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# Structural Analysis - II

Plastic Analysis

Dr. Rajesh K. N.
Assistant Professor in Civil Engineering
Govt. College of Engineering, Kannur

Dr.RajeshKN

Module IV
Plastic Theory

## Introduction-Plastic hinge concept-plastic section modulus-shape

factor-redistribution of moments-collapse mechanism-

## Theorems of plastic analysis - Static/lower bound theorem;

Kinematic/upper bound theorem-Plastic analysis of beams and
portal frames b
by equilibrium and mechanism methods
methods.

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## Plastic Analysis - Why? What?

Behaviour beyond elastic limit?
Design based on collapse (ultimate) load limit
design
Economic - Optimum use of material
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Materials
Elastic-Perfectly plastic

Elastic

Elastic limit

Elastic limit

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Upper yield
point

streess

Plastic
range

Lower yield
L
i ld
point

strain

## Idealised stress-strain curve of mild steel

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s
stress
O

strain

## Idealised stress-strain curve in plastic theory

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Elastic analysis
- Material is in the elastic state
- Performance
P f
off structures under
d service
l d
- Deformation increases with increasing load

Plastic analysis
Material is in the plastic state
Performance of structures under
ultimate/collapse
/
Deformation/Curvature increases without an
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Assumptions
Plane sections remain plane in plastic
condition
Stress-strain
S
relation
l
is identical
d
l both
b h in
p
and tension
compression

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## Process of yielding of a section

Let M at a cross-section increases gradually.
Within elastic limit, M = .Z
Z is section modulus, I/y

My = y.Z
Z

## When moment is increased, yield spreads into inner

fibres. Remaining portion still elastic
Finally,
Fi ll th
the entire
ti cross-section
ti yields
i ld

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yielding

## Rectangular cross section

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Inverted T section
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Plastic hinge
When
h the
h section is completely
l l yielded,
ld d the
h
section is fully plastic
A ffully
ll plastic
l
section b
behaves
h
like
lk ah
hinge
Plastic hinge
Plastic hinge is defined as an yielded zone due
to bending in a structural member, at which
large rotations can occur at a section at
constant plastic moment, MP
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Mechanical hinge

Plastic hinge

Reality

Concept

Resists zero
moment

Resists a constant
momentt MP

Mechanical Hinge

## Plastic Hinge with MP= 0

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## M Moment corresponding to working load

My Moment at which the section yields
MP Moment at which entire section is under yield stress

C
T
MP

y
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Plastic moment
Moment at which the entire section is
under yield stress
C =T
Ac y = At y

A
Ac = At =
2

## NA divides cross-section into 2 equal parts

A
C =T = y
2
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y
A
C = y
2

yc
yt

A
T = y
2

Si il to y Z
Similar

A
A
Couple due to
y y ( yc + yt ) = y Z p
2
2
Zp
Z

( > 1)

Plastic modulus
is the shape
p factor
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## Shape factor for various cross

cross-sections
sections
b

Rectangular cross-section:
Section modulus
I
Z= =
y

Plastic modulus
Shape factor

Zp
Z

3
bd
( 12 )

( d 2)

bd 2
=
6

A
bd d d bd 2
Z p = ( y c + yt ) =
+ =
2
2 4 4
4

= 1.5
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## Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

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Circular section
A
Z p = ( y c + yt )
2
d 2 2d 2d d 3
=
+
=

8 3 3 6

d
(
Z=

64 )

d 2

d3
32

S=

Zp
Z

= 1.7
17

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Triangular section
bh 3
36
2
bh

=
Z=
2h
24
3

2h
3

CG axis

A
Z p = ( y c + yt )
2

h
b

yc

S = 2.346

E
Equal
l area axis
i

yt

b
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I section
20 mm

250 mm

10 mm

20 mm
200 mm
S = 1.132

Mp = 259.6 kNm
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## Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

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collapse load M P y Z P
=
=
M
Z
Rectangular cross-section:
bd 2
M P = yZP = y
4

bd 2 y bd 2
M =Z =
=
6
1.5 6
1

M P bd 2 y bd 2
LF =
= y

= 2.25
2 25

M
4 1.5 6

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Factor of safety
Wy
=
Factor of Safety =

y
Yield Stress
=
=
WorkingStress
g

y
y

/ 1.5
1 5)

