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Plastic Analysis

Dr. Rajesh K. N.

Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering

Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Module IV

Plastic Theory

factor-redistribution of moments-collapse mechanism-

Kinematic/upper bound theorem-Plastic analysis of beams and

portal frames b

by equilibrium and mechanism methods

methods.

2

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Behaviour beyond elastic limit?

Plastic deformation - collapse load

Safe load load factor

Design based on collapse (ultimate) load limit

design

Economic - Optimum use of material

3

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Materials

Elastic-Perfectly plastic

Elastic

Elastic limit

Elastic limit

Dr.RajeshKN

Upper yield

point

streess

Plastic

range

Lower yield

L

i ld

point

strain

5

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

s

stress

O

strain

6

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Elastic analysis

- Material is in the elastic state

- Performance

P f

off structures under

d service

i loads

l d

- Deformation increases with increasing load

Plastic analysis

Material is in the plastic state

Performance of structures under

ultimate/collapse

/

p loads

Deformation/Curvature increases without an

increase in load.

7

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Assumptions

Plane sections remain plane in plastic

condition

Stress-strain

S

relation

l

is identical

d

l both

b h in

p

and tension

compression

8

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Let M at a cross-section increases gradually.

Within elastic limit, M = .Z

Z is section modulus, I/y

My = y.Z

Z

fibres. Remaining portion still elastic

Finally,

Fi ll th

the entire

ti cross-section

ti yields

i ld

9

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

10

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

yielding

11

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Inverted T section

12

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Plastic hinge

When

h the

h section is completely

l l yielded,

ld d the

h

section is fully plastic

A ffully

ll plastic

l

section b

behaves

h

like

lk ah

hinge

Plastic hinge

Plastic hinge is defined as an yielded zone due

to bending in a structural member, at which

large rotations can occur at a section at

constant plastic moment, MP

13

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Mechanical hinge

Plastic hinge

Reality

Concept

Resists zero

moment

Resists a constant

momentt MP

Mechanical Hinge

14

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

My Moment at which the section yields

MP Moment at which entire section is under yield stress

C

T

MP

y

15

Dr.RajeshKN

Plastic moment

Moment at which the entire section is

under yield stress

C =T

Ac y = At y

A

Ac = At =

2

A

C =T = y

2

16

16

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

y

A

C = y

2

yc

yt

A

T = y

2

Si il to y Z

Similar

A

A

Couple due to

y y ( yc + yt ) = y Z p

2

2

Zp

Z

( > 1)

Plastic modulus

is the shape

p factor

17

Dr.RajeshKN

cross-sections

sections

b

Rectangular cross-section:

Section modulus

I

Z= =

y

Plastic modulus

Shape factor

Zp

Z

3

bd

( 12 )

( d 2)

bd 2

=

6

A

bd d d bd 2

Z p = ( y c + yt ) =

+ =

2

2 4 4

4

= 1.5

18

18

Dr.RajeshKN

Circular section

A

Z p = ( y c + yt )

2

d 2 2d 2d d 3

=

+

=

8 3 3 6

d

(

Z=

64 )

d 2

d3

32

S=

Zp

Z

= 1.7

17

19

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Triangular section

bh 3

36

2

bh

=

Z=

2h

24

3

2h

3

CG axis

A

Z p = ( y c + yt )

2

h

b

yc

S = 2.346

E

Equal

l area axis

i

yt

b

20

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

I section

20 mm

250 mm

10 mm

20 mm

200 mm

S = 1.132

Mp = 259.6 kNm

21

Dr.RajeshKN

Load factor

collapse load M P y Z P

Load factor =

=

=

working load

M

Z

Rectangular cross-section:

bd 2

M P = yZP = y

4

bd 2 y bd 2

M =Z =

=

6

1.5 6

1

M P bd 2 y bd 2

LF =

= y

= 2.25

2 25

M

4 1.5 6

22

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Factor of safety

Wy

Yield Load

=

Factor of Safety =

Working Load W

y

Yield Stress

=

=

WorkingStress

g

y

y

/ 1.5

1 5)

