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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseof

Force
TableofContents
PreparatoryNotestoInstructor ........................................................................ 1
SessionNotes .................................................................................................. 5
LegalBasisonUseofForce..............................................................................6
LearningActivity:PLAN ................................................................................. 9
ProceduresfortheUseofFirearms.................................................................12
LearningOutcomeAssessment ..................................................................... 16
OptionalLearningActivity:CaseStudies ....................................................... 19

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce

PreparatoryNotestoInstructor
Background
UnitedNationsPeacekeepingOperationsarefrequentlymandatedtoassistin
thereforming,restructuringandrebuildingofahostcountrypoliceservice.In
past conflicts, police often have been directly involved in hostilities and/or
associated with human rights violations. Due to this, thepopulation generally
has little or no confidence in the capacity of the State to provide for their
individual safety and security. Effective law enforcement not only restores
publiclaw and order but also assistsin reestablishing the confidence of the
populationinthecapacityoftheStatetogovern.
In order to reestablish confidence in the rule of law UN Police have a great
responsibility to ensure that law enforcement is exercised lawfully and
effectively.
In exercising their functions, UN Police must fully adhere to United Nations
human rights norms and standards. Making sure that human rights are
respected is central to the work of UN Police components, whose role can
vary from mentoring and advisingand training the national police services to
actuallawenforcement.
Problems related to abuse of power can arise where police misuse force
and/or fail to follow the internationally accepted procedures for the use of
firearms and protection of human rights. Therefore, it is essential for the UN
Police to have a clear understanding of international human rights standards
regulating the use of force and firearms so that steps are taken to prevent
abuses and to provide for effective investigations and sanctions in case of
humanrightsviolations.

Aim
The aim of this module is to provide participants with an understanding of
human rights implications related to the use of force by law enforcement
officials.
Themodulewillalsofamiliarizeparticipantswiththeprocedurestofollowonce
human rights violations, as a result of the use of force, have been detected
andwithactionstopreventthemfromoccurring.

LearningOutcomes
OncompletionofHRintheUseofForceModule,participantswillbeableto:
1. List and explain the principles on use of force based on the relevant
internationalhumanrightsstandards
2. Explainthepermissiblecircumstancesfortheuseoffirearms
3. Explaintheprocedurewhenuseofforceandfirearmsisunavoidable
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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce
4. Determinetheappropriatemeansofforceand/orfirearmsindifferent
situationsonthebasisofcasestudies
This training module sets out obligations in the use of force of UN police as
derived from international law. These are the minimum standards to be
observed. National law of host countries may provide for higher standards,
whichmustthenbeobserved.

TrainingSequence
Itissuggestedthatthematerialcontainedinthismodulebedeliveredovertwo
training units, depending on the number of learning activities the instructor
decides upon. The module however is designed in such a way it can be
condensedaccordingtotheneedsofindividualnationstrainingrequirements.
This module provides an overview of the overall human rights standards
applicable to the use of force and refers to reporting procedures for human
rightsviolations.ItisbestdeliveredafterDifferentLegalSystemsandshould
be linked to the modules on human rights standardsin arrest and detention,
andmentoringandadvising.

Duration
Lecture/Presentation

Questions/Assessment

SessionActivities

30min

15min.

45 min.activity

Additional
Options

MissionSpecific

OptionalFilm

OptionalActivity

45minutes

asneeded

Minimum
SessionTime
90minutes

45min.

Methodology
This module contains a variety of suggested learning activities to keep adult
learners engaged. The facilitation team should use as many of the learning
activities as time allows and keep them tailored to the target audience. The
aimisforthelearningexperiencetobeasinteractiveaspossible.Participants
invariablybringtothecoursesomeexperiences,whichmustbeactivelydrawn
upontoenhancethelearningexperience.Participantsshouldbefullyinvolved
in the learning process through practical exercises, brainstorming sessions,
discussionofcasestudies,workinginsmallgroupsonspecifictasks,etc.
The instructor should inform participants of the content, format and timing.
Knowingwhattoexpect,participantscanimprovetheirabilitytofocusonthe
subjectandbenefitbetterfromthesession.

Legalbasisfortheuseofforce

Basicprinciplesintheuseofforce

Differentmeansofforce

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce

Principlesandproceduresforusingforceandfirearms

Accountabilityforuseofforceandfirearms

Summary

*PleaseNote:Itisuptothelearninginstitutiontodecidewhetherthe
learningassessmentquestionsareusedinformallyinagroupquestionand
answersession,oriftheyareprovidedtotheparticipantsasawrittenquiz.In
eithercase,itisrecommendedthatthecorrectanswersareprovidedatthe
endoftheassessmentinordertoensureparticipantsareclearonthekey
messages.
Instructorsareencouragedtoaddexamplesandmissionspecificinformation
relatedtothespecificdeploymentofparticipants,ifknown.

