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Chapter 1

Elementary Signals

his chapter begins with a discussion of elementary signals that may be applied to electric
networks. The unit step, unit ramp, and delta functions are then introduced. The sampling
and sifting properties of the delta function are defined and derived. Several examples for
expressing a variety of waveforms in terms of these elementary signals are provided. Throughout
this text, a left justified horizontal bar will denote the beginning of an example, and a right justified horizontal bar will denote the end of the example. These bars will not be shown whenever an
example begins at the top of a page or at the bottom of a page. Also, when one example follows
immediately after a previous example, the right justified bar will be omitted.

1.1 Signals Described in Math Form


Consider the network of Figure 1.1 where the switch is closed at time t = 0 .
R

+
vS

t = 0

v out open terminals

Figure 1.1. A switched network with open terminals

We wish to describe v out in a math form for the time interval < t < + . To do this, it is convenient to divide the time interval into two parts, < t < 0 , and 0 < t < .
For the time interval < t < 0 , the switch is open and therefore, the output voltage v out is zero.
In other words,
(1.1)
v out = 0 for < t < 0
For the time interval 0 < t < , the switch is closed. Then, the input voltage v S appears at the
output, i.e.,
(1.2)
v out = v S for 0 < t <
Combining (1.1) and (1.2) into a single relationship, we obtain
0 < t < 0
v out =
vS 0 < t <

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Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


We can express (1.3) by the waveform shown in Figure 1.2.
v out

vS
0

Figure 1.2. Waveform for v out as defined in relation (1.3)

The waveform of Figure 1.2 is an example of a discontinuous function. A function is said to be discontinuous if it exhibits points of discontinuity, that is, the function jumps from one value to
another without taking on any intermediate values.

1.2 The Unit Step Function u 0 ( t )


A well known discontinuous function is the unit step function u 0 ( t ) * which is defined as
t<0

0
u0 ( t ) =
1

(1.4)

t>0

It is also represented by the waveform of Figure 1.3.


u0 ( t )

Figure 1.3. Waveform for u 0 ( t )

In the waveform of Figure 1.3, the unit step function u 0 ( t ) changes abruptly from 0 to 1 at
t = 0 . But if it changes at t = t 0 instead, it is denoted as u 0 ( t t 0 ) . In this case, its waveform and

definition are as shown in Figure 1.4 and relation (1.5) respectively.


1

u0 ( t t0 )
t

t0

Figure 1.4. Waveform for u 0 ( t t 0 )

* In some books, the unit step function is denoted as u ( t ) , that is, without the subscript 0. In this text, however, we
will reserve the u ( t ) designation for any input when we will discuss state variables in Chapter 5.

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The Unit Step Function


t < t0

0
u0 ( t t0 ) =
1

(1.5)

t > t0

If the unit step function changes abruptly from 0 to 1 at t = t 0 , it is denoted as u 0 ( t + t 0 ) . In


this case, its waveform and definition are as shown in Figure 1.5 and relation (1.6) respectively.
1

u0 ( t + t0 )
t

t0 0

Figure 1.5. Waveform for u 0 ( t + t 0 )


0
u0 ( t + t0 ) =
1

t < t0
t > t0

(1.6)

Example 1.1
Consider the network of Figure 1.6, where the switch is closed at time t = T .
R

+
vS

t = T
v out open terminals

Figure 1.6. Network for Example 1.1

Express the output voltage v out as a function of the unit step function, and sketch the appropriate
waveform.
Solution:
For this example, the output voltage v out = 0 for t < T , and v out = v S for t > T . Therefore,
v out = v S u 0 ( t T )

(1.7)

and the waveform is shown in Figure 1.7.

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Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


vS u0 ( t T )

v out
0

Figure 1.7. Waveform for Example 1.1

Other forms of the unit step function are shown in Figure 1.8.