= 1.5

El ti A

Elastic

Analysis

l i - Factor

F t off S

Safety

f t

Plastic Analysis - Load Factor

23

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Mechanisms of failure

A statically determinate beam will collapse if one plastic

hinge is developed

Consider a simply supported beam with constant cross

section loaded with a point load P at midspan

If P is increased until a plastic hinge is developed at the point

of maximum moment (just underneath P) an unstable

structure

t t

will

ill b

be created.

t d

Any further increase in load will cause collapse

24

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

For a statically

y indeterminate beam to collapse,

p more than one

plastic hinge should be developed

The plastic hinge will act as real hinge for further increase of

load (until sufficient plastic hinges are developed for

collapse )

collapse.)

As the load is increased,, there is a redistribution of moment,,

as the plastic hinge cannot carry any additional moment.

25

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Beam mechanisms

Determinate

D

i

beams

b

& frames: Collapse

after

f first

fi plastic

l i

hinge

Simple beam

26

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

frames:

a es: Mo

Moree than

t a o

onee

plastic hinge

to develop

p mechanism

Fixed beam

Plastic

l

hinges

h

d

develop

l at the

h ends

d first

f

Beam becomes a simple beam

Plastic hinge

g develops

p at the centre

Beam collapses

27

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Indeterminate beam:

Moree than

Mo

t a o

onee p

plastic

ast c

hinge to develop

mechanism

Propped cantilever

Plastic

l

hinge

h

d

develops

l

at the

h fixed

f d support first

f

Beam becomes a simple beam

Plastic hinge

g develops

p at the centre

Beam collapses

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

29

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Gable Mechanism

W

- Combination of the above

30

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

y

Static method or Equilibrium method

- Lower bound: A load computed on the basis of an assumed

MP is always less than (or at the worst equal to) the true ultimate

l d

load.

method

- Work performed by the external loads is equated to the internal

work absorbed by plastic hinges

- Upper bound: A load computed on the basis of an assumed

mechanism is always greater than (or at the best equal to) the true

ultimate load.

31

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Collapse

p load (Wc)): Minimum load at which

collapse will occur Least value

Fully plastic moment (MP): Maximum moment

capacity for design Highest value

32

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

1. Simple beam

Equilibrium method:

Wu .l

MP =

4

MP

M

4M P

Wu =

l

33

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

WE = WI

l

Wu = M P .2

2

Wu

l

4M P

Wu =

l

34

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

w.l 2

,

M CENTRE =

24

w.l 2

M ENDS =

> M CENTRE

12

M

MC1

M

P

C2

M

M

PP

MB1

35

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Equilibrium:

wu

wu .l 2

2M P =

8

16 M P

wu = 2

l

Virtual work:

0+

2

2 wu

2 2

WE = WI

= M P ( + 2 + )

16 M P

wu = 2

l

36

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Wu

MP

MP

Virtual work:

l

Wu = M P ( + 2 + )

2

8M P

Wu =

l

Equilibrium:

l

2 M P = Wu

4

8M P

Wu =

l

37

Dr.RajeshKN

Wu

b

Equilibrium:

q

ab

2 M P = Wu

l

MP

MP

2 M Pl

Wu =

ab

38

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Virtual work:

a1 = b 2

Wu

1

1 + 2

b

1 = 2

a

Wu ( a1 ) = M P 1 + (1 + 2 ) + 2

Wu ( b 2 ) = M P 2 2 + 2 2

a

MP

Wu =

b 2

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

b

= 2M P ( a + b)

2 a 2 + 2 2

ab

2 M Pl

Wu =

ab

Dr.RajeshKN

midspan

M

M

MC2

C1

P

M

MPB1

P

40

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Wu

2

Vi t l work:

Virtual

k

Equilibrium:

WE = WI

l

(Wu ) = M P ( + 2 )