InstructorProfile
Thismoduleisbestpresentedbyaninstructorwhohasexperiencein
internationalhumanrightslawandpractice,whocouldsharehis/her
experiencewiththegroup.

InstructorPreparations
RequiredReadings
Forfurtherguidance on police implementation of standards,and suggestions
for discussions and exercises, trainers delivering the module are also
encouraged to refer to the relevant chapters of the OHCHR training
publications(seereferencesbelow).

BasicPrinciplesontheUseofForceandFirearmsbyLawEnforcement
Officials(1990)[http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/h_comp43.htm]

CodeofConductforLawEnforcementOfficials
(1979)[http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/codeofconduct.htm]

OHCHRTrainingSeriesN.5,HumanRightsandLawEnforcement:A
ManualonHumanRightsTrainingforthePolice,pages8490
[http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/training5en.pdf]

GeneralPreparations
Equipment:
1. ComputerandPowerPointslides
2. ProjectorandScreen
3. FlipCharts
Materials:
1. Copiesofhandoutsetc.

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce

SymbolsLegend

F
[

NotetotheInstructor(Somebackgroundinformationforconsideration)
SpeakingPoints(Themainpointstocoveronthetopic.Ideallythe
speakingpointsarepresentedintheinstructorsownwordsversusbeing
readtoparticipants)
MissionSpecific(Apointwherethesessionwillbenefitfrommission
specificinformation)
Example(Storiesthatillustrateapointorkeymessage)
Samplequestions(Alistofpotentialquestionstoposetoparticipants)

Handout(Indicatesahandoutisprovidedtoparticipantsatthispoint)
Film(Afilmthatisrecommendedasacorepartofthetrainingoran
option)
CoreLearningActivity(Anactivitythatisstronglyrecommendedfor
inclusion)
OptionalLearningActivity(Anactivitythatcanbeusedifthereistime
anditisappropriatefortheparticipantgroup.Guidelinesforthese
activitiesareprovidedattheendoftheunit,sectionorpartasindicated
inthetext)

Keysummarypoints(Keymessagesthatareworthrepeatingattheend
ofthesession.Alternatively,theinstructorcanaskparticipantswhatare
themainmessagestheyaretakingfromthesession.Instructorscan
thenfillinanypointsthathavebeenmissed.)

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce

SessionNotes

HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce

Slide1

FNotetoInstructor:Givetheparticipantsabriefexplanationwhytheyshould
payspecialattentiontothismodule.Referto:BackgroundinthePreparatory
NotestotheInstructor
Aim

Slide2

The aim of this module is to provide participants with a


clear understanding of human rights implications related
totheuseofforcebylawenforcementofficials.
The module will also familiarize participants with the
procedures to follow once human rights violations in
regards to the useof force have been detected and with
actionstopreventthemfromoccurring.

LearningOutcome

Slide3

Oncompletionofthismoduleparticipantswillbeableto:

Listandexplaintheprinciplesonuseofforcebased
ontherelevantinternationalhumanrightsstandards

Explainthepermissible circumstancesfortheuseof
firearms

Explaintheprocedurewhenuseofforceandfirearms
isunavoidable

Determinetheappropriatemeansofforceand/or
firearmsindifferentsituations onthebasisofcase
studies

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce

StructureofthePresentation

Legalbasisfortheuseofforce

Humanrightsrelatingtouseofforce

Basicprinciplesintheuseofforce

Differentmeansofforce

Proceduresforusingforceandfirearms

Accountabilityforuseofforceandfirearms

Summary

DefiningForce

Slide4

Slide5

Anyverbalcommandorphysicalactiontogainsubjectcontrol.

FNote to the Instructor : Before showing the slide, brainstorm with


participants on a definition of force and complement with the expected
outcome

FExpectedOutcome:
Force:Anyverbalcommandorphysicalactiontogainsubjectcontrol.
Thereisnointernationallydefinedconceptofforceanddefinitionsfoundin
main dictionaries usually refer to a variety of terms such as strength,
power,violence.Someonecanbei.e.againsttheuseofforceintended
inamilitarywaybutdeterminedtouseforcetoavoidthatapersonwillhurt
another person. The police itself are often referred to as police force
focusing on the power aspect of the institutional cohesion. UN Police are
often familiar with the ways in which force has been defined under their
owndomesticlawsandcodesandthatrepresentscertainlyagoodstarting
pointfordiscussions
LegalBasisforUseofForce

Internationalmandates,SOPs,ROEs/DUF
(executive/notexecutive?)

HostCountryLaw

Internationalcustomaryandtreatylaw

Internationalnontreatystandardsonpolicing

Slide6

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce
[

Internationalmandates

TheauthorityforUNPolicetouseforcedirectlyand/orcarryoutother
functionssuchasmentoringandadvisingwillderive,ineachspecific
situation,fromthemandateestablishedbytheUNSecurityCouncil.

