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QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 1

LANDSCAPE PLANTING ....................................................................................................... 3

1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4
1.1.5

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................................. 3


Scope ....................................................................................................................................................... 3
References............................................................................................................................................... 3
Quality Assurance ................................................................................................................................... 5
Submittals ............................................................................................................................................... 5
Job Conditions ......................................................................................................................................... 7

1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
1.2.3

SHIPPING, DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING ............................................................ 7


Shipping and Delivery .............................................................................................................................. 7
Storage .................................................................................................................................................... 8
Handling .................................................................................................................................................. 8

1.3
1.3.1
1.3.2
1.3.3
1.3.4
1.3.5
1.3.6
1.3.7
1.3.8
1.3.9
1.3.10
1.3.11
1.3.12
1.3.13
1.3.14
1.3.15
1.3.16
1.3.17
1.3.18
1.3.19
1.3.20
1.3.21
1.3.22
1.3.23
1.3.24

PRODUCTS ............................................................................................................................. 9
General .................................................................................................................................................... 9
Plants ....................................................................................................................................................... 9
Labels .................................................................................................................................................... 10
Workmanship / Qualifications .............................................................................................................. 10
Soil Preparation ..................................................................................................................................... 11
Subsoil Preparation ............................................................................................................................... 11
Spreading and Preparation of Topsoil ................................................................................................... 12
Soil Specification ................................................................................................................................... 12
Alternative Soil Specification ................................................................................................................ 13
Soil Additives Procedure A ................................................................................................................. 14
Soil Additive - Procedure B .................................................................................................................... 16
Alternative Soil Additive Specifications ................................................................................................. 17
Compost Specifications ......................................................................................................................... 18
Contractors Responsibilities ................................................................................................................. 21
The Supervising Officers Responsibilities ............................................................................................. 22
Chemical Testing for Fertiliser Equivalence of the Compost ................................................................ 22
Planting Soil Mixture ............................................................................................................................. 23
Planting Soil Mixture (Sweet Soil) ......................................................................................................... 23
Dry Plant Fertiliser ................................................................................................................................. 23
Turf Fertiliser ......................................................................................................................................... 23
Mulch .................................................................................................................................................... 23
Guys and Stakes .................................................................................................................................... 24
Edging Material ..................................................................................................................................... 24
Irrigation Water..................................................................................................................................... 24

1.4
1.4.1
1.4.2
1.4.3
1.4.4
1.4.5

SITE PREPARATION FOR PLANTING AREAS ................................................................... 24


General Requirements .......................................................................................................................... 24
Sub-Surface Grading.............................................................................................................................. 25
Finished Grading ................................................................................................................................... 25
Planting Operations and Layout ............................................................................................................ 25
Protection of Existing Vegetation.......................................................................................................... 26

1.5
1.5.1
1.5.2
1.5.3
1.5.4
1.5.5
1.5.6
1.5.7
1.5.8
1.5.9

PLANTING ............................................................................................................................. 26
Plant Pits ............................................................................................................................................... 26
Backfill Mixture ..................................................................................................................................... 26
Installation for Trees and Shrubs .......................................................................................................... 27
Installation of Palms .............................................................................................................................. 28
Cultivation of Turf Areas ....................................................................................................................... 28
Seeding .................................................................................................................................................. 28
Sprigging ................................................................................................................................................ 29
Turfing ................................................................................................................................................... 29
Plant List, Spacing and Sizes .................................................................................................................. 30

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 2

1.5.10
1.5.11
1.5.12
1.5.13
1.5.14
1.5.15
1.5.16

Edging Plant Beds .................................................................................................................................. 64


Mulch .................................................................................................................................................... 64
Watering of Plants................................................................................................................................. 64
Pruning .................................................................................................................................................. 65
Anti-Desiccant Application .................................................................................................................... 65
Clean up and Site Restoration ............................................................................................................... 65
Maintenance during Planting Operations ............................................................................................. 65

1.6
1.6.1
1.6.2
1.6.3
1.6.4
1.6.5
1.6.6

EXISTING LANDSCAPING ................................................................................................... 66


Care of Existing Landscaping ................................................................................................................. 66
Identification of Existing Plants ............................................................................................................. 66
Watering and Fertilizing Existing Non Native Trees .............................................................................. 66
Fertilizing Existing Non Native Shrubs and Groundcover Beds ............................................................. 66
Watering Native Trees, Shrubs and Groundcovers ............................................................................... 66
Pruning and Cavity Work....................................................................................................................... 66

1.7
1.7.1
1.7.2
1.7.3
1.7.4
1.7.5
1.7.6
1.7.7
1.7.8
1.7.9
1.7.10

PLANTING MATERIALS ........................................................................................................ 67


General .................................................................................................................................................. 67
Nomenclature ....................................................................................................................................... 67
Guaranties Planting Material ............................................................................................................. 68
Accessories ............................................................................................................................................ 68
Transplanting Plants .............................................................................................................................. 69
Planting Time ........................................................................................................................................ 70
Water Consumption .............................................................................................................................. 70
Percolation Test .................................................................................................................................... 71
Installation for Trees and Shrubs .......................................................................................................... 71
Installation of Palms .............................................................................................................................. 72

1.8
1.8.1
1.8.2
1.8.3
1.8.4
1.8.5
1.8.6
1.8.7

GRASS ................................................................................................................................... 73
Materials and Products ......................................................................................................................... 73
Workmanship ........................................................................................................................................ 73
Soil Preparation ..................................................................................................................................... 73
Delivery ................................................................................................................................................. 74
Seeding .................................................................................................................................................. 74
Preparation and Installation of Carpet Grass ........................................................................................ 74
Watering, Cutting, and Completion ...................................................................................................... 75

1.9
1.9.1

APPLICATION OF PESTICIDE ............................................................................................. 75


General Requirements .......................................................................................................................... 75

1.10
1.10.1
1.10.2
1.10.3
1.10.4
1.10.5

WARRANTy, MAINTENANCE AND HANDOVER ................................................................. 75


Plant Establishment and Warranty Period ............................................................................................ 75
Plant Maintenance during the Establishment Period ........................................................................... 76
Replacement Plants during the Establishment Period .......................................................................... 76
Lawn Maintenance during Plant Establishment Period ........................................................................ 76
Final Acceptance ................................................................................................................................... 77

1.11
1.11.1
1.11.2
1.11.3

MAINTENANCE ..................................................................................................................... 77
General .................................................................................................................................................. 77
Appearance of the Ground ................................................................................................................... 79
Grass Maintenance ............................................................................................................................... 81

1.12

APPENDIX A Landscaping Details 1 .................................................................................. 86

1.13

APPENDIX B Ashghal irrigation rates ................................................................................. 89

1.14

APPENDIX C Landscaping Details 2 .................................................................................. 89

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 3

LANDSCAPE PLANTING

1.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1.1.1

Scope

Work covered under this section consists of furnishing all labour, equipment and material
necessary to perform all operations required for landscaping herein specified.

Landscape planting is inclusive but not limited to finished grading, supplying and spreading
of soil, layout of plants and areas, turfing, seeding and sprigging of new lawns, ground cover
plantings, shrub planting, tree planting, landscape edges, maintenance period, landscape
warranty, appliances and services necessary for and incidental to completing all the planting
operations in a workmanship like manner, according to the provisions of the Project
Documentation.

The details pertaining to this scope of work are herein Appendix A and Appendix B. The
Contractor shall execute his work as per the details in Appendix A and Appendix B.

Related Sections are as follows:


Section 6
Section 12

Road works
Earthworks Related to Buildings

1.1.2

References

The following standards are referred to in this Part:


ASTM C516 ................Specification for Vermiculite Loose Fill Thermal Insulation
ASTM C549 ................Specification for Perlite Loose Fill Insulation
ASTM C136 ................Standard Methods of Sieve and Screen Analysis of Fine and Coarse
Aggregates
ASTM D422 ................Standard Methods of Particle Size Analysis of soil
ASTM D2607 .............. Standard Classification of Peat, Mosses, Humus, and Related
Products
ASTM D2974 ..............Standard Method of Test for Moisture, Ash, and Organic Matter of
Peat Materials
ASTM D2976 .............. Standard Method of Test for pH of Peat Materials
ASTM D2977 .............. Standard Method of Test for Particle Size Range of Peat Materials
AS 3743 .....................Potting mixes. Standards Australia, Sydney Australia
AS 4419 .....................Soils for landscaping and garden use. Standards Australia, Sydney
Australia
BS 1377 .....................Method of test of soils for civil engineering purposes
BS 3998 .....................Tree Work
BS 4043 .....................Transplanting Trees
BS 3882 .....................Topsoil
BS 3936 .....................Nursery Stock and Shrubs

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Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 4

BS 4428 .....................General Landscape Operation


BS 5236 ....................Cultivation and Planting of Trees in the Extra Large Nursery Stock
Category
ANSI Z60-1 ................American Standard for Nursery Stock
NATSPEC Specifying Trees
Official Method of Analysis, Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC International)
The Australian Dangerous Goods Code (ADG), Department of Infrastructure and Transport,
Government of Australia

Standard Plant Names, American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature (AJCHN)


Grade and Standards for Nursery Trees Part II: Palms and Trees, Department of
Agriculture, Florida, USA

Environmental Regulations and Technology, Control of Pathogens and Vector Attraction in


Sewage Sludge, United States Environment Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH, USA

Environmental Guidelines, Use and Disposal of Bio solids Products, Environmental


Protection Agency, NSW, Australia

Kirchhoff C, Malina J and Barrett (2003) Characteristics of Compost: Moisture Holding and
Water Quality Improvements. CRWR On-line Report, Centre for Water Resources, University
of Texas, Austin

Rayment GE and Higginson FR (1992) Australian Laboratory Handbook of Soil and Water
Chemical Methods. Inkata Press, North Ryde Sydney Australia
RHS Complete Gardeners Manual, Royal Horticultural Society, UK
RHS Encyclopaedia of Plants and Flower, Royal Horticultural Society, UK
The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopaedia of Garden Plants, Royal Horticultural
Society, UK

Post, George E., Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai, American University of Beirut.
Sunset Western Garden Book, Latest Edition.
Wyman, Donald, Wymans Gardening Encyclopedia, Macmillan Publishing Company, New
York, U.S.A., Colliers Macmillan Publishers, London, Second Edition, 1986.

Tropica Color Encyclopedia of Exotic Plants and Trees, Alfred Byrd Graf

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Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 5

1.1.3

Quality Assurance

Landscape works including soil preparation and planting shall conform to the relevant
requirements of the respective standards, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer.

Landscape work must be undertaken by an experienced subcontractor specialising in


landscape work. Work shall be performed and supervised at all times by qualified personnel.

All landscape materials shall be shipped with certificates of inspection as required by the
Engineer. Manufacturers certified analysis for standard packaged products shall be
provided.

Defective plant material shall be considered to be any tree, shrub or other plant that is:
(a)

Dead, dying, damaged or otherwise defective upon completion of the works after six
weeks
or at the first leafing out, whichever is later

(b)

Not in accordance with the Project Documentation.

1.1.4

Submittals

The Contractor shall submit catalogue data and literature of manufacturers and suppliers.

The Contractor shall submit manufacturers certified analysis of all standard products. The
certificate of origin for all chemicals and pesticides should clearly state that the product is
used in the manufacturers country.

The Contractor shall submit certificates confirming the origin, size, age of all plant materials
and that the same are free from insects and disease.

The contractor shall ensure that all landscape materials including soil additives, fertilizers,
compost, organic materials and plants have the required authority approvals affixed.

The Contractor is to submit his method statement for his fertilizer application for the approval
of the Engineer.

The Contractor shall submit a Plant Procurement Schedule within fourteen (14) days of the
start of the Contract. All plants for Ashghal projects are to conform with 1.5.9 Table 9b.This
schedule shall identify the source of every plant species to be included in the Works and
highlights plants that must be imported due to non-availability in Qatar. The schedule shall
be documented with the listing of names and locations of all nurseries, growers and plant
material sources. The schedules are a guide and any departure from the guide needs to be
justified on technical grounds that the species will thrive in Qatar.

The Contractor shall submit a weekly work schedule for approval before work is started. The
schedule shall identify tasks to be completed on a weekly basis and the anticipated schedule
for completing the tasks. The Contractor will then modify and submit the schedule on a
weekly basis identifying tasks completed, tasks to be completed, problems encountered and
recommendations additional to a monthly report contains all the above in details.

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Section 28: Landscaping


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01: Landscape Planting

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A soils report is to be submitted by the Contractor for all soils to be used for landscaping
purposes in the Works. The Contractor shall arrange for an approved independent analyst to
prepare a physical and chemical analysis of the soil and irrigation water to be used. The
analyst shall also provide recommendations on soil amendment, fertiliser application and the
like. The report shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval before soil is placed. In the
case of imported soil, the report shall be submitted at least 10 days prior to delivery. The
report shall identify the source(s) from which imported soils are to be furnished. At a
minimum, the soil shall be analysed for:
(a)

Total salts (Electro-Conductivity of soil solution)

(b)

Soil pH

(c)

Exchangeable Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium

(d)

Available Phosphates

(e)

Organic matter as a percentage

(f)

Available Zinc, Manganese, Iron and Boron

(g)

Total Sulphates

The soil analysis shall also include fertilisers and other amendment requirements and
quantities which when incorporated with the soil will provide the required nutrient levels for
vigorous plant growth.

10

Additional soil samples shall be taken at the rate of one in every 20 loads or as directed by
the Engineer and analysed. The results will be compared with the original sample to ensure
consistency and compatibility of supply.

11

An operations and maintenance manual is to be provided by the Contractor. Instructions


shall be furnished for year round care of installed plants to be followed by the Owner. As a
minimum, the manual will include the following:
(a)

irrigation details: including water application rates and maintenance procedures

(b)

fertilisation: including fertiliser descriptions, application rates and application schedule

(c)

salinity control: including leaching methods and leaching program monitoring

(d)

pesticide/fungicide/herbicide
procedures, and schedules

(e)

turf grass management: including mowing procedures, aerification, topdressing,


vertical mowing for thatch removal, rolling, overseeding and sprigging

(f)

propagation and seasonal replacement of all flowers and flowerbeds

(g)

general maintenance: including pruning, stakes and ties, replacement and clean-up,
protective fencing and grading

(h)

equipment inventory:
maintenance manual

(i)

landscape maintenance personnel requirements and job descriptions.

applications:

including

including

maintenance

safety

procedures

application

and

rates,

manufacturers

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Part
01: Landscape Planting

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1.1.5

Job Conditions

The Contractor shall proceed with and complete planting operations as rapidly as possible
as portions of the Site become available, working within seasonal limitations for each type of
landscape work required.

No planting shall be carried out during periods of heavy rain, sandstorms, heavy winds, or
during intense daytime heat. Plants and trees shall only be moved or planted between midSeptember and mid-May.

When special conditions warrant a variance to the planting time and conditions, a proposed
planting schedule shall be submitted to the Engineer for review and approval. In such cases,
the planting will be installed at no additional cost and all conditions and obligations such as
maintenance and warranty remain the same as specified herein.

Planting of trees and shrubs will occur prior to lawn plantings.

1.2

SHIPPING, DELIVERY, STORAGE AND HANDLING

1.2.1

Shipping and Delivery

Prior to shipping all plants shall be inspected, dug, and made ready for transport in
accordance with standard practices and procedures. The Engineer shall inspect all plants at
the source prior to delivery to the Site. The Engineer shall be notified of the delivery
schedule in advance so the plant material can be inspected upon arrival at the Site. All
unacceptable plant material shall be removed from the Site immediately. The Engineer
reserves the right to reject any plant material that does not meet the quality requirements of
the Project Documentation.

The Contractor shall protect plants to prevent damage to the root balls, containers or
desiccation of leaves. All plant material shall be delivered in a closed vehicle or in open
vehicles with the load properly covered in transit for protection from drying winds.

Fertiliser, pesticides, fungicides, chemicals and seed shall be delivered to the Site in the
original unopened containers bearing the manufacturers guaranteed chemical analysis,
name, trade name, or trademark. In lieu of containers, fertilisers and seed may be furnished
in bulk and a certificate indicating the above information shall accompany each delivery. The
fertiliser shall be kept dry and protected from contamination.

Palms shall be transported by covered truck. Such transportation shall not exceed 24 hours
from time of loading until arrival at the site. The palms shall be transported and handled in
the following manner:
(a)

When the palms are to be shipped, gently place the palm horizontal on a level surface
and tighten the wrapping and tying of frond. At least two layers of burlap must be
used.

(b)

Wrap the root ball with a minimum of two layers burlap. Saturate with water and cover.
Periodically, the burlap must be watered. Do not allow the burlap to dry out at any
time.

(c)

Do not damage the growth bud in any manner.

(d)

Do not water the trunk of the palm.

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01: Landscape Planting

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(e)

Do not permit the root ball to become dry.

(f)

Use only sharp tools in cutting and trimming.

(g)

A bed of 150mm of moist organic soil shall be placed on the floor of the truck. The
palms shall be hoisted by means of nylon or canvas slings and placed horizontally on
the bed of the truck. They shall be laid carefully in an alternating fashion. Moist burlap
shall be placed over the roots to keep them moist.

(h)

The entire load shall be covered snugly with two layers of tarpaulin.

(i)

The palms shall be secured in such a manner so as to prevent wind from lifting the
tarpaulin and drying the palms.

(j)

The palms shall be unloaded using nylon or canvas slings.

1.2.2

Storage

Plants shall be installed as soon as possible after delivery to the Site. Plant material shall be
protected from exposure to wind and direct sunlight prior to installation. Plants not installed
on the day of arrival shall be stored in shaded areas, protected from the wind and maintained
and watered to good horticultural standards until planted. Care shall be taken to ensure that
the plants do not dry out. No plant shall be stored on site for more than 3 days prior to
planting.

Root balled and container grown trees and plants shall be placed close together with root
balls covered with approved soil, peat or straw and kept medium moist until planted.

Bare rooted trees and shrubs shall be heeled into prepared trenches and covered with
agricultural soil or peat and kept medium moist until planted.

Seed and fertilizers shall be kept in dry storage away from contaminants in areas as
designated or approved by the Engineer. All seed containers shall show clearly the
germination and the purity percentages.

Soil, compost and other organic materials, fertilisers and other mineral amendments shall be
delivered to the Site and stored separately in approved locations and in a manner to avoid
contamination and wetting until soil mixing operations commence.

Fertilisers, antidessicants, pesticides and other chemicals shall be delivered to the Site in the
manufacturers unopened containers, each fully labelled, conforming to applicable
regulations and bearing the trade name and warranty of the producer. All products if stored
by the Contractor on-site shall remain his responsibility.

1.2.3

Handling

Care shall be taken to avoid injury to the plants. Plant material shall not be dropped from
vehicles. Balled and burlapped plants shall be handled carefully to avoid cracking or
breaking the earth ball or damaging any other part of the plant. Container grown plants shall
be handled by the container. Plants shall not be handled by the trunk or stem with the
exception of large trees and Date Palms to be lifted by crane using purpose made sling and
harness..

Chemicals shall be stored in a manner to avoid cross contamination. No measuring, mixing


or work of any kind shall be permitted within storage area.

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01: Landscape Planting

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1.3

PRODUCTS

1.3.1

General

All plants and turf material will conform to the varieties specified or shown in the Project
Documentation and be true to the botanical name as listed in publications.

Substitutions shall only be made when a plant (or alternative as specified) is not obtainable
and the Engineer authorises a change order providing for use of the nearest equivalent
obtainable.

Plants shall be supplied from localities similar to the climatic conditions of the Project and be
grown in those conditions for 9 months, a minimum of one complete growing season.

1.3.2

Plants

Only nursery grown plants shall be provided except for palm species.