(a)

A
A u0 ( t )
Au 0 ( t )

0
A u0 ( t )

(d)

(e)

A u0 ( t + T )

(h)
A

(f)

(c)

A u0 ( t + T )

Au 0 ( t T )

(g)

A u0 ( t T )

A
0

(b)

Au 0 ( t + T )

A u0 ( t T )

(i)

Figure 1.8. Other forms of the unit step function

Unit step functions can be used to represent other timevarying functions such as the rectangular
pulse shown in Figure 1.9.
u0 ( t )

1
0

1
(a)

0
(b)

1
0

t
(c)
u0 ( t 1 )

Figure 1.9. A rectangular pulse expressed as the sum of two unit step functions

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The Unit Step Function


Thus, the pulse of Figure 1.9(a) is the sum of the unit step functions of Figures 1.9(b) and 1.9(c)
and it is represented as u 0 ( t ) u 0 ( t 1 ) .
The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a voltage or current source. For example, a constant voltage source of 24 V applied at t = 0 , can be
denoted as 24u 0 ( t ) V . Likewise, a sinusoidal voltage source v ( t ) = V m cos t V that is applied to
a circuit at t = t0 , can be described as v ( t ) = ( V m cos t )u 0 ( t t 0 ) V . Also, if the excitation in a
circuit is a rectangular, or triangular, or sawtooth, or any other recurring pulse, it can be represented as a sum (difference) of unit step functions.
Example 1.2
Express the square waveform of Figure 1.10 as a sum of unit step functions. The vertical dotted
lines indicate the discontinuities at T, 2T, 3T , and so on.
v(t)
A

}
T

2T

3T

0
A

Figure 1.10. Square waveform for Example 1.2

Solution:
Line segment { has height A , starts at t = 0 , and terminates at t = T . Then, as in Example 1.1, this
segment is expressed as
v1 ( t ) = A [ u0 ( t ) u0 ( t T ) ]

(1.8)

Line segment | has height A , starts at t = T and terminates at t = 2T . This segment is


expressed as
v 2 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t T ) u 0 ( t 2T ) ]
(1.9)
Line segment } has height A , starts at t = 2T and terminates at t = 3T . This segment is expressed
as
v 3 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t 2T ) u 0 ( t 3T ) ]

(1.10)

Line segment ~ has height A , starts at t = 3T , and terminates at t = 4T . It is expressed as


v 4 ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t 3T ) u 0 ( t 4T ) ]

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Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


Thus, the square waveform of Figure 1.10 can be expressed as the summation of (1.8) through
(1.11), that is,
v ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v2 ( t ) + v3 ( t ) + v4 ( t )
= A [ u 0 ( t ) u 0 ( t T ) ] A [ u 0 ( t T ) u 0 ( t 2T ) ]

(1.12)

+A [ u 0 ( t 2T ) u 0 ( t 3T ) ] A [ u 0 ( t 3T ) u 0 ( t 4T ) ]

Combining like terms, we obtain


v ( t ) = A [ u 0 ( t ) 2u 0 ( t T ) + 2u 0 ( t 2T ) 2u 0 ( t 3T ) + ]

(1.13)

Example 1.3
Express the symmetric rectangular pulse of Figure 1.11 as a sum of unit step functions.
A

T 2

i(t)

T2

Figure 1.11. Symmetric rectangular pulse for Example 1.3

Solution:
This pulse has height A , starts at t = T 2 , and terminates at t = T 2 . Therefore, with reference to Figures 1.5 and 1.8 (b), we obtain
T
T
T
T
i ( t ) = Au 0 t + --- Au 0 t --- = A u 0 t + --- u 0 t ---

2
2
2
2

(1.14)

Example 1.4
Express the symmetric triangular waveform of Figure 1.12 as a sum of unit step functions.
1

T 2

v(t)

T2

Figure 1.12. Symmetric triangular waveform for Example 1.4

Solution:

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The Unit Step Function


We first derive the equations for the linear segments { and | shown in Figure 1.13.
2
--- t + 1
T

v( t)