2

6M P

Wu =

l

Wu .l

M P + 0.5M P =

4

6M P

Wu =

l

41

Dr.RajeshKN

Maximum p

positive BM

wl 2

8

x1

MP

MP

At collapse

E

x2

Required

q

to locate E

42

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

wu lx

l 2 wu x2 2

x2

ME =

MP = MP

2

2

l

For maximum,

dM E

=0

dx2

wu l

MP

wu x2

=0

l

2

From (2),

(1)

(2)

x2 = 0.414l

MP

wu = 11.656 2

l

Dr.RajeshKN

capacity.

i

75kN

50kN

1.5m

1.5m

7.5m

Degree

D

off Indeterminacy,

d

N=32=1

No. of hinges, n = 3

No. of independent mechanisms ,r = n - N = 2

44

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

75kN

50kN

1.5m

50kN

75kN

1.5m

1

5m

45m

4.5m

+1

1.5m

1

5m

1

Mechanism 1

1 5 = 61

1.5

1.5

1 =

1.5

1.5

50 (1.5 ) + 75 1.5 = M p + +

6

6

M p = 45.83

45 83

45

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

75

50

1.5m

4.5m

1.5m

1

Mechanism 2

+1

6 = 1.51

1.5

=

1

6

1.5

1.5

1.5

50 1.5 1 + 75 (1.51 ) = M p 1 +

1 + 1

6

6

M p = 87.5 kNm

Design

g p

plastic moment ((Highest

g

of the above))

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

= 87.5 kNm

Dr.RajeshKN

off 25 kN/m.

kN/

Th beam

The

b

i simply

is

i l supported

t d att the

th ends.

d Design

D i

a

suitable I section using plastic theory, assuming y= 250 MPa.

25 kN/m

25kN/m

6m

Degree of Indeterminacy, N = 2 2 = 0

No. of hinges, n = 1

No. of independent mechanisms, r = n-N = 1

Mechanism

25kN/m

3m

3m

3m

47

Dr.RajeshKN

Internal

te a work

o k done

do e

WI = 0 + M p 2 + 0 = 2 M p

0 + 3

WE = 2 25 3

2

WI = WE 2 M p = 225

Plastic modulus Z P =

Section modulus

MP

= 225

M p = 112.5 kNm

112.5 106

= 4.5 105 mm 3

=

250

5

4.5

.5

10

0

5

3

ZP =

=

3

3.913

913

10

mm

Z=

1.15

S

Adopt ISLB 275@330 N/m (from Steel Tables SP 6)

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

shown

W

A/2

A/2

A/2

Mp

E

W/2

2Mp

2Mp

A/2

A

49

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Degree of Indeterminacy, N = 5 3 = 2

No. of hinges, n = 5 (at A, B, C, E & F)

No. of independent mechanisms ,r = n - N = 3

Beam Mechanisms for members AB & BC

Panel Mechanism

50

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

WI = 2M p + 2M p (2 ) + M p = 7 M p

B Mp

A/2

E

W/2

2

2Mp

W A

WE =

2 2

WE = WI Wc =

A/2

28M p

A

2Mp

51

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

A/2

Mp

A/2

Mp

C

Mp

2

Mp

WI = M p + M p (2 ) + M p = 4 M p

A

WE = W

2

WE = WI Wc =

8M p

A

52

Dr.RajeshKN

Panel Mechanism

WI = 2 M p + M p + M p = 4 M p

W

Mp

A/2

A/2

Mp

A/2

W/2

W A

WE =

2 2

WE = WI Wc =

16M p

A

A/2

2Mp

53

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Combined Mechanism

W

A/2

A/2

W/2

A/2

2

Mp

Mp

WI = 2 M p ( ) + M p (2 )

+ M p ( + )

= 6 M p

A

W A

3

+ W = W A

WE =

2 2

2

4

A/2

WE = WI Wc =

2Mp

88M

Mp

A

8M p

A

54

Dr.RajeshKN

the plastic moment capacity required if the frame is of

uniform section throughout.

