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FIRE Users Guide

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TRACE32 Directory
TRACE32 Index
TRACE32 Documents ......................................................................................................................

FIRE In-Circuit Emulator ...............................................................................................................

FIRE User's Guide ......................................................................................................................

Concept ....................................................................................................................................

Modules

Host Interface

Power Supply

FSC - Fire System Controller

FEC - Fire Emulation Controller

FR - Fire Emulation RAM

11

Fire Emulation Adapter

12

Basic Emulator Concept .........................................................................................................

14

Modularity

14

Buffered Probes

14

Memories

15

Dual-Port Technology

15

Emulator Functions .................................................................................................................


Mapper

16
16

Basic Function

16

Set-up

17

Function

18

Dual-port Access

19

Access Procedures

19

Memory Classes

20

Breakpoint System

21

Breakpoint Definition

21

Breakpoint Selection

21

Breakpoint Types

22

Realization Modes

23

Breakpoint Example

24

Trigger System

26

Function

26

Trigger Events

27

State Display

27
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Set-up

27

Analyzer

28

Function

28

Modes

29

Commands

29

Automatic Trace Control

30

Real Time Display

30

Display Commands

30

Saving Trace Buffers

31

Performance Analyzer

31

Analyzer Structure

31

Commands

32

Display Results

33

Manual Address Selection

33

Flag System

34

Function

34

Set-up

34

Applications

34

Restrictions

34

Execution Time Measurement

35

Function

35

Set-Up

36

Exception Control

37

Function

37

Set-up

37

Frequency Generator

38

Function

38

Set-up

38

Universal Counter

39

Function

39

Level Display

40

Display Window

40

Set-up

40

Pulse Generator

41

Function

41

Set-up

41

Getting Started ........................................................................................................................

42

Index (local) .............................................................................................................................

43

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FIRE Users Guide

FIRE Users Guide


Version 24-May-2016

Concept
TRACE32-FIRE is a modular, universal microprocessor development system, working with a PC or a
workstation. The modular concept allows memory size and analyzer performance to be customized to the
developer's needs.

Modules
The FIRE-Probe for Non-bondout CPUs
Host Interface

Power Supply

FSC

Fire Sytem Controller

Subcontroller with Memory


System Bus Controller
Podbus Interface

FEC

Fire Emulation Controller

Trigger, Trace
Clock Generator
Dual-Port Controller

FR

Up to 4M + 4M Emulation
and Break Memory or
up to 4M + 4M Emulation
and Flag Memory

Fire Emulation RAM

FIRE-xxxx Fire Emulation Adapter

Target CPU, Mapper


Emulation Control
Target Adapter

Target System

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Concept

The FIRE-Probe for Bondout CPUs

Host Interface

Power Supply

FSC

Fire Sytem Controller

Subcontroller with Memory


System Bus Controller
Podbus Interface

FEC

Fire Emulation Controller

Trigger, Trace
Clock Generator
Dual-Port Controller

FR

Fire Emulation RAM

FF-XX

Fire Family Module

Up to 4M + 4M Emulation
and Break Memory or
up to 4M + 4M Emulation
and Flag Memory

Target CPU, Mapper


Emulation Control
Target Adapter

FIRE-xxxx Fire CPU Module

Target System

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Concept

Host Interface
The Host Interface is mounted on top of the FIRE System Controller. It links the host hardware with the FIRE
probe. There are two different types available:
PODBUS Interface

The Podbus is a special bus for the communication between different


Trace32 devices.
The PODBUS Interface is mounted on top of the FIRE System Controller
to realize a link between a device that supplies a podbus out port and the
Fire System Controller. The following devices can be connected to the
PODBUS Interface:
PODPC Interface card for ISA bus
PODETH controller for ethernet connection
PODPAR interface for printer Port
ECU32
ECC32
ECC8

Parallel Interface

The Parallel Interface can be mounted on top of the FIRE System


Controller to realize a direct link between a PCs parallel port and the Fire
System Controller.

Power Supply
The FIRE Power Supply is mounted on top of the FIRE System Controller. It is necessary to transform the
6-12V input supply of the FIRE Probe to the different voltages that are used.
The 110V or 220V detection is done automatically in the power pack.
The description of the LEDs that are physically mounted on the PowerSupply is in the description of the Fire
System Controller

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Concept

FSC - Fire System Controller

FSC - FIRE System


Controller

The FIRE System Controller is the intelligent controller of the FIRE


Probe. A 32-bit CPU guarantees the performance for fast download, fast
analyzer store functions and fast real-time exception handling.
The FIRE System Controller contains 16 MByte of memory for emulation
functions and data caching.
The FIRE System Controller contains all software to control the emulator,
the analyzer and trigger functions and the exception handling. While
booting, the software is downloaded to the FIRE System Controller and
the FIRE System Controller initializes the complete FIRE Probe. This
takes about 20 seconds.