T 2

2
--- t + 1
T

|
T2

Figure 1.13. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 1.12

For line segment { ,


2
T
v 1 ( t ) = --- t + 1 u 0 t + --- u 0 ( t )
T

(1.15)

v 2 ( t ) = --2- t + 1 u 0 ( t ) u 0 t T
---
T

(1.16)

and for line segment | ,

Combining (1.15) and (1.16), we obtain


v ( t ) = v1 ( t ) + v2 ( t )
2
= --- t + 1 u 0 t + T
--- u 0 ( t ) + --2- t + 1 u 0 ( t ) u 0 t T
---
T

2
T

(1.17)

Example 1.5
Express the waveform of Figure 1.14 as a sum of unit step functions.
3

v( t)

2
1

Figure 1.14. Waveform for Example 1.5

Solution:

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Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


As in the previous example, we first find the equations of the linear segments linear segments {
and | shown in Figure 1.15.
3
2

v(t)

{
2t + 1
t+3

|
0

Figure 1.15. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 1.14

Following the same procedure as in the previous examples, we obtain


v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 ) [ u 0 ( t ) u 0 ( t 1 ) ] + 3 [ u 0 ( t 1 ) u 0 ( t 2 ) ]
+ ( t + 3 ) [ u0 ( t 2 ) u0 ( t 3 ) ]

Multiplying the values in parentheses by the values in the brackets, we obtain


v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t 1 ) + 3u 0 ( t 1 )
3u 0 ( t 2 ) + ( t + 3 )u 0 ( t 2 ) ( t + 3 )u 0 ( t 3 )
v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) + [ ( 2t + 1 ) + 3 ]u 0 ( t 1 )
+ [ 3 + ( t + 3 ) ]u 0 ( t 2 ) ( t + 3 )u 0 ( t 3 )

and combining terms inside the brackets, we obtain


v ( t ) = ( 2t + 1 )u 0 ( t ) 2 ( t 1 )u 0 ( t 1 ) t u 0 ( t 2 ) + ( t 3 )u 0 ( t 3 )

(1.18)

Two other functions of interest are the unit ramp function, and the unit impulse or delta function.
We will introduce them with the examples that follow.
Example 1.6
In the network of Figure 1.16 i S is a constant current source and the switch is closed at time
t = 0 . Express the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) as a function of the unit step.

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The Unit Step Function


t = 0

+
C

iS

vC ( t )

Figure 1.16. Network for Example 1.6

Solution:
The current through the capacitor is i C ( t ) = i S = cons tan t , and the capacitor voltage v C ( t ) is
1
v C ( t ) = ---C

C ( ) d

(1.19)

where is a dummy variable.


Since the switch closes at t = 0 , we can express the current i C ( t ) as
iC ( t ) = iS u0 ( t )

(1.20)

and assuming that v C ( t ) = 0 for t < 0 , we can write (1.19) as

i S u 0 ( ) d =

iS
---C

u0 ( ) d

1
v C ( t ) = ---C

iS
+ ---C

0 u 0 ( ) d

(1.21)

or
iS
v C ( t ) = ----- tu 0 ( t )
C

(1.22)

Therefore, we see that when a capacitor is charged with a constant current, the voltage across it is
a linear function and forms a ramp with slope i S C as shown in Figure 1.17.
vC ( t )
slope = i S C
0

Figure 1.17. Voltage across a capacitor when charged with a constant current source

* Since the initial condition for the capacitor voltage was not specified, we express this integral with at the lower limit of
integration so that any non-zero value prior to t < 0 would be included in the integration.

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Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


1.3 The Unit Ramp Function u 1 ( t )
The unit ramp function, denoted as u 1 ( t ) , is defined as
u1 ( t ) =

u 0 ( ) d

(1.23)

where is a dummy variable.