Plants to be used in the Works shall be well branched and formed planting stock. They shall
be sound, vigorous and free from disease, sunscald, windburn, abrasions, harmful insects or
eggs, and have a normal healthy, well developed and non-broken root system, evenly
distributed through the root ball, free of circulation. Plant structure shall be well balanced,
self supporting with unrestricted superstructure and root form.

Deciduous and evergreen trees shall be a single trunk with a single leader, unless otherwise
indicated, and display no weak crotches.

Symmetrically developed trees and shrubs shall be provided with uniform habit and shall be
free from objectionable disfigurement.

Groundcover and vines shall be provided with the number and length of runners for the size
specified.

Trees shall be earth balled and burlapped covered or pot grown.

Shrubs, vines and ground cover plants shall be provided well established in removable
containers or formed homogenous soil sections.

Palms shall have straight parallel sides and healthy stems that are not rotted, infected or
eaten by pests or with root systems extending above the level which the palm was originally
planted. Palms should have vigorous root system, a crown of new leaves, leaves the colour
of an adult palm and proper hardiness. Palms shall be balled and burlapped unless container
grown palms are available. Off shoots are not acceptable.

The digging and lifting of palms shall take place in accordance with the following procedure:
(a)

Remove all suckers, all flowering and fruiting parts and approximately 30 % of the
fronds

(b)

Trim remaining fronds to 65 % of original length, lift fronds to enclose and protect the
growing tip. Wrap in burlap cloth and securely tie in place

(c)

Saturate the entire root ball with water prior to excavation

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(d)

Dig with hand tools a vertical sided trench to a minimum depth of 750 mm, cleanly
cutting roots no closer than 250 mm from the stem

(e)

Under cut roots and carefully lift tree, avoiding any shock which may damage leaf
heart

(f)

Wrap root ball with burlap and secure with wire mesh to contain soil and retain
maximum soil moisture.

10

The minimum acceptable sizes of all plants measured before pruning in normal position shall
conform to the measurements specified in the Project Documentation. Plants larger in size
than specified may be used with the approval of the Engineer, at no extra cost.

11

Container grown trees, shrubs, groundcover and vines shall have sufficient root growth to
hold the earth intact when removed from the containers, but shall not be rootbound.
Containers shall be sufficiently rigid to hold ball shape and protect root mass during shipping.

12

A plant schedule is to be provided listing the designated plants and following information:
(a)

Botanical Name

(b)

Common Name

(c)

Quantity

(d)

Size, including height, caliper and root ball

(e)

Condition

(f)

Additional Pertinent Data

13

Plants which are provided in pots or other containers and which have been acclimatised to
outside conditions are acceptable provided they are equal in quality to field grown stock and
are not root bound. Ground cover plants shall be of the species, sizes, and spacing shown
on plant materials schedule, sufficient to cover fully the designated area as shown on
drawings.

14

It is the Contractors responsibility for potting on plants as required to prevent root binding.
The Engineer can reject any plant that is root bound. All costs of potting on will be the
Contractors responsibility.

1.3.3

Labels

Each plant, or group of plants or container of the same species, variety, and size of plant,
shall be legibly tagged with a durable, waterproof and weather resistant label indicating the
nursery source, correct plant name and reference number if applicable. Labels shall be
securely attached and not removed.

1.3.4

Workmanship / Qualifications

The Contractor shall submit samples of materials for approval as per the list below. For
standard products, the manufacturers analysis will be acceptable. For all other materials,
analysis is to be provided by recognized laboratories.
(a)

Soil Mix

(b)

coco peat or equivalent organic materials such as recycled peat moss.

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(c)

Fertilizer

(d)

Organic Manure

(e)

Soil Conditioner

(f)

Pesticides

(g)

Gravel Mulch

(h)

Wood Mulch

(i)

Pruning Paint

(j)

Gypsum Paint

(k)

Wood Stakes

Page 11

Soil samples will be taken by the Engineer upon his request and at random time and
location, samples will be tested at a certified soil lab at the Contractors expense.

Sampling and testing shall be the responsibility of the Contractor and shall be performed at
no additional cost to the Client, by an approved commercial testing laboratory.
(a)

Tests shall be performed in sufficient number to ensure that the materials meet the
specified requirements.

(b)

Copies of the test results shall be furnished to the Engineer for approval.

1.3.5

Soil Preparation

Soil preparation materials and products shall conform to the description herein after.

Soil: soil is composed of a mixture of sand and clay. Sand is dune sand from Government
approved site. Clay is from Government approved site.

Drainage Stone: Crushed hard durable stone washed free of loam, sand, clay, and other
foreign substances and evenly graded from 20 mm minimum to 30 mm maximum size.

Stone Mulch: washed white stone pebbles, washed free of loam, sand, clay, and other
foreign substance, evenly graded 25 to 50 mm.

Wood Bark Mulch: coniferous wood bark, free of disease and pests, not shredded, min. 10
mm x 50 mm pieces with a pH of 4.5 as minimum.

Permeable Membrane: non-woven, 70% polypropylene, 0.3 mm thick, weighing 70 g/m ,


2
with permeability to water of 80 litres/m /sec at 100 mm head of water. Membrane is to be
resistant to all naturally occurring soil acidities and to tearing and stress and is to remain
unaffected by direct sunlight for up to one month.

Nursery: shall be Qatari based company of proven experience, specializing in growing and
cultivating plants as listed in this specification.

1.3.6

Subsoil Preparation

The Contractor shall excavate and Provide Earth filling as necessary to achieve the subsoil
levels and profiles required.

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Break up soil for a depth of 300 mm and grade to levels and profiles shown on drawings in
order to achieve tolerances specified for the finished level of topsoil.

Where the topsoil is to be laid on rock sub-strata, break up and loosen the rock surface for a
minimum depth of 300 mm.

Root Barrier (Root control system), as per the details drawings,.

is to line the tree pits or trenches, over or beside service pipes and hard landscape
structures such as sidewalks, pavements, and concrete building foundations to prevent
structural damage due to root penetration or heaving

1.3.7

Spreading and Preparation of Topsoil

Topsoil Filling: spread over prepared subsoil in layers not exceeding 200 mm and firm
gently each layer by watering lightly before spreading the next.

Final Grading:
Drawings.

Finished Levels: unless otherwise stated, finished levels of topsoil after settlement to be 70
mm below adjacent paving or curbs not less than 150 mm below finished ground floor slab
level of adjoining buildings married-in with adjoining soil areas

Fallow Period: where possible carry out cultivation of topsoil sufficiently early for it to lie
fallow for several months. During this period, prevent growth and seeding of weeds by
further cultivation or by application of herbicides if permitted.

1.3.8

Soil Specification

The contractor shall be responsible for the procurement, transportation, mixing, placing,
mounding and finished grading. The specified mix shall be strictly controlled over all the
grading work.

Soil mix shall consist of a mix of dune sand, clay and approved organic materials with the
following proportion:

75% sand, 20% clay, 5% organic materials for all plants in parks, roads and open areas.

100% sand for grass in sports fields.

Dune Sand: shall be suitable for inclusion into the soil mix and free from excessive salts,
weeds, stones or other foreign matter taken from a maximum depth of 500 mm having
removed surface crust and gypsoferrous accumulations.

Dune sand shall be obtained from an approved source. Irrigate at maximum rate for two
days before planting to wash salt from the sand.

Dune sand shall possess the following physical and chemical characteristics.
(a)

when topsoil is reasonably dry and workable, grade to levels shown on

Physical Characteristics (Table 1):

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Table 1: Dune Sand Grading Criteria


Sieve Size

% of Material Passing

No 10 sieve

100%

No 35 sieve

85 to 100%

No 140 sieve

5 to 25%

No 200 sieve

0 to 10%

(b)

Loamy sand, clay to be less than 0.002 mm

(c)

Chemical Characteristics:
(i)

Salinity (ECE x 1000):

less than 4

(ii)

SAR (Sodium Absorption Ratio):

less than 2

(iii)

Boron (saturation extract):

less than 1.0 ppm

(iv)

pH:

between 6.0 7.5

(v)

Free carbonates:

less than 0.5% air dried soil

(vi)

Chlorides:

less than 200 ppm in saturation extract

(vii)

Sulphates:

less than 15% in neutral saturation extract

(viii)

Nitrates:

less than 75 ppm in saturation extract

(ix)

Phosphorous:

10 15 ppm in 1.5 ammonium nitrate


extract ( hour shake)

(x)

Exchangeable sodium:

less than 15% in neutral normal ammonium


acetate

(xi)

Potassium:

100 400 ppm in 1.5 ammonium nitrate


extract ( hour shake)

(xii)

Magnesium:

25 100 ppm in 1.5 ammonium nitrate


extract ( hour shake)

Clay shall be obtained from an approved source.

Clay shall have uniform composition and structure, a lean clay character, and be free from
roots, stones, clods larger than 50 mm in greatest dimension, pockets of coarse, sand,
noxious weeds, sticks and other litter. It shall not be infected with nematodes or other
undesirable insects and plant disease organisms. Prior to mixing all lumps shall be
thoroughly broken up.

1.3.9

Alternative Soil Specification

Alternatively (to Clause 1.3.8) soil shall be sweet sand free of admixtures of subsoil, foreign
matter, toxic substances, weeds and any material or substance that may be harmful to plant
growth upon the Engineers approval.

The Contractor shall furnish agricultural soil from approved sites.

Material shall be stored in piles less than 1 metre high. Piles shall be protected from undue
compaction and maintained free of contamination and construction debris.

The soil shall comply with the following chemical criteria:

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(a)

pH value:

not less than 6.5 nor more than 8.5

(b)

electro-conductivity:

(c)

free carbonates: less than 0.5 % air dried.

(d)

chlorides:

less than 200 ppm in saturated extract.

(e)

sulphates:

less than 200 ppm in saturated extract.

(f)

exchangeable sodium: less than 15 % in neutral normal ammonium acetate.

(g)

boron: less than 1.5 ppm, hot water soluble.

less than 4 mm mhos/cm saturated extract at 25oC

The soil shall comply with the grading criteria in Table 2.


Table 2 Grading Criteria
Sieve Size (mm)

% by Mass Passing

5.000

100

2.380

65 to 100

1.180

45 to 100

0.600

35 to 80

0.300

5 to 48

0.150

0 to 15

0.075

0 to 3

1.3.10

Soil Additives Procedure A

There are two applicable procedure, contractors shall follow EITHER procedure (A) OR
procedure (B).

Procedure A Consists of the following components:

Composted organic waste shall be a recycled waste product such as cocopeat, or a fully
natural authority approved composted product shredded and granulated to pass through a
12 mm mesh screen and conditioned in storage piles for at least 6 months. The compost
shall be free from sticks, stones, roots, and other objectionable matter. It shall have a pH
value of not less than 7 and nor more than 7.5. The minimum organic content shall be 85%
on a dry weight basis. Compost shall be delivered in undamaged recyclable bags in air dry
condition.

Manure shall be pasteurized dried pelletized sewage sludge or decomposed animal manure
of fully fermented pre-dried, sheep, horses, goat, cow or chicken manure with nitrogen,
phosphoric acid and potassium and a pH value of 6.0 to 7.5. Manure shall be free of stones,
sticks and non-biodegradable material. Manure shall be heat treated, free from pathogen,
weeds and other pollutant. A health certificate shall be submitted for the proposed sample.
Animal manure shall not be used for top dressing of grass area.

Vermiculite shall be horticultural grade and free of any toxic material and conform to ASTM
C516.

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Perlite shall conform to ASTM C549.

Natural zeolite products

Fertilizer shall be commercial grade and uniform in composition. Fertilizer shall be of slow
release 2 month minimum and shall bear the manufacturers guaranteed statement of
analysis.

Granular fertilizer for trees, shrubs, ground covers and seasonal shall consist of, percentage
by weight, 5 % nitrogen (N), 10 % available phosphoric acid (P) and 5 % potassium (K). For
grass use minimum 11 % nitrogen (N), 11 % available phosphoric acid (P) and11 %
potassium and micro nutrients.

10

Plant derived fertilizers: shall be used in all soil mix as alternative option to animal manure. It
shall be heat treated, free from seeds and nematodes and possess the following
characteristics.

11

(a)

Organic content: more than 70%

(b)

C:N ratio more than 20%

(c)

Particle size not bigger than 2 mm for 80% of the mix

(d)

Humic Acid more than 10%

(e)

pH 5-6.

Dry Plant Fertilizers shall have following properties:


(a)

Fertiliser shall be commercial grade and uniform in composition.

(b)

Packets of slow release fertiliser shall bear the manufacturers guaranteed statement
of analysis.

(c)

Granular fertiliser for trees and shrubs shall consist of, by percentage by weight, 5 %
nitrogen (N), 10 % available phosphoric acid (P) and 5 % potassium (K).

(d)

Controlled release fertiliser shall consist of, by percentage by weight, 5 % nitrogen (N),
10 % available phosphoric acid (P) and 5 % potassium (K). Control released fertiliser
may be in packet or tablet form.

12

Turf Fertilizer shall be commercial grade, free flowing and uniform in composition and bear
the manufacturers guaranteed statement of analysis.

13

Edging Material shall be galvanized steel, polyethylene, electrostatically painted aluminium


or other as approved by the Engineer. The material shall be to the sizes designated in the
drawings. Edging anchors shall be as recommend by the manufacturer.

14

Irrigation Water shall be provided by the Contractor from an off-site source approved by the
Engineer as being suitable for irrigation. Water shall be free from substances harmful to plant
life. Water sources shall not exceed the following parameters:
(a)

pH: 6 to 7

(b)

total dissolved solids: less than 1000 ppm

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1.3.11

Soil Additive - Procedure B

There are two applicable procedure, contractors shall follow EITHER procedure (A) OR
procedure (B).

Procedure B Consists of the following components:

Manure: shall be the decomposed animal manure, pasteurized dried pelletized sewage
sludge or fully fermented pre-dried heat treated sheep, horses, goat, cow or chicken manure
with nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potassium and a pH value of 6.0 to 7.5. Manure shall be
free of stones, sticks and non-biodegradable material. Manure shall be heat treated, free
from pathogen, weeds and other pollutant. A health certificate shall be submitted for the
proposed sample. Animal manure shall not be used on the top dressing of grass area.

Soil conditioner: shall be as detailed in the following paragraphs.


(a)

Soil conditioner shall be added with the organic manure only, it must meet the
requirements below (Table 3).
Table 3: Soil Additives Proportion for Plants
Soil
Conditioner

Organic or
other
composted
waste

Palms

As per
manufacturer
recommendations

Trees

Organic Fertilizer
Animal

or Plant

Inorganic
Fertilizer

5% soil
volume

25 kg/Tree

5 Kg/Tree

100 g/Tree

40 cm

As per
manufacturer
recommendations

5% soil
volume

12.5 kg/Tree

5 Kg/Tree

50 g/Tree

40 cm

Shrubs
Large

As per
manufacturer
recommendations

5% soil
volume

7 kg/Shrub

1 Kg/Shrub

25 g/Shrub

30 cm

Shrubs
Small

As per
manufacturer
recommendations

5% soil
volume

5 kg/Shrub 0.5 Kg/Shrub

Hedges

As per
manufacturer
recommendations

5% soil
volume

5 kg/linear
m

Ground
Cover &
Seasonal

As per
manufacturer
recommendations

5% soil
volume

5 kg/m

0.5 kg/m

Lawn

As per
manufacturer
recommendations

5% soil
volume

5 kg/m

1 kg/m

Plant Type

(b)

25 g/m

Mixing
Depth

30 cm

0.5 kg/linear
25 g/ linear m 20 cm
m

25 g/m

20 cm

50 g/m

20 cm

Materials supplied shall NOT be any of the following:


(i)

classified as hazardous according to National Occupational Health & Safety


Commission, Australia (NOHSC) criteria or equivalent

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(ii)

classified as a dangerous good by the criteria of the Australian Dangerous


Goods (ADG code) or equivalent

(iii)

classified as a dangerous good for transport by Australian Code for the


Transport of Dangerous goods by Road and Rail or equivalent

(iv)

flammable or explosive

(v)

poisonous or allocated a poison schedule number by Standard for the Uniform


Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (SUSDP) or equivalent

(c)

Composition / Information on ingredients: The materials used in the production


process must be derived from naturally occurring and sustainable sources and are
consistent with organic principals. It shall NOT contain synthetic chemicals, animal
components, animal by-products, manure or manure by-products. It must be
environmentally safe and is not harmful to animals, plants or humans and shall not
contain chemicals or genetically modified materials.

(d)

Accidental Release Measures and Spillage: The soil conditioner must have moisture
content above 32%. Ventilate spillage area. Collect and place in sealable containers
for disposal. Avoid generating dust.

(e)

Handling and storage


(i)

Handling: Before use contractors shall carefully read the product label. Use of
safe work practices are recommended to avoid eye or skin contact and
inhalation. Observe good personal hygiene, including washing hands before
eating. Prohibit eating, drinking and smoking in contaminated areas.

(ii)

Storage: Store in well-ventilated area, removed from oxidising agents and heat
sources. Ensure containers are adequately labelled, protected from physical
damage and sealed when not in use. Check regularly for leaks or spills.

(f)

The Contractor shall ensure the safety of the workers and the environment at all times

(g)

Fertilizers/plant nutrients must be beneficial to plants at low levels, not in high levels
which might cause reducing growth or burns in sensitive species. Excess shall be
washed through soil to waterways. Contractors shall minimize Fertilizers released to
waterways which might cause algal blooms, with potential for toxic effects on aquatic
organisms.

(h)

Disposal Considerations

(i)

(i)

Waste Disposal: Reuse or recycle where possible. Alternatively, ensure material


is covered with moist soil to prevent dust generation and dispose of to an
approved landfill site.

(ii)

Legislation: Dispose of in accordance with Qatari local legislation.

Material shall contain only chemicals listed on the Australian Inventory of Chemical
Substances (AICS) or equivalent.

1.3.12

Alternative Soil Additive Specifications

Should the Engineer decide on an alternative soil Additive (to Clause 1.3.11), the Contractor
may use the specification listed below hereinafter.

Preamble

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The following is a specification for composted products suitable for use as a soil amelioration
agent. Hereinafter described as the composted product.

Definition

HACCP Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points is a method that addresses physical,
chemical and biological controls as a means of prevention rather than inspection of finished
product inspection.

Supply Conditions
(a)

All products supplied shall conform fully, to the standards indicated herein or to an
equivalent standard subject to the agreement of the Supervising Officer (SO).

(b)

It is noted that the composted products may vary, (within acceptable limits) to the
physical and chemical parameters stated within this specification. Such variations
must not compromise the agronomic characteristics of the product and where
variations in analysis occur the supervising officer must be informed prior to placement
of the product.

(c)

The contractor shall demonstrate to the supervising officer that the manufacturers
(The Suppliers) of the composted product have HACCP accreditation or equivalent
with the agreement of the supervising officer. Where HACCP accreditation is not in
place documentation of a site based product management plan that demonstrates the
principles of HACCP is necessary.

(d)

The contractor shall supply appropriate production and sampling documentation from
the supplier that shall clearly indicate that the product conforms to the composted
specification.

(e)

The supervising officer may reject any product or batch that (on the basis of analysis
and documentation) is deemed not to conform to standards specified herein. On this
basis the Contractor must submit all documentation 10 (ten) working days prior to
placement to allow for interpretation of the analyses and for approval of placement to
be granted or with-held as appropriate.

(f)

The whole quantity required to complete the project must be of the same type,
manufacture and/or source. No change of source will be permitted without approval.
As such written evidence of the source of the compost must be supplied when
requested by the supervising officer.

1.3.13

Compost Specifications

All composted products must conform to the minimum requirements specified in Tables 4
and 5. The particle size distribution grades of the composted product must meet the criteria
for a top-dressing product (Table 5, as specified in AS 4419 soils for landscaping and garden
use).