Status LED
The FSC has an array of LEDs to show some status information to the user.
AUX
ERROR
EMULATE
ACTIVE
TRANSFER
SELECT
POWER
During the bootig sequence of the subcontroller the LEDs show the boot progress. The following
combinations will apear:
AUX
ERROR
EMULATE
ACTIVE
TRANSFER
SELECT
POWER

BOOT PROGRESS

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Concept

After the booting sequence, the LEDs show these functions:


LED

Function

AUX

Not Used

ERROR

Internal error

EMULATE

Run in user Mode

ACTIVE

System up

TRANSFER

Correct link between host and subcontroller is shown by blinking

SELECT

Podbus device select. This LED is bright all the time if the T32Fire is the only
podbus device

POWER

Always bright if the T32Fire is powered

Trace Connector
The FSC has a connector for tracing external port lines if a port analyzer is available, and show some status
information of the running emulation.
Pin39

Pin1

Pin40

Pin2

Pin

I/O

Function

1 - 32

Input

External Port 0 - 31

33

Output

Run in Background Mode

34

Output

Run in Forground Mode

35

Output

Trigger of trigger unit (refer command OUT.A)

36

Output

Break for target CPU

37 - 38

Output

Auxilary software trigger

39 - 40

Output

GND

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Concept

FEC - Fire Emulation Controller

FEC - Fire Emulation


Controller

This module contains all emulation components which are not CPU
specific. These include the VCO generator, the trace and trigger unit,
the runtime counter, the universal counter and the pulse generator.

Trigger
The trigger system can combine all trigger sources and therefore generate the emulator break and analyzer
control signals.
Event
Break

Break
External
CPU

Trigger
Unit

Trace
External

...

Trace
The trace unit samples address, data and status lines of the CPU plus additional analyzer control signals.

Address
Data
Status
Timestamp

Trace
Unit

...
Control

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Concept

Dualport Controller
The dualport controller enables direct access to the overlay emulation memory.
DualPort
Access

Dual
Port
CTRL

Memory

CPU

Performance Analyzer
The performance analyzer allows the continuous display and measurement of the program execution time.
The analysis can be done on function base, predefined areas or fixed address spaces.
Runtime Counter
The runtime counter counts the time the CPU runs in user program.

Run/Stop
Time Reference
...

Runtime
Counter

Counter
The universal counter is an utility system for measuring clock frequencies or events.
Clock
Cycle
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Input
multiplexer

Universal
Counter

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Concept

Pulse Generator
The pulse generator is able to supply the target system with short single or periodic pulses.
Rate
generator

Pulse Connector

Puls
generator

Single Puls

Emulation Adapter

Analyzer

VCO
The VCO (voltage controlled oscillator) can be used to generate a system clock, when the internal clock is
selected.
Driver
on
Emulation
Adapter

VCO
1 150 MHz

CLOCK
CPU

Trigger Connector
The FEC has a connector for trigger/pulse out and trigger input (EXTA, EXTB)
Version for FCA_3 (HELP->VERSION->HARDWARE):
Trigger
Pulse

N/C

EXTB

EXTA

N/C

GND

GND

GND

GND

GND

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Concept

Version for FCA_4 and later (HELP->VERSION->HARDWARE):


Trigger
PULSE2 Pulse PULSE

GND

GND

GND

EXTB

EXTA

GND

GND

FR - Fire Emulation RAM

FR - Fire Emulation RAM

The Fire Emulation RAM is a 32bit + 32bit memory.

Usage
The usage of this memory is different:
32bit CPUs

32bit emulation overlay memory


+ 32bit break memory
or
32bit emulation overlay memory
+ 4 bit flag memory (read or write flag possible)

64bit CPU

64bit emulation overlay memory

Configurations
Up to 4 FR modules can be used in one TRACE32Fire system.
Sizes
Every FR module has 8 + 8 memory blocks. There are different sizes available.
Module Size

Block Size

1M + 1M

128K

2M + 2M

256K

4M + 4M

512K

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Concept

Fire Emulation Adapter

FIRE - Emulation
Adapter

All CPU specific emulation components are contained in the emulation


adapters. These are, in addition to the emulation logic, mapper, port
multiplexer, Onchip/Monitor interface, wait state and exception generator.
Some Emulation Adapter contain a CPU family module and a CPU
specific module.

Onchip/Monitor Interface
The access to the CPU is done by a on-chip debug interface if the CPU contains such an interface. If not, the
access is realized through a monitor program that runs on an extra monitor memory.
Mapper
The mapper is the interface between the complete address space of the CPU and the mapped overlay
memory. It translates the address information of each CPU cycle to the chipselect lines of the overlay
memory.

CPU

...
...
...
...
...

address

...............
....
....
....
....
map bussize
select internal memory
protect internal memory
enable break memory
enable data memory

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Concept

Exception Unit
The exception unit can separate exception lines of the CPU from the target, and activate exceptions
manually or by trigger.
Pulse
Generator

Pulse

Activate

Exception
Activation
Enable

Switch

CPU

Target

For the very specific options that your FIRE Emulation Adapter offers, refer to the emulation probe manual.

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Concept

Basic Emulator Concept

Modularity
TRACE32 FIRE is a modular emulation system that uses multi-step modular technology to support as many
CPU and socket types as possible. Designed as an open system, it offers connections to many workstations
and host operating systems and most compiler systems on the market.
The basic system is designed for 8, 16, 32 and 64-bit CPUs.

Buffered Probes
The address and data lines are isolated. To bring-up the emulator system the target power must be valid
only. This concept allows debugging target systems with hardware failures. The debug monitor is allocated in
a separate memory and needs no space within the target memory (monitor versions) or the debug interface
is made by an on-chip debug interface. The target software neednt to be changed for TRACE32 FIRE.

CPU

BUFFER

TARGET

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Basic Emulator Concept

Memories

Emulation
CPU

Emulation
Memory

Dual Port
Controller

Emulation
Controller

TRACE32 FIRE has an emulation memory that consists of two 32bit memory blocks. The usage of the two
blocks can differ. For 32-bit CPUs, the lower half is always used as overlay memory, the upper half can be
used as overlay memory or as flag memory. For 64-bit CPUs the memory is always used as overlay
memory.