We can evaluate the integral of (1.23) by considering the area under the unit step function u 0 ( t )
from to t as shown in Figure 1.18.
Area = 1 = = t

1
t

Figure 1.18. Area under the unit step function from to t

Therefore, we define u 1 ( t ) as
0
u1 ( t ) =
t

t<0

(1.24)

t0

Since u 1 ( t ) is the integral of u 0 ( t ) , then u 0 ( t ) must be the derivative of u 1 ( t ) , i.e.,


d
----- u 1 ( t ) = u 0 ( t )
dt

(1.25)

Higher order functions of t can be generated by repeated integration of the unit step function. For
example, integrating u 0 ( t ) twice and multiplying by 2 , we define u 2 ( t ) as

Similarly,

and in general,

0
u2 ( t ) = 2
t

t<0

0
u3 ( t ) = 3
t

t<0

0
un ( t ) = n
t

t0

t0
t<0
t0

or

u2 ( t ) = 2

or

u3 ( t ) = 3

or

un ( t ) = 3

u1 ( ) d
t

u2 ( ) d
t

u n 1 ( ) d

(1.26)

(1.27)

(1.28)

Also,

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The Delta Function


1d
u n 1 ( t ) = --- ----- u n ( t )
n dt

(1.29)

Example 1.7
In the network of Figure 1.19, the switch is closed at time t = 0 and i L ( t ) = 0 for t < 0 . Express
the inductor current i L ( t ) in terms of the unit step function.
R

t = 0
iL ( t )

vL ( t )
L

iS

Figure 1.19. Network for Example 1.7

Solution:
The voltage across the inductor is
di L
v L ( t ) = L ------dt

(1.30)

iL ( t ) = iS u0 ( t )

(1.31)

d
v L ( t ) = Li S ----- u 0 ( t )
dt

(1.32)

and since the switch closes at t = 0 ,


Therefore, we can write (1.30) as

But, as we know, u 0 ( t ) is constant ( 0 or 1 ) for all time except at t = 0 where it is discontinuous.


Since the derivative of any constant is zero, the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) has a nonzero
value only at t = 0 . The derivative of the unit step function is defined in the next section.

1.4 The Delta Function ( t )


The unit impulse or delta function, denoted as ( t ) , is the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) . It is also
defined as
t

and

( ) d

= u0 ( t )

( t ) = 0 for all t 0

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Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


To better understand the delta function ( t ) , let us represent the unit step u 0 ( t ) as shown in Figure 1.20 (a).
1

Figure (a)

1
2

Area =1

Figure (b)

Figure 1.20. Representation of the unit step as a limit

The function of Figure 1.20 (a) becomes the unit step as 0 . Figure 1.20 (b) is the derivative of
Figure 1.20 (a), where we see that as 0 , 1 2 becomes unbounded, but the area of the rectangle remains 1 . Therefore, in the limit, we can think of ( t ) as approaching a very large spike or
impulse at the origin, with unbounded amplitude, zero width, and area equal to 1 .
Two useful properties of the delta function are the sampling property and the sifting property.

1.4.1 The Sampling Property of the Delta Function ( t )


The sampling property of the delta function states that
f ( t ) ( t a ) = f ( a ) ( t )

(1.35)

f ( t ) ( t ) = f ( 0 ) ( t )

(1.36)

or, when a = 0 ,
that is, multiplication of any function f ( t ) by the delta function ( t ) results in sampling the function at the time instants where the delta function is not zero. The study of discretetime systems is
based on this property.
Proof:
Since ( t ) = 0 for t < 0 and t > 0 then,
f ( t ) ( t ) = 0 for t < 0 and t > 0

(1.37)

f(t) = f(0) + [f(t) f(0)]

(1.38)

We rewrite f ( t ) as
Integrating (1.37) over the interval to t and using (1.38), we obtain

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The Delta Function


t

f ( ) ( ) d =

f ( 0 ) ( ) d +

[ f ( ) f ( 0 ) ] ( ) d

(1.39)

The first integral on the right side of (1.39) contains the constant term f ( 0 ) ; this can be written
outside the integral, that is,
t

f ( 0 ) ( ) d = f ( 0 )