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Table 4:
Contaminant acceptance concentration limits, Sludge Quality for Land
Application / composted soil conditioners (Exceptional Quality USEPA Part
503 / EC Directive 86/278/EEC / NSW EPA/ GCC Fertilizer Law 2006).
Heavy Metal
contaminant

maximum
concentration mg/kg

Organic chemical
contaminant

maximum concentration
mg/kg

Arsenic
Cadmium
Chromium (total)
Copper
Lead
Mercury
Nickel
Selenium
Zinc

10
20
300
1000
300
10
200
50
2500

DDT/DDD/DDE
Aldrin
Dieldrin
Chlordane
Heptachlor
HCB
Lindane
BHC
PCBs

0.5
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
not detectable

As a minimum requirement, all composted products to be used as a soil conditioner must


meet the temperature, time and turning frequency as specified by the USEPA standard for
pathogen disinfection and vector reduction.

Pathogen disinfections and weed seed reduction shall be achieved by the aerobic,
thermophilic decomposition of organic matter which produces a humus-like material. Using
o
the windrow composting method, the temperature of the windrow is maintained at 55 C
o
(131 F) or higher for 15 consecutive days or longer. During the period when the compost is
o
o
maintained at 55 C (131 F) or higher, there shall be a minimum of 5 turnings of the windrow
(USEPA).
Table 5: Chemical testing results required for the < 2mm fines of a
composted soil conditioner to verify the suitability of the soil conditioning
properties of the composted product for Qatar.
Compost Parameter

Test Method

Parameter Requirements

Particle size

Top Dressing AS 4419

<2% by wt > 5mm,


<15% by wt pass a 5 mm
sieve but not a 2 mm sieve

Heavy metal and organic


chemical contaminants

NSW EPA - threshold levels for


grade A Biosolids

Refer Table 4

pH

1:5 soil water extract#

5.5 to 8.5

Electrical Conductivity

1:5 soil water extract#

< 2.5 dS/m

Wettability

Appendix C AS 3743

< 2 minutes

Total water holding capacity

Appendix B AS 3743

> 40%

Chloride

*1:5 soil water extract

< 600 mg/kg

% organic carbon

*Dichromate wet oxidation

>15% by mass

Effective Cation Exchange

*1 M ammonium chloride pH7, no

> 40 meq/100g

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Compost Parameter

Test Method

Capacity (ECEC)

pretreatment for salts

Exchangeable sodium %
(from exchangeable cations)

*1 M ammonium chloride pH7, no


pretreatment for salts

As received moisture content

*Oven-dry 105 C basis

Parameter Requirements

< 15%
< 40% by mass

Methods indicated by a hatch (#) and the parameter requirements are based on the Australian
Standard AS 4419 - soils for landscaping and garden use.
Reference to AS 3743 - potting mixes indicates that the method and the parameter requirements are
based on this australian standard (AS 3743).
Methods preceded by an asterisk (*) are internationally recognised for testing the chemical properties
of soil, and are described in the text Rayment and Higginson (1992), Australian Laboratory Handbook
of soil and water chemical methods.

Contamination of the compost may occur due to poor source separation as with municipal
green-waste and/or through poor control in turning and loading during production. These
indicate poor composting practice and procedure. As such, any batches found to contain
deleterious material (for example soil, sharps such as glass or metal, contaminants such as
plastic or stones) will be rejected by the supervising officer.

In addition, the fines of the compost (<10 mm particle size) shall be analyzed for chemical
and organic contaminants, to verify compliance with appropriate threshold levels (Table 4
and Table 5) for minimizing the contamination of soils with potentially hazardous substances
(e.g. NSW EPA - threshold levels for grade A biosolids). Where a case can be made that
higher concentrations of trace elements such as copper and zinc may be beneficial, limits of
1,500 mg/kg and 2,800 mg/kg may be accepted (Kirchhoff et al 2003). No detectable PCB
compounds are permitted, at a 0.2 mg per kg detection limit.

Attributes of the Compost shall be appropriate for use as a soil conditioner in the sandy soils
of Qatar, the composted product must be verified as possessing the following attributes:

(a)

a high total water holding capacity to function in part as a replacement for sphagnum
peat

(b)

a high cation exchange capacity (nutrient holding capacity of the soil), to function in
part as a replacement for sphagnum peat

(c)

a low chloride ion concentration and a low exchangeable sodium percentage to


minimize the salt concentration in the rooting zone, and

(d)

a high proportion of the nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer value of the product to be in
the slow-release organic form, to reduce the risk of leaching nutrients into the
groundwater

Application rates shall be as follows:


(a)

The composted product will be incorporated into a soil to improve its physical and
chemical properties at rates determined by the site, planting and soil parameters.

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(b)

Composted products verifying compliance with Tables 4 and 5 are considered suitable
for application to soils in Qatar as a soil conditioner. The preferred mode of application
is incorporation into the soil, to a depth of 20 cm. However, after a routine cultivation
maintenance operation such as plugging in turf, a composted soil conditioner may be
applied to the surface of the soil as a top-dressing.

(c)

The rate of application to soil of a composted soil conditioner shall be based on the
fertilizer equivalence of the product. For chemical testing (refer to Table 5), the
composite sample shall be screened through a sieve with an aperture size of 2 mm
with the particles retained on the sieve excluded from the analysis. A bulk density test
shall be undertaken on the compost (refer to the method in Appendix B of AS 4419),
to enable the calculation of fertilizer equivalence on a mass basis, to a volumetric
basis for ease of application.

(d)

The maximum application rate permitted for incorporation into a soil shall be based on
the results of chemical testing of the receiving soil.

The contractor shall ensure that the supplier takes from each separate batch, at least x10
random samples each having a volume of not less than 200ml that are blended to produce a
composite sample of not less than 2 ltr (Appendix A AS 4419). Where necessary, the
compost sample shall be air dried overnight (room temperature less than 35C) to facilitate
sieving. The size of a batch will be determined in accordance with the HACCP procedures

Internationally accepted testing methods must be applied to the compost samples and a
certificate of analysis supplied with each compost consignment or as requested by the
supervising officer.

1.3.14

Contractors Responsibilities

The contractor shall verify that the compost has been produced according to a HACCPbased site and product management plan, and that production temperature and turning
records comply with the USEPA pathogen disinfection and vector reduction requirements of
the relevant sections of the specification.

The contractor shall use the results of the chemical tests listed in Table 4 and Table 5, to
calculate the plant-available (immediate fertilizer) and slow-release fertilizer equivalence of
each specific batch of compost intended for use as a soil conditioner. The results shall be
expressed on the oven-dry mass basis of the <2mm particle size grade.

The contractor shall also calculate the maximum (field weight basis) application of the
composted soil conditioner on the fertilizer (plant-available) equivalence of the least limiting
major nutrient (most commonly phosphorus or potassium) in the compost, and the annual
fertilizer application recommendations for the receiving soil.

The contractor shall ensure that the supplier has provides all documentation to the
Contractor as required by same this shall include: HACCP (or equivalent) certification;
temperature and turning records of the material; physical and chemical testing results for
each batch of compost supplied.

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1.3.15

The Supervising Officers Responsibilities

The supervising officer (Engineer) shall ensure that the appropriate documentation is in
place in accordance with the specification. Adjust all other inorganic fertilizer application
rates to account for the fertilizer equivalence of the applied compost (eg sewage sludge
pellets). Accounting for the fertilizer contribution of the compost in the fertilizer management
regime is necessary, to avoid causing nutrient imbalance or nutrient excess in the rooting
zone. Nutrient imbalance and/or excess are known to increase the severity of root disease.

1.3.16

Chemical Testing for Fertiliser Equivalence of the Compost

Chemical testing for results required to determine the fertiliser equivalence of the compost
shall be as described herein.

The following methods have been selected as the most suitable for testing of minerals
contained within an organic matrix. Subtracting the fertilizer value of the nutrient from the
total value indicates the slow-release (organic) nutrient pool. In the case of nitrogen,
subtracting the ammonium concentration (Table 6) from the total kjeldahl nitrogen value will
indicate the slow-release (organic) nutrient pool. Potassium is a component of the cell sap in
organic materials, with very little locked up in the organic (slow-release) form. The as
received moisture content is required to enable calculations of the oven-dry application rates
to be adjusted for the field moisture content of the product.

Table 6: Chemical testing results required to determine the fertiliser


equivalence of the compost.

Compost Parameter

Test Method

Reference in Rayment
& Higgins on

Fertilizer phosphorus

Bicarbonate extractable P

9B

Total phosphorus

X-ray fluorescence or sodium


carbonate fusion

9A

Fertilizer potassium

Bicarbonate extractable P

18A1

Nitrate nitrogen

In the presence of nitrite

7C1b

Total nitrogen

Kjeldahl

Exchangeable Cations

From ECEC in Table 4 & 5

15A1

As received moisture
content

From Table 4 & 5

2B1

7A

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1.3.17

Planting Soil Mixture

The planting soil mixture for shall consist of approved soil, cocopeat or recycled organic
compost,, manure, pasteurized pelletized sludge and other soil conditioners as specified in
the Project Documentation.

The mixture shall be placed in accordance with the requirements of the trees, shrubs or
grass to be planted.

1.3.18

Planting Soil Mixture (Sweet Soil)

The planting soil mixture shall consist of approved soil (sand and clay), cocopeat,; approved
organic compost; pasteurized pelletized sludge; organic and inorganic fertilizer. Peat is not to
be used without manufacturers certification confirming that it is a recycled product.

The mixture shall be placed in accordance with the requirements of the trees, shrubs or
grass to be planted as per Table 3 (Soil Additives Proportion for Plants).

Soil additives: Shall be added as per Table 3 (Soil Additives Proportion for Plants).

Peat and compost or soil conditioner shall be added for palms earlier than 4 months after
planting, subject to the Engineer approval.

Provide analysis of soil mixture from samples approved by the Engineer.

1.3.19

Dry Plant Fertiliser

Fertiliser shall be commercial grade and uniform in composition.

Packets of slow release fertiliser shall bear the manufacturers guaranteed statement of
analysis.

Granular fertiliser for trees and shrubs shall consist of, by percentage by weight, 5 %
nitrogen (N), 10 % available phosphoric acid (P) and 5 % potassium (K).

Controlled release fertiliser shall consist of, by percentage by weight, 5 % nitrogen (N), 10 %
available phosphoric acid (P) and 5 % potassium (K). Control released fertiliser may be in
packet or tablet form.

1.3.20

Turf Fertiliser

Fertiliser shall be commercial grade, free flowing and uniform in composition and bear the
manufacturers guaranteed statement of analysis.

1.3.21

Mulch

Mulch shall be free of weeds, sticks and other deleterious material.

Inert mulch material shall be crusher run rock, granite chips, marble chips or other suitable
material approved by the Engineer.

Organic mulch material shall be coco bean shell, shredded bark or other suitable recycled
organic material approved by the Engineer.

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1.3.22

Guys and Stakes

Stakes for tree support shall be rough sawn wood, free from knots, rot, cross grain, or other
defects that impair the strength. Stakes shall be treated with pentachlorophenol or other
approved non-injurious green preservative.

Bracing stakes shall be a minimum of 50 mm by 50 mm by 2,400 mm long and pointed at


one end.

Ground stakes shall be a minimum of 50 mm by 50 mm by 900 mm long and pointed at one


end.

Guying wire shall be 2.7 mm annealed galvanized steel wire.

Guying cable shall be a minimum of five strand, 2.76 mm diameter cadmium plated steel
cable.

Hose chafing guards shall be new 2-ply reinforced rubber or plastic hose and shall be of the
same colour for the entire Project. The length of hose chafing guards shall be 1 times the
circumference of the plant at its base.

Flags shall be fastened to the guys and be white surveyors tape.

1.3.23

Edging Material

Edging material shall be galvanized steel, polyethylene, electrostatically painted aluminium


or other as approved by the Engineer. The material shall be to the sizes designated in the
drawings. Edging anchors shall be as recommend by the manufacturer.

1.3.24

Irrigation Water

Irrigation water shall be provided by the Contractor from an off-site source approved by the
Engineer as being suitable for irrigation. Water shall be free from substances harmful to plant
life. Water sources shall not exceed the following parameters:
(a)

pH : 6 to 7

(b)

total dissolved solids : less than 1000 ppm

1.4

SITE PREPARATION FOR PLANTING AREAS

1.4.1

General Requirements

The contractor shall examine areas to receive landscaping for compliance with requirements
and conditions affecting performance of work in this section. The contractor shall not
proceed with plant operations until unsatisfactory conditions are discussed with the engineer
and corrected.

The contractor shall determine the location of above grade and underground utilities and
perform work in a manner which will avoid damage to them. Damage to underground utilities
shall be repaired at the contractors expense.

When conditions detrimental to plant growth are encountered, such as rubble, adverse
drainage or obstructions, The Contractor shall notify the Engineer prior to planting.

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The Engineer shall verify that sub-grades are as indicated in the project documentation.

Grade stakes shall be maintained until removal of them is mutually agreed upon by all
parties concerned.

When grades are encountered that are detrimental to finished grading and planting
operations, the contractor shall notify the Engineer prior to planting.

1.4.2

Sub-Surface Grading

All perennial weeds shall be treated with an approved herbicide and the period of time
recommended by the manufacturer shall be allowed to elapse prior to commencing grading
operations

Grading operations shall occur when the sub-soil is reasonably dry and workable.

Areas to be graded shall be shaped to smooth flowing contours with all minor hollows and
ridges removed. Rock projections and boulders shall be removed and disposed of at a
location as agreed with the Engineer.

Non-cohesive, light subsoil shall be loosened with a 3-tine ripper to a depth of 300 mm at
600 mm centres. Limestone and other cohesive substrate shall be loosened with a single
tine ripper to a depth of 450 mm at 1 m centres.

A minimum of 150 mm of approved soil shall be spread uniformly over the loosened area
and incorporated into the sub-grade soil to obtain a uniform and well pulverised soil mix.

The area shall be compacted to a minimum of 90% of maximum dry density as determined in
accordance with test 13 of BS 1377.

1.4.3

Finished Grading

Grades shall be brought to the finished ground levels as indicated on the project drawings or
as agreed with the Engineer to a tolerance of 25 mm. finished ground levels shall be 30
mm below adjoining paving or kerbs after compaction and settlement. Grading shall be
carried out in such a manner that even gradients are formed between the spot levels
indicated on the project drawings. No depressions shall remain which could collect standing
water.

Soil shall be placed in lifts not greater than 150 mm in thickness.

The filled area shall be compacted to a minimum of 90% of maximum density as determined
in accordance with test 13 of BS 1377.

1.4.4

Planting Operations and Layout

Plant material locations and planting bed outlines shall be staked two (2) days before any
excavations are made.

The Contractor shall notify the Engineer two (2) days before the start of planting operations.

Plant locations may be adjusted by the Engineer to meet site conditions.

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 26

1.4.5

Protection of Existing Vegetation

Grassed areas that have been established prior to planting operations shall be covered
before any excavations are made in a manner that will afford adequate projection.

Existing shrubs, trees and groundcover shall be barricaded in a manner to protect them
during planting operations and they shall be maintained with adequate irrigation to ensure
their survival.

1.5

PLANTING

1.5.1

Plant Pits

Plant pits shall be dug to produce vertical sides and flat uncompacted bottoms. Excavated
material shall be disposed of in a proper manner. If approved by the Engineer, excavated
material may be used as fill in areas where fill material is required.

Upon completion of excavation, the pit shall be filled with water and then left to thoroughly
drain prior to setting plants.

Excavate and provide earth filling as necessary to achieve the subsoil levels and profiles
required. Depths of excavation shown below are from finished top soil level.

Minimum acceptable pit sizes shall be as shown in Table 7.


Table 7:
Plant Pit Size Schedule
Item
Palm Trees for Ashghal projects
Palm Trees for other projects

Pit Size
2000 x 2000 x 2000 mm
2000 x 2000 x 2000

Ornamental Trees

1500 x 1500 x 1500 mm

Large Shrub

1000 x 1000 x 1000 mm

Small Shrub

600 mm

Hedges
Ground cover, seasonal flowers and turfed areas
Grass

600 mm width and 600 mm depth


500 mm depth
400 mm depth with proper drainage if
ground below is impermeable

Break up bottom of pits to a depth of 300mm for trees and palms and 400mm for shrubs and
ground cover.

Ensure planting areas and tree pits are well drained.

1.5.2

Backfill Mixture

The backfill mixture shall be apportioned by volume and shall be made from a mixture of
agricultural soil and selected soil amendments as detailed in Table 8

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 27

Table 8:
Mix Proportions
Item

Backfill
Component

Mix Proportion

Trees

Soil
Cocopeat or
compost
clay or other
approved mineral
general Fertiliser

80 % of mixture
5 % of mixture

Soil
Cocopeat or
compost
Manure
General Fertiliser

80 % of mixture
10 % of mixture

Soil
Cocopeat or
compost
Manure
General Fertiliser

85 % of mixture
10 % of mixture

Soil
Cocopeat or
Compost
Manure
General Fertiliser

85 % of mixture.
10 % of mixture.

Palms

Shrubs

Groundcover
and Vines

15 % of mixture
35 g per pit

10 % of mixture
50 g per pit

5 % of mixture
30g per pit

5 % of mixture.
25 g per pit

1.5.3

Installation for Trees and Shrubs

Plants shall be handled carefully and arranged so they take full advantage of the individual
character of each plant in relationship to other plants.

Plants shall place in the centre of each pit, set plumb and held in place until sufficient backfill
mixture has been firmly placed around the root ball. Plants shall be placed so that the level
at which they were set with respect to surrounding ground level before installation is the
same as after installation.

Ball and burlap plants shall have twine, metal, plastic and wire ties removed from the tops of
the earth ball after backfill soil has been placed to approximately two thirds of the ball depth,
tamped lightly and watered. Backfilling around plant shall be completed in 150 mm layers
after water has drained away. Burlap wrapping shall not be pulled out from under the earth
ball.

Plants supplied in non-biodegradable containers shall be removed in such a way as to


prevent damage to plant or root system. Before planting, any damaged or broken roots shall
be carefully trimmed and removed. Plants in biodegradable of organic containers may be
installed with the container in place.

A 150 mm high earth saucer shall be formed around individual plants. The diameter of the
saucer should be larger than and outside the backfilled area.

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 28

After planting, plants shall be guyed or staked as required or directed by the Engineer. Trees
and shrubs shall be protected against wind and sun with burlap wrapping where necessary
or directed to ensure satisfactory establishment of plant.

Trees 1.2 to 1.8 m tall shall be held in place with one (1) bracing stake. The stake shall be
positioned close to the tree on the windward side. The stake shall be driven vertically into
firm ground taking care not to injure the roots. The tree shall be held firmly to the stake with a
double strand of wire placed 1m above ground level. A chafing guard shall be used were the
wire is in contact with the tree.

Trees 1.8 to 2.5 m tall shall be held in place with two (2) bracing stakes placed on opposite
sides. The stake shall be driven vertically into firm ground taking care not to injure the roots.
The tree shall be shall be held firmly in place with a double stand of wire placed 1m above
ground level and chafing guards shall be used where the wire is in contact with the tree.

Trees taller than 2.5 m shall be held firmly in place with three (3) guying lines of double
strand wire placed equidistantly around the tree. The wire shall be anchored with ground
stakes driven into firm ground outside the earth saucer. The wire shall be anchored to the
tree at a point 1m above ground level. a flag shall be securely fastened to each guying wire.

1.5.4

Installation of Palms

Palms shall be lifted and moved with a crane and purpose made sling with harness or other
approved method to avoid any damage to any part of the palm.

Palms shall be placed in the centre of each pit, set plumb and held in place until sufficient
backfill mixture has been firmly placed around the root ball. The top of the root ball should be
100 mm below the top of the planting pit. The pit shall be backfilled with specified mixture to
approximately two thirds of depth of the root ball, tamped lightly and watered. Backfilling
around plant shall be completed in 150 mm layers after water has drained away. A 100 to
150 mm high earth saucer shall be formed around the palm. The diameter of the saucer
should be larger than and outside the backfilled area.