Dual-Port Technology
All memories can be accessed by the CPU and the system controller. The dual-port technology enables fast
down-load of the program and data. On a running system static variables and system set-ups may be
displayed and manipulated. Setting of breakpoints and analyzing flag memory is possible, while the target
program is running in realtime.
The emulation memory is no real dual-ported memory. The dual ported access is done while the CPU does
not use the emulation memory. Different access modes are implemented inside the FIRE adapter. See your
emulation probe manual for the dual port modes that are implemented for your CPU.

Debug
Interface

CPU Access
Fire
System
Controller
DualPort
Access

DualPort
Logic

Memory

CPU

Target

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Basic Emulator Concept

Emulator Functions
The different functions of the Trace32 FIRE are implemented in different modules (e.g. FIRE Emulation
Controller, FIRE Adapter). The description of these functions is not organized by the modules but by the
functionality.

Mapper
Basic Function
The mapper is the basic system for controlling all signals depending on the address of the emulation CPU.
The basic functions are to set-up the overlay memory and write protect certain address areas. An additional
function of the mapper is to generate stimulation signals like acknowledge signals. The mapper consists of a
64K * 32 bit high-speed memory. The address input is connected to the CPU address bus, while the data
outputs control the system or enable the chip selects of the emulation memory.

CPU

...
...
...
...
...

address

...............
....
....
....
....
map bussize
select internal memory
protect internal memory
enable break memory
enable data memory
When mapping overlay, break or flag memory, the minimum blocksize of the mapper is caused by the size of
the RAM chips on the TRACE32 FIRE RAM modules. Each RAM module is organized as 16 blocks, 8
blocks for the lower 32 bit and 8 blocks for the higher 32 bit. The resulting blocksizes are:
Module

Blocksize

1M + 1M

128K

2M + 2M

256K

4M + 4M

512K

The mapper is able to address up to 4 modules with 16 blocks each.


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Emulator Functions

Set-up
The DATA memory can store code and data from the user program. To simulate EPROM structures, a writeprotect definition can be made for this type of memory. The allocation of memory and the control of the data
bus (internal/external mapping) are two different functions. To replace a target memory by the emulator
memory, the MAP.Data as well as the MAP.Intern function must be activated.
map.data
0x0--0x0fffff
map.intern 0x0--0x0fffff

Parallel to the DATA memory, the BREAK or FLAG memory can be mapped in a similar way.
map.break 0x0--0x0fffff
map.flag 0x0--0x0fffff

It is only possible to map break or flag memory when using 32-bit CPUs. Usually the BREAK memory will
not be mapped by the user. It is allocated dynamically when setting breakpoints.
MAP.RESet

Reset Mapper

MAP.state

Displays free and used memory

MAP.List

Displays memory allocation

MAP.Ram

Maps all available memory

MAP.NoRam

Un-map all memory types

MAP.Data

Map data and program memory

MAP.NoData

Un-map data and program memory

MAP.Flag

Map flag memory

MAP.NoFlag

Un-map flag memory

MAP.Protect

Map write protection

MAP.NoProtect

Remove write protection

Attributes for memory protection and CPU specific settings like bus size can be set additionally:
map.protect 0x0--0x0fffff
map.bus8 0x0--0x0fffff

These are described within the emulation probe manual.


Free memory is displayed by the MAP.state window.
The MAP.List window displays the allocation of memory and the mapping of wait and CPU specific
attributes.

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Emulator Functions

Function
DATA memory is used for program and data storage during the development phase. Usually it replaces the
EPROM on the target system. If no target system is available, the data and stack area must be supplied by
the emulator system.
DATA memory is assigned to the user program and data space by the command MAP.Data. When
assigning memory, emulation memory is accessed parallel to target memory. On write cycles both
memories are updated. The wait-state generation results from the logic on the target system. On read
cycles, both memories are accessed, the data stream used by the CPU is defined by the MAP.Intern or
MAP.Extern command.

CPU

Emulation

Target

Memory

Memory

Memory Write Cycle

CPU

Map
Intern

Map
Extreme

Emulation

Target

Memory

Memory

Memory Read Cycle


map.data
0x0--0x0fffff
map.intern 0x0--0x0fffff

; define 1M of emulation memory


; select internal memory

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Emulator Functions

Dual-port Access
The TRACE32 FIRE development system features dual-ported emulation memory, accessible by both the
emulation CPU and the system control CPU. The emulation CPU always reads data from memory assigned
to it via the MAP.Intern or MAP.Extern command (internal or external memory). However, the dual-port
function allows access to emulation memory only. Memory access to external memory or to I/O areas must
always be handled via the emulation CPU.
Debug
Logic

Access through emulation CPU

Dual-port access

Emulation
CPU

Dual Port
Controller

Emulation
Memory

Intern/Extern
Mapping

Target

Access Procedures
Access procedures are selected by entering a memory class in the address field. For example, if the
command
D

D:0x1000

is used to display memory in the DATA address space, starting from address 1000, then the command
D

ED:0x1000

will be used to display the same address space, except that it will be accessed only directly via dual port
access, thus ensuring that memory contents are also visible during realtime emulation.
On emulation probes, which support CPUs with segmentation or MMU, access to memory can be made on
logical or physical level:
D

AD:0x0

; physical access (Absolute Data)

D:0x0

; logical access

For additional information see chapter MMU.

