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Structural Analysis - II

Plastic Analysis

Dr. Rajesh K. N.
Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering
Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Module IV
Plastic Theory

Introduction-Plastic hinge concept-plastic section modulus-shape


factor-redistribution of moments-collapse mechanism-

Theorems of plastic analysis - Static/lower bound theorem;


Kinematic/upper bound theorem-Plastic analysis of beams and
portal frames b
by equilibrium and mechanism methods
methods.

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Plastic Analysis - Why? What?


Behaviour beyond elastic limit?
Plastic deformation - collapse load
Safe load load factor
Design based on collapse (ultimate) load limit
design
Economic - Optimum use of material
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Materials
Elastic-Perfectly plastic

Elastic

Elastic limit

Elastic limit

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Upper yield
point

streess

Plastic
range

Lower yield
L
i ld
point

strain

Idealised stress-strain curve of mild steel


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s
stress
O

strain

Idealised stress-strain curve in plastic theory

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Elastic analysis
- Material is in the elastic state
- Performance
P f
off structures under
d service
i loads
l d
- Deformation increases with increasing load

Plastic analysis
Material is in the plastic state
Performance of structures under
ultimate/collapse
/
p loads
Deformation/Curvature increases without an
increase in load.
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Assumptions
Plane sections remain plane in plastic
condition
Stress-strain
S
relation
l
is identical
d
l both
b h in
p
and tension
compression

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Process of yielding of a section


Let M at a cross-section increases gradually.
Within elastic limit, M = .Z
Z is section modulus, I/y

Elastic limit yield stresses reached


My = y.Z
Z

When moment is increased, yield spreads into inner


fibres. Remaining portion still elastic
Finally,
Fi ll th
the entire
ti cross-section
ti yields
i ld

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Change in stress distribution during


yielding

Rectangular cross section


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Inverted T section
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Plastic hinge
When
h the
h section is completely
l l yielded,
ld d the
h
section is fully plastic
A ffully
ll plastic
l
section b
behaves
h
like
lk ah
hinge
Plastic hinge
Plastic hinge is defined as an yielded zone due
to bending in a structural member, at which
large rotations can occur at a section at
constant plastic moment, MP
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Mechanical hinge

Plastic hinge

Reality

Concept

Resists zero
moment

Resists a constant
momentt MP

Mechanical Hinge

Plastic Hinge with MP= 0

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M Moment corresponding to working load


My Moment at which the section yields
MP Moment at which entire section is under yield stress

C
T
MP

y
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Plastic moment
Moment at which the entire section is
under yield stress
C =T
Ac y = At y

A
Ac = At =
2

NA divides cross-section into 2 equal parts


A
C =T = y
2
16
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y
A
C = y
2

yc
yt

A
T = y
2

Si il to y Z
Similar

A
A
Couple due to
y y ( yc + yt ) = y Z p
2
2
Zp
Z

( > 1)

Plastic modulus
is the shape
p factor
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Shape factor for various cross


cross-sections
sections
b

Rectangular cross-section:
Section modulus
I
Z= =
y

Plastic modulus
Shape factor

Zp
Z

3
bd
( 12 )

( d 2)

bd 2
=
6

A
bd d d bd 2
Z p = ( y c + yt ) =
+ =
2
2 4 4
4

= 1.5
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Circular section
A
Z p = ( y c + yt )
2
d 2 2d 2d d 3
=
+
=

8 3 3 6

d
(
Z=

64 )

d 2

d3
32

S=

Zp
Z

= 1.7
17

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Triangular section
bh 3
36
2
bh

=
Z=
2h
24
3

2h
3

CG axis

A
Z p = ( y c + yt )
2

h
b

yc

S = 2.346

E
Equal
l area axis
i

yt

b
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I section
20 mm

250 mm

10 mm

20 mm
200 mm
S = 1.132

Mp = 259.6 kNm
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Load factor
collapse load M P y Z P
Load factor =
=
=
working load
M
Z
Rectangular cross-section:
bd 2
M P = yZP = y
4

bd 2 y bd 2
M =Z =
=
6
1.5 6
1

M P bd 2 y bd 2
LF =
= y

= 2.25
2 25

M
4 1.5 6

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Factor of safety
Wy
Yield Load
=
Factor of Safety =
Working Load W

y
Yield Stress
=
=
WorkingStress
g

y
y

/ 1.5
1 5)