1.5.5

Cultivation of Turf Areas

After the areas required to be turfed have been brought to the specified levels, fertiliser shall
be applied at the rate recommended by the manufacturers. Soil conditioners shall be spread
uniformly over the soil. The soil shall be raked to a true and even surface. All stones of
greater than 25 mm diameter are to be removed.

1.5.6

Seeding

Seed shall be spread over a fine levelled, cultivated soil bed by hand or mechanical seeder.
Half of the specified rate applied twice in perpendicular directions so as to achieve an even
seed distribution rate.

Following seeding, the bed shall be raked, harrowed or gilled to cover the seed with soil to a
maximum depth of 25 mm.

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 29

Cut straw or other fibrous mulch shall be applied over seeded areas to protect from direct
sun exposure and blowing winds. Whenever necessary, mulch shall be covered with jute
netting to hold the mulch in place. The netting shall not be removed until directed by the
Engineer.

The perimeter of seeded area shall be flagged off to restrain foot traffic until after the second
mowing following complete grass coverage or as directed by the Engineer.

Water shall be applied lightly and frequently until one week after 50 % germination and then
gradually increase duration and period between watering until normal irrigation programme is
met.

1.5.7

Sprigging

Sprigs shall be broadcast uniformly by hand, with mechanical equipment or other approved
method. The maximum planting spacing between viable sprigs shall be 300 mm. sprigs shall
be forced into the prepared soil to a minimum of 25 mm by hand, disk-rolling or other
approved method.

Immediately after completion of the sprigging operation the entire area shall be firmed with a
roller not exceeding 135 kg for each metre of roller width. The planted area shall have a
smooth uniformed finish without depressions or ridges.

The perimeter of the sprigged area shall be flagged off to restrain foot traffic until after the
second mowing following complete grass coverage or as directed by the Engineer.

Watering shall be started immediately after completing each day of sprigging. Water shall be
applied at a rate sufficient to ensure moist soil conditions to a minimum depth of 70 mm.
Watering shall continue until majority of sprigs can sustain themselves on the normal
irrigation programme. Run-off and puddling shall be prevented.

1.5.8

Turfing

Turfing shall be laid on cultivated soil within 24 hours of stripping. The turf shall be laid to
form a solid mass with tightly fitted joints. The ends of the turf shall be butted. Strips shall be
staggered to offset joints in adjacent courses.

The turf shall be tamped or rolled to ensure contact with the sub-grade. Soil shall be worked
into minor spaces between pieces of turf and excess soil removed.

The perimeter of the turfed area shall be flagged off to restrain foot traffic until after the third
mowing or as directed by the Engineer.

The turfed area shall be watered with a fine spray immediately after completing each day of
turfing operations. Water shall be applied to ensure a moist sub-grade soil to a minimum
depth of 70 mm is achieved. Watering shall continue until turf can maintain itself on the
normal irrigation programme.

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 30

1.5.9

Plant List, Spacing and Sizes

The Contractor shall follow the requirements of Table 9a & 9b for plant list, plant spacing,
sizes required and other relevant information which is provided in the Table 9a for other
projects and Table 9b for all Ashghal Projects.
Table 9a: Plant List, Spacing and Sizes Required for the Projects

Pot Size

Root Ball DIA

Stem Girth

Spreading

Common Name

Spacing

BOTANICAL NAME

Water
Requirements

Palms & Cycads

L/PLANT

CM

CM

CM

CM

Clear
Trunk

Bismarckia nobilis

Bismarckia palm

120.0

1.5 -2.0
M

Brahea Armata

Blue hesper Palm

120.0

1.5 -2.0
M

Butia capitata

Pindo palm

120.0

1.5 M

Chamaerops humilis

European fan
palm

80.0

Cocos nucifera

Coconut palm

120.0

Cocos plumosa

Coconut palm

120.0

Copernicia alba

Wax Palm

Cycas circinalis

Queen Sago

Cycas revoluta

Sago palm

Dioon edule

Mexican Cycad

Elaeis oleifera

1.0 -1.5
M

30
As

75

1.5 -2.0
M

75

1.5 -2.0
M

120.0

1.80 3.0 M

60.0

1.0 -1.5
M

60.0

2530

0.75 1.5 M

60.0

2530

0.75 1.5M

American oil palm

Hyophorbe Lagenicaulis

Bottle Palm

Hyophorbe verschaffeltii

Spindle Palm

Livistona chinensis

Chinese fan palm

Phoenix canariensis

Island Date palm

Phoenix dactylifera

Date palm

80.0

75

2.0 3.0 M

80.0

75

1.25 2.0 M
1.25 2.0 M

80.0
80.0

Per

120.0
120.0

Design

2.0 3.0 M

30
125

1.5 2.0 M

125

2.0 3.0 M

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Phoenix roebelenii

Pygmy date palm

Phoenix sylvestris

Silver date palm


tree
Cuban Royal
Palm

Roystonea regia

Sabal domingensis

Trachycarpus fortunei

the Hispaniola
palmetto

Page 31
1.0 1.5M
2.0 3.0M

60.0

60

120.0

125

120.0

60

1,5 M

60

2.0 3.0 M

120.0

35

Chusan Palm
60.0

Washingtonia filifera

1.5 M

California fan
palm

120.0

75

2.0 3.0 M

Washingtonia robusta

Washingtonia
palm

120.0

75

2.0 3.0 M

Wodyetia bifurcata

Foxtail Palm

80.0

60

1,5 M

Zamia furfuracea

Cardboard Palm
0.25 0.40M

40.0

Brachychiton Populneus
Casuarina equisetifolia

Chorisia speciosa

Root Ball DIA

Stem Girth

Spreading

L/PLANT

CM

CM

CM

CM

Clear Trunk

Pot Size

Common Name

Spacing

Botanical Name

Water
Requirements

Large Evergreen Trees

Bottle tree
Horsetail tree,
Australian pine

80.0

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

35.0

50.0

100.0

2.0 M

Bottle tree

Ficus Alii

Amstel king

Ficus Alii

Amstel queen

Ficus altissima

Council tree

Ficus bengalensis

Banyan tree

Ficus infectoria

White-Fruited
Wavy Leaf Fig

80.0

2.0 M

80.0

2.0 M

80.0
80.0
80.0

As

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

25.0

2.0 M

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Ficus panda

indian ficus panda

Ficus religiosa

Scacred ficus

Ficus Salicifolia

Willow leaved fig

Ficus sycomorus

sycamore fig

Harpullia Pendula

tulip lancewood

Khaya senegalensis

African mahogany

Kigelia Pinnata

Sausage tree

Moringa oleifera
pterygosperma

Horse radish tree

Parkinsonia aculeata

Jerusalem thorn

Pithecelobium dulce

Manila tamarird

Prosopis alba

White carob tree

Prosopis juliflora
Schinus molle

Page 32

80.0

25.0

80.0

25.0

2.0 M
8.0

50.0

80.0

2.0 M

80.0

2.0 M

80.0

2.0 M

80.0

2.0 M

80.0

2.0 M
25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

60.0

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

Honey mesquite

60.0

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

Pink pepper,
peruvian pepper

80.0

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

Tamarindus indica

Tamarind

Taxodium Distichum

bald cypress

60.0

Per

60.0
80.0

Design

80.0
Terminalia cattapa

2.0 M

2.0 M

Indian almond

Zizyphus chinensis

jujuba tree

Zizyphus jujuba

Chinese date

Zizyphus spina - christi

Christ Thorn

80.0

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

60.0

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

60.0

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

25.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

Albizia julibrissin

Silk tree

Albizia lebbeck

Women's tongue

Root Ball
DIA

Stem Girth

Spreading

L/PLANT

CM

CM

CM

CM

Clear Trunk

Pot Size

Common Name

Spacing

Botanical Name

Water
Requireme
nts

Decidious Trees

80.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Azadirachta indica

Neem tree
80.0

Bauhinia variegata

Coccoloba uvifera

cochlospermum religiosum

Delonix elata

Delonix regia

Millingtonia hortensis

Melia azedarach

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

Morus nigra

peltophorum inerme

Paulownia tomentosa

Thespesia populnea

Medium Evergreen Trees

As

60.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

60.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

60.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

80.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

60.0

20.0

8.0

50.0

2.0 M

Orchid tree

Seagrape tree

Silk-Cotton Tree

Royal poinsiana,
flame tree

80.0

Per

Flame of forest

Indian Cork Tree

China berry
80.0

Morus alba

Page 33

Design

Fruitless mulberry

Black mulberry

yellow ponciana

Princess Tree

Portia tree

SPREADING

CM

CM

20.0

6.0

50.0

2.0 M

20.0

6.0

50.0

2.0 M

20.0

6.0

50.0

2.0 M

60.0

20.0

6.0

50.0

2.0 M

60.0

20.0

6.0

50.0

2.0 M

60.0

20.0

6.0

50.0

2.0 M

20.0

6.0

50.0

2.0 M

20.0

12.0

35.0

1m

L/PLANT

CM

60.0

As

Arabian acacia

yellow mimosa
60.0

Dalbergia sisso

Indian rosewood
60.0

Schinus terebintifolius

Tabebuia argentea

Tabebuia impetiginosa

Tabebuia rosea

Brazilian pepper
tree

Silver Trumpet
Tree

Per

Pink Lapacho

White trumpet tree


60.0

Xanthorrhea sp.

Clear Trunk

STEM GIRTH

Acacia farnesiana

CM

POT SIZE

Acacia arabica

COMMON NAME

SPACING

BOTANICAL NAME

Page 34

ROOT BALL DIA

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting
WATER
REQUIREMENT

QCS 2014

Design

Grass Tree
40.0

ROOT BALL
DIA

STEM GIRTH

SPREADING

L/PLANT

CM

CM

CM

CM

TOTAL HEIGHT

POT SIZE

COMMON NAME

SPACING

BOTANICAL NAME

WATER
REQUIREMENT

Small Trees Or Large


Shrubs

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Aillanthus altissima

Tree Of heaven

20.0

Alstonia Scholaris

Devil tree

20.0

bauhinia purpurea

orchid tree

bauhinia variegata

orchid tree

Bucidia Buceras

Black Olive tree

Bambusa ventricosa -Thick


stem

Buddha's Belly
Bamboo

Caesalpinia gilliesii

Bird of paradise
bush yellow
flowers

calliandra haematocephala

Weeping bottle
brush

Calotropis procera

Dead sea apple

Carica papaya

Papaya

Cassia fistula

Golden shower
tree

Cassia javanica

Cassia nodosa

Cordia sebestena

1520
1520
1520
1520
1520

20.0
20.0
20.0

4.0

40.0

2.0 M

4.0

40.0

2.0 M

4.0

40.0

2.0 M

4.0

40.0

2.0 M

4.0

40.0

2.0 M

20.0

1520

4.0

40.0

2.0 M

20.0

1520

4.0

40.0

2.0 M

20.0

1520

4.0

40.0

2.0 M

20.0

1520

3.0

60.0

2.0 M

50.0

2.0 M

3.0

60.0

2.0 M

Red Powder Puff

Callistemon viminalis

Cassia glauca

Page 35

1520
1520

20.0
20.0
60.0

1520

4.0

60.0

2.0 M

60.0

1520

4.0

60.0

2.0 M

20.0

1520

60.0

2.0 M

Pink & white


shower

20.0

1520

3.0

60.0

2.0 M

Scarlet cordia,
aloe wood

60.0

1520

3.0

60.0

2m

1520

3.0

10.0

0.5 m

1520

3.0

30.0

0.5 m

1520

3.0

30.0

0.5 m

1520

3.0

40.0

2.0 M

3.0

40.0

2.0 M

3.0

40.0

2.0 M

Cassia glauca
apple blossom
tree

Dodonaea viscosa

Hopseed bush

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

China rose

12.0
20.0

Jatropha integerrima

Peregrina

Lagerstroemia indica

Crape myrtle
Thai Bungor

Lagerstroemia speciosa

Pride of India

Leucophylum frutescens

Texas ranger

Malvaviscus arboreus
pendiluflorus

Sleepy hibiscus

Per

20.0
20.0

Lagerstroemia loudonii

As

20.0
20.0

Design

1520
1520

20.0

1520

3.0

30.0

0.5 m

20.0

1520

3.0

30.0

1m

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Musa paradisiaca

Banana

Nerium oleander

Oleander

parmentiera edulis

Candle Tree

Plumeria obtusa

Temple tree

Plumeria rubra acutifolia

Temple tree Red


flower

Polyalthia longifolia
Punica granatum

Sesbania sesban

Page 36

20.0

1520

3.0

50.0

.75 m

20.0

1520

3.0

30.0

1m

20.0

20.0

3.0

60.0

2.0 M

60.0

20.0

3.0

60.0

2.0 M

60.0

20.0

3.0

60.0

2.0 M

60.0

20.0

3.0

60.0

2.0 M

60.0

1520

3.0

40.0

2.0 M

60.0

1520

3.0

40.0

2.0 M

20.0

25.0

6.0

50.0

1.5 m

20.0

1520

3.0

20.0

1.0 m

20.0

1520

3.0

20.0

1m

20.0

1520

3.0

20.0

0.5 m

Ashoka tree
Pomegranate

Sesban

Tamarix sp.

Athel tree

Tecoma stans

Yellow bells

Thevetia peruviana
nereifolia

Yellow oleander

Vitex agnus castus

Hemp tree

Acalypha wilkesiana

Bougainvillea glabra

ROOT BALL
DIA

STEM
GIRTH

SPREADING

L/PLANT

CM

CM

CM

CM

TOTAL HEIGHT

POT SIZE

COMMON NAME

SPACING

BOTANICAL NAME

WATER
REQUIREME
NT

Shrubs

Irish Petticoat
12.0

20.0

3.0

20.0

0.5 m

12.0

20.0

3.0

30.0

1m

Paper flowers

Bougainvillea torch glow

Torch Glow

Bougainvillea spectabilis

Bougainvillea

Caesalpinia pulcherrima

Barbados pride
orange-red
flowers

3.0
12.0
20.0

As

30.0

3.0

50.0

1m

20.0

3.0

40.0

0.75 m

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Carissia grandiflora

Natal plum

Cassia alata

the Candle Bush

12.0

Page 37

Per

20.0

3.0

20.0

3.0

20.0

3.0

30.0

0.5 m

12.0

20.0

3.0

20.0

0.5 m

12.0

20.0

3.0

20.0

0.5 m

20.0

1015

3.0

15.0

0.5 m

Flame of the
woods

12.0

20.0

3.0

10.0

0.3 m

Flame of the
woods

12.0

20.0

3.0

10.0

0.3 m

12.0

20.0

3.0

10.0

0.3 m

12.0

20.0

3.0

25.0

0.3 M

12.0

20.0

3.0

25.0

0.3 M

12.0

20.0

3.0

10.0

0.4

12.0
Cassia bicapsularis

Senna

Cestrum diurnum

Day jasmine

Cestrum nocturnum
Jasminum sambac
Ixora chinensis

Ixora coccinea

Design

0.5 m
0.5 m

Night jasmine
Arabian jasmine

Ixora javanica

jungle geranium

Lantana camara

Lantana

Lantana montevidensis

Lantana

Nandina domestica

12.0

30.0

Sacred bambo

Tabernaemontana
corymbosa

Great Rosebay

Tabernaemontana
divaricata

crepe jasmine

12.0

3.0

12.0

3.0

As Per
Design

25.0

CM

CM

CM

3.0

30.0

COMMON NAME

Italian cypress

80.0

CM

TOTAL HEIGHT

SPREA
DING

L/PLANT

POT
SIZE
ROOT
BALL
DIA
STEM
GIRTH

Cupressus sempervirens

SPACIN
G

BOTANICAL NAME

WATER
REQUIR
EMENT

Conifers

2.0 M

TOTAL
HEIGHT

SPREA
DING

POT
SIZE
ROOT
BALL
DIA
STEM
GIRTH

COMMON NAME

SPACIN
G

BOTANICAL NAME

WATER
REQUIR
EMENT

Hedge

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 38

L/PLANT

CM

CM

CM

CM

Atriplex halimus

Salt bush-high salt


tolerant

12.0

0.4

15.0

15.0

0.5 M

Atriplex lentiformis

Salt bush

12.0

0.4

15.0

15.0

0.5 M

Clerodendron inerme

Wild jasmine

12.0

0.4

15.0

15.0

0.5 M

Dodonaea viscosa

Hopseed bush

12.0

0.4

15.0

15.0

0.5 M

Leucophylum frutescens

Texas ranger

12.0

0.4

15.0

15.0

0.5 M

Myrtus Communis

Myrtle

12.0

0.4

15.0

15.0

0.5 M

Nerium oleander

oleander

Ruellia tuberosa

Ruellia

12.0

0.4

1015

15.0

0.5 M

Vitex agnus castus

Hemp tree

12.0

0.4

15.0

15.0

0.5 M

Adenium obesum

CM

CM

COMMON NAME

Desert rose

CM

CM

TOTAL HEIGHT

SPREA
DING

L/PLANT

POT
SIZE
ROOT
BALL
DIA
STEM
GIRTH

SPACIN
G

BOTANICAL NAME

WATER
REQUIR
EMENT

Succulents & Cactus

o.40 M

Agave americana

Century Plant

10.0

30.0

0.3 M

Agave angustifolia variegata

Caribbean Agave

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave attenuata

lion's tail

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave elegans

Salm-Dyck

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave filifera

thread agave

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave geminiflora

Twin-flowered
Agave

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave lechugilla

lechuguilla

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave macroacantha

Black-spined
Agave

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 39

Agave nigra

sharkskin agave

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave potatorum verscafeltii

Dwarf Butterfly
Agave

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave pygmaea

Dragon Toes

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave stricta

A young specimen

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave titanotta

Rancho Tambor

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave verschaffeltii

Blue Agave

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Agave Victoria regina

Queen Victoria
agave

10.0

30.0

o.40 M

Aloe vera Berbadensis

Medical plant

10.0

20.0

0.3 M

Agave america mediopicta

Agave mediopicta

10.0

20.0

0.3 M

Agave Victoria regina

Queen Victoria
Agave
Zebra Agave

10.0

20.0

0.3 M

10.0

30.0

Alluaudia procera

Madagascan
Ocotillo

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe arborescens

candelabra Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe clavifolia

Aanteelaalwyn

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe dichothoma

quiver tree

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe littoralis

on the coast

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Agave zebra

Aloe eru vicornuta

As Per
Design

Aloe excelsa

Zimbabwe Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe humilis

Spider Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe maculata

Zebra Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe marlothii

Mountain Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe melanacantha

Black-spined Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 40

Aloe pelegrae

Pauline

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe ramosissima

Maiden's Quiver
Tree

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe mitriformis

Gold Tooth

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe squarrosa

Yemen Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe striata

coral aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe tharskii

the Dune Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe tomentosa

Hairy Green Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe vaombe

Malagasy Tree
Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe vera Berbadensis

Aloe indica royle

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aloe zebrina

Zebra Leaf Aloe

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Austrocephalocereus
dybowskii

Cereus dybowskii

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Austrocephalocereus
estevesii

Thumbnail

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Aylostera archibuininguiana
Carnegiea gigantea

saguaro cactus

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

cephalocereus senilis

Old Man Cactus

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Cleistocactus braunii

climbing cactus

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Cleistocactus jujuyensis

argentina cactus

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Cleistocactus strausii

silver torch

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Copiapoa cinerea

chalky/white
stems

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Copiapoa haseltoniana

chille cactus

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Crassula

baby jade

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Cylindropuntia bigelowi

Page 41

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Euphobia enopla

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Euphorbia erythraea

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Didierea madagascariensis

Didierea

Discocactus

Dyckia

brazilian cactus

Euphorbia alba
Euphorbia canariensis

Canary Island
spurge

Euphorbia ingens

Euphorbia
candelabrum

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Euphorbia lactea

brain plant

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Euphorbia milli

Christ plant

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Euphorbia tirucallii

pencil tree

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Euphorbia stenoclada

Euphorbia
insulae-europae

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Cereus sp.