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Emulator Functions

Memory Classes
The available memory access classes depend on the target processor. Following classes are available:
Code

Description

Program Space

Data Space

Access by the CPU (P+D)

Direct access to emulation memory

EP

Direct access to program memory

ED

Direct access to data memory

Absolute (Physical addressing)

AD

Absolute Data

AP

Absolute Program

USR

User Specific Access Mode

EEPROM

EEPROM Write Access

Other classes are described within the emulation probe manual.

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Emulator Functions

Breakpoint System
Breakpoint Definition
A breakpoint is an event that happens when the CPU is accessing a specific address of code or data space.
The address event can be combined with CPU status lines (e.g. Read/Write, Data/Code ...). Breakpoints
that lead to a break of the user program can react synchronously or asynchronously.
Synchronous breakpoints: The break is executed before the instruction that is marked with the breakpoint
is performed. This happens if the CPU reads a break instruction instead of the instruction which is marked
with the breakpoint. For example program breakpoints.
Asynchronous breakpoints: The break is executed one or more instructions after the memory location
that is marked with the breakpoint is accessed. This happens if the trigger logic activates a break signal or
sends a break command to the CPU after it has noticed a bus access on the location with the breakpoint.
For example read breakpoints.

Breakpoint Selection
Up to 10 different logical breakpoint types in three different realization modes can be used.
Each logical breakpoint type can contain an unnumbered amount of single breakpoints, but depending on
the mode of realization, the software will make a limitation on the amount of breakpoints.
The selection, which breakpoint type is used with which realization mode, is done in the break.select menu.
Not every breakpoint realization is available with every CPU. For more information about breakpoint
realization refer to the emulation probe manual.

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Emulator Functions

Breakpoint Types
This chapter describes the 10 different logical breakpoint types. These breakpoint types are available on
every CPU. The realization modes are not always available.
Refer to your emulation probe manual for an exact definition, which realization mode is possible with which
logical breakpoint.
Breakpoint Type

Description

Program

This is the breakpoint for the program code range. Program


breakpoints can only be set at the beginning of commands.
Program Breakpoints work synchronous.

Hll

High-level language debugging is supported by the debugger


software. To this end, all lines of high-level language code are
marked appropriately. Marking is done automatically, when the
debug information is loaded together with the program.
Stepping in HLL mode is done in different ways. If it is possible, a
program breakpoint is set to each possible exit of a HLL line and a
GO is performed. The CPU will execute the HLL step and stop at the
breakpoint.
If the HLL line is too complex for the debugger software, the HLL
step has to be performed in single assembler steps. The debugger
will perform assembler steps till the next HLL line is reached. This
can take some seconds and might give a strange analyzer result.

Spot

Spot breakpoints are temporary and used solely for saving the
register state. The program execution is then continued. Spot
breakpoints can be set in program space. For code areas,
breakpoints can be set at the beginning of an instruction only.

Read, Write

Both of these breakpoint types are used for breaking on access to


program variables. If you set Read or Write breakpoints the trigger
unit will be programmed to stop the CPU.

Alpha, Beta, Charly,


Delta, Echo

These breakpoints are address selectors which can be used either


as a breakpoint, or as a software marker for the analyzer.

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Emulator Functions

Realization Modes
This chapter describes the different realization modes. The realization modes are not available on every
CPU.
Refer to your emulation probe manual for an exact definition, which realization mode is possible with which
logical breakpoint
Software
Breakpoints

Software Breakpoints can be used in two ways:


1.

As synchronous breakpoints in code ranges. The original user code is


patched by a special instruction (trap command or illegal instruction)
before the jump into user program. After execution of this instruction
the CPU stops the user program and jumps back in the debugger.
Software breakpoints can not be used in ROM areas which have to be
marked with the MAP.ReadOnly command.
When a software breakpoint is read by a data access, the CPU will
read the patched code instead. This can cause irritation if the user
program copies code from one location to another or performs a
checksum test in the code area.

2.

As logical asynchronous breakpoints. These breakpoints are used as


marker addresses for analyzer interpretation. For example: An alpha
breakpoint is set to address 100 and the break.select alpha is
switched to soft. Now a marker will be set on every address line in
your analyzer listing with the address 100.

On-chip
Breakpoints

Normally, modern CPUs have a debug logic on the CPU itself with own
breakpoint registers to perform breakpoints on different locations. These
breakpoints can include program and data breakpoints.
WARNING: Some CPU break logic perform also asynchronous (read/write)
breakpoints before the instruction is executed completely.

Hardware
Breakpoints

If the TRACE32Fire development system is used with a


8-, 16- or 32-bit CPU, the upper 32bit memory can be used for the breakpoint
system. It can be activated separately from emulation memory and used for
marking breakpoints or breakpoint ranges. Breakpoint memory is mapped
parallel to target or emulation memory automatically on setting hardware
breakpoints. Unused memory can be freed for re-allocation if required.
All CPUs can use a maximum of 4 different asynchronous breakpoint types.
These can be set at any given program address or data address. These
breakpoint should not be considered as breakpoints only, but mainly as address
identifiers used by the trigger system.
Some slower CPUs have one additional synchronous hardware breakpoint
type, that is used only to break the CPU immediately when a fetch is performed
on the break address.

Auto

This is the default configuration for all logical breakpoint types. It is CPU specific
which of the 3 realization modes (Soft, Hard, Onchip) is chosen, by default, two
models can be separated:

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Emulator Functions

1.