The instructor should emphasise that, in addition to the mandate,


there are specific mission Directives of Use of Force (DUF) or
Directive on Detention, Searches and Use of Force for United
Nations Police Officers on Assignment with the United Nations and
the Rules of Engagement for UNPOL Formed Units of the United
Nations (ROE). These specific DUF and/or ROE (which are
confidential) will be provided once the participant arrives to his/her
mission.Uponarrivalinthemissionitistheparticipantsresponsibility
tomakehim/herselffamiliarwiththesedocuments.
HostCountryLaw

The basic principle for legitimacy is the national law of the host
country. UN Police using force and firearms will assume that the
local law is applicable to them and the local population being
policed. In training, mentoring and advising local police, UN Police
will also need to know the national legal framework for law
enforcement.Thelawsofthehostcountryareveryimportantbothin
the implementation of executive and non executive mandate since
theyconstitutethesettingforthelawenforcementinthatcountry. In
caseofcontradiction,UNPolicewillhavetofollowtheinternational
rules, unless the national law provides for human rights standards
which exceed international legal requirements. Mission guidance
shouldbesought.

InternationalLaw

International instruments such as the Universal Declaration of


Human Rights, the International Covenant of Civil and Political
Rights and the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel,
Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment contain very
importantprovisionsrelevanttopolicingfunctions,includingtheuse
offorce.

UN Police must comply with both treaty based and customary


international human rights. When there is a discrepancy between
nationallawandtheinternationallawthatbindsthatcountryorthe
UNmission,UNPolicewillhavetoobserveinternationallaw(except
ofcourseifnationallawprovidesforbetterhumanrightsprotection).
Obviously, UN Police are not expected to check every piece of
relevantlegislationforcompliance,andUNPoliceleadershipshould
make sure that the SOPs and DUFs regulating those policing
functions are consistent with applicable international law and that
proper training is provided If carrying out policing functions, UN
Police must observe the international rules when mentoring,

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advisingandtraininghostcountrypoliceofficerstheyhavetomake
surethatthoserulesareunderstoodandobserved.
Therearealsoregionalinstruments(AfricanCharter,InterAmerican
Convention, European Convention) which regulate respect of
humanrightsputatriskbytheuseofforce.

OtherInternationalStandardsonPolicing
There are numerous and detailed international human rights non
treaty standards dealing specifically with the work of law
enforcement officials such as the Basic Principles on the Use of
Force andFirearms by Law Enforcement Officials and the Code of
Conduct for Law enforcement officials. These provide detailed
guidelines for the conduct of law enforcement functions, covering
issues such as use of force and firearms, arrest and detention,
specialrulesforwomenandforchildren.

HumanRightsAffectedbytheUseofForce

Righttolife,libertyandsecurityofperson

Prohibitionoftortureorothercruel,inhumanor
degradingtreatmentorpunishment

Respectfortheinherentdignityofthehumanperson

Slide7

FNotetoinstructor:Beforeshowingtheslide,brainstormwithparticipantson
whichHumanRightaffectedbytheUseofForceandcomplementwiththe
expectedoutcome.

FExpectedOutcome:
The exercise of the power to use force may violate the most basic human
rightssuchastherighttolife,libertyandsecurityofpersonandtherespect
for his/her inherent dignity. Police use of force which adds to a violation of
the right to life represents a clear defeat of one of the prime purposes of
policing,thatofmaintainingthesafetyandsecurityofthepersons.
Righttolife,libertyandsecurityofperson

Article3oftheUniversalDeclarationofHumanRightsstates:

Everyonehastherighttolife,libertyandsecurityofperson.

Art.6oftheInternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights,
statesthatEveryhumanbeinghastheinherentrighttolife.This
rightshallbeprotectedbylaw.Nooneshallbearbitrarilydeprived
ofhislife.

Prohibition of torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or


punishment
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Art.7ofInternationalCovenantonCivilandPoliticalRights,which
bothread:Nooneshallbesubjecttotortureorcruel,inhumanor
degradingtreatmentorpunishmentand

Article2oftheUNConventionAgainstTorture,whichreads:
1. Each State Party shall take effective legislative, administrative,
judicial or other measures to prevent acts of torture in any territory
underitsjurisdiction.
2.Noexceptionalcircumstanceswhatsoever,whetherastateof
warorathreatorwar,internalpoliticalinstabilityoranyotherpublic
emergency,maybeinvokedasajustificationoftorture.
3.Anorderfromasuperiorofficerorapublicauthoritymaynotbe
invokedasajustificationoftorture.