Lady of the night


cactus

10.0

35.0

1M

Echinocactus grussonii

Golden barrel

10.0

20.0

0.25 M

Euophorbia lactea

Mottled Spurge

10.0

20.0

0.35 M

Echinopsis hauscha

Red torch cactus

10.0

20.0

0.20 M

Ferocactus sp.

Desert Barrel

10.0

20.0

0.25 M

Furcraea gigantea

boojum tree

Cephalocerus seniies

Old Man Cactus

10.0

20.0

0.35 M

Carnegia giganta Cactus

saguaro cactus

10.0

30.0

1M

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 42

Mamelaria elongata

Monstrous Lady
Fingers

10.0

20.0

0.25 M

Melocactus

Melon cactus

10.0

20.0

0.25 M

Pachypodium Lamerei

Madagascar Palm

10.0

20.0

1M

Portulacaria afra

elephant bush

Sansevieria trifasciata

bird's nest snake


plant

Sansevieria Hahnii

baseball bat

Yucca elephantips

soft-tip yucca

10.0

30.0

1.5 M

Yucca filamentosa

Adam's needle

10.0

30.0

30.0

1.5 M

CM

CM

COMMON NAME

15.0

15.0

1.0 m

15.0

15.0

1m

15.0

15.0

0.75 m

10.0

15.0

0.3 m

10.0

15.0

0.3M

15.0

15.0

1.0 M

20.0

15.0

15.0

1.0 m

20.0

15.0

15.0

1.0 m

SPREA
DING

Coral vine

12.0

Bougainvillea sp

Bougainvillea

20.0

Clerodendron inerme

Wild Jasmine

20.0

Ipomoea pes-caprae

Beach Morning
Glory

12.0

Ipomoea palmata

Railway creeper

12.0

Jasminum officinalis
grandiflorum

Poet's Jasmine

20.0

Lonicera sempervirens

trumpet vine

Quisqualis indica

Rangoon creeper

CM

POT
SIZE
ROOT
BALL
DIA
STEM
GIRTH

Antigonom leptopus

CM

TOTAL HEIGHT

SPREA
DING

L/PLANT

POT
SIZE
ROOT
BALL
DIA
STEM
GIRTH

SPACIN
G

BOTANICAL NAME

WATER
REQUIR
EMENT

Vines

As

Per

Design

REQUIR
ED SIZE

COMMON NAME

SPACIN
G MIN.

BOTANICAL NAME

WATER
REQUIR
EMENT

Ground Covers

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 43

LTR/M2

PLANT/M2

CM

CM

CM

CM

Alternanthera versicolor

red border weed

10.0

9.0

10.0

30.0

0.2 M

Aptenia cordifolia

Baby sun rose

10.0

9.0

10.0

30.0

0.2 M

Asparagus densiflorus

Asparagus fern

10.0

9.0

10.0

30.0

0.3 M

Asparagus myers

Monrovia's Foxtail
Fern

Canna indica

Lana

10.0

9.0

10.0

10.0

0.3 M

Carissa prostrata

Natal plum dwarf

10.0

9.0

10.0

30.0

0.3 M

Cortaderia selloana

Pampas grass

10.0

10.0

10.0

0.3 M

Cyperus alternifolius

Umbrella sedge

10.0

10.0

10.0

0.3 M

Delaspermum alba

White ice plant

Dianella tasmanica

Tasman Flax Lily

Drosantemum hispidum

As Per
Design

10.0

9.0

10.0

10.0

0.1 M

Rose ice plant

10.0

9.0

10.0

10.0

0.1 M

Euphorbia milii

Crown of thorns

10.0

9.0

10.0

20.0

0.3 M

Gazania rigens

Treasure flower

10.0

9.0

10.0

10.0

0.1 M

Ipomea pes-caprae

railroad vine

12.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.3 M

Ipomoea palmata or cairica

Railway creeper

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.3 M

Iresine herbstii

Blood leaf

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.2 M

Lampranthus aureus/
Malephora crocea

Orange ice plant

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.7 M

Lampranthus spectabilis

Training ice plant

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.1 M

Lantana montevidensis

Geeper lantana

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.3 M

Limonium sinuatum

Sea-lavender

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.2 M

Ocimum basilicum

Sweet basil

10.0

As Per
Design

10.0

1015

0.3 M

Osteospermum fruiticosum

African daisy

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.2 M

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Pennisetum setaceum
rubrum

Purple fountain
grass

Page 44

10.0

1015

10.0

0.3 M

Pennisetum setaceum

Beach grass
Fountain grass

10.0

As Per
Design

10.0

1015

0.3 M

Portulacaria afra

Elephant bush

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.15 M

Pseuderanthemum
atropurpureum

Chocolate plant
dark purple

8.0

15.0

20.0

0.3 m

Pseuderanthemum
atropurpureum tricolor

Chocolate plant 3
colors

8.0

As Per
Design

15.0

20.0

0.3 m

Rhoeo discolor

Moses in the
cradle, Boat lily

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.2 M

Rosmarinus officinalis

Rosemary

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.2 M

Russelia equisetiformis

Coral plant,
firecracker plant

10.0

As Per
Design

10.0

1015

0.3 M

Sesuvium portulacastrum

Sea pureslane

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.2 M

Setcreasea pallida

Purple heart

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.15 M

Verbena peruviana

Blood leaf
"Springtime"

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.1 M

Wedelia trilobata

Creeping daisy

10.0

9.0

10.0

1015

0.15 M

SPREA
DING

LTR/M2

PLANT/M2

CM

CM

9.0

10.0

COMMON NAME

Floss flower

10.0

CM

CM

REQUIRED SIZE

POT
SIZE
ROOT
BALL
DIA
STEM
GIRTH

Ageratum mexicanum

SPACIN
G MIN.

BOTANICAL NAME

WATER
REQUIR
EMENT

SEASONALS

One
flower

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 45

Amaranthus tricolor

Joseph's coat

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Antirrhinum majus

Floral snapdragon

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Asclepias curassvica

Blood flower

10.0

9.0

10.0

Calendula officinalis

Port marigold

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower
One
flower

Callistephus chinesis

China aster

10.0

9.0

10.0

Catharanthus roseus

Madagasar
periwinkle

10.0

9.0

10.0

Celosia cristata

Fair fountains

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Celosia cristata var.nana

Cockscomb

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Celosia plumosa

Burut plume

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Chrysanthemum carinatum

Monarch court

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Chryanthemum morifolium

Florist's mum

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Cosmos bipinnatus

Mexican aster

10.0

9.0

10.0

Dianthus barbatus

Sweet william

10.0

9.0

10.0

Dianthus chinensis

Chinese pink

10.0

9.0

10.0

Gaillardia pulchela

Blanket flower

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower
One
flower
One
flower
One
flower

Gazania splendens

Gazania

10.0

9.0

10.0

Gomphrena globosa

Globe amaranth
red

10.0

9.0

10.0

Kochia scoparia

Summer cypresus

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Lobularia maritima

Sweet alysum

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Mathilola incana

stock

10.0

9.0

10.0

Pelargonium x hybrida

Garden Geranium

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower
One
flower

Pellionia pulchra

Training begoria

10.0

9.0

10.0

Petunia x hybrida

Petunia hybrid

10.0

9.0

10.0

Polianthes tuberosa

The pearl

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Portulaca graniflora
Var.Corniche

Moss rose, sun


plant

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

One
flower
One
flower

One
flower
One
flower

One
flower
One
flower

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 46

Salvia splendens

Scarlet sage

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower

Senecio cineraria

Dusty miller

10.0

9.0

10.0

Tagetes

Marigold

10.0

9.0

10.0

Verbena peruviana

Aztec queen

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower
One
flower
One
flower

Viola tricolour

Kiss-me-love

10.0

9.0

10.0

Zinnia sp.

Zinnia

10.0

9.0

10.0

One
flower
One
flower

ROOT
BALL DIA

STEM
GIRTH

SPREADI
NG

LTR/M2

PLANT/M2

CM

CM

CM

CM

Cynodon dactylon

Bermuda grassHigh salt tolerant

12 T0 18

Paspalum vaginatum
notatum

Bahia grassseashore
paspalum

12 TO 18

Zoysia japonica

Japanese grass

12 TO 18

Table 9b: Plant List, Spacing and Sizes Required for Ashghal Projects

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required Size

Root Ball dia cm

22

Pot Size cm

80

l/plant/ day/year

Mean Daily Demand

Common Name

Peak Daily Demand


l/plant/ day

Botanical Name

Irrigation Group

Palms

PALMS
Bismarkia nobilis

Bismark Palm

2.0 m

REQUIRED SIZE

POT SIZE

COMMON NAME

SPACING
MIN.

BOTANICAL NAME

WATER
REQUIRE
MENT

Grass

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 47

Brahea armata

Mexican Blue Palm

80

22

40

1.50 m

Chamaerops humilis

European Fan Palm

70

15

30

1.50 m

Chamaerops humilis

Mediterranean Fan
Palm

70

15

40

Cocos nucifera

Coconut palm

120

29

Cycas revoluta

Sago palm

80

22

25-30

0.50 m

Dioon edule

Mexican Cycad

80

22

25-30

1.0 m

Elaeis oleifera

American oil palm

80

22

75

1.50 m

Hyophorbe lagenicaulis

Bottle Palm

80

22

75

1.25 m

Hyophorbe verschaffeltii

Spindle Palm

80

22

Livistona chinensis

Cabbage Palm

80

22

40

2.0 m

Livistona marie
"Oombulgurri"

Australian Cabbage
Palm

80

22

40

2.0 m

Livistonia chinensis

Chinese Fan Palm

80

22

30

1.50 m

Nanorrhops ritcheana

Mazari Palm

80

22

24

Phoenix canariensis

Island Date palm

120

29

125

2.0 m

Phoenix dactylifera

Date palm

120

29

125

2.0 m

Phoenix roebelenii

Miniature Date Palm

80

22

60

1.0 m

Phoenix roebelenii

Miniature Date Palm

80

22

40

2.0 m

Phoenix sylvestris

Wild Date Palm

120

29

40

2.0 m

Roystonea regia

Cuban Royal Palm

120

29

60

1.50 m

Sabal domingensis

Hispaniola Palmetto

120

29

60

2.0 m

Washingtonia filifera

California Fan Palm

80

22

75

2.0 m

Washingtonia robusta

Washingtonia Palm

80

22

75

2.0 m

Wodyetia bifurcata

Foxtail Palm

120

29

60

1.50 m

Large Evergreen Trees

75

2.0 m

1.25 m

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required Size

Page 48

15

24

10

60

Acacia
auriculaformis
"Gaypari"

Ear Pod Wattle

70

15

24

10

60

Acacia pendula
"Amata"

Weeping Myall

70

15

30

10

60

1.0 m

Acacia salicina
"Marntala

Willow Acacia

70

15

30

10

70

1.0 m

Adansonia gregorii
"Jamulang"

Baobab Tree

100

25

40

15

80

1.50 m

Alstonia actinophylla
Jabiru

Australian Milkwood
Tree

80

22

30

10

80

1.50 m

Alstonia scholaris

Milkwood

80

22

30

10

80

1.50 m

Brachychiton "Bella
Donna"

Belladonna Flame
Tree

80

22

24

10

80

1.20 m

Brachychiton
acerifolius Allowrie

Illawarra Flame Tree

80

22

24

10

80

1.20 m

Brachychiton
diversifolius

Pink Kurrajong

80

22

24

10

80

1.20 m

Brachychiton
Populneus

Bottle tree

80

22

25

50

1.50 m

Bucida bucares

Antigua Whitewood

80

22

40

10

80

1.50 m

Caesalpinia ferrea

Leopard Tree

80

22

40

10

80

1.50 m

Casuarina
equisetifolia

Horsetail tree,
Australian Pine

80

22

25

50

1.50 m

Chorisia speciosa

Bottle tree

80

22

35

50

100

2.0 m

Corymbia apperinja
"Alice Para"

White Gum

70

15

24

10

70

1.20 m

Erythrina orientalis
variegata "Ngukurr"

Variegated Coral Tree

100

25

24

10

80

1.50 m

Botanical Name

Spreading cm

70

Stem girth cm

Pot Size cm

Nyanga Flat Top

Irrigation_Group

Acacia abyssinica

Common_Name

Mean Daily Demand


l/plant/day/year

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting
Peak Daily Demand
l/plant/day

QCS 2014

Page 49

Eucalyptus
bigalareta "Mijilypa"

Northern Salmon Gum

80

22

24

10

75

1.50 m

Ficus altissima

Council tree

80

22

25

50

1.50 m

Ficus benghalensis

Banyan Tree

80

22

24

10

80

1.0 m

Ficus religiosa

Peepul Tree

80

22

24

10

80

1.0 m

Ficus religiosa

Sacred ficus

100

25

25

50

1.50 m

Ficus salicifolia

Willow Leaf Fig

70

15

24

10

80

1.0 m

Ficus sycomorus

Mulberry Fig

80

22

24

10

80

1.0 m

Mangifera indica

Mango Tree

80

22

40

10

80

1.0 m

Millingtonia hortensis

Tree Jasmine

80

22

24

10

80

1.0 m

Moringa oleifera

Horse radish tree

80

22

25

50

1.50 m

Parkinsonia aculeata

Jerusalem thorn

70

15

25

50

1.50 m

Pithecelobium dulce

Manila Tamarird

80

22

25

50

1.50 m

Prosopis alba

White Carob Tree

70

15

25

50

1.50 m

Prosopis cinerarea

Ghaf Tree

70

15

20

80

1.0 m

Prosopis juliflora

Honey Mesquite

70

15

25

50

1.50 m

Schinus molle

Pink pepper, Peruvian


Pepper

80

22

25

50

1.50 m

Tamarindus indica

Tamarind

80

22

Terminalia arjuna

Arjun Tree

80

22

33

10

75

1.0 m

Terminalia cattapa

Indian almond

80

22

25

50

1.50 m

Zizyphus jujuba

Chinese date

80

22

25

50

Zizyphus spinachristi

Sidr

70

15

25

50

Mean Daily Demand


l/plant/day/ year

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Peak Daily Demand


l/plant/ day

QCS 2014

1.50 m

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required
Size

Spreading cm

Stem girth cm

Pot Size cm

Irrigation Group

Common Name

Botanical Name

Medium Evergreen Trees

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 50

Acacia Arabica see


A.nilotica

Arabian acacia

70

15

24

10

50

1.50 m

Acacia arnesiana

Yellow Mimosa

70

15

20

50

1.50 m

Acacia nilotica

Scented Acacia

70

15

24

10

50

1.50 m

Calliandra
haematocephala

Powder Puff

70

15

40

10

80

1.50 m

Cassia brewsterii

Velvet Cassia

80

22

20

75

0.75 m

Cassia grandis

Coral Shower

80

22

24

10

80

1.0 m

Cassia roxburghii

Red Cassia

80

22

24

10

80

1.0 m

Casuarina cristata

Belah

70

15

24

60

Dalbergia sissoo

Indian Rosewood

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

Pongamia pinnata

Pongam

80

22

33

10

80

1.0 m

Saraca indica

Ashok

80

22

33

10

50

1.0 m

Schinus
terebinthifolius

Brazilian Pepper Tree

70

15

20

50

1.50 m

Tabebuia rosea

White Trumpet Tree

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

Tipuana tipu

Rosewood Tree

80

22

24

50

1.0 m

Xanthorrhoea
australis

Grass Tree

70

15

20

12

35

1.0 m

22

20

50

1.50 m

Albizia lebbeck

Woman's Tongue

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

Azadirachta indica

Neem tree

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

Bauhinia variegata

Orchid tree

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

Delonix elata

Royal Poinciana,
Flame Tree

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

Common Name

Spread cm

80

Stem girth cm

Pot Size cm

Mean Daily Demand


l/plant/day/ year

Silk tree, Mimosa

Irrigation Group

Albizia julibrissin

Botanical Name

Peak Daily Demand


l/plant/ day

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required Size

Semi Deciduous Trees

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 51

Delonix regia

Flame of forest

100

25

20

50

1.50 m

Melia azedarach

China Berry

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

Morus alba

White Mulberry

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

Morus nigra

Black mulberry

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

Peltophoroum
inerme

Yellow Poinciana

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

Thespesia populnea

Portia Tree

80

22

20

50

1.50 m

20

Acacia colei

Australian Soap Wattle

20

20

60

Acacia cowleana

Halls Creek Wattle

20

20

50

Acacia
ehrenbergiana

Salam

25

20

50

Acacia etbaica

Arad

20

20

50

Acacia gerardii

Grey Haired Acacia

20

20

50

Acacia jennerae

Coonavittra wattle

20

20

50

Acacia kempeana

Wanderry Wattle

20

15

30

Acacia mountfordiae

Mountford's Wattle

20

20

50

Acacia saligna
"Cujong"

Golden Wreath Wattle

20

20

50

1.0 m

Acacia tortillis

Samr

25

20

10

60

1.0 m

Boswellia sacra

Frankincense Tree

20

20

60

1.0 m

Caesalpinia gilliesii

Bird of Paradise Bush

20

1520

40

0.50 m

Calliandra
haematocephala

Red Powder Puff

20

1520

40

1.0 m

Common Name

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required
Size

Spreading cm

20

Stem girth cm

Pot Size cm

Mean Daily Demand


l/plant/day/year

Kimberley's Wattle

Irrigation Group

Acacia anthochaera

Botanical Name

Peak Daily Demand


l/plant/ day

Small Trees or Large Shrubs

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 52

Callistemon viminalis
Tubada

Australian Weeping
bottle brush

20

1520

60

1.0 m

Callophyllum
inophyllum

Beauty Leaf

20

24

10

80

1.0 m

Calotropis procera

Dead Sea Apple

25

1520

50

0.50 m

Carica papaya

Papaya

25

1520

60

1.50 m

Cassia biflora

Desert Cassia

20

20

50

0.75 m

Cassia fistula

Golden Shower Tree

20

1520

60

1.50 m

Cassia glauca

Kalamona

20

20

50

0.75 m

Cassia javanica

Apple Blossom Tree

20

1520

60

1.0 m

20

1520

60

1.0 m

Cassia nodosa
Commyphora myrrha

Myhrr

20

20

10

50

Cordia lutea

Yellow Geiger Tree

20

20

10

50

Cordia sebestena

Scarlet Cordia, Aloe


Wood

20

1520

60

2.0 m

Dodonaea viscosa

Hopseed Bush

20

1520

10

0.50 m

Dracaena draeco

Dragon Tree

20

20

75

Eremophila longifolia
"Tulypurpa"

Weeping Emu Bush

25

15

20

Eucalyptus lucens
"Manyuwan"

Shiny Leaved Mallee

20

20

50

Eucalyptus miniata

Darwin Woolly Butt

20

15

50

Eucalyptus
thozetiana

Thozets Gum

20

15

50

Geijera parviflora

Wilga

20

20

10

75

Gossypium australe
"Nurom"

Australian Desert Rose

25

15

80

Gossypium bickii

Desert Rose

25

15

80

Gossypium darwinii

Darwin's Cotton

20

15

80

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 53

Gossypium
sturtianum "Kintore'

Sturt's Desert Rose

20

15

80

Hibiscus rosasinensis

China Rose

20

1520

30

Hibiscus tiliaecius

Sea Hibiscus

20

20

Jatropha integerrima

Peregrina

20

1520

Lagerstroemia indica

Crepe Myrtle

20

1520

Lagerstroemia
speciosa

Pride of India

20

Leptadenia
pyrotechnica

Firecracker Plant

25

Leucophylum
frutescens

Texas Ranger

Mauera crassifolia

10

0.50 m

50
30

0.50 m

40

1.50 m

24

40

1.0 m

15

80

20

1520

30

0.50 m

20

24

80

1.0 m

30

1.0 m

Malvaviscus
arboreus
pendiluflorus

Sleepy Hibiscus

20

1520

Melaleuca bracteata

Black Ti Tree

20

24

50

Melaleuca
quinquenervia

Paperbark

20

24

10

50

Moringa perigrina

Drumstick Tree

20

20

80

Musa paradisiaca

Banana

25

1520

Myoporum
floribundum

Weeping Boobialla

20

20

Nerium oleander

Oleander

20

1520

Olea europea

Olive

20

20

Pandanus utilis
"Arkaroola"

Screw Palm

20

20

50

Pandanus viethchii

Variegated Screw palm

20

20

50

Plumeria obtusa

Temple Tree

20

20

60

1.50 m

Plumeria rubra
acutifolia

Temple Tree

20

20

60

1.50 m

50

0.75 m

80

30

1.0 m

60

1.50 m

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 54

Polyalthea longifolia

Mast Tree

20

33

75

Punica granatum

Pomegranate

20

1520

Scaevola frutescens

Beach Naupaka

20

20

Tabebuia argentea

Silver Trumpet Tree

20

33

10

50

1.0 m

Tabebuia spectabilis

Yellow Tabebuia

20

33

10

50

1.0 m

Tamarix aphylla

Tamarix or Athol Tree

20

15

Tamarix sp.