( ) d

(1.40)

The second integral of the right side of (1.39) is always zero because
( t ) = 0 for t < 0 and t > 0

and

[f( ) f(0 ) ]

Therefore, (1.39) reduces to


t

=0

= f(0 ) f( 0) = 0

f ( ) ( ) d = f ( 0 )

( ) d

(1.41)

Differentiating both sides of (1.41), and replacing with t , we obtain


f ( t ) ( t ) = f ( 0 ) ( t )
Sampling Property of ( t )

(1.42)

1.4.2 The Sifting Property of the Delta Function ( t )


The sifting property of the delta function states that

f ( t ) ( t ) dt

= f()

(1.43)

that is, if we multiply any function f ( t ) by ( t ) , and integrate from to + , we will obtain
the value of f ( t ) evaluated at t = .
Proof:
Let us consider the integral
b

a f ( t ) ( t ) dt

where a < < b

(1.44)

We will use integration by parts to evaluate this integral. We recall from the derivative of products that
d ( xy ) = xdy + ydx or xdy = d ( xy ) ydx
(1.45)
and integrating both sides we obtain

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Chapter 1 Elementary Signals

x dy

(1.46)

= xy y dx

Now, we let x = f ( t ) ; then, dx = f ( t ) . We also let dy = ( t ) ; then, y = u 0 ( t ) . By substitution into (1.44), we obtain
b

f ( t ) ( t ) dt = f ( t )u 0 ( t )
a

a u0 ( t )f ( t ) dt

(1.47)

We have assumed that a < < b ; therefore, u 0 ( t ) = 0 for < a , and thus the first term of the
right side of (1.47) reduces to f ( b ) . Also, the integral on the right side is zero for < a , and therefore, we can replace the lower limit of integration a by . We can now rewrite (1.47) as
b

a
and letting

f ( t ) ( t ) dt = f ( b )

f ( t ) d t

a and b for any <

= f( b) f( b) + f( )

, we obtain

f ( t ) ( t ) dt = f ( )

(1.48)

Sifting Property of ( t )

1.5 Higher Order Delta Functions


An nth-order delta function is defined as the nth derivative of u 0 ( t ) , that is,
n

n
( t ) = ----- [ u 0 ( t ) ]
dt

(1.49)

The function ' ( t ) is called doublet, '' ( t ) is called triplet, and so on. By a procedure similar to the
derivation of the sampling property of the delta function, we can show that
f ( t )' ( t a ) = f ( a )' ( t a ) f ' ( a ) ( t a )

(1.50)

Also, the derivation of the sifting property of the delta function can be extended to show that

114

n
nd
f ( t ) ( t ) dt = ( 1 ) -------n- [ f ( t ) ]

dt

(1.51)
t=

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Higher Order Delta Functions


Example 1.8
Evaluate the following expressions:
a. 3t ( t 1 )

b.

Solution:

t ( t 2 ) dt

c. t ' ( t 3 )
2

a. The sampling property states that f ( t ) ( t a ) = f ( a ) ( t a ) For this example, f ( t ) = 3t and


a = 1 . Then,
4

3t ( t 1 ) = { 3t

b. The sifting property states that

4
t=1

} ( t 1 ) = 3 ( t 1 )

f ( t ) ( t ) dt

= f ( ) . For this example, f ( t ) = t and

= 2 . Then,

t ( t 2 ) dt = f ( 2 ) = t t = 2 = 2
c. The given expression contains the doublet; therefore, we use the relation
f ( t )' ( t a ) = f ( a )' ( t a ) f ' ( a ) ( t a )

Then, for this example,


2

t ' ( t 3 ) = t

2
t=3

d 2
' ( t 3 ) ----- t
dt

t=3

( t 3 ) = 9' ( t 3 ) 6 ( t 3 )

Example 1.9
a. Express the voltage waveform v ( t ) shown in Figure 1.21 as a sum of unit step functions for the
time interval 1 < t < 7 s .
b. Using the result of part (a), compute the derivative of v ( t ) and sketch its waveform.