10kN/m

25 kN

25kN

8m

Mp

4m

Mp

Mp

55

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Degree of Indeterminacy, N = 4 3 = 1

No. of possible plastic hinges, n = 3

(at B, C and between B&C)

No. of independent mechanisms ,r = n - N = 2

Beam Mechanism for BC

Panel Mechanism

56

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

10kN/m

B

Mp

0 + 4

WE = 2 10 4

= 160

C

Mp

2

Mp

WI = M p ( + 2 + ) = 4 M p

M p = 40 kNm

57

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Panel Mechanism

25kN

4

Mp

Mp

WE = WI

M p ( + ) = 25 4

M p = 50 kNm

58

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Combined Mechanism

10kN/m

25kN

plastic hinge between B & C

x

Mp

8 x

+1

1

Mp

4m

formed at x from B

x = ( 8 x )1

x

WE = 25 4 + 10 x

2

+ 10 8 x ( 8 x )1

(

)

2

59

Dr.RajeshKN

WI = M p ( + 1 ) + 1 + = 2 M p

+

8 x

5 ( 5 + 2 x )( 8 x )

WE = WI M p =

4

For maximum,

dM P

=0

dx

x = 2.75 m

5 ( 5 + 2 x )( 8 x )

Mp =

= 68.91 kNm

4

Design plastic moment of resistance, ( largest of the above ) , M p = 68.91 kNm

60

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

P

A

A/2

A

P

D

A/2

A

SI = 4 2 = 2

1 D

1.

Due tto hinges

hi

d

developing

l i att A,

A B and

dD

61

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Equilibrium:

Hinges at A, B and D

Mp

>Mp

Mp

Mp

Pu A

4

Pu A

4

88M

Mp

Pu A

= M p + M p Pu =

4

A

Moment at E is greater than Mp. Hence this mechanism is

not possible.

Dr.RajeshKN

Hinges at B and E

Mp

Mp

Mp

Pu A

4

Pu A

4

Mp

6M p

Pu A

= Mp +

Pu =

4

2

A

Pu =

6M p

A

63

Dr.RajeshKN

Virtual work:

A

A/2

P

B

A/2

A

SI = 4 2 = 2

Hinges at A, B and D

8M p

A

Pu = M p ( + 2 + ) Pu =

A

2

Hinges at B and E

6M p

A

Pu = M p ( + 2 ) Pu =

A

2

64

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

W

A

L/2

L/2

2 Mp

p

Mp

Degree of Indeterminacy

Indeterminacy, N = 0

No.

No of possible plastic hinges,

hinges n = 2 (at A&B)

No.

No of independent mechanisms ,rr = n - N = 2

65

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Wu

L/2

L/2

/2

L/2

Mp

L

Wu = M p

2

Wu =

Mechanism 1

2M p

L

Wu

L

L

2Mp

Wu L = 2 M p

Wu =

2M p

L

T C ll

TrueCollapse

Load,

L d ( Lowest

L

t off the

th above

b ) ,Wc =

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Mechanism 2

2M p

L

66

Dr.RajeshKN

bending moment of 0.9 Mp. Find out the depth of elastic core.

External bending moment must be

resisted by the internal couple.

Distance of CG from NA,

2 y0

y 2

1d

b y0 y y0 + y0 + by0

y0

2

2

2

2 2

2 3

3

d

4

y

0

y =

=

y

d

12 ( d y0 )

b y0 y + by0

2

2

67

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

I t

Internal

l couple

l (moment

(

t off resistance)

i t

)

y 3d 2 4 y0 2

d

= 2 b y0 y + by0

2 12 ( d y0 )

2

3d 2 4 y0 2

=

b y

12

bd 2

y

External bending moment = 0.9 M p = 0.9 Z p y = 0.9

4

3d 2 4 y0 2

bd 2

b y = 0.9

y

Equating the above,

12

4

y0 = 0.274d

Hence, depth of elastic core = 2 y0 = 0.548d

68

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Summary

Plastic Theory

factor-redistribution of moments-collapse mechanism-

Kinematic/upper bound theorem-Plastic analysis of beams and

portal frames b

by equilibrium and mechanism methods

methods.

69

Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

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