Respectfortheinherentdignityofthehumanperson

Article1oftheUniversalDeclarationofHumanRightsstates:

Allhumanbeingsarebornfreeandequalindignityandrights.They
areendowedwithreasonandconscienceandshouldacttowards
oneanotherinaspiritofbrotherhood.
BasicPrinciplesintheUseofForce

Slide8

Principlesalwaystoobserve(PLAN)
P Proportionality
L Legality
A Accountability
N Necessity

LearningActivity:PLAN
Thepurposeofthisgroupdiscussionactivityisforparticipantsto
understandthePLANprinciples.
LearningActivityTimeRequired:
5minutes

foractivityintroductionandinstructions

10minutes

forworksmallgroupsdiscussions

10minutes

forsmallgroupreportsinlargegroup*

Totaltime: 25minutes

*totaltimedependentnumberofgroups

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce

FActivityGuidelines:
1. Dividetheparticipantsintosmallgroups.
2. Askthem tolistwhichessentialelementshavetobeconsideredbefore
usingforcebasedonPLAN.
3. Askparticipantstopresenttheirresultsintheplenary(thelargegroup).
4. Complementtheresultswiththeexpectedoutcome

FExpectedOutcome:
TheresponseshouldbebasedonthePLANprinciples.
1. Proportionality:

Useofforceisunavoidable

Useofforcetobeproportionalinallcasestolawfulobjectives

Damageandinjurytobeminimized

Rangeofmeansfordifferentiateduseofforcetobemadeavailable

2. Legality:

Forcetobeusedonlyforlawfulenforcementpurposes

Noexceptionsorexcusesforunlawfuluseofforce

3. Accountability:

Incidentstobeimmediatelyreportedandreviewedbysuperiors

Superiorofficialstobeheldresponsiblefortheactionsofpoliceunder
their command if the superior official knew or should have known of
abusesbutfailedtotakeconcreteaction

Immunityshouldbegiventopoliceofficialwhorefuseunlawfulorders

Noexcuseforabuses!

Noexcusesforfollowingunlawfulorders!

All officers to be trained in the use of various means for the


differentiateduseofforce

Allofficerstobetrainedintheuseofnonviolentmeans

4. Necessity:

Forcetobeusedonlywhenstrictlynecessary

Nonviolentmeanstobeattemptedfirst

Restrainttobeexercisedintheuseofforce,onlytheminimumlevel
requiredandonlyforthetimenecessary

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11

In general when applying force, every officer or commander must constantly


observe the development of the situation whether it is stable, it escalates or
deescalatesandgraduatethemeansofforceaccordingly.
DifferentMeansofForce

Slide9

Nonviolentmeans:

Presenceofauthority

Verbal

Showofforce

Violentmeans:

Physicalhumanforce

Handcuffs

Baton/Gas/Water

Lessthanlethalfirearms

Lethalfirearms

FNotetoInstructor:Basedonthementionedexamplesofdifferentmeansof
force,discusshowtheparticipantsapplythemintheirownnationalcontext
inordertosensitisethemtoUNstandards.
PermissibleCircumstancesfortheUseofFirearms

Slide10

Onlyinextremecircumstanceswhenstrictly
unavoidablefor:

Selfdefenceordefenceofothersagainstimminent
threatofdeathorseriousinjury

Preventingaparticularlyseriouscrimethatinvolvesa
severethreattolife

Arrestingorpreventingtheescapeofapersonposing
suchathreatandwhoisresistingeffortstostopthe
threat,ineverycase,onlywhenlessextreme
measuresareinsufficient

FNotetoinstructor:Beforeshowingtheslide,brainstormwithparticipantson
thepermissiblecircumstancesfortheUseofFirearmsandcomplementwith
theexpectedoutcome.

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce

FExpectedOutcome:

Firearmstobeusedonlyinextremecircumstances

Firearmstobeusedonlyinselfdefenceordefenceofothersagainst
imminentthreatofdeathorseriousinjury or
topreventaparticularlyseriouscrimethatinvolvesagravethreatto
lifeor
toarrestorpreventtheescapeofapersonposingsuchathreatand
whoisresistingeffortstostopthethreatand
Ineverycase,onlywhenlessextrememeasuresareinsufficient

Intentionallethaluseofforceandfirearmsshallbepermittedonly
whenstrictlyunavoidableinordertoprotecthumanlife.
ProceduresfortheUseofFirearms

Slide11

Officertoidentifyhimself/herselfaspoliceofficial
and

Officertogiveaclearwarning
and

Officertoallowadequatetimeforwarningtobe
obeyed

FNotetotheInstructor: Beforeshowingtheslide,brainstormwith
participantsontheproceduresandtheexceptionfortheUseofFirearms
andcomplementwiththeexpectedoutcome.

FExpectedOutcome:

Officertoidentifyhimself/herselfaspoliceofficial

Officertogiveaclearwarning

Officertoallowadequatetimeforwarningtobeobeyed

Thisshallnotberequiredif:

the delay would result in death or serious injury to the officer or


others,or

itisclearlypointlessorinappropriateinthecircumstancestodoso.