2.

The CPU speed allows the usage of synchronous hardware breakpoints


Breakpoint Type

Realization In Auto Mode

Program

Hardware

Hll

Hardware
Stepmode

Spot

Hardware

Read, Write

Onchip

Alpha, Beta, Charly, Delta,


Echo

Hardware

The CPU speed is too high for the usage of synchronous hardware breakpoints
Breakpoint Type

Realization In Auto Mode

Program

Software
Onchip (If the address is marked as ReadOnly or a range of
program breakpoints is used)

Hll

Software
Onchip (If the Address is marked as ReadOnly)
Stepmode

Spot

Software
Onchip (If the Address is marked as ReadOnly)

Read, Write

Onchip

Alpha, Beta, Charly, Delta,


Echo

Hardware

The realization of each breakpoint can be seen in the break.list window.

Breakpoint Example
Following application:
ROM

FFFFF

RAM

100000

1FFFFF

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Emulator Functions

Code
Variables

1EFFFF

1F0000

1FFFFF

All breakpoint selections are default (auto), the CPU has no synchronous hardware breakpoints, the ROM
area is marked as read only (MAP.ReadOnly 0--0FFFFF)
Breakpoint settings:
Breakpoint Type

Address

Realization Mode

Program

500

OnChip

100100

Soft

Spot

100200

Soft

Read

1FFF00

OnChip

Alpha

10

Hardware

20

Hardware

30

Hardware

100

Hardware

100300

Hardware

Charly

100400

Hardware

Delta

100500

Hardware

Beta

Now, only the realization mode soft is left: Alpha - Delta breakpoints use the 4 available hardware
breakpoints, program and read breakpoint use the 2 available on-chip breakpoints. (The number of available
on-chip breakpoints is CPU specific). If an additional write breakpoint is set, the message <no such
hardware breakpoint available> shows that another realization mode has to become unused before.

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Emulator Functions

Trigger System
Function
The trigger system is used for reacting to any event that occurs while the CPU is running in user program.
The trigger output controlls the analyzer and the emulation controller, but can also trigger different emulator
probes or external devices like oscilloscopes. When activated, the trigger runs all the time, entering up to 8
different states (trigger level) with different event outputs. The trigger input has a double multiplexer logic to
enlarge the amount of input events.

1. MUX
Input
Events

2. MUX
Trigger
Logic

Output Events

Recursive Events

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Emulator Functions

Trigger Events

Input Events

Output Events

Recursive Events

Read, Write Breakpoint

Alpha, Beta, Charly, Delta, Echo Breakpoint

ExtA, ExtB (external trigger input)

Trigger from other T32 systems

Data Selector

CPU specific events: see emulation probe manual

Load Counter/Timer

Count Counter/Timer

Sample Analyzer

Stop Analyzer Trace

Mark Analyzer Cycle A, B, C

Break user program

Trigger to other T32 systems

Activate Exception

Trigger Output (to external)

Counter/Timer = 0

Level Switch

State Display
<Under Construction>

Set-up
<Under Construction>

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Emulator Functions

Analyzer
Function
The Analyzer is a device to trace the activity of the target CPU. It consists of a real time trace and time stamp
unit with 64K trace depth.
The trace memory unit stores all specified lines in real-time. The speed is limited to 10ns per trace record. It
is possible to switch between bus mode with a trace record every bus cycle or clock mode with a trace
record every clock cycle.
All important processor signal lines, such as address, data and status lines, are connected to the trace
memory via the trace bus. The width depends on the processor type and the configuration. If required, the
trace can be extended on the emulation adapter, the default width on the FEC is 192 bits. The trace can only
be read and displayed when the analyzer is stopped. Real-time emulation can be continued, while the
analyzer is stopped.
The trace unit can be controlled by the trigger system.
The following signals are traced on the FEC
32

Bit

Addresses

64

Bit

Data

14

Bit

Status signals

Bit

External Trigger inputs

48

Bit

Time Stamp

Bit

Trigger Level

Bit

Trace Marker

Bit

Bank Enable

Bit

External Port Input

Bit

Memory Access Class

Bit

Analyzer Control

Each record in the trace memory is marked with a time stamp, allowing the measurement of timing
relationships between recorded events. They are also used for detailed statistic and performance analysis
functions. The time stamp unit has a resolution of 20ns and a maximum of 64 days till overflow.

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Emulator Functions

Modes
There are several modes how to use the analyzer:
Mode:

Description:

Fifo

FIFO operation mode, analyzer records the last cycles before recording
is stopped.

Stack

STACK operation mode, analyzer stops recording, when the trace buffer
is full.

Bus

BUS operation mode, analyzer traces one record every bus cycle.

Clock

CLOCK operation mode, analyzer traces one record every clock cycle.

Prestore

In PRESTORE mode the analyzer samples the last opfetch address


before a selective data record is traced.

PreTrace

In PRETRACE mode the analyzer samples up to 16 cycles before and


after a selective data record is traced.

Slave (On/Off)

When active, the analyzer samples only cycles while the user program is
running. Background program and emulation monitor cycles are not
sampled.

Commands
There are several commands to set the analyzer:
Analyzer.Arm

Arm the analyzer

Analyzer.Init

Clear the trace buffer and restart the trigger unit and it's counters.

