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WHAT IS STEAM TRAP

A steam trap is an automatic valve


designed to remove condensate, air,
and CO2 from the steam system.
The trap opens automatically to
discharge condensate and closes to
prevent steam loss from the system

STEAM TRAP-WHY
INEFFICIENT STEAM TRAPPING
RESULTS IN:
! Reduced plant efficiency
! Reduced plant life
! Steam losses
At a conservative estimate,1 leaking
trap installed on a 12 bar line wastes
approx. 10 kg of steam / hour.

TRAP-CLASSIFICATION
STEAM TRAP
MECHANICAL
DENSITY OPERATED

THEMODYNAMIC
KINETIC ENERGY OPERATED

THERMOSTATIC
TEMPERATURE OPERATED

INVERTED BUCKET
FLOAT & THERMOSTATIC
OPEN BUCKET
FLOATING BALL

ORIFICE
IMPULSE
DISC(TD 3)
LEVER

BELLOW S
BI-METALLIC
THERMAL ELEMENT
W AX ELEMENT

TRAP-AT NCPL

TRAP AT NCPL(665)
MECHANICAL

THERMODYNAMIC

THERMOSTATIC

INVERTED BUCKET(64)
FLOAT & THERMOSTATIC
BALL FLOAT

DISC-TD 3(301)
ORIFICE

THERMOSTATIC TRAP/AIR VENT


AIR VENT INBUILT W ITH BALL FLOAT
BPT (300)

TRAP-CODIFICATION
Process equipment in the complex: For process equipments in the entire complex the
codification of the steam traps will be as follows: Steam trap/Equipment no/Type of trap
For e.g.: - The steam trap of exchanger (E-6303 A)
ST 6303 A (IB)
Codes for type of trap include: IB Inverted bucket type
O- orifice type

Main header of the entire complex (outside the


plant battery limit)
The codification of steam traps on main header
(starting from PRDS-I) high pressure, medium
pressure and low pressure lines will be as follows:
Steam trap/ Pressure level of steam/ Trap Number
The numbering of traps will be from 01 to 200, the
starting point of numbering will be PRDS-I and will
include aniline plant, NB, SAC, ETP, NOx, DNT
plant.

The numbering of traps are from 201 to 500, the


starting point of numbering will be the T-off point
from PRDS-I line (one going to phase-I and other
going to phase-II) and will include MTD, CO,
Chlorine, Phosgene, TDI, Incinerator (I & II) and
CPP.
Steam trap on high pressure steam line from
PRDS-I downstream have the following number: ST HP 01
If one tapping from main steam header (say for e.g
PRDS-I) downstream contains more than one trap
then the numbering will be as follows: ST HP 01 A
ST HP 01 B AND SO ON

Steam trap on high pressure steam line from


PRDS-I downstream of T-off point will have the
following number: ST HP 201

Codes for level of steam will be as follows: HP High pressure


MP- Medium pressure
LP Low pressure

Main header of the entire complex (within


the plant battery limit)
The codification of steam traps on main header
within the plant battery limit high pressure,
medium pressure and low pressure lines will be as
follows: Steam trap/Pressure level of steam/Block
number/ Trap number
For e.g: - Steam trap on high pressure steam line
in 140 block will have the following number.
ST HP 140 01
The numbering of traps will start from 01 on
wards for each block.

Steam tracing within the plant: -


The codification of steam traps on steam tracing
lines within the plant battery limit mostly medium
pressure and low pressure lines will be as follows:

Steam trap/Pressure level of steam/Block


number/Header number/Trap number
For e.g: - Steam trap on low pressure steam line in
130 block will have the following number.
ST HP 130 A 01
The headers within the plant will be defined by
alphabet starting from A. The numbering of steam
traps on each header will start from 01 on wards
for each header.

BALL FLOAT TRAP

Trap discharging

Trap discharging

air/gases at start-up

cold water at start-up

Trap discharging

After condensate

hot condensate

is discharged,
steam enters
and the trap closes.

INSIDE

Advantages:
Completely drains
condensate at saturation
temperature
Modulates to handle light
or heavy loads,
continuous discharge
equal to condensing load
Large ports handle high
capacities
Separate thermostatic
vent allows fast venting
of air during start-up
Modulating ports provide
long life
Cast iron bodies

Disadvantages:
Float or bellows may be
damaged by water
hammer
Primary failure mode is
closed
Does not withstand
freezing
Limited to 175 psig

APPLICATION
Shell & tube heat exchangers
Tank heaters with modulating temperature
regulators
Unit heaters requiring fast venting
Steam humidifiers
Air blast heating coils
Air pre-heat coils
Modulating loads
Applications that require fast heating at startup

INVERTED BUCKET TRAP

Steam present in trap condenses.


Condensate takes its place,
causing the trap to open.

This trap use an upside-down bucket that is normally submerged and


floats only when steam is present.
The bucket sinks when the volume of condensate exceeds a
predetermined liquid level. When the bucket sinks, the valve at the top
of the trap opens.
Condensate enters the trap and flows under the bottom of the bucket to
fill the trap body. The bucket remains completely submerged, and
condensate discharges through the valve at the top.
When steam enters the trap, it too collects under the bucket, causing it
to become buoyant. Buoyancy causes the bucket to rise, thus closing
the valve by returning it to the seat.
Air and CO2 pass through a vent in the top of the bucket continuously
and collect at the top of the trap. Condensate continually drains into
the trap.
When sufficient condensate collects under the bucket to displace the
steam inside that bucket, the bucket buoyancy will be lost, causing it
to sink.