= 1.5

El ti A
Elastic
Analysis
l i - Factor
F t off S
Safety
f t
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Mechanisms of failure
A statically determinate beam will collapse if one plastic
hinge is developed
Consider a simply supported beam with constant cross
If P is increased until a plastic hinge is developed at the point
of maximum moment (just underneath P) an unstable
structure
t t
will
ill b
be created.
t d
Any further increase in load will cause collapse

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For a statically
y indeterminate beam to collapse,
p more than one
plastic hinge should be developed
The plastic hinge will act as real hinge for further increase of
load (until sufficient plastic hinges are developed for
collapse )
collapse.)
As the load is increased,, there is a redistribution of moment,,
as the plastic hinge cannot carry any additional moment.

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Beam mechanisms

Determinate
D
i
beams
b
& frames: Collapse
after
f first
fi plastic
l i
hinge

Simple beam

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## Indeterminate beams &

frames:
a es: Mo
Moree than
t a o
onee
plastic hinge
to develop
p mechanism

Fixed beam

Plastic
l
hinges
h
d
develop
l at the
h ends
d first
f
Beam becomes a simple beam
Plastic hinge
g develops
p at the centre
Beam collapses
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Indeterminate beam:
Moree than
Mo
t a o
onee p
plastic
ast c
hinge to develop
mechanism

Propped cantilever

Plastic
l
hinge
h
d
develops
l
at the
h fixed
f d support first
f
Beam becomes a simple beam
Plastic hinge
g develops
p at the centre
Beam collapses
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## Panel mechanism/sway mechanism

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Gable Mechanism
W

## Composite (combined) Mechanism

- Combination of the above

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## Methods of Plastic Analysis

y
Static method or Equilibrium method
- Lower bound: A load computed on the basis of an assumed

## equilibrium BM diagram in which the moments are not greater than

MP is always less than (or at the worst equal to) the true ultimate
l d

## Kinematic method or Mechanism method or Virtual work

method
- Work performed by the external loads is equated to the internal
work absorbed by plastic hinges
- Upper bound: A load computed on the basis of an assumed
mechanism is always greater than (or at the best equal to) the true
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Collapse
collapse will occur Least value
Fully plastic moment (MP): Maximum moment
capacity for design Highest value

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1. Simple beam
Equilibrium method:

Wu .l
MP =
4
MP
M

4M P
Wu =
l

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## Virtual work method:

WE = WI

l
Wu = M P .2
2

Wu
l

4M P
Wu =
l

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w.l 2
,
M CENTRE =
24
w.l 2
M ENDS =
> M CENTRE
12

## Hence plastic hinges will develop at the ends first.

M
MC1
M
P
C2
M
M
PP
MB1

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Equilibrium:

wu

wu .l 2
2M P =
8

16 M P
wu = 2
l

Virtual work:

0+

2
2 wu
2 2

WE = WI

= M P ( + 2 + )

16 M P
wu = 2
l

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## 3. Fixed beam with point load

Wu

MP

MP

Virtual work:

l
Wu = M P ( + 2 + )
2

8M P
Wu =
l

Equilibrium:

l
2 M P = Wu
4
8M P
Wu =
l
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## 4. Fixed beam with eccentric point load

Wu
b

Equilibrium:
q

ab
2 M P = Wu
l
MP
MP

2 M Pl
Wu =
ab

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Virtual work:

a1 = b 2

Wu
1

1 + 2

b
1 = 2
a

Wu ( a1 ) = M P 1 + (1 + 2 ) + 2

Wu ( b 2 ) = M P 2 2 + 2 2
a

MP
Wu =
b 2
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b
= 2M P ( a + b)
2 a 2 + 2 2
ab

2 M Pl
Wu =
ab
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## 5. Propped cantilever with point load at

midspan

M
M
MC2
C1
P
M
MPB1
P

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Wu
2

Vi t l work:
Virtual
k

Equilibrium:

WE = WI
l
(Wu ) = M P ( + 2 )
2

6M P
Wu =
l

Wu .l
M P + 0.5M P =
4
6M P
Wu =
l
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## 6. Propped cantilever with UDL

Maximum p
positive BM

wl 2
8
x1
MP
MP

At collapse
E

x2

Required
q
to locate E
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wu lx
l 2 wu x2 2
x2