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce
ProceduresAftertheUseofFirearms

Providemedicalaidtoallinjuredpersons

Notifyrelativesorfriendsofthoseaffected

Allowforinvestigationwhererequestedorrequired

Provideafullanddetailedreportoftheincident

13

Slide12

FNotetoInstructor:Beforeshowingtheslide,brainstormwithparticipantson
theproceduresaftertheUseofFirearmsandcomplementwiththeexpected
outcome.

FExpectedOutcome:
Afterusingfirearmsitisimportanttominimizedamageandinjury.
Wheneverthelawfuluseoffirearmsisunavoidableandindividualsarehurt,
thefollowingactionshouldbetaken:

Medical assistance to any injured persons at the earliest possible


moment

Notify victims relatives/friends: ensure that relatives or close friends


of the injured or affected person are notified at the earliest possible
moment

Allowandcooperatewiththenecessaryinvestigation

Reportpromptlyincidenttosuperiors
UNPoliceResponsibilitiesunderaNonExecutive
Mandate

IfaUNPolicewitnesses,discovers,orinanyother
wayismadeawareofahumanrightsviolation,theUN
Policeofficeristo:

Putanendtotheviolationand/orpreventfurther
violations

Provideassistancetothevictimasnecessary

Mentorandadviseaccordingly

Reportthehumanrightsviolationtohis/herimmediate
supervisor

ReportthehumanrightsviolationtotheHumanRights
componentofthemissionandconsultonfurther
necessaryaction

Slide13

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce

FNotetoInstructor: Useanexamplefromacurrentnonexecutivemission,
Sudan/Liberia.
[

In a nonexecutive mission, UN Police have a responsibility to ensure


thatthehostcountrypoliceuseforceandfirearmsinfullcompliancewith
internationalhumanrightsstandards.

Highlight that despite the difference in the authority given to UNPolice,


by the mandate human rights standards related to the use of force and
firearmshavetobeappliedregardless.
When witnessing or being informed about a human rights violation
relatedtotheuseofforceandfirearms,UNPolicewill:

Intervene with local police or other state officers in view of putting a


stoptothehumanrightsviolation(typeandlevelofengagementwill
dependonthespecificsituationandmandate)

Ensure assistance to the victim as necessary (the person may be


wounded and requiring medical assistance or seek help to file a
complaintforreparation)

Determine on what and how to mentor/advise local police to avoid


furtherviolations

Documenttheviolationproperly

Promptly share the information and report the violation to Human


Rights components in the mission through appropriate mission
procedures

Support Human Rights components monitoring, investigations and


advocacyactivities

RemaininformedonstepstakenbyUNPoliceleadershipandHuman
Rightscomponents

UNPolicesroleisalsocrucialtopreventhumanrightsviolationsbythe
localpolice:

By knowing the international standards and mentoring, advising and


training the host country police accordingly, UN Police can limit the
occurrenceofviolations

By reporting on human rights violations, UN Police can help to


determine responsibilities through investigations and sanctions.
Accountabilityisaneffectivedeterrentagainsthumanrightsviolations

By actively collaborating with mission partners such as human rights


officers,judicialaffairsandcorrectionofficers,UNPolicecanfacilitate
coordinatedactionbythemissioninsupportofhumanrightsandthe
ruleoflaw

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UNPoliceResponsibilitiesunderanExecutiveMandate

15

Slide14

UnderanexecutivemandateUNPoliceare
responsiblefortheuseofforce.
Anyuseofforcehastobecarriedoutinaccordance
withthelawofthehostcountryandfullrespectfor
internationalhumanrightsstandards.

FNotetoInstructor:Useanexecutivemission(TimorLeste)asanexample.
Let them read the mandates of those missions and discuss the
responsibilitiesofUNPolice.
[

Incarryingoutpolicingfunctions,UNPolicemustrespectthelegislation
applicable in the host country insofar as it is not in conflict with United
Nations human rights norms and standards or United Nations rules,
regulationsandotherissuances.
Insituationswhenuseofforceandfirearmsarecarriedoutdirectlybythe
UN Police, they are required to fully respect human rights. Abuse of
authority,excessiveuseofforceandotherseriousmisconductspossibly
committedbyUNPolicehavetobereportedtotheHeadofMissionwho
willstartapreliminaryinvestigation.
It should be emphasized that, in addition to the mandate, there are
specific mission Directives of Use of Force and Firearms (DUF) or
Directive on Detention, Searches and Use of Force for United Nations
Police Officers on Assignment with the United Nation and the Rules of
Engagement for UN Police Formed Units of the United Nation (ROE).
ThesespecificDUFand/orROE(whichareconfidential)willbeprovided
oncetheparticipantarrivestohis/hermission.Uponarrivalinthemission
itistheparticipantsresponsibilitytomakehim/herselffamiliarwiththese
documents.
SummaryofKeyMessages

HumanRightsaffectedbyuseofforce

Formalproceduresforuseoffirearms

Policepowersunderinternationallawinregardsto
useofforce

Mentorandadvisehostcountrypoliceinregardtouse
offorce

Slide15

FNote to Instructor: If time allows divide class in groups and hand out the
exercises in the Optional Learning Activity: Fleeing Thief and Unplanned
Demonstrations.
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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce

