a person's head. Also while taking and interview for example you need to give more space to the character towards the side that he is looking at so to establish his point of view. But don't have the shot too low where you crop the top of the person's head. It's better to have that room below the person's face. If the camera passes over the imaginary axis connecting the two subjects. For example. That's just dead space. will disorient the viewer. from the opposite side. Shifting to the other side of the characters on a cut.get their entire body in the shot. if Ali is on the left and Hassan is on the right. And if you're shooting a person standing. don't chop them off at the knees . space you then could use when you're editing the video to add a title with the person's name.

In the sequences leading up to the battle scenes. it should enter from the left side of the frame in the next shot.Line . In the example of an action scene. while the German troops (arriving from the east) are always shown marching from right to left.This schematic shows the axis between two characters and the 180° arc on which cameras may be positioned. when the weary troops are staggering homeward. After the battle scenes. such as a car chase.Tone . When cutting from the green arc to the red arc. An excellent example of sustained use of the 180 degree rule occurs throughout much of The Big Parade. The audience's viewpoint is therefore always from a consistent position. if a vehicle leaves the right side of the frame in one shot. Some directors do cross the line for dramatic effect.Unity Elements of Composition • • • • • Clearly Establish Your Objectives Single Center of Interest Observe Proper Subject Placement Use of Visual Perspective Convey Meaning Through Colors and Tones In Composition Avoid • • • • Dimensional Mergers Border Mergers Headroom & Noseroom Crossing the 180 degree line LECTURE 8 COMPOSITION AND FRAMING OF SHOTS Framing the shot: When you are setting up a shot you should always ask yourself: . LECTURE 8 The basics of Composition . the Americans are always shown crossing the screen from right to left (moving west) and the Germans from left to right (moving east). the characters switch places on the screen. in this case southward of the action.Balance . the American forces (arriving from the west) are always shown marching from left to right across the screen. a drama about World War. Leaving from the right and entering from the right will create a similar sense of disorientation as in the dialogue example.

The rule of the thirds: Here you divide the screen into thirds. energy and interest in the photo than simply centering the feature would. Offset framing: A centrally-framed subject can look too deliberately balanced. as they turn towards a profile. the picture will often look much more attractive if their body is slightly angled e. Points of interest in the photo don't have to actually touch one of these lines to take advantage of the rule of thirds. sometimes called a power point.g.What is just outside the frame? Is it important or is it about to intrude. Proponents of this technique claim that aligning a photograph with these points creates more tension. the center of the screen has been found to be the weakest concentration areas. formatted or even dull. with a framingoffset a little to compensate. The bee is at the intersection of two lines. How is the subject interacting with the frame in this shot? Avoid routine centering: Although at first sight. The rule states that an image can be divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines. The four points formed by the intersections of these lines can be used to align features in the photograph. In practice. color or form. The amount of this offset or ‘looking room’ should generally be increased with the subject’s angle. Most subjects look best when off-centered to some extent. Although better than using the bisected frame. this too can become a very predictable device. which is not always the most effective way of putting it. vertically and horizontally. and put subjects on theses lines. The horizon sits at the horizontal line dividing the lower third of the photo from the upper two-thirds. facing a three quarter frontal position. If someone is looking directly into the camera. unless there is an eye catching movement. The photograph below demonstrates the application of the rule of thirds. The eye tends to move away from it towards other parts of the shot. the most logical thing to do is to place your main subject in the center of the screen. or where ever they cross. .

knees. see children waving at the camera. standing or leaning towards the boarder of the picture. In addition. Although the director occasionally invites the audience to simply browse around. Framing People: If one is not careful while shooting people can look like they are sitting. elbows etc. or allowing linear features in the photograph to flow from section to section. to watch what someone is doing. These if adopted for television and film making can also produce remarkable results. looking for whatever catches their interest. it is important that the frame does not cut the body and limbs at natural joins like neck. Also. more often the aim is to persuade them to concentrate on certain features in the scene. placing the horizon on the top or bottom line instead of the center. to listen to what they are saying. and not to be diverted by whatever is going on in the background. watching the passing traffic… they are unlikely to be paying full attention to what is being said. The rule of thirds can be applied by lining up subjects with the guiding lines. Concentrating Attention: The more there is to see in a picture the greater the opportunity for the audience’s attention to wander.The application of the rule of thirds to photographs is considered by many to make them more aesthetically pleasing and professional-looking. For example if during a street interview an audience can read posters. since pleasing photographs can often be made while ignoring one or more such rules. Reframing: . There are certain times when you should not let the audience see too much. many photographers recommend treating any "rule" of composition as more of a guideline.

To move in before they exit—at the end of a sequence.Offset framing . So directors will often cut at the point to a wider two-shot shot.As people move around or point of interest in the picture changes. excluding the second person who leaves when no longer seen. quick and unhesitating action. But make these adjustments while the subject itself is moving and the camerawork will still be effective but quite unobtrusive.Tight and loose framing Framing the shot .Two dimensional world . to rebalance the picture.Framing people Reframing Inappropriate Shots Problem shots .Wrong shapes . one normally needs to reframe the shot to compensate. But what if there is no other camera? The solution is to zoom out or dolly back as the newcomer enters the frame.Spread subjects . This deliberately leaves the shot temporarily unbalanced.Shooting into light Changing camera height and its significance High shots Low shots Dolly Shots Trucking and Arching Developing shots Camera Movement . Reframe during movement: The most successful camerawork always looks as if it has developed quite naturally from the action itself. the camera can move in to a speaker. People entering the frame: If a person in a close shot is joined by someone else. while panning over slightly to offset the first person. emphasizing their departure. People leaving the frame: If someone exits the frame there are three options: - To center up on who ever remains—panning away from the person exiting. there is obviously not enough room for them both.The rule of the thirds . a smooth. This might involve little more than a slight tilt to correct the headroom or a simultaneous pan-tilt-zoom to tighten on a single person within a group shot. panning etc) on a motionless subject your audience will be aware of the change immediately. To hold the frame still—here you just let them move out of frame and continue to hold the shot. If you alter the shot by reframing (tilting. ________________________________________ LECTURE 9 Picture frame .

LECTURE 9 One of the best ways to enhance the impact of your video images is through the creative use of lighting. Big budget and lots of expensive lighting equipment are not the essentials for creative lighting. This lighting effect might suggest an interrogation room or spiritual encounter. lighting can have a tremendous impact on how the viewer perceives your video. Placement of the light source directly above the heads of the subjects creates a different effect than placing the source at ground level and pointing up at the subjects. while poor lighting can make the most expensive professional video camera look inferior. Through creative lighting you can establish a mood or the time of day. reveal or obscure visual information. Height refers to where the light source is placed above ground level. or even with the subject? Angle refers to the slope of the light's beam. Good lighting can make a VHS camcorder shine. below. height and angle determine where the highlights and shadows fall on your subject. There are lots of inexpensive tools and simple tricks that you can use to enhance your lighting. enhance the illusion of three dimensionality. In more subtle ways. This is the most important element in maximizing the image quality you are capable of producing with any camera or video format. and create an artificial reality. Up Angle . Down Angle Placement of the light source above the subjects and angled straight down results in a glowing effect on the tops of heads and shoulders while the face and body are shadowed. Together. Direction The direction of light is specifically related to the height and angle of the lighting source. Is it above.