ME =

MP = MP
2
2
l
For maximum,

dM E
=0
dx2
wu l
MP
wu x2
=0
l
2

From (2),

(1)

(2)

x2 = 0.414l

MP
wu = 11.656 2
l
Dr.RajeshKN

## Problem 1: For the beam, determine the design plastic moment

capacity.
i
75kN

50kN
1.5m

1.5m
7.5m

Degree
D
off Indeterminacy,
d
N=32=1
No. of hinges, n = 3
No. of independent mechanisms ,r = n - N = 2

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75kN

50kN

1.5m

50kN

75kN

1.5m
1
5m

45m
4.5m

+1

1.5m
1
5m
1

Mechanism 1

1 5 = 61
1.5

1.5
1 =

1.5
1.5

50 (1.5 ) + 75 1.5 = M p + +

6
6

M p = 45.83
45 83
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75

50
1.5m

4.5m

1.5m
1

Mechanism 2

+1

6 = 1.51
1.5
=
1
6

1.5
1.5

1.5

50 1.5 1 + 75 (1.51 ) = M p 1 +
1 + 1
6
6

M p = 87.5 kNm

Design
g p
plastic moment ((Highest
g
of the above))
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= 87.5 kNm
Dr.RajeshKN

## Problem 2: A beam of span 6 m is to be designed for an ultimate UDL

off 25 kN/m.
kN/
Th beam
The
b
i simply
is
i l supported
t d att the
th ends.
d Design
D i
a
suitable I section using plastic theory, assuming y= 250 MPa.
25 kN/m
25kN/m

6m

Degree of Indeterminacy, N = 2 2 = 0
No. of hinges, n = 1
No. of independent mechanisms, r = n-N = 1
Mechanism

25kN/m

3m

3m
3m
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## Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

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Internal
te a work
o k done
do e

WI = 0 + M p 2 + 0 = 2 M p

## External work done

0 + 3

WE = 2 25 3
2

WI = WE 2 M p = 225
Plastic modulus Z P =

Section modulus

MP

= 225

M p = 112.5 kNm
112.5 106
= 4.5 105 mm 3
=
250

5
4.5
.5

10
0
5
3
ZP =
=
3
3.913
913

10
mm
Z=
1.15
S

## Assuming shape factor S = 1.15

Adopt ISLB 275@330 N/m (from Steel Tables SP 6)
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## Problem 3: Find the collapse load for the frame shown.

shown
W

A/2

A/2

A/2

Mp
E

W/2

2Mp

2Mp

A/2
A

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Degree of Indeterminacy, N = 5 3 = 2
No. of hinges, n = 5 (at A, B, C, E & F)
No. of independent mechanisms ,r = n - N = 3
Beam Mechanisms for members AB & BC
Panel Mechanism

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## Beam Mechanism for AB

WI = 2M p + 2M p (2 ) + M p = 7 M p

B Mp

A/2
E
W/2

2
2Mp

W A
WE =

2 2

WE = WI Wc =

A/2

28M p
A

2Mp

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## Beam Mechanism for BC

A/2

Mp

A/2
Mp

C
Mp

2
Mp

WI = M p + M p (2 ) + M p = 4 M p

A
WE = W
2
WE = WI Wc =

8M p
A
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## Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

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Panel Mechanism

WI = 2 M p + M p + M p = 4 M p
W

Mp

A/2

A/2

Mp

A/2
W/2

W A

WE =
2 2

WE = WI Wc =

16M p
A

A/2
2Mp

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Combined Mechanism
W

A/2

A/2
W/2

A/2
2
Mp

Mp

WI = 2 M p ( ) + M p (2 )
+ M p ( + )
= 6 M p

A
W A
3
+ W = W A
WE =
2 2
2
4

A/2

WE = WI Wc =

2Mp

88M
Mp

A
8M p
A
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Dr.RajeshKN

## Problem 4: A portal frame is loaded upto collapse. Find

the plastic moment capacity required if the frame is of
uniform section throughout.
10kN/m
25 kN
25kN

8m
Mp

4m

Mp

Mp

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Degree of Indeterminacy, N = 4 3 = 1
No. of possible plastic hinges, n = 3
(at B, C and between B&C)
No. of independent mechanisms ,r = n - N = 2
Beam Mechanism for BC
Panel Mechanism