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Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


v(t)

(V)

3
2
1
1

7
t (s)

1
2

Figure 1.21. Waveform for Example 1.9

Solution:
a. We begin with the derivation of the equations for the linear segments of the given waveform as
shown in Figure 1.22.
v(t)

v(t) (V)
t+5

3
2

t+6

t (s)
1
2

2t

Figure 1.22. Equations for the linear segments of Figure 1.21

Next, we express v ( t ) in terms of the unit step function u 0 ( t ) , and we obtain


v ( t ) = 2t [ u 0 ( t + 1 ) u 0 ( t 1 ) ] + 2 [ u 0 ( t 1 ) u 0 ( t 2 ) ]
+ ( t + 5 ) [ u0 ( t 2 ) u0 ( t 4 ) ] + [ u0 ( t 4 ) u0 ( t 5 ) ]

(1.52)

+ ( t + 6 ) [ u0 ( t 5 ) u0 ( t 7 ) ]

Multiplying and collecting like terms in (1.52), we obtain

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Higher Order Delta Functions


v ( t ) = 2tu 0 ( t + 1 ) 2tu 0 ( t 1 ) 2u 0 ( t 1 ) 2u 0 ( t 2 ) tu 0 ( t 2 )
+ 5u 0 ( t 2 ) + tu 0 ( t 4 ) 5u 0 ( t 4 ) + u 0 ( t 4 ) u 0 ( t 5 )
tu 0 ( t 5 ) + 6u 0 ( t 5 ) + tu 0 ( t 7 ) 6u 0 ( t 7 )

or

v ( t ) = 2tu 0 ( t + 1 ) + ( 2t + 2 )u 0 ( t 1 ) + ( t + 3 )u 0 ( t 2 )
+ ( t 4 )u 0 ( t 4 ) + ( t + 5 )u 0 ( t 5 ) + ( t 6 )u 0 ( t 7 )

b. The derivative of v ( t ) is
dv
------ = 2u 0 ( t + 1 ) + 2t ( t + 1 ) 2u 0 ( t 1 ) + ( 2t + 2 ) ( t 1 )
dt
u 0 ( t 2 ) + ( t + 3 ) ( t 2 ) + u 0 ( t 4 ) + ( t 4 ) ( t 4 )

(1.53)

u 0 ( t 5 ) + ( t + 5 ) ( t 5 ) + u 0 ( t 7 ) + ( t 6 ) ( t 7 )

From the given waveform, we observe that discontinuities occur only at t = 1 , t = 2 , and
t = 7 . Therefore, ( t 1 ) = 0 , ( t 4 ) = 0 , and ( t 5 ) = 0 , and the terms that contain
these delta functions vanish. Also, by application of the sampling property,
2t ( t + 1 ) = { 2t

t = 1

} ( t + 1 ) = 2 ( t + 1 )

( t + 3 ) ( t 2 ) = { ( t + 3 )
( t 6 ) ( t 7 ) = { ( t 6 )

t=2

t=7

} ( t 2 ) = ( t 2 )

} ( t 7 ) = ( t 7 )

and by substitution into (1.53), we obtain


dv
------ = 2u 0 ( t + 1 ) 2 ( t + 1 ) 2u 0 ( t 1 ) u 0 ( t 2 )
dt

(1.54)

+ ( t 2 ) + u0 ( t 4 ) u0 ( t 5 ) + u0 ( t 7 ) + ( t 7 )

The plot of dv dt is shown in Figure 1.23.

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Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


dv
-----dt

(V s)

(t 7)

(t 2)

1
1

7
t (s)

2 ( t + 1 )

Figure 1.23. Plot of the derivative of the waveform of Figure 1.21

We observe that a negative spike of magnitude 2 occurs at t = 1 , and two positive spikes of
magnitude 1 occur at t = 2 , and t = 7 . These spikes occur because of the discontinuities at
these points.