Soft light is used frequently in television shows and commercials because it is very complimentary to the subject and can help to diminish harsh shadows. Unusual shadows are created by placing the light low. This lighting design creates a sinister or otherworldly effect. Hard light is characterized by sharp beams of light with distinct edges between light and shadow. The simplest solution to this problem is to lower the light. our attention is drawn to the eyes of the person we are watching. The reason for this is. training videos and home movies are made where the eyes are totally obscured by shadow. Depending on the sensitivity of the camera. video can accommodate up to about an 8:1 . As a viewer. A good example is the spotlight which bathes stage performers in light while throwing a distinct circular pattern of light and shadow around the performers. But most of the television programmes. a 2:1 lighting ratio means that the brightest area of lighting on the subject is twice as bright as the darkest.Light placed on the ground and aimed up at the subjects will produce a dramatically different effect. Lighting Ratio Lighting ratio refers to the difference in brightness from the lightest area of a subject to the darkest. caresses the subject with the transition from light to shadow diffused. placing the subject's main light source too high and steep of an angle above the subject. Quality The quality of light relates to the hardness or softness of the light striking the subject. Hard light typically produces distinct dark shadows. So it makes sense that we want to light the face so we can see the eyes or at least one eye if we want to be dramatic. thereby reducing the angle of the light. This type of lighting is useful for creating drama and excitement and is often associated with night scenes. The angle and height of your light sources are especially important when shooting the human face. either by lowering the light on its stand or by moving the light farther away from your subject. For example. typically. on the other hand. and in this case from behind. This brightness difference is described by a numerical ratio that defines how many times brighter the brightest area is compared to the darkest area. Soft light.

Another method of controlling light is to place translucent material in front of the light which alters the light's beam or color. FILL Light The Fill light is placed on the opposite side of the subject from the keylight and at approximately the same height and angle. In the basic 3-point design. as in most creative endeavors. Fill light. and separate the subject from the background. Lighting Design Basics 3-Point Lighting In lighting. BACK Light . Usually. and 4:1. provide shape and three dimensionality. Mastering these guidelines provides a firm foundation for the development of your lighting skills and provides a starting point for more creative and daring lighting designs. These three light sources are the Key light.lighting ratio before the shadow areas loose all detail. Typically. KEY light The KEY light is the dominant light source striking the subject. and Back light. One of the basic guidelines for designing a workable lighting design is called 3-point lighting. The more commonly used lighting ratios for video are 2:1. Rock concerts achieve their colored lighting effects with this method. Control Control refers to the methods we use to shape and color the light emitted from our light sources. there are basic design guidelines. the key light is at least twice as bright as the fill light. Part of the beam of a light could be blocked in order to create a shadow in a specific area of the subject. The 3-point lighting design uses three light sources to illuminate the subject. 3:1. the fill light is at least half as bright as the key light. the KEY light is placed 45 degrees to the side of the subject and at a 45 degree angle above the subject.

The brightness of the back light can range in intensity from the level of the fill light to that of the key light. The back light then helps define the shape of the subject and separates it from the background. These KEY. Color temperatures are normally expressed in units called kelvins (K).Using a tripod Studio Production . FILL and BACK lights represent the 3-points of a basic lighting design. a person with blond or gray hair needs far less back light than someone with brown or black hair. Note that the term degrees Kelvin is often used but is not technically correct (see below).Safety . depending on the reflectivity of your subject.Multi-camera shooting Lining up your shots Matching shots Shooting unrehearsed action LECTURE # 10 Color Temperature Color Temperature Chart Color temperature is a standard method of describing colors for use in a range of situations and with different equipment.Teamwork . _________________________________________ LECTURE 10 ENG – Field Camera . these lights provide basic illumination of the subject. For example. In combination. .Facilities .Supporting the camera .The BACK light is placed behind the subject.Production techniques .Sound pickup . again at about a 45 degree angle above and behind the subject. Through manipulation of the brightness of the key and fill lights shadowing is created which gives the illusion of 3 dimensionality to the subject.

g. The symbol is a capital K (e. a camera operator will select a "5600K filter" to use outside in the middle of a sunny day. the "degrees" reference has remained in common use in media industries.) Color Temperature in Video For video operations the relevant temperatures range from around 2. When referring to the Kelvin scale. it is capitalized (e. (A black body is a theoretical radiator and absorber of energy at all electromagnetic wavelengths. Degrees Kelvin According to the International System of Units (SI) . The plural is kelvins (e.000K — these are common lighting conditions. color temperatures are stated in kelvins.Technically speaking.000K to 8. The "degrees" part of the name was made obsolete in 1967. gels and filters which are most appropriate to the prevailing light or to create a particular color effect. However. . "The light source is approximately 3200K"). In practical terms this usually means selecting lights..g. also known as Lord Kelvin". "The Kelvin scale is named after William Thomson (1824 – 1907). Terminology    When referring to the unit Kelvin.g. "The light source is approximately 3200 kelvins"). Color temperature means the temperature of an ideal black body radiator at which the color of the light source and the black body are identical. it is not capitalized unless it is the first word of a sentence. For example. not in degrees Kelvin..

Also. i. It refers to the device's ability to reproduce different levels of brightness. There is a limit beyond which this specification loses significance. Bright areas will appear over-exposed and dark areas will appear "crushed" (all black. and figures over 10. Most people don't need to know the actual specifications but video makers need to be aware that video has a relatively low contrast ratio. If you can't alter the framing. the standard approach is to expose for the subject.e. Contrast Ratio for Televisions & Monitors Contrast Ratio is a specification given with most good televisions and monitors. Unfortunately the contrast ratio specification given by TV manufacturers has become somewhat abused. as further improvements aren't noticeable in the real world. be wary of caps and sunglasses in strong light — they can create terrible over-contrast on the face. A ratio of 300:1 means the brightest point in the image is 300 times as bright as the darkest point. The example on the right illustrates a common problem for sports coverage in stadiums — the difference between the sunlit areas and the shadows is significant.Contrast Ratio Contrast Ratio is a measurement of the difference in brightness between the whitest white and the darkest black within an image. but still do not reproduce the same range that the human eye would see. A higher contrast ratio is more desirable — 500:1 is quite good. When dealing with human subjects it makes sense to avoid white and black clothing. If some parts of the picture are too bright or too dark it's not the end of the world — people are used to seeing this. their grayscale performance. A high contrast ratio means that brighter and darker areas of the image will be recorded with more accuracy and apparent detail. When all else fails. This can also affect the detail in darker areas of the image. Contrast ratio is of interest in two situations: Contrast Ratio for Cameras In video and film work it is important to understand what sort of contrast ratio your camera is able to reproduce. either add lighting to the dark areas or filter the bright areas. The best way to minimize problems with contrast ratio is to avoid having very bright and very dark objects in frame at the same time. . Monitors also vary in their ability to display levels of gray. A higher contrast ratio therefore means a larger difference in brightness. the camera will struggle to reproduce both. If an image includes extreme light and dark. Film cameras generally perform better than video. Do not be too concerned with figures higher than 2000:1.000:1 don't have much relevance at all. lacking detail).