Analyzer.OFF

Turn off the analyzer

Analyzer.RESet

Restore all setting to the default values

Analyzer.SIZE

Defines the size of the trace buffer

Analyzer.state

Show the analyzer state window

Analyzer.TEST

Combination of Init and Arm

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Emulator Functions

Automatic Trace Control


To simplify the control of the analyzer, different automatic control options are available. As a default the
AutoArm option is active, i.e the analyzer will be armed automatically when the user program is started, and
switched to off, after the program has been stopped.
Analyzer.AutoArm

Arm the analyzer before starting the user program, switch off after stopping

Analyzer.AutoInit

Clear the trace buffer before starting the user program

Analyzer.AutoStart

Clear the trigger unit before starting, when it has reached the 'break' state

Analyzer.AutoTEST

Automatically arm the analyzer after all windows have been updated

Real Time Display


The information where the last opfetch was performed can be displayed, while the analyzer is sampling
information.
Analyzer.PC

Displays the address of the last instruction fetch

Display Commands
The trace buffer can be displayed in tabular form, as mnemonics, with source code or in graphical form.
Analyzer.List

Displays trace in table format, optional with mnemonics or source text

Analyzer.Timing

Displays channels as waveform graphics

Analyzer.View

Display all information for one record

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Emulator Functions

Saving Trace Buffers


The contents of the trace buffer can be saved on disk and recalled at a later time. The recalled trace buffer
can be accessed by all regular analyzer commands, adding the option /FILE.
Analyzer.SAVE

Save the contents of the trace buffer

Analyzer.LOAD

Load a saved trace buffer as a reference

Performance Analyzer
The real-time performance analyzer can display the percentage of time spent by a program in different
functions or modules of a program.

Analyzer Structure
The performance analyzer of the Trace32 FIRE is implemented as a software function of the FIRE
Controller. Therefore, the performance analysis functions check the value of the PC randomly, while the
target CPU is running. To get propper result, your software must run for some seconds - minutes. There are
two different methods implemented:
1.

2.

BusSnoop: The PC fetch of the target CPU is latched while the CPU is running. This fetch
address is used to count the corresponding address range counter. If the fetch was taken from an
address where no range is defined, one counter for all other addresses is incremented. The FIRE
Controller checks the fetches approximately every 100us.
-

Advantage: No influence on the performance.

Disadvantage: If the instruction cache of the CPU is enabled, it is not possible to latch the last
fetched address. This will cause wrong results.

PCSnoop: The target CPU is stopped, the actual PC is read out and the CPU is started again.
This PC address is used to count the corresponding address range counter. If the PC address is
an address where no range is defined, one counter for all other addresses is incremented. The
FIRE Controller stops the CPU for checking approximately every 10ms.
-

Advantage: Correct measurement also while the instruction cache is used.

Disadvantage: Influence on the performance. Longer response time on interrupts.

The measurement is made in intervals, after each the results in the display windows are refreshed. The
default interval is one second. All results can be displayed for the complete measurement, or for the last
interval (dynamic display). As the counters are stopped when the program stops, it is also possible to
interrupt the user program and restart it again.
The address ranges can be defined either by entering the function names or address ranges in a definition
window, or by an automatic programming system, which can be based on the symbol tables of the program
or in a fixed address raster (screening). The address range of this functions can be limited by
PERF.Address.

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Emulator Functions

Commands
The following commands define the operation mode of the performance analyzer.
PERF.state

Display the control window

PERF.Mode

Selects the operation mode of the performance analyzer

PERF.PreFetch

Make covered ranges smaller, to ignore prefetched cycles

PERF.AnyAccess

Selects memory access profiling mode instead of performance analyzer


mode

PERF.Entry

Split ranges to measure the average function execution time

PERF.Init

Clear the time counters of the performance analyzer

PERF.Address

Limits the address range for automatic programmed modes

PERF.Gate

Defined measurement intervals

PERF.Sort

Define display sort order and scanning modes

PERF.METHOD

Define range counter method

PERF.RESet

Restore all settings to the default

All functions of the performance analyzer can be controlled by the performance analyzer state window:
E::PERF.state
Mode
commands
OFF
Init
Program
RESet
LINE
Function
options
Modul
AnyAccess
LABEL
PreFetch
S10
Entry
S100
S1000
Gate
LeVel
1.000s
FLAGs

performance program file

Sort
OFF
Address
sYmbol
Ratio
METHOD
Hardware
BusSnoop
PCSnoop

Address
SP:000000--FFFFFF
scans done
2.
curr.scan
77.828%
cov.time
67.854%

For most applications it is sufficient to select one the of predefined modes and display the results by an
performance list window. The Function mode will analyses the time spent in different functions. The
covered address range can be limited to one module by the PERF.Address command. The PERF.Sort will
determine the display of the results.