= 1.5

El ti A
Elastic
Analysis
l i - Factor
F t off S
Safety
f t
Plastic Analysis - Load Factor
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Mechanisms of failure
A statically determinate beam will collapse if one plastic
hinge is developed
Consider a simply supported beam with constant cross
section loaded with a point load P at midspan
If P is increased until a plastic hinge is developed at the point
of maximum moment (just underneath P) an unstable
structure
t t
will
ill b
be created.
t d
Any further increase in load will cause collapse

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For a statically
y indeterminate beam to collapse,
p more than one
plastic hinge should be developed
The plastic hinge will act as real hinge for further increase of
load (until sufficient plastic hinges are developed for
collapse )
collapse.)
As the load is increased,, there is a redistribution of moment,,
as the plastic hinge cannot carry any additional moment.

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Beam mechanisms

Determinate
D
i
beams
b
& frames: Collapse
after
f first
fi plastic
l i
hinge

Simple beam

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Indeterminate beams &


frames:
a es: Mo
Moree than
t a o
onee
plastic hinge
to develop
p mechanism

Fixed beam

Plastic
l
hinges
h
d
develop
l at the
h ends
d first
f
Beam becomes a simple beam
Plastic hinge
g develops
p at the centre
Beam collapses
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Indeterminate beam:
Moree than
Mo
t a o
onee p
plastic
ast c
hinge to develop
mechanism

Propped cantilever

Plastic
l
hinge
h
d
develops
l
at the
h fixed
f d support first
f
Beam becomes a simple beam
Plastic hinge
g develops
p at the centre
Beam collapses
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Panel mechanism/sway mechanism

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Gable Mechanism
W

Composite (combined) Mechanism


- Combination of the above

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Methods of Plastic Analysis


y
Static method or Equilibrium method
- Lower bound: A load computed on the basis of an assumed

equilibrium BM diagram in which the moments are not greater than


MP is always less than (or at the worst equal to) the true ultimate
l d
load.

Kinematic method or Mechanism method or Virtual work


method
- Work performed by the external loads is equated to the internal
work absorbed by plastic hinges
- Upper bound: A load computed on the basis of an assumed
mechanism is always greater than (or at the best equal to) the true
ultimate load.
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Collapse
p load (Wc)): Minimum load at which
collapse will occur Least value
Fully plastic moment (MP): Maximum moment
capacity for design Highest value

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Determination of collapse load


1. Simple beam
Equilibrium method:

Wu .l
MP =
4
MP
M

4M P
Wu =
l

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Virtual work method:

WE = WI

l
Wu = M P .2
2

Wu
l

4M P
Wu =
l

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2. Fixed beam with UDL

w.l 2
,
M CENTRE =
24
w.l 2
M ENDS =
> M CENTRE
12

Hence plastic hinges will develop at the ends first.


M
MC1
M
P
C2
M
M
PP
MB1

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Equilibrium:

wu

wu .l 2
2M P =
8

16 M P
wu = 2
l

Virtual work:

0+

2
2 wu
2 2

WE = WI

= M P ( + 2 + )

16 M P
wu = 2
l

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3. Fixed beam with point load


Wu

MP

MP

Virtual work:

l
Wu = M P ( + 2 + )
2

8M P
Wu =
l

Equilibrium:

l
2 M P = Wu
4
8M P
Wu =
l
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4. Fixed beam with eccentric point load


Wu
b

Equilibrium:
q

ab
2 M P = Wu
l
MP
MP

2 M Pl
Wu =
ab

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Virtual work:

a1 = b 2

Wu
1

1 + 2

b
1 = 2
a

Wu ( a1 ) = M P 1 + (1 + 2 ) + 2

Wu ( b 2 ) = M P 2 2 + 2 2
a

MP
Wu =
b 2
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b
= 2M P ( a + b)
2 a 2 + 2 2
ab

2 M Pl
Wu =
ab
Dr.RajeshKN

5. Propped cantilever with point load at


midspan

M
M
MC2
C1
P
M
MPB1
P

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Wu
2

Vi t l work:
Virtual
k

Equilibrium:

WE = WI
l
(Wu ) = M P ( + 2 )
2

6M P
Wu =
l

Wu .l
M P + 0.5M P =
4
6M P
Wu =
l
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6. Propped cantilever with UDL