which is the total absence of transmitted or reflected light. Saturation is an expression for the relative bandwidth of the visible output from a light source. Here. with the sizes of the individual dots determining the apparent lightness of the gray in their vicinity. grayscale imaging is sometimes called "black and white. the total transmission or reflection of light at all visible wavelengths. The lightest possible shade is white. the only possible shades are pure black and pure white. magenta and yellow) for reflected light. This is shown as the peak of the curves in the accompanying graph of intensity versus wavelength. In the diagram. The darkest possible shade is black. G.Grayscale is a range of shades of gray without apparent color. and brightness (also called brilliance). These terms are most often used in reference to the color of each pixel in a cathode ray tube (CRT) display. in the yellow-green portion of the spectrum. In analog practice. with a wavelength slightly longer than 500 nanometers. Hue." but technically this is a misnomer. In true black and white. and brightness Hue. the saturation is represented by the steepness of the slopes of the curves. Most sources of visible light contain energy over a band of wavelengths. all three colors have the same hue. saturation. saturation. Hue is the wavelength within the visible-light spectrum at which the energy output from a source is greatest. saturation. also known as halftone. Intermediate shades of gray are represented by equal brightness levels of the three primary colors (red. The halftone technique is commonly used for printing photographs in newspapers. and the blue curve represents a color with fairly . and brightness are aspects of color in the red. and B components. the red curve represents a color having low saturation. In this example. green. the green curve represents a color having greater saturation. just as colors can be represented in terms of the R. and blue (RGB) scheme. All possible colors can be specified according to hue. The illusion of gray shading in a halftone image is obtained by rendering the image as a grid of black dots on a white background (or vice-versa). or equal amounts of the three primary pigments (cyan. green and blue) for transmitted light.

the amplitudes of red. Most often there are specialized departments and personnel who are responsible for providing the best quality sound recordings. or hexadecimal numbers from 00 to FF LECTURE 11 Types of Continuity • • • • Continuity of Content Continuity of Movement Continuity of Position Continuity of Sound Camera Functions Video Cameras.Consumer Cameras .Video light . As saturation increases. Most widely used formats for recording sound are Stereo and Mono.Overview . It can be expressed as a total energy value (different for each of the curves in the diagram).Focus control ." As saturation decreases.Adjusting the lens aperture Types of View finders Small format cameras .Zoom lens . In the RGB color model. colors appear more "pure. green.Professional Cameras CCD image sensor Camera Lenses . Stereo: . and blue for a particular color can each range from 0 to 100 percent of full brilliance. or as the amplitude at the wavelength where the intensity is greatest (identical for all three curves). colors appear more "washed-out.high saturation. He may have one or more staff members as assistants depending on the type of recording. These levels are represented by the range of decimal numbers from 0 to 255.Camera microphone LECTURE # 11 Let us take a break from the video medium for a while and discuss the importance of sound/audio." Brightness is a relative expression of the intensity of the energy output of a visible light source. These are qualified engineers and are well versed with the equipment used to record sounds. The sound recording engineer mixes all the sources in the sound desk also know as the switcher panel/audio mixture.

As a logical extension of this technique. How many will move and how many will be static. or. each instrument in the ensemble is recorded—for all practical purposes—simultaneously.Stereophonic sound. Quadraphonic is a special case of stereo in which four channels and loudspeakers are employed. in the case of headphones or multiple loudspeakers. In the control room the engineer mixes the outputs of all microphones to achieve the desired musical balance. for mixing at a later date. as though he or she were as close to each instrument as is each microphone. Inform the sound recording team is: - The number of people/characters involved in the program and there position. The complex time delay and acoustic relationships within the room are lost in the recording process. Few of the things that you as a director need to indicate. When many microphones are so used. yet lacking the apparent depth and musical cohesiveness of the original. Typically there is only one microphone. . through a symmetrical configuration of loudspeakers. Electronic signal processing devices may not be entirely successful in restoring the missing information. Also. and the listener hears the entire ensemble from one perspective only. Multitrack To give the recording engineer more technical control over the recording medium. many recordings are now made using a multiple-microphone technique. one or more microphones are located close to each instrument or group of instruments. commonly called stereo. In place of the stereo microphone. mixed into a single signal path at some stage. the multitrack technique becomes advantageous when it is impractical or impossible to record the entire ensemble at once stereophonically. using two or more independent audio channels. This can only be achieved if proper details are discussed with the sound recording staff before recording the program. However. Do the presenters require talkbacks? Are there any specialist sound recording techniques involved like underwater recording. Are there going to be outside sources and phone interviews. they are fed from a common signal path. is the reproduction of sound. and the listener hears a recording that may be technically well executed. they should be given extra time before the recording commences so that the required equipment can be pout in place. the microphone outputs may not be mixed at the time of the recording. There is no point on having pictures on-air if you do not have the right sound to go with them. How is the seating arrangement for the talents and the audience. What type of music and effects are required on spot. Binaural is a special form of stereophonic sound in which two microphones replace the ears of a dummy head and are connected through an amplifier/recorder system to a pair of headphones worn by the listener. and in the case of multiple microphones. noisy props etc. in such a way as to create a pleasant and natural impression of sound heard from various directions. one loudspeaker. but may be routed to 16 or more tracks on a tape recorder. as in natural hearing. Mono: Monaural (often shortened to mono) sound reproduction is single-channel.