It would be interesting to observe the given signal and its derivative on the Scope block of the
Simulink* model of Figure 1.24. They are shown in Figure 1.25.

Figure 1.24. Simulink model for Example 1.9

The waveform created by the Signal Builder block is shown in Figure 1.25.

* A brief introduction to Simulink is presented in Appendix B. For a detailed procedure for generating piece-wise
linear functions with Simulinks Signal Builder block, please refer to Introduction to Simulink with Engineering
Applications, ISBN 0974423971

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Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


1.6 Summary
The unit step function u 0 ( t ) is defined as
t<0

0
u0 ( t ) =
1

t>0

The unit step function offers a convenient method of describing the sudden application of a

voltage or current source.

The unit ramp function, denoted as u 1 ( t ) , is defined as


u1 ( t ) =

u 0 ( ) d

The unit impulse or delta function, denoted as ( t ) , is the derivative of the unit step u 0 ( t ) . It is

also defined as
t

( ) d

and

= u0 ( t )

( t ) = 0 for all t 0
The sampling property of the delta function states that
f ( t ) ( t a ) = f ( a ) ( t )

or, when a = 0 ,

f ( t ) ( t ) = f ( 0 ) ( t )

The sifting property of the delta function states that

f ( t ) ( t ) dt

= f()

The sampling property of the doublet function ' ( t ) states that


f ( t )' ( t a ) = f ( a )' ( t a ) f ' ( a ) ( t a )

122

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Exercises
1.7 Exercises
1. Evaluate the following functions:
---
a. sin t t
6

---
b. cos 2t t

---
d. tan 2t t

e.

---
c. cos t t
2
2

2 t

t e

( t 2 ) dt

---
f. sin t 1 t
2
2

2.
a. Express the voltage waveform v ( t ) shown below as a sum of unit step functions for the time
interval 0 < t < 7 s .
v(t) (V)

v(t)

20
e

2t

10
0
1

t(s)

10
20

b. Using the result of part (a), compute the derivative of v ( t ) , and sketch its waveform. This
waveform cannot be used with Sinulinks Function Builder block because it contains the
decaying exponential segment which is a nonlinear function.

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123

Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


1.8 Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises
Dear Reader:
The remaining pages on this chapter contain the solutions to the exercises.
You must, for your benefit, make an honest effort to solve the problems without first looking at
the solutions that follow. It is recommended that first you go through and solve those you feel that
you know. For the exercises that you are uncertain, review this chapter and try again. If your
results do not agree with those provided, look over your procedures for inconsistencies and computational errors. Refer to the solutions as a last resort and rework those problems at a later date.
You should follow this practice with the exercises on all chapters of this book.

124

Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling, Fourth Edition
Copyright Orchard Publications

Solutions to EndofChapter Exercises


1. We apply the sampling property of the ( t ) function for all expressions except (e) where we
apply the sifting property. For part (f) we apply the sampling property of the doublet.
We recall that the sampling property states that f ( t ) ( t a ) = f ( a ) ( t a ) . Thus,
--- = sin t
a. sin t t
6

t = 6

--- = cos 2t
b. cos 2t t

t --- = sin --- t --- = 0.5 t ---


6
6
6
6

t
--- = cos --- t
--- = 0
4
2 4

t = 4

--- = --- ( 1 + cos 2t )


c. cos t t
2
2
1

--- = tan 2t
d. tan 2t t

t = 8

1
1

t --- = --- ( 1 + cos ) t --- = --- ( 1 1 ) t --- = 0


2
2
2
2
2
t =2

t --- = tan --- t --- = t ---


8
4 8
8

We recall that the sampling property states that


e.

