You are on page 1of 4

ELEMENTS OF FICTION

PLOT
The plot of a story is a sequence of related events
The parts of the PLOT include the Exposition, Rising Action, Climax, Falling
Action, and Resolution
EXPOSITION
Sets the scene for the conflict:
Sets the scene
Establishes the mood/atmosphere
Introduces the characters
Provides important background information
RISING ACTION
The introduction of the central conflict where the struggle increases during the
Rising Action
All the events leading up to the Climax make the Rising Action
CONFLICT
a struggle between two opposing forces
TYPES OF CONFLICT
Character versus self (internal)
Character versus character (external)
Character versus nature (external)
Character versus society (external)
Character versus the supernatural or unknown (external)
COMPLICATION
Information that is introduced or an event that takes place that keeps the Plot
from moving too smoothly toward its Resolution
CLIMAX
The turning point in the story
The highest point in the story where the conflict comes to a head
FALLING ACTION
All the events occurring after the Climax make up the FALLING ACTION
The Unraveling
RESOLUTION
The RESOLUTION shows how the situation turns out and ties up loose ends
PROTAGONIST
The central character of a story or play
This character will be engaged in a struggle or conflict with another character or
group of characters

ELEMENTS OF FICTION

ANTAGONIST
The character or group of characters in conflict with the main character
(Protagonist) in the play or story
SUSPENSE
the quality that makes you keep reading to find out what happens
FORESHADOWING
hints or clues about what is to come that helps to create suspense
SETTING
the place and time of a storys action
can help to create the mood and atmosphere
the cultural background against which the action takes place
the customs, ideas, values and beliefs of the society in which the story occurs
MOOD(ATMOSPHERE)
Mood is the feeling that the story creates in the reader
The mood is often suggested by descriptive details
POINT OF VIEW
the perspective from which the author writes the story
first-person narration
limited third-person narration
omniscient narration
FIRST-PERSON NARRATION
the story is told by one of the characters in it, with the character referring to
himself or herself as I. This character is known as the narrator and is often
the main character in the story.
use of the first-person narrator makes the story seem immediate.
limited due to their ability to only reveal what they know or observe.
LIMITED THIRD-PERSON NARRATION
the reader sees events through the eyes of one character and knows only what
that character knows
this character is often a minor character who acts as an observer to the action
that is taking place
OMNISCIENT NARRATION
the narrator is a voice outside the story
refers to all characters as he, she, or they
with omniscient narration this voice is all-seeing and all-knowing
the author can tell you things that the characters in the story do not know
the author can tell you what the characters think and feel

ELEMENTS OF FICTION

DIRECT CHARACTERIZATION
the writer tells you directly about the character
often used with indirect characterization by the author
INDIRECT CHARACTERIZATION
the writer lets you learn indirectly what the characters are like through what the
characters say and do (the dialogue and action).
you can also learn about them through their thoughts or by what other
characters say about them.
STATIC CHARACTER
is one who remains the same over the course of a story
DYNAMIC CHARACTER
is one who changes in some important way because of an experience in the
story
the changes may relate to personality, attitudes, outlook or beliefs
THEME
is the general idea or insight into life that is presented in the story
this idea is developed through specific events and characters in the story
it is an idea that applies generally to situations in human life
MOTIVATION
a characters reason or reasons for saying or doing something
what motivates a character to act may be a feeling or a goal. A character is likely
to have many motives, both emotional and rational, for a particular action
motivation stems from the characters personality
may be stated directly by the author or discovered indirectly in the course of
the story as the character is revealed
SYMBOL
An object, person, idea, or action that represents something other than itself.
Symbols may be used in literature to make a point, create a mood, or reinforce
a theme.
IRONY
Irony is a contrast between an expected outcome and the actual outcome or
between appearance and reality.
COMPARISON
When you compare items, you are showing how they are alike
CONTRAST
When you contrast items, you are showing how they are different

ELEMENTS OF FICTION
CAUSE & EFFECT
Cause is what makes something happen
Effect is the result of that happening
IMAGERY
Use of words to create mental pictures, or images, that communicate experience
An image may appeal to any of the five senses, though in literature visual
images are the most common
SIMILE
A figure of speech in which like or as is used to make a comparison between
two basically unlike subjects
METAPHOR
A figure of speech in which one thing is spoken of as though it were something
else
A metaphor states a comparison directly