Other than a television audio recording there are specialized studios which are meant only for audio recordings. A recording studio may also include additional rooms. This will consist of both room treatment (through the use of absorption and diffusion materials on the surfaces of the room. An over view of a sound recording studio is as follows. The aim is to achieve a good balance between the subject sound and the ambient noise. where instrumentalists and vocalists perform. Placing a mic too close to moving parts or other obstacles may be dangerous. You are also likely to experience popping and other unpleasant noises. The desired balance will vary depending on the situation and the required effect. filled out with a moderate or low level of ambient noise. and commercials. which houses the equipment for recording. as well as one or more extra control rooms. You as a director should hear the audio levels in the test run and adjust the according to the recommended parameters. and/or even record a full orchestra. interviews usually work best with very low ambient noise. If a vocal mic is to close to the speaker's mouth. be careful when micing drums that the drummer isn't going to hit the mic. movies. the control room. and the machine room.a small room designed for voice recording. Recording studios generally consist of three rooms: the studio itself. voiceovers and music for television shows. and the "control room". such as a vocal booth . Recording studios are carefully designed around the principles of room acoustics to create a set of spaces with the acoustical properties required for recording sound with precision and accuracy. Phase Problems . Different types of studios record bands and artists. the space is specially designed by an acoustician to control audio reflections. Often. For example.Other than giving the basic directions to the sound recording team it is the duty of the director to set and qualify parameter by sitting on the mixer panel. place the microphone as close as practical to the sound source without getting so close that you introduce unwanted effects. However if you want to point out to your audience that the surroundings are very noisy you could hold the mic slightly further away from the subject. there will be smaller rooms called "isolation booths" present to accommodate loud instruments such as drums or electric guitar. Ideally. These parameters are defined keeping in mind the broadcast standards. The typical recording studio consists of a room called the "studio". and also consideration of the physical dimensions of the room itself in order to make the room respond to sound in a desired way) and soundproofing (to provide sonic isolation between the rooms). the audio may be unnaturally bassy (boomy. where noisier equipment that may interfere with the recording process is kept. routing and manipulating the sound. In general. For example. In most cases you want the subject sound to be the clear focus. to keep these sounds from being audible to the microphones that are capturing the sounds from other instruments or vocalists. cartoons. where the sound for the recording is created (often referred to as the "live room"). A microphone too close to a very loud sound source is likely to cause distortion. where the sound from the studio is recorded and manipulated. Dos and do nots of mic placing: Distance The golden rule of microphone placement is getting the distance right. Recording studio is a facility for sound recording. excessive low frequencies).

shaped and finalized. A common example is an interview situation in which two people each have a hand-held mic . Let us start by understanding the basic elements of the editing: Non Linear Editing: . or cancellation. This is the table work where you need to put in the maximum creative input so that the final product turns out to be a professional piece of work. Postproduction is the final stage where the content is polished. I hope that you now have an idea of the things that are essential to keep in mind while recording your videos. problems can occur when the same sound source is picked up from different mics placed at slightly different distances.When using more than one microphone you need to be wary of phasing. Due to the way sound waves interfere with each other. ______________________________________ LECTURE 12 Lighting Why lighting is important for TV and Video? Elements of Lighting Color Temperature Compact fixtures Special lighting units Fixtures Light Sources The HMI Lamp The Fluorescent Lamp Lighting Units accessories LECTURE # 12 Dear Viewers and students.when one person talks they are picked up by both mics and the resulting interference creates a phasing effect.

You can actually represent your imagination and idea on to the TV screen… Q: Tell us about the popular software that are recommended by professionals. I actually work with the combination of software. Please welcome Mr. However. it is a destructive process. Let me share one of my experiences with you… (An Example of an editing task that took too long while using the liners setup and now the non linear technology has made it easy. as the actual film negative must be cut. He has to his credit a long list of exemplary work with numerous ad films. when working with film. dramas and documentaries. Video and audio data are first digitized to hard disks or other digital storage devices. Non-linear. This will help us understand that how technology has revolutionized the way we use to work. . Non-linear editing for film and television postproduction is a modern editing method which involves being able to access any frame in a video clip with the same ease as any other. The best are… Expert: Let me show you a video in which I have introducer a special technique. This method is similar in concept to the "cut and paste" technique used in film editing from the beginning. Well… ladies and gentlemen we have with us today an expert who has spend his life perfecting the art of Non –linear editing. By the way this could have taken months if I was working with the linear setup…. by definition.Let me first tell you a little bit about the linear editing first. Anchor: Wow! Really amazing how did you do that? The colors and the animation were really fantastic. Dharmindar. Once imported they can be edited on a computer using any of a wide range of software. Let’s take a look. The data is either recorded directly to the storage device or is imported from another source.) So. non-destructive methods began to appear with the introduction of digital video technology. A: Well. Q: Welcome to our studios? What inspired you the most to work with the non linear editing system? A: The inspiration came with the capability of the machines to produce astonishing results.

I hope that you have learned the basics of Non linear editing. viewers as you can see on my computer screen that I have imported the video file to Premier. Let us have a detailed look at the elements which are directly related to visual presentation. So we first click on the… Anchor: Very interesting… Q: So tell us that how do you come up with these creative ideas. Till then take care of you self and each others. Creativity comes with inspiration.Expert: Well. I am going to reproduce the same effect. There are situation where the most ordinary things can sometime give you ideas that become the master piece of your creations. . next time we will be talking about the Computer generated Imagery (CGIs). This is the same footage that we just saw. learning how to operate the software is one thing but creativity in work is something different. Dear. Let me demonstrate. it is imperative that these are give special emphasis’s. you will be amazed to know how easy it is. I was doing a project in a rural area… Dear viewer’s today was very interesting wasn’t it? Well let me thank our guest for being with us today. observation and research. LECTURE 13 Lighting (Continued)… Human Vision and Camera Volts. A: Yes. I totally agree with you. Let us recap the introduction that we previously had regarding makeup. Amps and Watts Lighting Instruments Basic Lighting Techniques How to setup an interview Solving Lighting problems Studio Lighting Advance lighting setups Lighting Low Budget Locations LECTURE # 13 Now we have the basic knowledge of the production process.

Other than the director the floor plan is also used by the lighting director to determine the potential places for lights and distances from the characters. Use of prosthetics and complex hairdos are done by experts of this field. Corrective: This sorts out problems with appearance. If you are recording a long duration programme with number of episodes than it is recommended that the position of . Refurbishing: Most of the makeup wears off after a while. namely under hot lights for a long period of time.Makeup and wardrobe Contrary to the popular belief the function of makeup is not just to make people look as good as possible in front of camera. It can be facial reshaping. Character This type of makeup is actually done to portray a character and is used extensively in Drama production. The use of makeup is divided into the following categories/types: a). skin blemishes. c). lighting bags under the eyes and strengthening the lips. It is imperative to have a makeup artist in the studio to keep an eye on the performers throughout the shoot. changing hair etc. Once the floor plan is finalized the director reviews it and jot-downs the potential places for the camera positioning. Floor Plan: The floor plan is used by the set designers and constructors to make sure that the set is being built according to the requirements. and artistic ability to interpret briefs from the directors. he should have well established connections with prop providers and other related vendors so that he knows from where to get the required materials/items The other basic thing that is to be kept in mind is the positioning of the cameras. growths and thinning hair etc. or the effect is reduced. It includes covering up scars. Typically this includes removing of ‘shine’ from the foreheads. Straight: This does not greatly change the appearance of the presenter or performer. The experts in this department have technical knowledge of television clothing. b). The aim is to get quality pictures from the studios and to assist performers in their roles. Wardrobe Wardrobe in Television Production is not just ironing and cleaning department. The aim here is to improve the appearance without giving the impression of being made up. but compensates for the environment we work in. Positioning Cameras: Floor plan helps greatly in determining your camera positions. Also.