Athel Tree

20

25

Tecoma stans

Yellow Bells

20

1520

Tecomella undulata

Roheda

20

20

Thevetia peruviana
nereifolia

Yellow Oleander

20

Vitex agnus castus

Chaste Tree

20

Vitex purpurea

Arabian Lilac

Zizyphus numalaria

Jahrber

40

1.50 m

40

30
6

50

1.50 m

20

1.0 m

50

1.0 m

1520

20

1.0 m

1520

20

0.50 m

20

20

50

20

20

10

30

40

Acacia victoriae
"Alita"

Elegant Wattle

25

20

50

20

20

Acalypha wilkesiana

20

Aerva javanica

Desert Cotton or Snow


Bush

25

15

Atriplex numalaria

Old Man Saltbush

25

15

30

Bougainvillea glabra

Bougainvillea

20

20

30

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required Size

20

Spreading cm

Stem girth cm

20

Pot Size cm

Mean Daily Demand


l/plant/day/year

Irrigation Group

Sims wattle

Common Name

Acacia simsii

Botanical Name

Peak Daily Demand


l/plant/ day

Shrubs

0.50 m

30

1.0 m

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 55

Caesalpinia
pulcherrima

Barbados Pride

20

20

40

Calligonum
comosum

Arta

25

15

60

Carissa edulis

Akamba Bush

20

20

50

Carissia grandiflora

Natal plum

20

20

30

20

20

Cassia alata

0.75 m

0.50 m
0.50 m

Cassia bicapsularis

Senna

20

20

30

0.50 m

Cestrum diurnum

Day Jasmine

20

20

20

0.50 m

Cestrum nocturnum

Night Jasmine

20

20

20

0.50 m

Crotalaria
cunninghamiana

Bird Flower

20

15

30

Duranta repens

Blue Butterfly Bush

20

20

50

Eremophila
alternifolia
"Irmangka"

Narrow Leaved Emu


Bush

25

15

20

Eremophila
bignoniflora x
polyclada "Kurubimi"

White Emu Bush

25

15

20

Eremophila
christopheri
"Areyonga"

Blue Emu Bush

25

15

20

Eremophila maculata
" Brevifolia Eridunda"

Red Emu Bush

25

15

20

Eremophila maculata
"Atitjere"

Red Emu Bush

25

15

20

25

15

20

Eremophila obovata
Eremophila
polyclada "Imampa"

Fine Leaf Emu Bush

25

15

20

Eremophila
racemosa

Pink Emu Bush

25

15

Eremophila
Summertime Blue

Deep Blue Emu Bush

25

15

20

Euphorbia larica

25

15

60

Galphimia glauca

20

15

80

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 56

Haloxylon
salicornicum

Rimth

25

15

50

Ixora chinensis

Flame of the Woods

20

20

10

0.30 m

Jasminum sambac

Arabian Jasmine

20

10-15

15

0.50 m

Lantana camara

Lantana

20

20

25

0.30 m

Lawsonia inermis

Henna

20

20

10

0.50 m

Malvaviscus
arboreus

Turks Cap

20

15

80

20

15

30

12-15

1015

Ochradenus
baccatus
Pachypodium
lamerei

Madagascar Palm

Pandanus
singaporensis
pygmaeus

Dwarf Variegated
Screw Palm

20

20

30

Radyera farragei

Desert Rose Mallow

20

15

30

Senna artemisioides

Narrow Leaf Desert


Cassia

20

15

30

Senna desolata
sturtii

Sturts Senna

25

15

30

Tabernaemontana
divaricata

Pin Wheel Flower

20

20

30

0.50 m

80

Callitris preissii

Cypress pine

70

15

24

60

Cupressus
sempervirens

Italian Cypress

70

15

25

30

Hedge

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required Size

24

Spread cm

22

Stem girth cm

80

Pot Size cm

Mean Daily Demand


l/plant/day/year

Irrigation Group

Blue Cypress Pine

Common Name

Callitris intratropica
"Oenpelli"

Botanical Name

Peak Daily Demand


l/plant/ day

Conifers

1.50 m

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required Size

Page 57

1.2

15

15

0.50 m

Atriplex lentiformis

Salt Bush

10

1.9

15

15

0.50 m

Clerodendron inerme

Wild Jasmine

10

2.5

15

15

0.50 m

Dodonaea viscosa

Hopseed Bush

10

1.9

15

15

0.50 m

Leucophylum
frutescens

Texas Ranger

10

1.9

15

15

0.50 m

Vitex agnus castus

Chaste Tree

10

1.9

15

15

0.50 m

Common Name

Spread cm

12

Stem girth cm

Pot Size cm

Salt Bush

Irrigation Group

Atriplex halimus

Botanical Name

Mean Daily Demand


l/m2/day/year

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting
Peak Daily Demand
l/m2/day

QCS 2014

20

0.30 m

Agave america
mediopicta

Agave

10

1.9

20

0.30 m

Agave americana

Century Plant

10

1.9

30

0.30 m

Agave attenuata

10

1.9

20

0.30 m

Agave parryi

10

1.9

20

0.30 m

Aloe africana

10

1.9

20

0.30 m

Aloe claviflora

10

1.9

20

0.10 m

Aloe debrana

10

1.9

20

0.10m

Aloe rupestris

10

1.9

20

0.20 m

Common Name

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required
Size

1.9

Spreading cm

10

Stem girth cm

Pot Size cm

Mean Daily Demand


l/m2/day/year

Queen Victoria Agave

Irrigation Group

Agave "Victoria
Regina"

Botanical Name

Peak Daily Demand


l/m2/day

Succulents

Aloe sessiflora

Lebombo Aloe

10

1.9

20

0.20 m

Aloe striata

Coral Aloe

10

1.9

20

0.20 m

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 58

Aloe vera

medical plant

10

1.9

20

0.30 m

Euophorbia lactea

Mottled Spurge

12

1.2

20

0.35 m

Kalanchoe
diagremontiana

10

1.9

15

0.15 m

Kalanchoe
rotundifolia

10

1.9

1215

0.15 m

Mamelaria elongata

Monstrous Lady
Fingers

12

1.2

20

0.25 m

Yucca elephantipes

Soft-Tip Yucca

10

2.5

30

1.50 m

Yucca filamentosa

Adam's needle

10

2.5

30

30

1.50 m

15

15

1.0 m

Bougainvillea sp

Bougainvillea

20

20

15

1.0 m

Bougainvillea
spectabilis

Bougainvillea

20

20

15

1.0 m

Clitoria ternata

Butterfly Pea

20

15

1.0 m

Clytostoma
callistegioides

Lavender Trumpet Vine

20

20

1.0 m

Cryptostegia
madagascarensis

Rubber Vine

20

15

1.0 m

Dipladenia sanderi

Brazilian Jasmine

20

20

1.0 m

Gelsemium
sempervirens

Carolina Jasmine

20

20

1.50 m

20

10

15

0.30 m
0.30 m

Common Name

Ipomea pes-caprae

Spreading cm

20

Stem girth cm

Pot Size cm

Mean Daily Demand


l/plant/day/year

Coral vine

Irrigation Group

Antigonom leptopus

Botanical Name

Peak Daily Demand


l/plant/day

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required Size

Vines

Ipomoea palmata

Railway creeper

20

10

15

Jacquemontia
violaceae

Sapphire Vine

20

15

80

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 59

Jasminum officinalis
"Grandiflorum"

20

15

15

1.0 m

Lonicera
sempervirens

20

15

15

1.0 m

Petrea volubilis

Purple Wreath

20

20

30

Pyrostegia venusta

Flame Vine

20

15

50

Quisqualis indica

Rangoon Creeper

20

15

15

Tecoma capensis

Cape Honeysuckle

20

20

30

1.0 m

Baby sun rose

Arctotis hybrids

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required Size

2.5

10

30

0.20 m

10

1.9

10

30

0.20 m

10

1.9

15

15

Spread cm

10

Stem girth cm

Pot Size cm

Mean Daily Demand


l/m2/day/year

Aptenia cordifolia

Peak Daily Demand


l/m2/day

Alternanthera
versicolor

Irrigation Group

Common Name

Botanical Name

Ground covers

Asparagus
densiflorus

Asparagus fern

10

2.5

10

30

Atriplex
semibaccata

Australian Saltbush

12

1.2

15

10

Canavalia rosea

Beach Pea

10

1.9

15

50

Canna indica

Lana

12

3.2

10

10

0.30 m

Carissa prostrata

Natal plum dwarf

10

2.5

10

30

0.30 m

Clianthus formosus

Sturts Desert Pea

12

1.2

15

35

Cortaderia selloana

Pampas grass

10

2.5

10

10

10

1.9

15

15

Crassula multicava
Cuphea mexicana
compacta

Mexican Heather

10

2.5

15

15

Cyperus alternifolius

Umbrella sedge

12

3.2

10

10

0.30 m

0.30 m

0.30 m

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 60

Delaspermum alba

White ice plant

10

1.9

10

10

0.10 m

Drosantemum
hispidum

Rose ice plant

10

1.9

10

10

0.10 m

Echeveria elegans

10

1.9

15

10

Encelia farinosa

10

1.9

15

10

Eremophila
arookara
"Amoonguna"

Arakoora Emu Bush

12

1.2

15

20

Euphorbia milii

Crown of Thorns

10

1.9

10

20

Frankenia hirsuta

Hairy Sea Heath

12

1.2

15

10

Gazania rigens

Treasure flower

10

1.9

10

10

Heliotropium
curassavicum

Wild Heliotrope

12

1.2

1215

25

Ipomea pes-caprae

Railroad Vine

10

2.5

10

1015

Ipomoea batata

Ornamental Sweet
Potato

10

2.5

15

20

Ipomoea palmata

Railway creeper

10

2.5

10

1015

0.30 m

Iresine herbstii

Blood leaf

10

2.5

10

1015

0.20 m

10

1.9

1215

30

10

1.9

10

1015

10

1.9

1215

30

Lampranthus
aurantiacus
Lampranthus aureus

Orange Ice Plant

Lampranthus
saturatus

0.30 m

0.10 m

0.30 m

0.70 m

Lampranthus
spectabilis

Trailing Ice Plant

10

1.9

10

1015

0.10 m

Lantana
montevidensis

Geeper lantana

10

2.5

10

1015

0.30 m

12

1.2

1215

20

12

1.2

10

1015

Limmonium axillare

Limonium sinuatum

Sea- Lavender

0.20 m

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Section 28: Landscaping


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01: Landscape Planting

Page 61

Lippia nodiflora

Lippia

10

2.5

1215

10

Ocimum basilicum

Sweet basil

10

2.5

10

1015

0.30 m

Osteospermum
fruiticosum

African daisy

10

1.9

10

1015

0.20 m

10

2.5

1215

15

Pedilanthus
thymaloides
Pennisetum
setaceum

Beach grass Fountain


grass

10

1.9

10

1015

0.30 m

Pennisetum
setaceum rubrum

Purple fountain grass

10

1.9

10

1015

0.30 m

Portulacaria afra

Jade Plant

10

1.9

10

1015

Pseuderanthemum
atropurpureum
tricolor

Chocolate Plant

10

2.5

15

20

0.30 m

Rhoeo discolor

Moses in the Cradle,


Boat lily

10

2.5

10

1015

0.20 m

Rhoeo spathacea

Moses In The Cradle

10

2.5

1215

10

Rosmarinus
officinalis

Rosemary

10

1.9

10

1015

0.20 m

Ruellia tuberosa

Ruellia

10

2.5

1015

15

0.50 m

Russelia
equisetiformis

Coral plant, Firecracker


Plant

10

2.5

10

1015

0.30 m

Sesuvium
portulacastrum

Sea Pureslane

10

1.9

10

1015

0.20 m

Setcreasea pallida

Purple Heart

10

2.5

10

1015

0.15 m

Tradescantia pallida

Purple Heart

10

2.5

1215

10

Verbena tenuisecta

Moss Verbena

10

2.5

1215

10

Vitex rotundifolia

Beach Vitex

10

1.9

1215

20

Wedelia trilobata

Creeping Daisy

10

Peak Daily Demand


l/m2/day

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Irrigation Group

QCS 2014

Page 62

2.5

1015

10

0.15 m

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required Size

Spread cm

Stem girth cm

Pot Size cm

Mean Daily Demand


l/m2/day/year

Common Name

Botanical Name

Seasonals

Ageratum
mexicanum

Floss Flower

10

10

10

One
flower

Amaranthus tricolor

Joseph's Coat

10

10

10

One
flower

Antirrhinum majus

Floral Snapdragon

10

10

10

One
flower

Asclepias
curassvica

Blood Flower

10

10

10

One
flower

Calendula officinalis

Port Marigold

10

10

10

One
flower

Callistephus
chinesis

China Aster

10

10

10

One
flower

Catharanthus
roseus

Madagasar Periwinkle

10

10

10

One
flower

Celosia cristata

Fair Fountains

10

10

10

One
flower

Celosia cristata
var.nana

Cockscomb

10

10

10

One
flower

Celosia plumosa

Burut Plume

10

10

10

One
flower

Chryanthemum
morifolium

Florist's Mum

10

10

10

One
flower

Chrysanthemum
carinatum

Monarch Court

10

10

10

One
flower

Cosmos bipinnatus

Mexican Aster

10

10

10

One
flower

Dianthus barbatus

Sweet William

10

10

10

One
flower

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Section 28: Landscaping


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01: Landscape Planting

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Dianthus chinensis

Chinese Pink

10

10

10

One
flower

Gaillardia pulchela

Blanket Flower

10

10

10

One
flower

Gazania splendens

Gazania

10

10

10

One
flower

Gomphrena globosa

Globe Amaranth

10

10

10

One
flower

Kochia scoparia

Summer Cypresus

10

10

10

One
flower

Lobularia maritima

Sweet Alysum

10

10

10

One
flower

10

10

10

One
flower

Mathilola incana
Pelargonium x
hybrida

Garden Geranium

10

10

10

One
flower

Pellionia pulchra

Training Begoria

10

10

10

One
flower

Petunia x hybrida

Petunia Hybrid

10

10

10

One
flower

Polianthes tuberosa

The Pearl

10

10

10

One
flower

Portulaca graniflora
var. Corniche

Moss Rose, Sun Plant

10

10

10

One
flower

Salvia splendens

Scarlet Sage

10

10

10

One
flower

Senecio cineraria

Dusty Miller

10

10

10

One
flower

Tagetes

Marigold

10

10

10

One
flower

Verbena peruviana

Aztec Queen

10

10

10

One
flower

Viola tricolour

Kiss-Me-Love

10

10

10

One
flower

Zinnia sp.

Zinnia

10

10

10

One
flower

Grass

10

1.9

15

20

Cymbopogon
citratus

Lemon Grass

10

2.5

15

15

Cynodon dactylon

Bermuda grass

10

2.5

Imperata cylindrica

Blood Grass

10

2.5

15

Paspalum
vaginatum notatum

Bahia grass, Seashore


Paspalum

10

2.5

Pennesetum
villosum

African Fountain Grass

10

1.9

15

30

Pennisetum divisum

Dwarf Fountain Grass

12

1.2

15

30

Pennisetum
macrourum

African Feathergrass

10

1.9

15

30

Stipagrostis
plumosa

Desert Grass

10

1.9

1215

20

Zoysia japonica

Japanese Grass

10

2.5

Spread cm

Common Name

Stem girth cm

Pot Size cm

Peak Daily Demand


l/m2/day

Australian Lemon Grass

Botanical Name
Cybopogon
ambiguus

Clear Trunk/ Total


Height/ Required Size

Page 64

Mean Daily Demand


l/m2/day/year

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Irrigation Group

QCS 2014

1.5.10

Edging Plant Beds

Planting beds shall be uniformly edged, using a sharp tool to provide a clear cut division line
between the planted area and adjacent area and to provide the required shape. The entire
planted area shall be raked smooth while retaining the earth saucers.

Edging materials shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

1.5.11

Mulch

Mulch shall be spread to a uniform depth of 100 mm no later than 48 hours after planting.
Mulch should be kept out of lawn areas, crowns of shrubs and off paved areas and buildings.

1.5.12

Watering of Plants

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Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 65

The contractor shall water the plants as necessary to maintain an adequate supply of
moisture within the root zone and maintain healthy growth. The water shall be allowed to
flow gently around the plant and shall not be delivered to cause disturbance to the roots or
soil. Run-off, puddling and wilting shall be prevented. Earth saucers shall be rebuilt as
needed to retain water.

1.5.13

Pruning

Immediately after planting, all plants are to be pruned as directed by the Engineer and in
accordance with accepted horticultural practices. The total amount of foliage shall be pruned
by one fourth to one third on the installed trees and shrubs to compensate for loss of roots
and transporting shock. Pruning shall be done to carefully. Any damaged, dead or diseased
branches shall be cut back and any weak or malformed growth shall be removed. The typical
growth habit of the individual plant shall be retained.

Cuts shall be clean and shall be made flush with the parent trunk or branch. Improper cuts,
stubs, dead and broken branches shall be removed. Right angle cuts to the line of growth
shall not be permitted. Trees shall not be poled or the leader removed, nor shall the leader
be pruned or topped off. Cuts or wounds shall be painted with an appropriate wound
dressing.

1.5.14

Anti-Desiccant Application

Plants requiring additional protection against wilt and shock shall be sprayed with antidesiccant in accordance with the manufacturers instructions.

1.5.15

Clean up and Site Restoration

Excess and waste material shall be removed daily. Pavements and work areas shall be kept
in a clean and orderly fashion. Pedestrian access points and vehicular access points shall
be maintained and kept clear at all times. All rubbish and litter shall be cleared as it
accumulates within the landscape work area.

When planting and turf work has been completed, all debris including subsoil, excess
agricultural soil, litter, and debris shall be removed and disposed of at a location as agreed
with the Engineer

Existing turf areas, pavements and facilities that have been damaged from planting
operations shall be restored to the original condition at the Contractors expense.

1.5.16

Maintenance during Planting Operations

Newly installed plants shall be maintained in a healthy growing condition.

Maintenance operations shall begin immediately after each plant is installed and shall
continue until the plant establishment period commences.

Maintenance includes watering, pruning, wound dressing, straightening and other necessary
operations.

Plant beds and saucers shall be kept free of weeds and other undesired vegetation.