As the bucket sinks, its weight will pull the valve away from its
seat. Once the valve is open, accumulated air and noncondensable are forcibly discharged, followed by condensate.
After the condensate has been discharged, steam again enters
the trap and floats the bucket, thus the cycle starts over.

Advantages
Not easily affected by water
hammer.
Reliable
Operate under high back
pressure.
Respond to changing
condensate load.
Primary failure mode- Open

Disadvantages

Condensate discharge
temperature cannot be
maintained.
Marginal air handling capacity.
Can be mounted only in a
single position.
Care must be taken to ensure
that trap should not run with
out priming.

ORIFICE TRAP

The orifice type are used in systems or services in which condensate


forms at a fairly steady rate.
Several variations of the orifice-type steam trap exist, but all have one
thing in commonthey have no moving parts.
One or more restricted passageways or orifices allow condensate to
trickle through but do not allow steam to flow through.

THERMODYNAMIC TRAP
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Body SS
Cap SS
Disc SS
Strainer SS304
Strainer Cap SS
Iso tube An insulating cover
To prevent the trap being
influenced by excessive heat
loss such as low out side
temperature, wind, rain

THERMODYNAMIC TRAP

Hot condensate
flashes.

Flash steam goes above the disc, pushing it down and


closing the trap.

Flash steam
above the disc condenses.
Line pressure lifts the disc.
Hot condensate is discharged.

Advantages

Disadvantage

Compact, light weight


Good corrosion resistance
High resistance to water
hammer
Long life due to hardened seat
and disc
Only one moving part
Alloy steel construction for
high pressure up to 250 barg
Efficient operation under
varying loads and pressure
Primary failure mode- open

Not suitable for pressure below


0.25bar
Condensate discharge
temperature cannot be adjusted
Poor air handling
Excessive back pressure may
effect the operation
High noise level
Reduced life at high pressure.

BACK PRESSURE TRAP


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Cover Forged carbon steel


Capsule Stainless steel
Valve seat SS 304
Strainer SS 304
Cover Gasket Compressed
Asb. Fibre
Body Forged carbon steel
Cover bolts & nuts - CS

The trap is operated by the thermostatic fluid filled in the capsule.


When steam is turned on, air discharge through the open valve orifice.
Cold condensate enters& passed out.
At a temp below the steam saturation temp corresponding to the
pressure is inside the trap, the mixture boils & exerts a vapour
pressure.
While out side of the capsule is at steam pressure, the inside because
of the temp head is at higher pressure, this excess pressure closes the
valve before steam temp is reached.
Condensate inside the trap cooled below the steam temp, until the
vapour pressure in the capsule is below the steam pressure.
The capsule contract & valve opens.

Advantages

Disadvantages

2.

2.

3.
4.

High air venting capacity for


fast startups.
Self adjusting to all pressure
with in its range.
Sealed capsule is free from
maintenance.

Not suitable for applications


in which condensate must be
discharged as soon as it
forms.

COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED
PROBLEM

TRAP - EVOLUTION
Sound Method
Mechanisms within steam traps and the flow of steam and condensate through
steam traps generate sonic (audible to the human ear) and supersonic sounds.
Listening devices range from a screwdriver or simple mechanic's stethoscope
that allow listening to sonic sounds to more sophisticated electronic devices
that allow "listening" to sonic or sonic and ultrasonic sounds at selected
frequencies.

Temperature Method
Measuring the temperature of the steam trap is generally regarded as the least
reliable of the three basic evaluation techniques. Saturated steam and
condensate exist at the same temperature, of course, so it's not possible to
distinguish between the two based on temperature.
A cold trap (i.e., one that is significantly cooler than the expected saturated
steam temperature) indicates that the trap is flooded with condensate,
assuming the trap is in service.
Downstream temperature measurement may also yield useful clues in certain
circumstances. For example, the temperature downstream of a trap should
drop off relatively quickly if the trap is working properly (mostly condensate
immediately past the trap).

Conductivity Method
Conductivity-based diagnostics are based on the difference in conductivity
between steam and condensate.
A conductivity probe is integrated with the steam trap or just upstream of the
steam trap in a sensing chamber. Under normal operation, the tip of the
conductivity probe is immersed in condensate. If the steam trap leaks
excessively or is blowing, steam flow will sweep away the condensate from
the test probe tip and conductivity corresponding to steam will be measured.
Thus, the sensing chamber and the existence of steam and condensate under
normal and leaking or blowing conditions are similar to that described above
Conductivity measurement must be accompanied by temperature measurement
to ensure a correct diagnosis.
For example, an indication of steam and a trap that has failed open could occur
if a trap has not been used recently and has filled with air. The conductivity of
air is similar to steam, but a trap filled with air would be close to ambient
temperature, in contrast to a trap filled with steam. Similarly, the presence of
condensate could mean the trap is working properly, but could also mean that
1) the trap has flooded, either because the trap has failed closed or something
else is blocking the line, 2) the trap is undersized, or 3) the heat transfer
equipment served by the trap is warming up to its normal operating
temperature and generating an unusually large amount of condensate for a
short period. These alternative conditions would be indicated by low
temperature in conjunction with the presence of condensate.