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Emulator Functions

Display Results
The results can be displayed in different formats.
PERF.List

Display the results in a table format

PERF.View

Display all the result values of one address range

PERF.Sort

Define display sort order

E::PERF.List
1
symbolname
(other)
func0
func1
func2
func3
func4
func5
func6
func7
func8
func9
func10

10

20

50

100

ratio
43.001%
0.000%
1.056%
4.357%
0.044%
0.968%
0.396%
1.584%
2.068%
9.991%
2.772%
20.158%

Manual Address Selection


Besides the automatic modes, it is possible to define the covered address ranges manually. The ranges are
entered in a text file. The file can consist of function names, module names or regular address ranges.
PERF.Program

Interactive definition of the monitored address ranges

PERF.ReProgram

Definition of the monitored address ranges for batch scripts

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Emulator Functions

Flag System
Function
The flag system is an excellent tool for the analysis of complex software systems.
If the TRACE32 FIRE development system is used with a 8-, 16-, or 32-bit CPU, the upper 32 bit memory
can be used for the flag system. It can be activated separately from emulation memory and can be used for
marking read or write access to different RAM locations.
Flag memory can be mapped into the CPU's entire external bus address range. The memory can be used
as read-flag or as write-flag memory. The read-flag is set at memory read and OP-FETCH cycles (prefetch
too), whereas the write-flag is set for all write-to memory operations. After power-up, or execution of the
MAP.RESet command, no flag memory is mapped.
Flag
Memory
(32Bit High)
Overlay
Memory
(32Bit Low)

CPU

Target

Set-up
<Under Construction>

Applications
1.

Stack depth

2.

Code coverage analysis

3.

Checking variables (READ/WRITE)

4.

Unused variables (No READ)

Restrictions
The flag system is not able to decide if the prefetch is executed or not. Therefore short skips are not detected
as not executed code and prefetches at function ends set some flag bits in the next function. Data flags are
not set correctly, if the CPUs cache function is activated (it should be disabled for data analysis).

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Emulator Functions

Execution Time Measurement


Function
The runtime analyzer enables checking of program execution times between two breakpoints. Therefore, in
addition to the trigger unit, a second, independent timer is available to user. The resolution of runtime
measurement is 20 ns. Solely the execution time of the foreground program is measured. The execution
time of the background program is not taken into consideration. Two reference points may be set in order to
evaluate timing differences.
zero

refA
total execution time
refB

last
time of last program execution
actual
rt.res

; reset timer

r.s pc main

; set PC to start of program

g func1

; run to func1

rt.refb

; set reference point

g func2

; run to func2

; single step

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Emulator Functions

Total time, as well as the previous emulation command execution time, is automatically recorded. The
differences between the individual reference points are displayed in tabular form.
E68::w.rt
ref A
zero
+ 0.000
ref A
ref B
laststart

ref B
laststart
+ 48.700 s + 82.300 s
+ 48.700 s + 82.300 s
+ 33.600 s

actual
+ 87.600
+ 87.600
+ 38.900
+ 5.300

s
s
s
s

Time from previous break


Total time from last SYSUP or RT.RES

Set-Up
RunTime.Init

Reset timers

RunTime.RESet

Reset timers

RunTime.refA

Set reference point

RunTime.refB

Set reference point

RunTime.state

Display execution times

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Emulator Functions

Exception Control
Function
Exception commands are used to control and stimulate special CPU lines like RESET or interrupt inputs.
This is especially useful during the development phase, allowing disabling of CPU input lines, or to simulate
certain events. All signals are enabled during real-time emulation only. The exception generator works only
while foreground emulation is running (i.e. the CPU must generate bus cycles). The exception system
cannot control interrupts generated by internal peripherals in microcontrollers.
Pulse
Generator

Pulse

Activate

Exception
Activation
Enable

Switch

CPU

Target

Set-up

eXception.Enable

Enable exception lines

eXception.Activate

Stimulate exception lines

eXception.Puls

Route pulse generator to exception lines

eXception.Width

Define pulse width

eXception.PERiod

Define pulse period

eXception.Single

Force one exception pulse

eXception.ON

Enable exception system

eXception.OFF

Disable exception system

eXception.RESet

Switch exception system to default state

For more detailed information on special probe functions refer to the emulation probe manual.

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Emulator Functions

Frequency Generator
Function
The VCO may be used as a clock generator for the emulation CPU. The frequency range of the VCO is up to
150 MHz but is limited by the individual CPU adapter software. The frequency control is made on CPU input
pin frequency level. This can be different to the CPU clock.
The VCO has a grid of possible values. The VCO software uses a frequency that is as close to the
requested frequency as possible. The true value is displayed in the VCO window.
E68::w.vco
Freq
1 6 .0 0 0 .0 0 0 . Hz

control
RESet
Up
Down

Set-up
VCO.state

Display frequency and mode

VCO.Clock

Set CPU clock frequency

VCO.Up

Increment frequency

VCO.Down

Decrement frequency

VCO.RESet

Set VCO to default

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Emulator Functions

Universal Counter
Function
The universal counter is the logic measurement system for sampling of pulses and frequencies. The input
multiplexer enables the counter to measure important CPU lines and external probe inputs. Together with
the trigger system, complex events can be counted.
Clock
Cycle
...
...
...
...
...
...
...

Input
multiplexer

Universal
counter

The count ranges are:


Frequency:

0 100 MHz

CPU clock:

0 100 MHz

VCO:

0 .. 100 MHz

Puls width:

100 ns 300 days

Period:

100 ns 300 days

Events:

2.8 * 10E+14

max. rate 10 MHz

The input signal is selected with the function Count.Select. The function Count.Mode is used to change the
counter mode and the Count.Gate function defines the gate time. Frequency and event analyzing may be
qualified by the foreground running signal.

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Emulator Functions

Level Display
If there is no signal (frequency is zero), the level of the input signal will be displayed (high or low level).