d). Set limitations It is a common phenomenon that sometimes there are certain restrictions caused by the set designs which hamper in the way of good composition and forces directors to compromise on their shots. Cable Runs Most of the studios have a number of wall boxes that the cameras can be plugged into. Crossing Cameras While it is possible to direct cameras across the front of each other. there is something to be said for reversing this order. then in the control room the two people will appear to be talking to each other.cameras should be done in a simplistic and understandable manner so that every time it is easy to adjust to the same pattern of recordings. Recording interviews: - 1 Anchor + 1 Guests 1 Anchor + 2 Guests 1 Anchor + 3 Guests 1 Anchor + 5 Guests 2 Anchors + 2 Guests Group discussion 4 panelists face to face (Please Note: Diagrams Available) LECTURE 14 Typical Light sources . the view in the monitor stack will be of people looking away from each other. if the camera in the front does not fully clear the second camera shot. It is important for a director to consider the length of the cables from the boxes (electricity points) and have sufficient information about the layout of the cable on the set so that during recording he has a clear idea about the camera movement and can avoid any restrictions caused by the cables. That’s why it is important that while designing a set the dimensions and the backdrops should e kept in mind by looking through the cameras and not with a naked eye. The frame composition is best understood if the set is made accordingly. However. there are two obvious dangers. If they are laid out left to right. a). Reverse Numbering While it might seem oblivious to lay out cameras from left to right. b). if you put camera 2 to the left of the camera 1. Suppose an interview is to be conducted with two cameras. c). Additionally cables can become entangled. you lose a camera until it has moved out of the way.

Projection spot lights Soft Light .By adjusting power .Back light Placement of lights .Frontal lighting .Additional support .Using base light .Soft light sources How much light to use? .Hard light sources .3 point basic lighting .Relative light intensities LECTURE 15 Lighting (Continued)… Matching light with the type of equipment in use Types and usage of lamps .Adjusting lighting balance .Hung lamps .Diffusers .Soft light disadvantages .Localized lighting Use of diffusers and Scrims Restricting Light .Exposure .Edge light (side light ) .Switching bulbs .The limitation of hard light .Distance .Designating lighting Positioning the key light Positioning the fill light Positioning the back light LECTURE 16 Lighting (Continued)… Adjusting Brightness .Stand Lamps .The features of hard light .Spotlight focusing .Hidden Lamps The effect of lighting direction .Hard light .Dimmers What is lighting balance? .

Tone.Effective shadows Controlling Shadows . size and distance .Head turns .Preferred position .Shadows .Spill rings Portraiture Lighting a single person Lighting two people Lighting a Group of People People Talking with each other LECTURE 17 Lighting (Continued)… Problems . cookies .Position near walls Moving people lighting Lighting difficulties .Duel set-up .Simultaneous contrast/spatial Changing camera position .Specific solutions Lighting on a shoestring .Disguising the shadows Shadowless Lighting .When to use shadowless lighting .Background lighting .Just a single lamp .Light patterns Shadow effects .General solution .Day light help .Gobos.Moving the key light .Tonal differentiation Pictorial Lighting .Use of two lamps Practical demonstration LECTURE 18 Lighting (Continued)… Lighting for clarity .Position .Barndoors .Types of shadows .Backgrounds .Shadows ..Head turning . flags.Positioning the soft light .

Silhouetted Shadows: can be created by placing an unlit subject against a brightly lit background. effectively and economically.Scenic lighting . you can simply place an object in the directional light from a ‘hard’ source. otherwise part f the shadows will be unsharp. and its relative distance from the lamp and the background. - Dilution/intensity of light from spill light can gray-out shadows.Specific background lighting LECTURE # 15 Shadow effects Shadows stimulate the imagination. While movement enhances some shadow patterns i. and at the right angles to the light beam and the subject. Shadow size grows as the subject moves . You can use them to create an atmosphere simply. showing us what otherwise be hidden from our viewpoint. others must be held quite still e. Types of Shadows: Basic are three ways that the shadow effects can be produced: 1. Projected shadows: Stenciled metal frames are used and the light is projected onto the back to create effects on walls and make backgrounds. natural foliage. some distance from the light. softening them and reducing their prominence. They can create suspense and mystery.g. Cast Shadow: This is the most common of them all. Precautions and use of Effective Shadow lighting techniques: - Stability can be essential for many subjects.e. windows patterns etc. 2. The background should be flat. Shadows can reveal information. 3.General background lighting . - Sharpness of cast shadows is greater when you use small point source with the subject. Suspended objects for casting shadows can sway. - Size of the cast shadow depends upon that of the shadowing object. and relatively close to the background.

But remember that at the same time you are emphasizing the subject’s modeling (more pronounced nose. distortion is a natural feature of the effect. However these conditions also reduce shadow sharpness. so it often helps to move the subject near the camera. for instance. Raising the key causes the subject’s shadow to fall lower and lower on the background. Disguising the shadows Sometimes you can throw a subject’s shadow on to a dark or broken up part of the background so that it is less prominent.closer to the lamp. In many situations. the shadow moves out from behind the subject (in the opposite direction). The rate of displacement depends upon the subjects distance from the background. So what is the solution? Moving the key light The closer the subject is to the background. But if you are not careful you will find that you are degrading the subject’s lighting simply in order to subdue the background’s shadow. The minimum shadow comes from a key light at right angles to the background. When the subject is actually touching the background its shadow will just spread beside it and no amount of re-angling of the key light will improve matters. It may even be overlooked altogether. and further from the background. A boom microphone’s shadow. for projected shadows. Shadowless lighting would reduce modeling and texture. . Also. and little or none is visible on camera. the harder it is to avoid casting a shadow on to it. When the key is dead frontal (near the lens). it is very frustrating to find a large distracting shadow spread across the background behind it. can remain undetected amongst shadows of foliage. and the subject and surface are parallel. neck and eye shadows). As you progressively offset the key left or right. the subject’s shadow is immediately behind it. size depends on the fixture’s lens angle and the units distance from the background - Distortion occurs unless the light beam is at right angles to the surface. Controlling Shadows Having keyed the subject with a frontal spotlight so as to provide firm clear cut modeling.