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10kN/m

## Beam Mechanism for BC

B
Mp

0 + 4

WE = 2 10 4

= 160

C
Mp

2
Mp

WI = M p ( + 2 + ) = 4 M p
M p = 40 kNm

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Panel Mechanism

25kN

4
Mp

Mp

WE = WI

M p ( + ) = 25 4
M p = 50 kNm

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Combined Mechanism

10kN/m
25kN

## It is required to locate the

plastic hinge between B & C

x
Mp

8 x
+1

1
Mp

4m

## Assume plastic hinge is

formed at x from B

x = ( 8 x )1
x

WE = 25 4 + 10 x
2

+ 10 8 x ( 8 x )1
(
)

2
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## Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

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WI = M p ( + 1 ) + 1 + = 2 M p
+
8 x

5 ( 5 + 2 x )( 8 x )
WE = WI M p =
4
For maximum,

dM P
=0
dx

x = 2.75 m
5 ( 5 + 2 x )( 8 x )
Mp =
= 68.91 kNm
4
Design plastic moment of resistance, ( largest of the above ) , M p = 68.91 kNm
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P
A

A/2
A

P
D

A/2

A
SI = 4 2 = 2

1 D
1.
Due tto hinges
hi
d
developing
l i att A,
A B and
dD

## 2. Due to hinges developing at B and E

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Equilibrium:
Hinges at A, B and D

Mp

>Mp

Mp

Mp
Pu A
4

Pu A
4

88M
Mp
Pu A
= M p + M p Pu =
4
A
Moment at E is greater than Mp. Hence this mechanism is
not possible.

## Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

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Hinges at B and E

Mp

Mp

Mp
Pu A
4

Pu A
4

Mp
6M p
Pu A
= Mp +
Pu =
4
2
A

Pu =

6M p
A
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## Dept. of CE, GCE Kannur

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Virtual work:
A

A/2

P
B

A/2

A
SI = 4 2 = 2

Hinges at A, B and D

8M p
A
Pu = M p ( + 2 + ) Pu =
A
2

Hinges at B and E

6M p
A
Pu = M p ( + 2 ) Pu =
A
2
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## Problem 6: For the cantilever, determine the collapse load.

W
A

L/2

L/2
2 Mp
p

Mp

Degree of Indeterminacy
Indeterminacy, N = 0
No.
No of possible plastic hinges,
hinges n = 2 (at A&B)
No.
No of independent mechanisms ,rr = n - N = 2

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Wu
L/2

L/2
/2

L/2

Mp

L
Wu = M p
2

Wu =

Mechanism 1

2M p
L
Wu

L
L

2Mp

Wu L = 2 M p

Wu =

2M p
L

T C ll
TrueCollapse
L d ( Lowest
L
t off the
th above
b ) ,Wc =
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Mechanism 2

2M p
L

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Dr.RajeshKN

## Problem 7: A beam of rectangular section b x d is subjected to a

bending moment of 0.9 Mp. Find out the depth of elastic core.

## Let the elastic core be of depth 2y0

External bending moment must be
resisted by the internal couple.
Distance of CG from NA,

2 y0

y 2
1d

b y0 y y0 + y0 + by0
y0
2
2
2
2 2
2 3

3
d

4
y
0
y =
=
y
d

12 ( d y0 )
b y0 y + by0
2
2

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I t
Internal
l couple
l (moment
(
t off resistance)
i t
)

y 3d 2 4 y0 2
d

= 2 b y0 y + by0

2 12 ( d y0 )

2
3d 2 4 y0 2
=
b y
12
bd 2
y
External bending moment = 0.9 M p = 0.9 Z p y = 0.9
4
3d 2 4 y0 2
bd 2
b y = 0.9
y
Equating the above,
12
4
y0 = 0.274d
Hence, depth of elastic core = 2 y0 = 0.548d
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Summary
Plastic Theory

## Introduction-Plastic hinge concept-plastic section modulus-shape

factor-redistribution of moments-collapse mechanism-

## Theorems of plastic analysis - Static/lower bound theorem;

Kinematic/upper bound theorem-Plastic analysis of beams and
portal frames b
by equilibrium and mechanism methods
methods.

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