Maximum p
positive BM

wl 2
8
x1
MP
MP

At collapse
E

x2

Required
q
to locate E
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wu lx
l 2 wu x2 2
x2

ME =

MP = MP
2
2
l
For maximum,

dM E
=0
dx2
wu l
MP
wu x2
=0
l
2

From (1) and (2),


From (2),

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

(1)

(2)

x2 = 0.414l

MP
wu = 11.656 2
l
Dr.RajeshKN

Problem 1: For the beam, determine the design plastic moment


capacity.
i
75kN

50kN
1.5m

1.5m
7.5m

Degree
D
off Indeterminacy,
d
N=32=1
No. of hinges, n = 3
No. of independent mechanisms ,r = n - N = 2

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75kN

50kN

1.5m

50kN

75kN

1.5m
1
5m

45m
4.5m

+1

1.5m
1
5m
1

Mechanism 1

1 5 = 61
1.5

1.5
1 =

1.5
1.5

50 (1.5 ) + 75 1.5 = M p + +

6
6

M p = 45.83
45 83
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75

50
1.5m

4.5m

1.5m
1

Mechanism 2

+1

6 = 1.51
1.5
=
1
6

1.5
1.5

1.5

50 1.5 1 + 75 (1.51 ) = M p 1 +
1 + 1
6
6

M p = 87.5 kNm

Design
g p
plastic moment ((Highest
g
of the above))
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= 87.5 kNm
Dr.RajeshKN

Problem 2: A beam of span 6 m is to be designed for an ultimate UDL


off 25 kN/m.
kN/
Th beam
The
b
i simply
is
i l supported
t d att the
th ends.
d Design
D i
a
suitable I section using plastic theory, assuming y= 250 MPa.
25 kN/m
25kN/m

6m

Degree of Indeterminacy, N = 2 2 = 0
No. of hinges, n = 1
No. of independent mechanisms, r = n-N = 1
Mechanism

25kN/m

3m

3m
3m
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Internal
te a work
o k done
do e

WI = 0 + M p 2 + 0 = 2 M p

External work done

0 + 3

WE = 2 25 3
2

WI = WE 2 M p = 225
Plastic modulus Z P =

Section modulus

MP

= 225

M p = 112.5 kNm
112.5 106
= 4.5 105 mm 3
=
250

5
4.5
.5

10
0
5
3
ZP =
=
3
3.913
913

10
mm
Z=
1.15
S

Assuming shape factor S = 1.15


Adopt ISLB 275@330 N/m (from Steel Tables SP 6)
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Problem 3: Find the collapse load for the frame shown.


shown
W

A/2

A/2

A/2

Mp
E

W/2

2Mp

2Mp

A/2
A

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Degree of Indeterminacy, N = 5 3 = 2
No. of hinges, n = 5 (at A, B, C, E & F)
No. of independent mechanisms ,r = n - N = 3
Beam Mechanisms for members AB & BC
Panel Mechanism

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Beam Mechanism for AB

WI = 2M p + 2M p (2 ) + M p = 7 M p

B Mp

A/2
E
W/2

2
2Mp

W A
WE =

2 2

WE = WI Wc =

A/2

28M p
A

2Mp

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Beam Mechanism for BC


A/2

Mp

A/2
Mp

C
Mp

2
Mp

WI = M p + M p (2 ) + M p = 4 M p

A
WE = W
2
WE = WI Wc =

8M p
A
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Panel Mechanism

WI = 2 M p + M p + M p = 4 M p
W

Mp

A/2

A/2

Mp

A/2
W/2

W A

WE =
2 2

WE = WI Wc =

16M p
A

A/2
2Mp

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Combined Mechanism
W

A/2

A/2
W/2

A/2
2
Mp

Mp

WI = 2 M p ( ) + M p (2 )
+ M p ( + )
= 6 M p

A
W A
3
+ W = W A
WE =
2 2
2
4

A/2

WE = WI Wc =

2Mp

88M
Mp

True Collapse Load, ( Lowest of the above ) ,Wc =

A
8M p
A
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Problem 4: A portal frame is loaded upto collapse. Find


the plastic moment capacity required if the frame is of
uniform section throughout.
10kN/m
25 kN
25kN

8m
Mp

4m

Mp

Mp

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Degree of Indeterminacy, N = 4 3 = 1
No. of possible plastic hinges, n = 3
(at B, C and between B&C)
No. of independent mechanisms ,r = n - N = 2
Beam Mechanism for BC
Panel Mechanism