There is a suggestion of weightlessness. General light levels should normally be kept quite high when using shadowless illumination. purity. More often a faint shadow or shading is desirable to enhance the illusion of form and space. high key shadowless surrounding are invaluable when shooting highly reflective subjects such as silver. But where you want to avoid shading and shadow altogether add a low-intensity fill light. Lighting out shadows It is always tempting to try to eliminate shadows by diluting them with additional light. On a more down to earth level. When to use shadowless lighting Shadowless lighting creates an air of isolation and detachment. Although texture and surface contours can disappear entirely if a soft light source is placed beside the lens. Shadowless lighting Flood the scene with diffused light and you cannot avoid uninterestingly flat results. Low intensity soft light is liable to produce a dull ‘overcast daylight’ effect which lacks . But this technique has its limitations. a lack of emphasis.Very occasionally. glass and shiny surfaces. there is a good chance that you will have overlit the background. Positioning the soft light Completely shadowless lighting is normally only used to isolate an object in space. you can reduce an offending background shadow by closely barndooring the subject’s lighting. or created a hotspot there. move the lamp up and subtle modeling will develop. The effect is unreal. Random light scatter and reflected light usually provide sufficient filler. half-tones it produces can create beautiful effects. The secret is to angle the soft light. But as the shadow is cast by the subject itself any light restriction must now leave part of the subject unlit. Apply soft light skillfully and the delicate. confining it to one major direction. By the time you have illuminated the shadow efficiently to make it unobtrusive.

Approached to measurement Lighting and sound . Even background lighting: The simplest way to evenly illuminate a large plane background is to suspend a series of soft light fixtures. however.Appropriate light levels . In this case barn doors can be used to restrict the overlapping light beams. the results can be most attractive and are particularly suitable for classical ballet. When carefully controlled.Creating atmosphere Lighting Faults and their remedies Lighting open areas Lighting in confined places Lighting Translucent Lighting multi-level staging Lighting changes Use of colored lights Measuring light . jibs. A particularly effective approach in which shadows are kept to the minimum. uses soft frontal lighting accompanied by a single hard backlight. we may find the spill from adjacent light sources overlaps to form random bright patches that are not readily eliminated.vitality and visual appeal. _______________________________________________ LECTURE 19 Lighting (Continued)… Natural scenic lighting Decorative scenic lighting An illusion of reality . Cyclorama etc Physical Integration of different departments/sections .Controlling boom shadows LECTURE 20 SETTING UP A PROFESSIONAL BROADCAST TELEVISION STUDIO - Complete overview about the facility Equipment and infrastructure Visuals of grids.

The parts of atom . an analog signal is one in which a base carrier's alternating current frequency is modified in some way.Vertical Blanking Waveform display LECTURE # 16 TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF TV Digital Digital describes electronic technology that generates.Direct current . such as by amplifying the strength of the signal or varying the frequency.Power .Interlace Scanning .Voltage .Frequency . and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive. Broadcast and telephone transmission have conventionally used analog technology. in order to add information to the signal. Thus. stores. data transmitted or stored with digital technology is expressed as a string of 0's and 1's. Each of these state digits is referred to as a bit (and a string of bits that a computer can address individually as a group is a byte).LECTURE 21 TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF TELEVISION AND VIDEO The atom and electricity .Current .Impedance Fields (induction) and noise Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTS) .Alternating current Units of Measurement .Progressive scanning Need for interlace scanning .Horizontal Blanking . .Resistance . Analogue In telecommunications. Positive is expressed or represented by the number 1 and non-positive by the number 0.The flow of electrons through metals Basic Circuits .

and in the enhancement of radar images. may be transmitted in a zip. Sometimes a camera with an image of 1." A codec is an algorithm. and bar code readers. Compression Compression is the reduction in size of data in order to save space or transmission time. in the processing of satellite photographs. that reduces the number of bytes consumed by large files and programs. When you send or receive information on the Internet.535 colors. CCDs are now commonly included in digital still and video cameras.024 by 768 pixels is given the label "megapixel. compression can be performed on just the data content or on the entire transmission unit (including header data) depending on a number of factors. For a system supporting 65. or other compressed format. Another asset of the CCD is its high degree of sensitivity. Some digital cameras produce images having more than one million pixels. and its resolution does not deteriorate when the illumination intensity is low. Codecs The term codec is also an acronym that stands for "compression/decompression. Graphic image file formats are usually designed to compress information as much as possible (since these can tend to become very large files). as is the case with conventional cameras. in optical character recognition (OCR).000. larger text files. . yet sell for under $1. gzip. Charge-coupled device (CCD) (CCD) is a light-sensitive integrated circuit that stores and displays the data for an image in such a way that each pixel (picture element) in the image is converted into an electrical charge the intensity of which is related to a color in the color spectrum. HD TV Standards High-definition television (HDTV) is a digital television broadcasting system with higher resolution than traditional television systems (standard-definition TV. WinZip is a popular Windows program that compresses files when it packages them in an archive.An analog signal can be represented as a series of sine waves. HDTV is digitally broadcast because digital television (DTV) requires less bandwidth if sufficient video compression is used. either singly or with others as part of an archive file. scanners. For data transmission. A good CCD can produce an image in extremely dim light. They are also used in astronomical telescopes. The term originated because the modulation of the carrier wave is analogous to the fluctuations of the human voice or other sound that is being transmitted. Compression is performed by a program that uses a formula or algorithm to determine how to compress or decompress data. The devices have also found use in machine vision for robots." even though it technically falls short of the mark. A CCD in a digital camera improves resolution compared with older technologies. especially in meteorology. Graphic image compression can be either lossy (some information is permanently lost) or lossless (all information can be restored). there will be a separate value for each color that can be stored and recovered. The term megapixel has been coined in reference to such cameras. or specialized computer program. or SDTV).