LearningOutcomeAssessment
It is up to the learning institution to decide whether the learning assessment
questions are used informally in a group question and answer session, or if
they are provided to the participants as a written quiz. In either case, it is
recommended that the correct answers are provided at the end of the
assessmentinordertoensureparticipantsareclearonthekeymessages.
Attheendoftheentireunitand/ortheconclusionoftheSTMsinstructorsmay
wanttochoosesomeofthefollowingquestionsforreview.
Questions
1. Listandexplaintheprinciplesonuseofforceinrelationtothehuman
rightsstandards.
2. ListthedifferentlegalbasisfortheuseoffirearmsforUNPolice.
3. Whatarethehumanrightsrelatingtotheuseofforce?
4. Whatarethepermissiblecircumstancesfortheuseoffirearms?
5. Whataretheproceduresfortheuseoffirearmsandexceptionsto
theseprocedures?
6. Whataretheproceduresaftertheuseofforce?

FExpectedOutcome
1. Theprinciplesonuseofforceandfirearmsinrelationtothehuman
rightsstandardsare:
TheresponseshouldbebasedonthePLANprinciples.

Proportionality:
Useofforceisunavoidable
Useofforcetobeproportionalinallcasestolawfulobjectives
Damageandinjurytobeminimised
Rangeofmeansfordifferentiateduseofforcetobemadeavailable

Legality:
Forcetobeusedonlyforlawfulenforcementpurposes
Noexceptionsorexcusesforunlawfuluseofforce

Accountability:
Incidentstobeimmediatelyreportedandreviewedbysuperiors.

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Superiorofficialstobeheldresponsiblefortheactionsofpoliceunder
theircommandifthesuperiorofficialkneworshouldhaveknownof
abusesbutfailedtotakeconcreteaction
Immunityshouldbegiventopoliceofficialwhorefuseunlawfulorders
Noexcuseforabuses
Noexcusesforfollowingunlawfulorders!
Allofficerstobetrainedintheuseofvariousmeansforthe
differentiateduseofforce
Allofficerstobetrainedintheuseofnonviolentmeans

Necessity:
Nonviolentmeanstobeattemptedfirst
Forcetobeusedonlywhenstrictlynecessary
Restrainttobeexercisedintheuseofforce,onlytheminimumlevel
offorcerequiredandonlyforthetimenecessary

2. ThedifferentlegalbasisfortheuseofforceandfirearmsforUNPolice

Internationalmandates,SOPs,ROEs/DUF(executive/notexecutive?)

HostCountryLaw

Internationalcustomaryandtreatylaw

Internationalnontreatystandardsonpolicing

3. Thehumanrightsrelatingtotheuseofforceandfirearms

Righttolife,libertyandsecurityofperson

Prohibition of torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment


orpunishment

Respectfortheinherentdignityofthehumanperson

4. Thepermissiblecircumstancesfortheuseoffirearmsareonlywhenless
extrememeasuresareconsideredinsufficient.

Firearmstobeusedonlyinextremecircumstances

Firearmstobeusedonlyinselfdefenceordefenceofothersagainst
imminentthreatofdeathorseriousinjury
or
topreventaparticularlyseriouscrimethatinvolvesagravethreatto
life
or
toarrestorpreventtheescapeofapersonposingsuchathreatand
whoisresistingeffortstostopthethreat

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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce
5. Theproceduresfortheuseoffirearmsandexceptionstothese
proceduresare:

Officertoidentifyhimself/herselfaspoliceofficial
and

Officertogiveaclearwarning
and

Officertoallowadequatetimeforwarningtobeobeyed

Thisshallnotberequiredif:

the delay would result in death or serious injury to the officer or


others,or

itisclearlypointlessorinappropriateinthecircumstancestodoso.

6. Theproceduresaftertheuseofforceandfirearmsare:

Rendermedicalaidtoallinjuredpersons

Notifyrelativesorfriendsofthoseaffected

Allowforinvestigationwhererequestedorrequired

Provideafullanddetailedreportoftheincident

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OptionalLearningActivity:CaseStudies
Thepurposeofthisactivityisforparticipantstolearnaboutpoliceofficers
andFPUproceduresthroughrealcasescenarios.Thetwoexercisesare:
FleeingThiefandUnplannedDemonstrations.
LearningActivityTimeRequired:
10minutes

foractivityintroductionandinstructions

15minutes

forworksmallgroupsdiscussions:exercise1or
2

20minutes

debriefinthelargegroup*

Totaltime: 45minutes

*totaltimedependentnumberofgroups

F ActivityGuidelines:
1. Dividetheparticipantsintotwogroupsandgiveeachgroupan
Exercise.
2. ForExercise1,participantsareaskedtoidentifyifthepoliceacted
appropriatelyinascenario.
3. ForExercise2,participantsareaskedtodeterminetheFPU
proceduresareappropriateinarealcasescenario.