Plants shall be checked for settlement and shall be reset to the proper level as necessary.

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Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 66

1.6

EXISTING LANDSCAPING

1.6.1

Care of Existing Landscaping

Where construction procedures or site conditions may cause damage or impact to existing
landscaping, it shall be the Contractors responsibility to take measures as described below
to protect and maintain such plant materials throughout the duration of the project, or to
replace such materials at his own expense if accepted by the Engineer.

1.6.2

Identification of Existing Plants

Existing plants shall be tagged with a durable, waterproof and weather resistant label
indicating the correct plant name. Labels shall be securely attached and not removed until
directed by the Engineer.

1.6.3

Watering and Fertilizing Existing Non Native Trees

Holes at 600 mm centres shall be dug by hand or with a mechanical device, a minimum 40
mm in diameter and 500 mm deep, over the outer half of the branch spread zone of each
tree.

Slow release fertiliser shall be placed in each hole to within 100 mm of the surrounding
ground level.

The holes shall be backfilled with approved soil.

Plants shall be irrigated regularly to maintain them in good condition and where necessary a
150mm earth berm shall be formed to contain the water within the plants root zone

1.6.4

Fertilizing Existing Non Native Shrubs and Groundcover Beds

Existing shrubs and groundcover beds shall be topdressed with slow release fertiliser.
Fertiliser adhering to plants shall be flushed with water.

1.6.5

Watering Native Trees, Shrubs and Groundcovers

Existing plants shall be irrigated regularly to maintain them in good condition and where
necessary a 150mm earth berm shall be formed to contain the water within the plants root
zone.

1.6.6

Pruning and Cavity Work

A suitably qualified tree surgeon shall perform the required pruning and cavity work on
existing plants. Sucker growth, deadwood larger than 15 mm in diameter, branches
interfering with or hindering growth of plants and diseased branches shall be removed.

The contractor shall cut back or remove branches as necessary to give plants proper shape
and balance.

Stubs, improper cuts and broken limbs shall be removed.

Cuts shall be clean and shall be made flush with the parent limb or trunk. Cuts, wounds and
cavity work shall be painted with an appropriate tree wound dressing.

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 67

1.7

PLANTING MATERIALS

1.7.1

General

Planting materials are to comply with BS 3936: 1980 and Part 10: 1981, free from pest and
diseases, representative of their species or variety, or size not less than specified in plants
Table Table 9a and 9b, with well-branched head and vigorous root system, free from injury
and obtained from a nursery or other approved sources.

All plants and turf material will conform to the varieties specified or shown in the Project
Documentation and be true to the botanical name as listed in publications.

Substitutions shall only be made when a plant or alternative as specified is not obtainable
and the Engineer authorises a change order providing for use of the nearest equivalent
obtainable.

Plants shall be supplied from localities similar to the climatic conditions of the Project.

1.7.2

Nomenclature

The Contractor shall ensure that nomenclature of trees and plants shown on the drawings
conform to the approved standards and literatures of this section.

Trees are to have straight trunks or trunks characteristics of species, well-shaped tops, and
intact leaders and are to be undercut at least once in the nursery. All trees are to be supplied
earth balled and hessian covered or container grown. Trees shall be of the quantities,
species, and sizes as shown in plants table Table 9a and 9b defining the perimeter or the
circumference of the trunk measured at 1.50 m from the base.

Fruit trees shall be grafted on true rootstock, graft to be at least 20 about planting soil level,
one meter minimum height or as specified by the Engineer.

Palms are to have crown of new leaves, proper colour of leaves of adult palms, and sufficient
hardiness. Palms are to be supplied earth balled and hessian covered, with the exception of
imported palms, handling of which may be subject to government current regulations. Palms
shall be of the quantities, species, and sizes as shown in the plant materials schedule in the
drawings.
(a)

Date palms to be minimum 2 m and maximum 3 m straight clear trunk female type
local variety of KHALAS, KHNAIZI, SHISHI, OR BERHI from approved nursery.
Height of palms shall be as per plants Table Table 9a & 9b.

(b)

Palm trees could be imported if not available locally but the root system shall be at
least 30 cm around the base of the tree in all direction. Local palm trees shall have a
root zone at least 50 cm around the base of the tree in all direction.

Shrubs are to be well grown and filled out. Deciduous shrubs may be supplied bare rooted,
earth balled, or container grown. Evergreen shrubs and vines are to be either earth balled or
container grown. Shrubs shall be of the quantities, species and sizes as shown in the plants
table Table 9a & 9b.

Hedges shall have a spacing of 30 to 50 cm and height as specified in plants table Table 9a
& 9b and planted as single row in one straight continuous trench.

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Part
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Ground covers and succulents plants which are provided in pots and other containers and
which have been acclimatized to outside conditions are acceptable provided they are equal
in quantity to field grown stock and are not root bound. Ground cover plants shall be of the
species, sizes, and spacing shown on the plant materials schedule plants table Table 9a &
9b.

1.7.3

Guaranties Planting Material

The Contractor shall certify in writing that all plant material of each consignment delivered to
site to be utilized will be according to these specifications are true to their species. If
contractor supply through import, he shall submit a guaranty of availability of plants with
specified characteristics sizes, height, calipers etc. Issued by the supplier for engineers
approval.

The Contractor shall also submit certificate of origin, phyto sanitary certificate and certificate
of guarantee from supplier stating that the imported plants are true to the specified speciesvarieties for engineers approval.

If the plants are to be grown in Qatar, samples of all specified varieties shall be submitted in
the form of a reserved plot at the mother nursery ready for inspection and approval by the
Engineer.

Due to some project need the Engineer could ask for site nursery to be used for storing and
caretaking of plants prior to planting. This site nursery shall have its own water tanks, power,
shade and irrigation system.

Trees, shrubs, ground cover and grass shall be guaranteed for the duration of the 400 days
maintenance period. Palm trees shall be guaranteed for a period of 400 calendar days after
installation approval.

1.7.4

Accessories

Stakes for Trees:

(a)

De-barked timber, straight, free of knots, splits or other projections, pointed at the end,
lower end to min. 15 cm above grade level shall be treated with non-injurious wood
preservative carried out at least two weeks before stakes are used, minimum section
50 mm and length 2 m depending on height of a tree. The stakes shall be laid 50 cm
deep in the soil.

(b)

Position two stakes close to tree but outside the perimeter of the root-ball, and drive
vertically a minimum 50 cm into pit and until top of stake is required height.

(c)

Consolidate material around stake during backfilling, secure trees with wire and tree
tie as shown on drawings.

Stakes for Small Shrubs and Hedges:


(a)

De|-barked timber, straight, free of knots, splits or other projections, pointed at the
end, lower end to min. 15 cm above grade level shall be treated with non-injurious
wood preservative carried out at least two weeks before stakes are used, minimum
section 25 mm and length depending on height of a shrub or hedge. The stakes shall
be laid 30 cm deep in the soil.

QCS 2014
(b)

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 69

Position one stake close to shrub or hedge but outside the perimeter of the root-ball,
and drive vertically a minimum 30 cm into pit and until top of stake is required height.

Protection shelter for fruit and specimen trees shall be made of 4 wood stakes 2 meter long,
5x5 cm section and 30 cm deep in the ground at 10 cm away from tree branches. The
wooden stakes are wrapped with shade net 70% shade factor and braced one to the other
on top.

Guys for Palms: Only for palms with root balls less than 40 cm. Palms shall be tied to the
ground from 50 cm below crown with three gI wire placed inside a 15 mm Polyethylene Tube
around the palm trunk, and tied to steel anchors dug 60 cm deep into the soil and flush with
ground level.

Tree Stakes Wires: 3 mm diameter, solid galvanized wire in suitable lengths fixed to a
position approximately two thirds of a tree height, looped around the stem and protected by
an approved tree-tie.

Twine for Tying: lightly tarred medium or coarse sisal yarn.

Burlap: jute of 0.20 kg/m2 or cloth having same strength and resistance to tearing and
capable of rotting in the ground.

Plastic Mowing Strip: Super-Edge made of durable, flexible polypropylene.


(a)

The edge shall have 3.5 to 4% carbon black concentrate added for UV stabilization
and medium density with a melt factor under 2. Minimum average thickness shall be
95/1000 to 95/1000 of an inch.

(b)

Overall height shall be 5 inches minimum. Top edge shall have a 1 inch horizontal
circle and galvanized steel anchoring stakes at least every 2 meters.

A 15 years guarantee shall be given against cracking, rot, disintegration and manufacturer
defects.
9

Rubber Ties: Shall be manufactured from UV stabilize rubber or equal approved by


engineer.
(a)

It shall be ideally suitable for outdoor application.

(b)

The type of rubber ties shall be chain look or strap or twist look or equivalent.

10

Labels: Each plant, or group of plants or container of the same species, variety, and size of
plant, shall be legibly tagged with a durable, waterproof and weather resistant label
indicating the correct plant name and reference number if applicable. Labels shall be
securely attached and not removed.

1.7.5

Transplanting Plants

Certificates: provide manufacturers or suppliers certified analysis for fertilizer materials and
other substantiating that materials comply with specified requirements.

Samples: submit samples of materials for approval. For standard products, the
manufacturers analysis will be acceptable. For all other materials, analysis is to be provided
by recognized laboratories.

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 70

Inspection: the Engineer reserves the right to inspect trees and shrubs either at place of
growth or on site before planting, to verify compliance with requirements for names, variety,
size and quality, condition of root systems, presence of insects, injuries, and latent defects.
Remove rejected trees and shrubs immediately from site at Contractor expenses.

Planting Schedule: the Contractor shall submit planting schedules, showing proposed
planting dates for each type of planting to be approved by the Engineer taking into
consideration season limitation on planting seasonal plants, grass, and palms.

Packaged Materials: deliver packaged material in unopened containers showing weight,


analysis, and name of manufacturer. Protect materials from deterioration during delivery and
while stored in site. Damaged materials are to be replaced as required.

Manufacturers Recommendations: apply fertilizer, herbicides and the like strictly in


accordance with manufacturers recommendations, observe all precautions. Remove
containers from site when no longer required.

1.7.6

Planting Time

Plant during normal planting seasons for each type of plant as approved by the Engineer.

Do not plant when soil is waterlogged or excessively dry or when persistent cold or drying
winds are likely to occur, obtain approval from the Company to vary planting dates if special
conditions so warrant.

Give the Engineer 48 hours notice before commencing planting, maintenance, or


replacement work using checklists supplied by the Engineer.

No planting shall be carried out during periods of heavy rain, sandstorms, heavy winds, or
during intense daytime heat. Plants and trees shall only be moved or planted between midSeptember and mid-May.

When special conditions warrant a variance to the planting time and conditions, a proposed
planting schedule shall be submitted to the Engineer for review and approval. In such cases,
the planting will be installed at no additional cost and all conditions and obligations such as
maintenance and warranty remain the same as specified herein

1.7.7

Water Consumption

Daily water requirement for different plant type is as shown below in Table 10
(a)

Daily water requirement will differ depending on season and particular type of ground
cover and shrub species.

(b)

During Rain: Irrigation system feeding drip emitters shall be switched off, when
precipitation rate exceeds 12mm, otherwise allow for more salt leaching effects to
happen.

QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 71

Table 10:
Peak Daily Water Requirements See Irrigation 2.6.1 for details
Plant Type

Daily Water
Requirement

Palms

120 ltr/day/palm

Large trees

80 ltr/day/per tree

Small trees

60 ltr/day/tree

Ground cover

10 ltr/day/m

Seasonals

10 ltr/day/m

Hedges

12 ltr/day/m length

Large shrub

20 ltr/day/plant

Small shrub

8 ltr/day/plant

Grass

12-18 ltr/day/m

Note the above rates are peak rates for maximum demand volume calculations. Seasonal gradation
needs to be calculated for annual irrigation water budget as per Section 28 Part-02 Irrigation system
Appendix 2.6.1. Actual irrigation water scheduling shall be based on weather station to ensure only
the required water is delivered to the plant
1.7.8

Percolation Test

Fill each planting pit with irrigation water and ensure that the water can drain away. In case
of poor drainage, a percolation test shall be carried out and drainage holes augured if
required.

Percolation Test Procedure:


(a)

One day prior to the test the pit/bed shall be filled with water.

(b)

A marker bar is placed in the pit/ bed before the test is performed.

(c)

The pit / bed are half filled with water and the level is indicated with tape on the marker
bar.

(d)

The test is monitored over a period of one hour. If the water level drops by 20 mm. or
more within that time the pit/ bed passes.

(e)

If a pit/ bed fail the percolation test, boreholes shall be augured 2 No/tree pit or 10 m
spacing in planting beds. Tests shall repeat at each 0.5 m depth of borehole until the
test is passed.

1.7.9

Installation for Trees and Shrubs

Plants shall be handled carefully and arranged so they take full advantage of the individual
character of each plant in relationship to other plants.

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Section 28: Landscaping


Part
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Page 72

Plants shall be placed in the centre of each pit, set plumb and held in place until sufficient
backfill mixture has been firmly placed around the root ball. Plants shall be placed so that the
level at which they were set with respect to surrounding ground level before installation is the
same as after installation.

Ball and burlap plants shall have twine, metal, plastic and wire ties removed from the tops of
the earth ball after backfill soil has been placed to approximately two thirds of the ball depth,
tamped lightly and watered. Backfilling around plant shall be completed in 150 mm layers
after water has drained away. Burlap wrapping shall not be pulled out from under the earth
ball.

Plants supplied in non-biodegradable containers shall be removed in such a way as to


prevent damage to plant or root system. Before planting, any damaged or broken roots shall
be carefully trimmed and removed.

A 100 to 150 mm high earth saucer shall be formed around individual plants. The diameter of
the saucer should be larger than and outside the backfilled area.

After planting, plants shall be guyed or staked as required or directed by the Engineer. Trees
and shrubs shall be protected against wind and sun with burlap wrapping where necessary
or directed to ensure satisfactory establishment of plant.

Trees 1.2 to 1.8 m tall shall be held in place with one 1 bracing stake. The stake shall be
positioned close to the tree on the windward side. The stake shall be driven vertically into
firm ground taking care not to injure the roots. The tree shall be held firmly to the stake with a
double strand of wire placed 1m above ground level. A chafing guard shall be used were the
wire is in contact with the tree.

Trees 1.8 to 2.5 m tall shall be held in place with two 2 bracing stakes placed on opposite
sides. The stake shall be driven vertically into firm ground taking care not to injure the roots.
The tree shall be shall be held firmly in place placed 1m above ground level with a double
stand of wire Chafing guards shall be used where the wire is in contact with the tree.

Trees taller than 2.5 m shall be held firmly in place with three 3 guying lines of double strand
wire placed equidistantly around the tree. The wire shall be anchored with ground stakes
driven into firm ground outside the earth saucer. The wire shall be anchored to the tree at a
point equal or greater than one third of its height. A flag shall be securely fastened to each
guying wire.

1.7.10

Installation of Palms

Palms shall be lifted and moved with a crane or other approved method to avoid any
damage to any part of the palm.

Palms shall be placed in the centre of each pit, set plumb and held in place until sufficient
backfill mixture has been firmly placed around the root ball. The top of the root ball should be
100 mm below the top of the planting pit. The pit shall be backfilled with specified mixture to
approximately two thirds of depth of the root ball, tamped lightly and watered. Backfilling
around plant shall be completed in 150 mm layers after water has drained away. A 100 to
150 mm high earth saucer shall be formed around the palm. The diameter of the saucer
should be larger than and outside the backfilled area.

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Part
01: Landscape Planting

Page 73

1.8

GRASS

1.8.1

Materials and Products

Grass Stolons: Paspalum vaginatum, Bermuda or other type as specified by the Engineer
minimum age of 12 months, with root of sufficient development that will support growth.
Submit certification for grass species.

Grass sprigs shall be provided as healthy living stems stolons or rhizomes with attached
roots including two to three nodes. They shall be 5 to 15 mm long without adhering soil. The
limitation of time between harvesting and planting of sprigs shall be 24 hours. Sprigs shall be
obtained from heavy and dense turf, free from weeds. Sprigs that have been exposed to
heat and excessive drying will be rejected. Sprigs shall be planted at 150 mm apart in both
directions.

Turf shall be strongly rooted, not less than 2 years old, free of weeds and undesirable native
grass. Only turf that is capable of vigorous growth and development when laid shall be used.
Turf shall be of a uniform size in width and length. Broken pads or pads with uneven ends
will not be acceptable.

1.8.2

Workmanship

Provide manufacturer's or supplier's certified analysis for grass and fertilizer materials and
other data substantiating that materials comply with specified requirements.

Provide certificate of compliance from authority having jurisdiction indicating approval of


fertilizer and herbicide composition and mixtures.

Submit samples of materials for approval. For standard products, the manufacturer's
analysis will be acceptable. For all other materials, analysis is to be provided by recognized
laboratories.

Supplier/Grower shall be a Qatar based company or equivalent specializing in the


production/propagation of the work of this section.

Installer shall have a minimum of 5 years experience and approved by the Engineer.

Deliver packaged materials in unopened containers showing weight, analysis, and name of
manufacturer. Protect materials from deterioration during delivery while stored on site.
Damaged materials are to be replaced as required.

Apply fertilizer, herbicides, and the like strictly in accordance with manufacturers'
instructions, observe all precautions. Remove containers from site when no longer required.

Co-ordinate with installation of underground sprinkler system piping and watering heads.
Coordinate with installation of trees, palms, shrubs and groundcover.

1.8.3

Soil Preparation

Final cultivation of planted areas: remove stones and fill eroded areas with fresh topsoil in
case found.

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Final cultivation of seeded grass areas: after final grading, lightly and uniformly firm soil and
reduce top 100 mm to fine tilts. Rake to true, even surface, removing stones more than 25
mm in any dimension. Add organic fertilizer or inorganic fertilizer at recommended and
approved rates.

Obtain approval of prepared soil areas before seeding.

1.8.4

Delivery

Deliver grass in stolons, or sprigs form bundled and packaged in accordance with standard
trade practices.

Do not deliver sprigs quantities which is more than can be spread and planted within 24
hours.

1.8.5

Seeding

Grass seed shall be the latest seasons crop and shall be delivered in original
sealed packages bearing the producers guaranteed analysis for percentage of
mixtures, purity, weed seed content, and inert material. Seed that has become wet,
mouldy, or otherwise damaged will not be acceptable. On-site seeding shall be done in the
presence of the Engineer. The seed mixture shall be sown at the rate of 35 g/m2. Grass
seed mixtures shall be listed by schedule with information as follows:
(a)

botanical name

(b)

common name

(c)

proportion by weight

(d)

minimum percentage of pure seed

(e)

minimum percentage of germination

(f)

maximum percentage of weed seed

Do not sow if soil is waterlogged or excessively dry or when persistent drying winds are likely
to occur.

One day before sowing apply inorganic fertilizer at the rate of 50 gm/m over grass areas
and water in.

Spread seed evenly at rate of 1 kg/30 m or as stated on suppliers catalogue and approved
by the Engineer applied in two equal sowings in transverse directions. Lightly harrow or rake
and water.

1.8.6

Preparation and Installation of Carpet Grass

Verify that prepared soil mixture base is ready to receive the work of this section.

Prepare sub-soil and eliminate uneven areas and low spots.

Maintain lines, levels, profiles and contours. Make changes in grade gradually to blend
slopes into level areas.

Scarify topsoil to a depth of 100 mm where soil mixture is placed.

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Repeat cultivation in areas where equipment used for hauling and spreading soil mixture has
compacted subsoil.

Co-ordinate works with irrigation installer and utility inspections prior to this work.

Placing soil mixture: refer to section 1.3.17 & 1.3.18 above.

Roll carpet grass with a use of water drum roller to compact lightly.

Fill low patches and low areas with dune sand as final levelling.

10

Irrigate adequately to saturate the top 100mm of soil.