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10kN/m

Beam Mechanism for BC

B
Mp

0 + 4

WE = 2 10 4

= 160

C
Mp

2
Mp

WI = M p ( + 2 + ) = 4 M p
M p = 40 kNm

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Panel Mechanism

25kN

4
Mp

Mp

WE = WI

M p ( + ) = 25 4
M p = 50 kNm

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Combined Mechanism

10kN/m
25kN

It is required to locate the


plastic hinge between B & C

x
Mp

8 x
+1

1
Mp

4m

Assume plastic hinge is


formed at x from B

x = ( 8 x )1
x

WE = 25 4 + 10 x
2

+ 10 8 x ( 8 x )1
(
)

2
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WI = M p ( + 1 ) + 1 + = 2 M p
+
8 x

5 ( 5 + 2 x )( 8 x )
WE = WI M p =
4
For maximum,

dM P
=0
dx

x = 2.75 m
5 ( 5 + 2 x )( 8 x )
Mp =
= 68.91 kNm
4
Design plastic moment of resistance, ( largest of the above ) , M p = 68.91 kNm
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Problem 5: Determine the Collapse load of the continuous beam.


P
A

A/2
A

P
D

A collapse can happen in two ways:

A/2

A
SI = 4 2 = 2

1 D
1.
Due tto hinges
hi
d
developing
l i att A,
A B and
dD

2. Due to hinges developing at B and E

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Equilibrium:
Hinges at A, B and D

Mp

>Mp

Mp

Mp
Pu A
4

Pu A
4

88M
Mp
Pu A
= M p + M p Pu =
4
A
Moment at E is greater than Mp. Hence this mechanism is
not possible.

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Hinges at B and E

Mp

Mp

Mp
Pu A
4

Pu A
4

Mp
6M p
Pu A
= Mp +
Pu =
4
2
A

True Collapse Load,

Pu =

6M p
A
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Virtual work:
A

A/2

P
B

A/2

A
SI = 4 2 = 2

Hinges at A, B and D

8M p
A
Pu = M p ( + 2 + ) Pu =
A
2

Hinges at B and E

6M p
A
Pu = M p ( + 2 ) Pu =
A
2
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Problem 6: For the cantilever, determine the collapse load.


W
A

L/2

L/2
2 Mp
p

Mp

Degree of Indeterminacy
Indeterminacy, N = 0
No.
No of possible plastic hinges,
hinges n = 2 (at A&B)
No.
No of independent mechanisms ,rr = n - N = 2

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Wu
L/2

L/2
/2

L/2

Mp

L
Wu = M p
2

Wu =

Mechanism 1

2M p
L
Wu

L
L

2Mp

Wu L = 2 M p

Wu =

2M p
L

T C ll
TrueCollapse
Load,
L d ( Lowest
L
t off the
th above
b ) ,Wc =
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Mechanism 2

2M p
L

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Problem 7: A beam of rectangular section b x d is subjected to a


bending moment of 0.9 Mp. Find out the depth of elastic core.

Let the elastic core be of depth 2y0


External bending moment must be
resisted by the internal couple.
Distance of CG from NA,

2 y0

y 2
1d

b y0 y y0 + y0 + by0
y0
2
2
2
2 2
2 3

3
d

4
y
0
y =
=
y
d

12 ( d y0 )
b y0 y + by0
2
2

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I t
Internal
l couple
l (moment
(
t off resistance)
i t
)

y 3d 2 4 y0 2
d

= 2 b y0 y + by0

2 12 ( d y0 )

2
3d 2 4 y0 2
=
b y
12
bd 2
y
External bending moment = 0.9 M p = 0.9 Z p y = 0.9
4
3d 2 4 y0 2
bd 2
b y = 0.9
y
Equating the above,
12
4
y0 = 0.274d
Hence, depth of elastic core = 2 y0 = 0.548d
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Summary
Plastic Theory

Introduction-Plastic hinge concept-plastic section modulus-shape


factor-redistribution of moments-collapse mechanism-

Theorems of plastic analysis - Static/lower bound theorem;


Kinematic/upper bound theorem-Plastic analysis of beams and
portal frames b
by equilibrium and mechanism methods
methods.

69
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Dr.RajeshKN