the image collapses and only one or the other channel is heard. and the signals that are reproduced have a specific level and phase relationship to each other so that when played back through a suitable reproduction system. and a minimal level and phase response difference for each channel's coverage of the listening area. The key is that the signal contains no level and arrival time/phase information that would replicate or simulate directional cues. because there are two channels and a "stereo" console is connected to the front of the system. Mono systems can still be full-bandwidth and full-fidelity and are able to reinforce both voice and music effectively. leaving 2/3 of the audience wondering why they only hear half the program. Common types of mono systems include single channel centre clusters. Two channel systems usually suffer from having half the people in the listening area only hear half the audio program. Stereo True stereophonic sound systems have two independent audio signal channels.Audio for video Mono Mono or monophonic describes a system where all the audio signals are mixed together and routed through a single audio channel. Living with this sweet spot in your living room may be OK. a very common requirement in performing arts centers. like a church sanctuary or theatre auditorium. This is why your home stereo system has a "sweet spot" between the two loudspeakers. this is a simulation only. Stereo would be a requirement if there is a need to replicate the aural perspective and localization of instruments on a stage or platform. and distributed loudspeaker systems with and without architectural delays. and. Two Channel This is what many people mistake for stereo sound systems. there will be an apparent image of the original sound source. An additional requirement of the stereo playback system is that the entire listening area must have equal coverage of both the left and right channels. which makes two channel systems a poor choice for music . but in a larger venue. and even multiple widely separated loudspeakers. it is necessary to have a loudspeaker system for each channel that can provide uniform coverage of the entire listening area while maintaining the directional cues. since you can put your couch there. Mono systems can have multiple loudspeakers. What is missing from most of these systems is uniform coverage of the entire listening area. The big advantage to mono is that everyone hears the very same signal. This makes well-designed mono systems very well suited for speech reinforcement as they can provide excellent speech intelligibility. all listeners would hear the system at essentially the same sound level. To achieve proper loudspeaker coverage to replicate a stereo image in a large venue. This also means that a mono signal that is panned somewhere between the two channels does not have the requisite phase information to be a true stereophonic signal. and stereo amplifiers and equalizers are used throughout the system. mono split cluster systems. in properly designed systems. although there can be a level difference between the two channels that simulates a position difference. This sweet spot is limited to a fairly small area between the two loudspeakers and when a listener is outside that area. that sweet spot might only include 1/3 the audience. at essentially equal levels. where the level differences and arrival time differences are small enough that the stereo image and localization are both maintained.

What is digital? .Sampling Color System Digital encoding ratios Codecs Composite encoding Color CRTs Plasma display screen LCD screens PAL Analog Sync generators Camera Flow diagrams Video Switchers Switcher Keys and effects .Conversion . even high profile venues where they deserve better system designs.DAT 6 LECTURE 23 .Surround sound Sound recorder for video .Mono and Stereo . It tends to be a common misconception brought forward by people with a background in portable or live sound systems.Luma Key Digital Video Tape recorders Video compression Spatial Compression MPEG Compression standards Temporal compression Computer Graphics for video Character Generators Creating Imagery and Effects HD TV Standards Standard definition digital TV Audio for video . This is an all-too-common oversight in venues that are intended for music and entertainment. __________________________________________ LECTURE 22 (Continued)… CCDs .Croma Key .reinforcement. A large portion of the listeners hear a completely different music mix from other listeners.What computers do? Analog and digital .Broadcast quality requirements Digital .layout and operations .

Elements of Edit Types of edits Effective editing Editing tips and techniques Audio Video treatments and correction LECTURE 24 Difference between Film and TV • Technical • Presentation • Dissemination • Business/Promotion LECTURE 25 • • • • • • • Why to give special emphasis on beginning and ending of a program Drawing a line between esthetics and Broadcast Standards Hidden problems and their remedies (expect the unexpected) How to handle controversial Productions/Programs Recording a VVIP Overview of the broadcasting infrastructure Today's advancement in Technology LECTURE 26 BROADCAST AND DISSEMINATION Overview of: - Earth station Satellite System DSNG Microwave link DTS MMDS IPTV Terrestrial Networks LECTURE # 17 .Famous softwares and their applications .CGI .Post-Production .

Be positive: A director is the center of attention to all the personnel in the studios. Understand the capabilities: A very important thing to remember as a director is that you should be aware of the technicalities that are involved while you are working. There motives however are to get the work done in time and to optimize recourses to the maximum extent. most crew member will feed off that and will give the performance that is needed. Confidence: People who are new to directing and even some experienced director’s sometime become nervous in case of a problem or complications in the programme. If a director goes into the studios with positive attitude and full of energy. if he manages this skillfully and with an accommodating attitude everyone will bend over backwards to get things through for the day. A director must know what he wants before going in the studios and find out before hand if he is asking for the impossible. . It is very important to be clear and precise while given directions. A director’s first 30 seconds in a studio will have the most impact on the entire crew. when there are four cameras on the standby. This technique may be suitable for any production firm since they need to make products which have a defined procedure.DIRECTING It is commonly found that while recording the directors are strict and stringent. But shooting however is a bit different. everyone listens and reacts to the director. what is and what is not possible. For example it will be a very bad communication if a director says that I will cut to THAT Camera. A director should be precise and specific like ‘I will cut to Camera 2 next’. Although the technical crew will give a director anything that is needed but at the same time they expect the director to understand.

short divisioning and other requirements are clearly understood. instead they should include all the technical staff especially cameramen so that the positioning. It is imperative for a director to first introduce himself through the communication setup. so it is important that as a director you are present on set a little before the designated time. etc. .  The ability to use all camera functions manually. The rehearsals should not be for the performer’s benefit only. Getting Started: The maximum wastage of time for any recording is in the start of the day. A director must have a proper plan and distributed work before the start so that minimum time is wasted.Listening: A good director always listens and keeps his mind open to suggestions and information from the crew members. Rehearsals: A director must be very particular about rehearsals. Also before starting recording the director must check with all the concerned like the cameramen etc and see if everything is inline. shutter. A director must break the ice and make his crew members get in the mood for work. including iris. Also you should keep people motivated and going. focus. A director must make sure that in a production environment his camera operators have the following skills:  Knowledge of basic video terminology. and set the pace of work in the beginning of the day. For rehearsals a director need not hire expensive locations or studios as the same can be done in any suitable room or place. Rehearsals are always a fruitful experience and many thing that are overlooked are resolved which save a lot of time and cost while actual recording.

Knowledge of the common shot types and the ability to frame them quickly
and accurately.

The ability to use zoom, pan and tilt to adjust framing smoothly and with
appropriate timing.

An understanding of color temperature and how this affects white balance and
filter selection.

A basic understanding of how editing works, at least as far as it affects the
shots required.

A basic understanding of how to look after camera equipment, including
setting it up and packing it down safely.

The above mentioned must be kept in mind especially before formulating the
production team

Safety:

Safety of the crew should be of prime concern for the director. It is important that the
recording environment is made safer for people to work so that they can deliver best
performance. Most of the time accidents happen with electrical equipment especially
lights. Few things to be vigilant about are:
- Keep bystanders away from lights — they are notorious for knocking them over.
- Always be extremely careful with the heat created by lights. The barn doors can
burn fingers. Wait until lights cool down before touching or moving them.
- Don't handle bulbs with your fingers — use a piece of cloth or something else.
- Only use material for gels which is specifically designed for lighting. Don't use
paper, tracing paper, baking paper, plastic, etc. Never attach anything to a light which
isn't designed for the application.
- Make sure stands are stable and loose cables are taped to the ground.

- Lights are power-hungry — don't overload sockets.
- Make sure all lights have adequate ventilation and never cover them.

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LECTURE # 18
In this lecture we will talk about the tips and techniques that a director must
convey to his talent/actor(s) in order for them to be more prepare and perform to
the best of their abilities.
Breaking Down the Script
Part of the Actors job is to analyze the script and break it down into manageable
parts. A great deal of character study will happen during this procedure.
Questions
The five "W's" to ask about your character:




WHO am I?
WHERE am I?
WHEN am I there?
WHAT am I DOING?
WHY am I doing it?