Display Window

Gate

7 .9 9 9 .9 2 0 . Hz

Value

Type

Clock

(*80)

Channel Resolution

Set-up
Count.state

Display value and set-up

Count.RESet

Set counter to default

Count.Init

Initialize counter

Count.Mode

Select counter mode

Count.Select

Select input signal

Count.Gate

Select gate time

Count.Enable

Select run time

Count.Glitch

Set mode of glitch detector

Count.PROfile

Display profile

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Emulator Functions

Pulse Generator
Function
The pulse generator is an independent system for generating short pulses or static signals, and can be used
for stimulation of the target system. The output pin of the generator is placed on the output connector of the
FEC module. The triggering can be done periodically, manually from the keyboard or by the trigger unit of
the analyzer.

Rate
generator
0...200s

Pulse
generator

Polarity
switch

Puls output

Single
0..6.4ms
Trigger

Pulse Generator on FEC

Set-up
PULSE.RESet

Reset pulse generator

PULSE.Width

Define pulse width

PULSE.Pulse

Define pulse width and polarity

PULSE.PERiod

Define period

PULSE.Single

Execute single or multiple pulse

PULSE.state

Display set-up

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Emulator Functions

Getting Started
The sys-up procedure for a specific probe is described in the quick start of the FIRE Target Guides.

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Getting Started

Index (local)
Absolute:Address ...........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

19

Access:Dual-port ............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

19

Adapter ...........................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

14

Adapter:Emulation ..........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

12

Address Selector:Break..................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Address:Absolute ...........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

19

Performance:Definition ......................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

33

Physical .............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

19

Trigger ...............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

27

Alpha:Break ....................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Analyzer:Performance ....................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

Performance .....................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

31

Port ...................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

12

Arm:Trigger.....................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

26

Beta:Break......................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Break:Address Selector..................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Alpha .....................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Beta .......................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Charly ....................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

HLL ........................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Memory..................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

21

Program.................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Read ......................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Spot .......................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Write ......................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Breaked:Trigger..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

26

Charly:Break...................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Classes:Memory.............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

20

Clock:Internal..................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

10

Commands:Performance................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

32

Control:Exception ...........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

37

Controller:Emulation .......................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

System.............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

Counter...........................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

39

Counter:Display ..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

40

Mode...................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

40

Select..................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

40

Trigger ................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

27

Universal.............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

DATA:Memory ................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

17

Definition:Performance:Address.....................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

33

Delay:Trigger ..................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

27

Detection:Glitch ..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

40

Display:Counter ..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

40

Execution............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

36

Performance .......................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

33

Runtime ..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

36

Trigger ................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

27

Dual-port:Access ............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

19

Emulation:Adapter ..........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

12

Exception:Control ...........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

37

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Index (local)

Generator .......................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

12

Generator:Pulse .............................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

37

Trigger ............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

37

Execution:Display ...........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

36

Time................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

35

FEC ................................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

FER ................................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

11

Flag:Read:Write..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

34

Frequency:Generator .....................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

38

Generator .......................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

10

FSC ................................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

Generator:Exception.......................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

12

Exception:Pulse...............................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

37

Frequency........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

38

Frequency........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

10

Pulse................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

10

Pulse................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

41

Refresh ............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

12

Wait .................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

12

Glitch:Detection ..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

40

HLL:Break.......................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Host:Interface .................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

Interface:Host .................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

Internal:Clock..................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

10

Level:Measure ................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

40

Listing:Mapper ................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

17

Main Trigger ...................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

26

Mapper ...........................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

16

Mapper:Listing ................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

17

Memory protection..............................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

17

State display .......................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

17

Wait generation ..................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

17

Measure:Level ................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

40

Measurement:Runtime ...................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

35

Memories........................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

15

Memory protection:Mapper.............................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

17

Memory:Break ................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

21

Classes..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

20

DATA .................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

17

Read ..................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

18

Target ................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

18

Write ..................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

18

MMU ...............................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

19

Mode:Counter.................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

40

Module............................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

14

Modules ..........................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

Performance:Address:Definition.....................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

33

Analyzer.......................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

Analyzer.......................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

31

Commands ..................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

32

Display.........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

33

Structure ......................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

31

Physical:Address ............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

19

Polarity:Pulse..................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

41

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Index (local)

Port:Analyzer ..................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

12

Power:Supply .................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

Program:Break ...............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Pulse:Exception:Generator.............................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

37

Generator ..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

10

Generator ..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

41

Polarity...................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

41

Rate .......................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

41

Width .....................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

41

RAM................................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

11

Rate:Pulse ......................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

41

Read-before-Write:Trigger..............................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

34

Read:Break.....................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Flag:Write ...............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

34

Memory...................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

18

Refresh:Generator..........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

12

Runtime:Display .............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

36

Measurement.....................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

35

Select:Counter................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

40

Source:Trigger................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

27

Spot:Break......................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

State display:Mapper......................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

17

State:Trigger...................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

26

Structure:Performance ...................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

31

Supply:Power .................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

System:Controller ...........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

Target .............................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

14

Target:Memory ...............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

18

Time:Execution...............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

35

Trigger ............................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

26

Trigger:Address ..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

27

Arm ......................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

26

Breaked ...............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

26

Counter................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

27

Delay ...................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

27

Display.................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

27

Exception.............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

37

Read-before-Write ...............................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

34

Source .................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

27

State ....................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

26

Triggered .............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

26

Triggered:Trigger............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

26

Universal:Counter...........................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

VCO................................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

38

VCO................................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

10

Wait generation:Mapper .................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

17

Wait:Generator ...............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

12

Width:Pulse ....................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

41

Write:Break.....................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

22

Flag:Read ..............................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

34

Memory..................................................................................................................................................FIRE User's Guide

18

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45

Index (local)