2 t

t e

2 t

( t 2 ) dt = t e

t=2

= 4e

f ( t ) ( t ) dt

= f ( ) . Thus,

= 0.54

We recall that the sampling property for the doublet states that
f ( t )' ( t a ) = f ( a )' ( t a ) f ' ( a ) ( t a )

Thus,
2 1
2

sin t t --- = sin t


2

t = 2

d
2
1

t --- ----- sin t


2 dt

1
= --- ( 1 cos 2t )
2

f.

t = 2

t = 2

t --- sin 2t
2

t ---
2
t = 2

t ---
2

1
1
1

= --- ( 1 + 1 ) t --- sin t --- = t ---


2
2
2
2

2.
a.

v( t) = e

2t

[ u 0 ( t ) u 0 ( t 2 ) ] + ( 10t 30 ) [ u 0 ( t 2 ) u 0 ( t 3 ) ]

+ ( 10 t + 50 ) [ u 0 ( t 3 ) u 0 ( t 5 ) ] + ( 10t 70 ) [ u 0 ( t 5 ) u 0 ( t 7 ) ]
v(t) = e

2t

u0 ( t ) e

2t

u 0 ( t 2 ) + 10tu 0 ( t 2 ) 30u 0 ( t 2 ) 10tu 0 ( t 3 ) + 30u 0 ( t 3 )

10tu 0 ( t 3 ) + 50u 0 ( t 3 ) + 10tu 0 ( t 5 ) 50u 0 ( t 5 ) + 10tu 0 ( t 5 )


70u 0 ( t 5 ) 10tu 0 ( t 7 ) + 70u 0 ( t 7 )

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125

Chapter 1 Elementary Signals


v(t) = e

2t

u0 ( t ) + ( e

2t

+ 10t 30 )u 0 ( t 2 ) + ( 20t + 80 )u 0 ( t 3 ) + ( 20t 120 )u 0 ( t 5 )

+ ( 10t + 70 )u 0 ( t 7 )

b.
2t
2t
2t
2t
dv
------ = 2e u 0 ( t ) + e ( t ) + ( 2e + 10 )u 0 ( t 2 ) + ( e + 10t 30 ) ( t 2 )
dt

20u 0 ( t 3 ) + ( 20t + 80 ) ( t 3 ) + 20u 0 ( t 5 ) + ( 20t 120 ) ( t 5 )

(1)

10u 0 ( t 7 ) + ( 10t + 70 ) ( t 7 )

Referring to the given waveform we observe that discontinuities occur only at t = 2 , t = 3 ,


and t = 5 . Therefore, ( t ) = 0 and ( t 7 ) = 0 . Also, by the sampling property of the delta
function
( e

2t

+ 10t 30 ) ( t 2 ) = ( e

2t

+ 10t 30 )

( 20t + 80 ) ( t 3 ) = ( 20t + 80 )
( 20t 120 ) ( t 5 ) = ( 20t 120 )

t=3

t=5

t=2

( t 2 ) 10 ( t 2 )

( t 3 ) = 20 ( t 3 )

( t 5 ) = 20 ( t 5 )

and with these simplifications (1) above reduces to


dv dt = 2e

2t

u 0 ( t ) + 2e

2t

u 0 ( t 2 ) + 10u 0 ( t 2 ) 10 ( t 2 )

20u 0 ( t 3 ) + 20 ( t 3 ) + 20u 0 ( t 5 ) 20 ( t 5 ) 10u 0 ( t 7 )


= 2e

2t

[ u 0 ( t ) u 0 ( t 2 ) ] 10 ( t 2 ) + 10 [ u 0 ( t 2 ) u 0 ( t 3 ) ] + 20 ( t 3 )

10 [ u 0 ( t 3 ) u 0 ( t 5 ) ] 20 ( t 5 ) + 10 [ u 0 ( t 5 ) u 0 ( t 7 ) ]

The waveform for dv dt is shown below.


dv dt

(V s)
20 ( t 3 )

20
10
10

t (s)

10 ( t 2 )

20
2e

126

1
2t

20 ( t 5 )

Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling, Fourth Edition
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