The answers to these questions are always stated or implied in the dialogue or
given in the stage directions.
Objectives and Obstacles
Once you've asked the "what am I doing" and "why am I doing it" questions,
you're already working on finding your objectives. What does the character
want to achieve as a result of their actions? You can have many objectives
(major and minor) throughout the play, so as you read through, ask the
following questions frequently:

What do I WANT?
Why do I WANT it?

The obstacles in the play keep your character from accomplishing their
objectives. They are often the cause of conflict between characters. They may
also be caused by a psychological block or internal struggle within your own
character. Just as there can be many objectives, there can also be many obstacles
in the play. Once you know what your character wants, then you must ask:

What obstacles must I OVERCOME to get what I want?

An example of a character objective and obstacle can be found easily in your
basic horror movie - the character's objective is to have a peaceful existence
without fear, and their obstacle is the evil force or person who is frightening
them. Other obstacles to consider might be:


Time - do you have a time limit to accomplish your objective?
Ability - are you skilled at the task needed to accomplish your objective?
Feelings - do you have to battle feelings of guilt or fear before you can
accomplish your objective?

As in life, a person's character is revealed through his actions and by his reasons
for doing them. By asking these questions, the Actor begins to discover who his
character is.
Relationships
Consider how your character relates to the other characters in the play. Does
your character like or dislike them? Do the characters share history before the
time period of the play? Does a daring character make your cautious character
irritable?
How does your character relate to objects in the play? For instance, if your
character is ordered to drink a soda, his relation with that soda will be different
than if he's thankfully quenching his thirst on a hot summer day. Objects
become very good partners when they're imbued with a meaningful relationship.
Objects can provide the same psychological stimulus as another character can.
A lot of these relationships will become evident through rehearsal before
shooting or on the set but a few ideas beforehand will make your rehearsal
process more productive.

Using the Lines
Keep in mind that behind every line of text, there is SUBTEXT. If a character
says, "It's raining," the subtext might be one of these:
1. We'll have to move our guests indoors
2. Now those flowers will grow very well

The only way to be sure of fluidity in your speaking is to know the words accurately. Every word. if your character is a burglar. The actor is responsible for this work before rehearsals or shoot begin. Clues are given in the use of vocabulary that tell the actor important things about a character. A beat is a unit of action and each beat is a necessary step toward the major objective. 5. 2. The words of a play are music for the actors to dance to. Finding the Beats What a character does to accomplish each minor objective is called a beat. One of the most frightening things an actor can ever experience is a sudden moment of forgetfulness . you can't go outdoors to play 4. I love to walk in the rain An Actor has no right to speak a line until he has discovered the reason for saying it. The play's speed. Integrity of the Play. 2. every line and even every word. As you say the text.where your mind goes blank. Characterization. 3. Memorizing Lines Word for Word? Many actors fail to understand why they must memorize their lines word for word as the playwright has written them. you must always THINK the subtext just as clearly. Break into the house Locate the wall safe Open the safe Remove the valuables Escape from the house An actor should always find the beats. every punctuation mark. Different characters are written to speak in different ways - . Security. It becomes frustrating for the actor when they are faced with a difficult speech. 4. and be able to state the objective and obstacle for each one. No. but there are many reasons why the actor should resist the temptation to paraphrase: 1. you might break the script into these beats: 1. And nothing can kill a punchline faster than an actor who is stumbling around because he doesn't know exactly how the line goes. The subtext colors the line of text and will influence what words you stress and what your physical expressions are. every pause and every direction the playwright includes is there for a reason. 3. mark the beginning and end in the script. For example. The leakage in the roof must have been fixed 5.3. tone and message depend on recognizing the playwrights purpose for every scene.

When that line is memorized. Read through. How to Memorize If you don't have a photographic memory then you have to work at memorizing your lines. and natural. practice. Concentrate on each word . each line will be imbued with meanings and objectives which will also help your memory. Practice. the quickest way to improve your acting is to realize that your first choice will usually be the easiest for you to do . Mark stage directions with another color or don't mark them at all. The more you practice. . put the script down and check how much you remember. or acting. just to prove you know them. and not just your own lines. this will help you react with the right lines and make remembering easier. Make sure to look up words or pronunciation that you're not familiar with (once you learn it wrong. In rehearsal. read each line aloud. etc. Here are some tips that should help you:      Highlight. you can practice an Italian Run.not the best one for the part. or speak the lines out loud as fast as you can. Then move onto the next speech.fast or slow. At intervals.especially the small words like and. or. slowly. you've pretty much got it made.. Be brave. just put them together in one long stream. until you've gone over them all. more fluid. Italian Run. word perfect. the words at this time. the chunks of dialogue that you practice without using the script should get larger and larger. using dialect or regional terminologies. In order. it is a conversation after all. Emphasize your lines in the script with a highlighter or underline with a brightly colored pen. Read. in order. you should give the impression that what your character is hearing is purely of that moment. Look beyond your initial choice. Read each line. move onto the next until you can remember the entire speech without looking at the script. practice. Don't worry about interpreting. Go over all your lines (out loud) several times. From this foundation you can go on to identify the reason for your lines. You can also do an Italian Run involving your practice partner or the rest of the cast. but. Use a different color to mark your cues (the lines or actions just before your line). As you go on. re-read and then read again. Tips for improving your acting    Know your script. the more you'll find it easier and easier. from the top of the play. Listen actively. As soon as you can do an Italian Run without stumbling. if. When you have a solid handle on the lines. Resist the temptation to be quick with your lines.and patterns are created from combinations or repetitions of words. it's much more difficult to re-learn it). Therefore changing words can affect the integrity of the whole play.

This will help improve your acting by enabling you to find the truest way for you to develop. If you find yourself in a situation where every piece of furniture is being chewed by your fellow cast members. It will also improve your professional reputation which. turning up on time. Your performance will stand out like the calm at the eye of the storm. Act! The more you act the better you should get. Improve your acting by making your colleagues look as good as possible. you will miss out on the opportunity to accurately evaluate your own performances. It might sound odd but getting the best from colleagues will reflect on your own performance and help you develop. more importantly. or early. This is not only good advice because eventually they will find out what you've been saying. the space you need. hold your nerve and avoid the melodrama. the greater the number of actors and directors you will work with. If everyone around you is loosing their heads . will give you all the warm up time and. If you always blame others. in turn. This one might not be so obvious. avoid bad mouthing your fellow actors.keep yours. should mean you get more work.     Be professional. The more acting you do. but also the actors who are quick to insult other actors are the ones who blame others for their own shortcomings. Practice makes perfect after all. _______________________________________________ .