Exercise1:FleeingThief
YouarecolocatedwithhostcountryPolicestationinasensitiveareawith
asignificantminoritypopulation.Thepolicearemainlyrecruitedfrom the
majoritygroupandassuchconsideredbiasedbytheminority.One
afternoonaninhabitantbelongingtotheminoritybreaksintothestation
andstealsaportablecomputerandaradioset.Heattemptstoexitthe
frontgate.Comingbacktothestationafterajointhostcountry/UNpolice
footpatrolyourtwoarmedhostcountrypolicecolleagueschallengethe
thief.Hepullsoutaknife,takingasteptowardsthepoliceofficer,beforehe
turnedandranoutofthegateandacrossadirtroadintoanopenfield.The
twohostcountryofficersassumethatthecomputerhassensitivefiles,and
anywaytheyareangryasthisisthethirdthiefthisweek.Whilerunning
afterhim,oneofthehostcountryofficersshootsthethief.
Heisbadlyinjuredbutalive.Localbystandersofminorityoriginwitnessed
theeventsandstartshoutinginthelocallanguage.Acrowdbeginsto
gatherandanotherthreehostcountryofficersjointheirtwocolleagues.
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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce
Thethiefisbleedingprofuselyandcriesout.Thehostcountryofficersare
talkingamongstthemselves,andpreventingthepeoplefromhelpingthe
man.Somevillagersraceupwithavantotaketheinjuredmantothe
hospital,butasthevehicleapproachestheofficerstheyfireafewshots
deflatingthefronttires.Itisbarely5minutessincetheshootingthecrowd
isbuildingthethiefstopsbreathinganddies.

F ActivityGuidelines:
1. Dividetheparticipantsintosmallgroupsandaskthemtoreadthe
exercise.
2. Askthemtodeterminethepoliceofficersproceduresandaction
towardsthethief.

Wastheattempttoarrestthesuspectedthieflegal?

Whatwouldhavebeentheappropriateaction,whenthethiefpulled
hisknife?

What would have been the appropriate action when the thief
escapedintothefield?

After having shot the thief, what would have been the appropriate
actions?

Whatshouldhavebeendoneinregardstotheangrycrowd?

WhatisyourroleasUNPoliceduringandafterthesituation?

F ExpectedOutcome:
1. Wastheattempttoarrestthesuspectedthieflegal?
Theattempttoarrest mustbeconsideredlegal,assumingthesuspect
was seen leaving police premises with the computer and handset. At
least,inthelightoftherecentthefts,thepolicehadtherighttoaddress
the suspect and inquire into his reasons for his presence and the
possessionoftheitems.
2. Whatwouldbetheappropriateaction,whenthethiefpulledhisknife?
Trytofreezethesituationandtoverballyencouragethesuspecttoput
downtheknifeandsurrender.Atthesametimepreparatoryactionsin
regard to use of force could be taken in order for self defense and if
necessarytoenforceanarrest.
3. Whatwouldbetheappropriateactionwhenthethiefescapedintothe
field?
Againuseverbalmeanstostopthesuspect.
With due consideration of own safety pursue the suspect with the
purposeofmakinganarrest.

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4. Afterhavingshotthethief,whatwouldhavebeentheappropriate
actions?
Inordertominimizedamageandinjury

Medical assistance to any injured persons at the earliest possible


moment

Notifyvictimsrelatives/friends:ensurethatrelativesorclosefriends
oftheinjuredoraffectedpersonarenotifiedattheearliestpossible
moment

Allowandcooperatewiththenecessaryinvestigation

Reportpromptlyincidenttosuperiors.

5. Whatshouldhavebeendoneinregardstotheangrycrowd?
Thepoliceshouldhaveapproachedthecrowdinordertotrytocalmthe
situation
6. WhatisyourroleasUNPoliceduringandafterthesituation?

ReporttoyoursupervisorandtotheHumanRightscomponent

Ensurethattheincidentisinvestigatedproperly

Informationtothelocalcommunityandvictimsaboutactiontaken

Communicatewithlocalofficialsandcommunityleadersinorderto
encourage better relations with the host country police and crime
preventionmeans

Exercise2:UnplannedDemonstrations
1. Newsspreadsofthepeacekeeperswhoinaroadsideaccidentkilleda
motherandachild.Anangrycrowdofabout50peoplegathersatthe
UNHQmaingateandprotestsangrily.Thecrowdwithin20minutes
growstoabout200men,womenandchildrenthrowingstones.
WindowsandvehiclesinsidetheHQcompoundarebeingdamaged.
Tiresaresetonfireoutsideinthestreets.
2. OneFPUplatoonarmedwithautomaticriflesformsupoutsidethegate
andordersthedemonstratorstodisperse.Ayoungmaleprotestor
throwsabottle,hittingoneoftheFPUmembers.ThreeotherFPU
memberschasetheprotesterwhoresistsarrest,punchingandkicking
theofficers.UsingriflebuttstheFPUmembersknockthemantothe
groundandhandcuffhim.Theprotesteralthoughhandcuffedrefusesto
holdstillandmanagestospitintothefaceofanofficer.Inamomentof
ragetheofficerorderstodragthemantothefrontgateandhandcuffs
himtothebarricadeinfullsightofthecrowd.Thevillageleaderarrives
onthescenebuttheFPUignorehispresence.
3. BynowthecrowdisreallygettingviolentandtheFPUplatoonstartsto
retreatbackintothecompound.Rocksandbottlesarehittingthe
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HumanRightsStandardsintheUseofForce
officerswhoareorderedtoformalineatthecompoundgateandaim
theirweaponsattheprotesters.OneFPUmemberishitbyarockand
fallstotheground.Reinforcementarrives,andsurroundsthe
protesters.Someprotestersdroptothegroundclutchingchildrenand
friendsotherscontinuetoadvanceontheFPU.Asthesituation
disintegrates,severalofficersopenfireandfourprotesterscollapsewith
gunshotwounds.Thecrowdfleesandthedustsettles.

F ActivityGuidelines:
1. Dividetheparticipantsintosmallgroupsandaskthem toreadthe
exercise.
2. AskthemtodeterminetheFPUproceduresandactiontowardsthe
incident.

Wasthedeploymentoftheunitcorrectandsufficient?

Whatotheractionscouldbetaken?

Wastheconductofthearrestlegalandappropriate?

Whichactionsshouldbetakeninthecaseoftheexcessforceused
againsttheprotester?

Whatshouldhavebeendoneinregardstotheangrycrowd?

HowshouldtheFPUhavedealtwiththevillageleader?

Wastheuseoffirearmsagainstcrowdappropriate?

What is your role as UN (individual) Police during and after the


situation?

F ExpectedOutcome:
1. Wasthedeploymentoftheunitcorrectandsufficient?
Reflecting the deployment of the FPUit should be emphasised thatin
ordertomeetinternationalstandardstheFPUhastotakeagraduated
approachandtheriskofescalationofviolencehastobeminimized.A
moredeescalatingwaytorespondtothissituationmighthavebeento
position the FPU inside the compound, which could have served the
purposeofincreasingtheirownsecurityandreducingtheneedforself
defence.
Consideration must be given to sufficient equipment of the FPU. Also
consideration is needed on dispatching other tactical units to be
engaged,andeventuallytoshowofforcetodeterfurtherescalation.
2. Whatotheractionscouldbetaken?
Trytoidentifytheleaderandestablishcontactinordertoexplainthe
situation,theUNcourseofactiontoinvestigatethetrafficaccidentand
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therebymakeanattempttocalmdownthesituationcallhostcountry
authorities,especiallythehostcountrypolice,askingtointervene.
3. Wastheconductofthearrestlegalandappropriate?
In principle the arrest was legal and justified. The tactic to chase the
man is however questionable since his actions did not pose a
significantthreattotheFPU.Strategiestodiffuseratherthanincreasing
tensionsshouldbeprivileged.
Considerationhasalsotobemadeastoconsequencesofthearrest.In
aunitundercommand,sucharrestsmustbeplannedandcoordinated.
4. Whichactionsshouldbetakeninthecaseoftheexcessforceused
againsttheprotester?
The acts of excess use of force should be stopped immediately. The
same applies for the protester being handcuffed to the barricade. It is
bothexposinghimtodangerandtoviolatinghumanrightsstandardsfor
handling arrested persons. The protestor should have been given
medicalassistanceimmediately.
5. Whatshouldhavebeendoneinregardstotheangrycrowd?
Negotiations with the village leader should have been initiated verbal
warnings and encouragement to disperse should have been given to
thecrowd.
6. Wastheuseoffirearmsagainstthecrowdappropriate?
It could have onlybeen justified in response to a serious threat to the
lifeofaperson.Thescenariodoesnotgiveanyindicationthatthiswas
the case. Therefore the use of firearms was not justified. In addition
none of the mandatory procedures before using firearms has been
applied.
7. WhatisyourroleasUN(individual)Policeduringandafterthe
situation?
Your role as individual police is mainly to observe. A general role of
anybodyistostoptheabuseofpowerimmediately,ifpossible.Afterthe
action,reporttheincidenttotheappropriateauthoritiesandfollowupon
thecaseby:

ReporttoyoursupervisorandtotheHumanRightscomponent

Ensurethattheincidentisinvestigatedproperly

Informationtothelocalcommunityandvictimsaboutactiontaken

Communicatewithlocalofficialsandcommunityleadersinorderto
encourage better relations with the host country police and crime
preventionmeans

UNPeacekeepingPDTStandards,SpecializedTrainingMaterialforPolice1st edition2009