1.8.7

Watering, Cutting, and Completion

During establishment of grass areas ensure that sufficient water is applied to maintain
healthy growth. Carry out watering using sprinkler until full depth of topsoil is saturated.

Separate grassed planting bays planting separator from adjacent ground covers, shrubs, or
aggregate finish areas by approved plastic mowing strips fixed to manufacturer's
recommendations.

When 90% of area is covered by grass, cut first cut to a height of approximately 40 mm
using mowing machines in preference to cutting knives. After cutting, fertilize area covered
2
by grass with sulphate of ammonia at the rate of 30 gm/m then water thoroughly.

Mow subsequent cuts to keep grass at approximately 50 mm height.

Remove soil from hard surfaces and leave the site in a clean and tidy condition.

1.9

APPLICATION OF PESTICIDE

1.9.1

General Requirements

When pesticide becomes necessary to remove a disease or pest, a trained and certified
operative shall apply the required pesticide in accordance with the recommendations of the
manufacturer.

Hydraulic equipment shall be provided for liquid application of pesticides with a leak proof
tank, positive agitation methods, controlled application pressure and metering gauges.

Prior to application the Contractor shall submit a pesticide treatment plan to the Engineer.

1.10

WARRANTY, MAINTENANCE AND HANDOVER

1.10.1

Plant Establishment and Warranty Period

Upon substantial completion of landscaping works as approved by the Engineer, the plant
establishment period for maintaining installed plants in a healthy growing condition shall
commence. The plant establishment period shall be in effect until the end of the warranty
period. At the end of the warrantee period, all plants and turf shall be in a healthy and living
condition.

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When planting operations extend over more than one season or there is a variance to the
planting times, the plant establishment periods shall be furnished for work completed, as
directed. Written calendar dates shall be furnished to the Engineer for the beginning of the
plant establishment period. When there is more than one plant establishment period, the
boundaries of the planted areas covered for each period shall be detailed.

1.10.2

Plant Maintenance during the Establishment Period

Maintenance of plants shall include straightening plants, tightening stakes and guying
material, repairing wrapping, protecting plant areas from erosion, supplementing mulch,
application of tree wound dressing, removing dead or broken tip growth by pruning,
maintaining edges of plant beds and earth saucers, maintaining plant labels, salinity control,
watering, weeding, removing and replacing unhealthy plants, pesticide treatment and other
horticultural operations necessary for proper plant growth and keeping the Site neat in
appearance. The Contractor shall provide all necessary labour, equipment and materials to
comply with this operation.

Watering shall be conducted regularly to maintain an adequate supply of moisture within the
root zone.

Weed control and debris removal shall be routinely performed by the Contractor. Grass and
weeds shall not be allowed to reach a height of 50 mm in any tree basin or around any plant
before being completely removed, including the root growth.

Throughout the maintenance the Contractor shall continue a fertiliser programme to maintain
soil nutrients, and fertility suitable to proper plant growth.

Amended agriculture soil shall be added to maintain finished ground levels and to maintain
earth saucers. Serious settlement affecting the setting /level of the plant in relation to the
depth at which it was grown will require replanting in accordance with Clause 1.5.

Treatment for disease or pest shall be in accordance with Clause 1.10.

1.10.3

Replacement Plants during the Establishment Period

A survey of the landscaping works shall be carried out fifty 50 days after acceptance of
substantial completion. Following the survey, the Engineer will direct the Contractor to
remove and replace all plants determined as dead. Plants reviewed that exhibit questionable
abilities to survive will be tagged by the Contractor in the presence of the Engineer and be
reviewed after an additional twenty five 25 days to determine acceptance or rejection. The
Contractor shall make reasonable efforts to stabilise the quality of the tagged plants.

All replacement planting shall be at the Contractors expense.

1.10.4

Lawn Maintenance during Plant Establishment Period

Maintenance shall consist of watering, fertilising, weeding, mowing, trimming and other
operations as required to establish a smooth acceptable lawn free of eroded or bare areas. If
required, the Contractor shall apply maintenance fertiliser after the second mowing. Any
additional fertiliser shall be added when grass is dry. After application of the fertiliser, the
area shall be watered well

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The Contractor shall maintain lawns for not less than the period stated below and longer as
required to establish an acceptable lawn.

Seeded lawn areas shall be maintained through three 3 maintenance cuttings but not less
than sixty 60 days after substantial completion.

Sprigged and turfed lawn areas shall be maintained through two 2 maintenance cuttings but
not less than thirty 30 days after substantial completion.

1.10.5

Final Acceptance

Prior to the completion of the plant establishment period, a preliminary inspection shall be
undertaken by the Engineer. The time for this inspection shall be established in writing. The
quantity and types of plants installed and the acceptability of the plants shall be determined.
The plant establishment and warranty period will end with this inspection provided that the
Contractor has complied with the work required under Clause 1.11.1. The Contractor shall
also comply with the following requirements.

Dead, missing or defective plant material or turf shall be replaced. Replaced plants will be of
the same size and species as originally specified.

Weed plant beds and saucers. Prior to inspection treat these areas with an application of
approved pre-emergent herbicide.

Remove stakes, guy wires and wrappings from plants as directed by the Engineer.

Complete remedial measures as directed by the Engineer.

Repair damages caused while making plant or turf repairs.

A final inspection, if required, shall be undertaken by the Engineer to determine that the
deficiencies noted in the preliminary inspection have been corrected. The time for this
inspection shall be established in writing.

1.11

MAINTENANCE

1.11.1

General

Maintenance Personnel: to have experience in Qatar based landscape contracting company


specializing in installing and planting.

Maintenance Manual: upon completion of defects and liability period, and prior to final
acceptance, provide the company with four 4 copies of a bound, waterproof maintenance
manual.

The manual shall contain seasonal irrigation water and fertilizer application rates, pesticide,
insecticide, fungicide and herbicide applications by plant type.

Maintenance Manual shall also include in detail all general landscape maintenance
procedures for soil and all types of planting groups being part of this project, including but
necessarily limited to:

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(a)

pruning, trimming, thinning, edging, mowing, fertilization, top-dressing, weeding,


irrigation, disease control, insect control, pest control, weed control, re-sprigging,
replanting, pruning, repairs, thinning,

(b)

The minimum requirements for fertilizer application program are as per Table 11 & 12.

(c)

The manuals shall be both in Arabic and English

Penalty for Non-Performance/ Delay: Due to the nature of the soft landscaping and the effect
it has on the public appearance, the Contractor must carry out the maintenance work as
scheduled and direct by the Engineer. Failure to do so will have severe consequences on
the Contractor and the Engineer may take action the maintenance work. The Main
Contractor shall bear all the cost implications arising from this action and no payment shall
be processed until the Main Contractor processes the payment due to the new contractor
that carried out the work.

The Contractor shall execute the require maintenance work in accordance with the approved
maintenance program / schedule without any delay and to the satisfaction of the Engineer. In
the event the Contractor fails to carry out the work specified, Public Work Authority shall
employ persons other than the Contractors staff to carry out the work and shall recover from
the Contractor such costs incurred thereby from any monies due, or which become due, to
the Contractor. In addition the Contractor shall be liable to Penalties as follows:
(a)

Delay in cutting and maintaining grass.

(b)

Delay in cutting and maintaining ground cover plants

(c)

Delay in pruning and maintaining hedges.

(d)

Delay in pruning and maintaining trees, shrubs.

(e)

Delay in applying fertilizer and soil amendment.

(f)

If delay in replacing dead plant is more than 6 days the Engineer will reserve the right
to hire another Contractor to replant the missing plant and shall recover from the Main
Contractor such costs incurred thereby from any monies due, or which become due, to
the Contractor.

Plant replacement: all dead and unhealthy plants shall be removed immediately; palms that
do not show a healthy growth within 90 days shall be replaced.

Duration of maintenance period: maintenance works upon planting material and irrigation
installations shall be carried-out by the Contractor for the time period of 400 days from the
date of issue of primary handover certificate.

Cleanliness: the Contractor shall maintain all materials installed and keep the site clean
during maintenance.

10

During the works: the premises shall be kept neat and orderly at all times including storage
areas for plants and other materials.

11

Rubbish: including debris resulting from horticultural works shall be removed from the site
daily as the work progresses.

12

Paved Areas: shall be kept clean by sweeping and / or hosing.

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13

Tags, Labels: nursery stakes and ties shall be removed from all plants.

14

Personnel: the Contractor shall separately list of the personnel, workforce and adequate
equipment to perform the maintenance works herein specified to be carried out from the date
of acceptance of the project by the Engineer until completion of the 400 days plant
establishment period.

1.11.2

Appearance of the Ground

The grass, trees, shrubs and other plants shall thrive and the Contractor shall carry out all
normal horticultural operations to ensure coming about.
(a)

The contractor shall plant the seasonal flowers during normal planting season.

(b)

All the supplied plants shall be healthy and not weak or dead, it must be meeting the
project's requirements as per the specifications.

(c)

During the maintenance period, the Contractor is responsible for maintaining and
replacing the seasonal flowers till the end of the contract.

(d)

All the agricultural processes to be under the supervision and approval of the
Engineer.

(e)

The contractor shall submit for approval by the Engineer the seasonal flowers
replacement during maintenance period contains information about plants genus,
2
species, number of plants per m , planting date, replacement date, replacements type
and observation in an approved form.

The ground shall appear neat, tidy and well cared for and the collection and disposal of
rubbish and litter of all sorts from paths, lawns and beds shall be part of the Contractor
responsibilities and he shall allow for it in his rates.

Fallen leaves and small bark and twigs debris shall be cultivated in to the soil if approved by
the Engineer.

Surfaces for palms and trees shall not be dug deep, on the contrary the saucers shall be
maintained as shallow as possible and surrounding ground cover or grass shall not be
allowed to reach the tree.

Defects: remove and immediately replace trees, shrubs, or plants found to be dead,
unhealthy or vandalized during the maintenance period with approved, true to species
equivalent trees, shrubs, or plants.

Provide maintenance of the planted areas from date of provisional acceptance until the end
of the maintenance period and final acceptance.

Cultivation: keep beds clear of weed by cultivating and use of approved herbicides. Fork
over beds as necessary to keep soil loose.

Fertilizer: to be applied for all plants as specified in the Table 11 below:

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Table 11:
Fertilizer application schedule during maintenance period

Item

Type of Plant

Type of
fertilizer

Grass

Ground
cover

Seasonal Hedges

Date palms

Urea/
Ammonium
Sulfate

20 g/m
Monthly

25 g/m
Monthly

25 g/m
Monthly

30 g/m 1Kg/Tree every


Monthly
6 Month

25 g/m
Monthly

NPK

20 g/m
Monthly

25 g/m
Monthly

30 g/m 1 Kg/Tree every


Monthly
6 month

Slow
Release
Fertilizer

20 g/m
every 2
Month

NA

NA

NA

500 g Feb and


May

Organic
Fertilizer

After plug
aeration

Every 6
month

Before
planting

Every 6
Month

Jan & May

Trees

Shrubs

25 g/m
Monthly

25 g/m
Monthly

25 g/m
Monthly

25 g/m
Monthly

200 g/3
times

40 g/3
times

Jan & May Jan & May

The Contractor shall prune the plants as follows:


(a)

At appropriate time to remove dead or dying and diseased wood and suckers, to
promote healthy growth and natural shape.

(b)

Dress cut ends exceeding 25 mm diameter with approved tree wound dressing.

(c)

Preserve the natural character. Do not remove leader or small branches along trunks.

(d)

Use clean sharp tools and make cuts clean and flush without leaving stubs.

(e)

Cut back to living tissue.

(f)

Cuts, scars and bruises shall be shaped as not to retain any water

10

Pruning paint to be approved asphalt based commercial paint Tree seal or equal approved
prepared for tree surgery containing fungicide and shall be applied to any tree/shrub wound
large then 20 mm. Paint shall cover all exposed cambium as well as other exposed living
tissue.

11

Pruning of Hedges and Topiary: all shall be trimmed every four weeks during high vegetation
period, every two weeks in case of excessive growth of certain species. The wood shall
never appear after trimming. Topiary shall be trimmed with specific steel wire frame to match
designed topiary. The geometrical patterns shall be trimmed using stretched ropes and high
guides to maintain shape personnel.
(a)

Trimming of topiary shall be done in accordance with designed shapes. Where hedges
are designed continuity of hedge shall be maintained.

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(b)

Cut back dead stems to just above healthy buds monthly. Limit amount of pruning to
minimum necessary to encourage proper growth and not to change natural habit of
shape.

(c)

Apply tree wound dressing or fungicide on all pruned stems to avoid infection.

12

Remove Burlap Wrapping from palm when new leaves show vigorous growth.

13

Tree Stakes: check condition of stakes, ties, and guards. Replace broken or missing items.
Adjust ties if necessary to prevent rubbing of bark. Cut back damaged bark and treat wound
with tree wound dressing.

14

Raking: rake gravel to even surface and remove any litter.

15

Weeding:
(a)

Removal of weed is to be done on a weekly basis for both Dicotyledonous and


Monocotyledonous weeds.

(b)

Weeds have to be removed with roots and shall not be left on grass areas for any
reason, and instead shall be put in a fresh directly to avoid spreading and falling of
seeds.

(c)

Herbicides can be used for controlling Dicotyledonous weeds.

(d)

Before every mowing, the grass areas are to be checked for presence of any weeds.

(e)

The weeding dates shall be mentioned by the Contractor and the work to be done
under the supervision and approval of the Engineer's according to the site
requirements as per the relevant weeding activity record form.

16

Pest and disease control: the Contractor shall check plants material and take remedial action
as appropriate and in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations. Application of pest
control schedule is required and approval from site engineer is needed. Fungicides or
Insecticides shall not be performed during the day to avoid leaf burns; application shall be
done in the evening or early morning.

17

Cultivating / Hoeing: cultivating shall consist of scarifying the top 80-100mm of planting bed
so lumps of soil are all less than 50mm and all weeds are removed.

18

Iron Deficiency: plants prone to iron and/or trace elements deficiency shall be checked
monthly and diluted iron applied as required.

1.11.3

Grass Maintenance

Maintain grassed areas immediately after placement until grass is well established and
exhibits a vigorous growing condition. Continue maintenance until final acceptance. Turf
areas will be accepted upon 100% coverage being as approved by the Engineer.

Defects: re-cultivate and re-seed bare areas and areas of dead grass. At the end of the
maintenance period gassed areas in a healthy condition, with full coverage of grass, without
thin or bald areas.

Provide maintenance of the grassed areas as specified below from date of handing over until
the end of the maintenance period.

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Mowing: cut grass regularly during the growing season to maintain a height of approximately
50 mm, using approved mechanical cylindrical mowers.
(a)

Mowing of the grass areas must be done to keep the height of the grass at 3cm
minimum and 5 cm maximum.

(b)

For mowing operations only cylindrical lawns mowers are to be used,, the blades of
mowers shall be always sharp to have proper cutting,, use of blunt blades will not
produce even shape,, the lawn mowers shall be in proper condition and there shall not
be leakage of oil or petrol on the grass areas,, only trained personnel are allowed to
mow the grass areas.

(c)

The mowing must be done in one direction, the Contractor shall change the mowing
direction each two mowing operations.

(d)

The contractor must ensure the removing of the grass cutting's products and all
garbage properly and in the same day after the grass mowing and dumped to an
approved dumping yard.

(e)

Grass cuttings to be collected prior to disposal on top of a shade net not directly on
top grass

(f)

Where mowing strip is not provided, edges shall be trimmed with an appropriate
weed-eater machine. Vertical trim shall be done using manual lawn trimmer

(g)

Clippings shall be raked off and taken away from site unless directed otherwise by the
Engineer.

(h)

Grass shall be mowed in parallel strips at regular speed. Edges shall be trimmed
manually and maintained neat and tidy, curves to be smooth to centres.

(i)

The Contractor shall submit a schedule about mowing operation containing the
mowing operation record each week for all the season in an approved form by the
Engineer.

Edging and Trimming:


(a)

Along with the mowing operations the edges of the grass areas are to be trimmed with
approved trimming machines.

(b)

Under no circumstances the grass shall be allowed to grow down the road kerbstone
or along the walkways.

(c)

The Contractor must be accurate during edging's operation and shall maintain a
constant distance of 5 cm between the grass and the garden kerbstone.

(d)

The grass growing along the tree barns is to be trimmed and properly maintained.

(e)

The edging must be done under the supervision and approval of the Engineer.

(f)

The edging dates shall be mentioned by the Contractor for each month of the year in
an approved form by the Engineer.

Plug Aeration:
(a)

Plug aeration must be done by using specific machines Aerators.

(b)

To have an effective growth aeration of the grass shall be done once in every four
months

(c)

Immediately after aeration & scarification, fertilization with NPK + urea has to be done
followed by rolling after 2 days.

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Aeration shall be done immediately after hard mowing to a depth of 12 cm minimum.

Verticutting shall be done every 6 months and immediately followed by watering and rolling.
Speed of scarifying shall be to the manufacturers specifications. Rake to remove matted
and dead grass and roots
(a)

First the Contractor has to mow the lawns as normal and then use scarification
machine to loosen and thin the root zone

(b)

Direction of scarifying shall be alternated at each scarifying session.

Water grass to prevent grass and soil from drying out.

Percolation: in a case of visibly poor soil drainage, perform soil percolation test and prepare
remedy report for the Engineer approval.

10

Rolling: roll grass, after watering using a light roller as required.

11

Inorganic fertilizer:
(a)

The grass areas are to be fertilized once a month, this has to be done under the
Engineer's approval and supervision.

(b)

Fertilization is to be done immediately after the mowing operations.

(c)

A part from those mentioned, macro nutrients application or micro nutrients is to


be applied when required.

(d)

Immediately after fertilization, proper wetting is to be done to dissolve the fertilizer.

(e)

The used mixture must be done according to the following proportions shown in the
Table 12 below. The Contractor shall inform the Engineer regarding the used NPK
contents and any observations in a periodical manner approved by the Engineer.
Table 12: Monthly Inorganic Fertilization application for grass
Months

Mixture Proportions/m

January

32 g NPK + 8 g Urea

February

20g NPK + 20 g Urea

March

20g NPK + 20 g Urea

April

20g NPK + 20 g Urea

May

24 g NPK + 16 g Urea

June

36 g NPK + 4 g Urea

July

36 g NPK + 4 g Urea

August

36 g NPK + 4 g Urea

September

36 g NPK + 4 g Urea

October

32 g NPK + 8 g Urea

November

32 g NPK + 8 g Urea

December

32 g NPK + 8 g Urea

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12

Sprinklers level: all pop-up grass sprinklers / heads shall be adjusted to be flush with final
grade and 25 cm below edge of grass.

13

Grass shall be replaced immediately after showing signs of deterioration or bare spots.
Protect sowed areas with warning signs during maintenance period.

14

Hard mowing: to be done three times per year to 5 mm prior to aeration.

15

Pesticide application:
(a)

Application of Pesticides must be undertaken by an experienced staff, The work shall


be performed and supervised at all times by qualified personnel , The Contractor has
to ensure all the safety conditions for his staff, They must be wearing a proper working
clothes , gloves and put mask's during treatment.

(b)

The contractor shall arrange for an inspection request prior to application.

(c)

The contractor shall submit catalogue's data and literature's of manufacturers and
suppliers, it must contains information's about :
(i)

The chemical name, structure and concentration of the active ingredients with
the spreading and emulsion materials of each product.

(ii)

The date of product and expiry, all products must be produced no more than
one year before treatment and not expired.

(iii)

The commercial name of each product , formula's description , The


manufacturer's recommended dosage for each plant, The safety period after
treatment , The chemical residues of each product on plants or soil , The mixing
ability with other pesticides or fertilizer's, and the LD 50 .

(d)

All the pesticides shall be delivered to the site in the original, unopened containers
bearing the manufacturer's guarantee and all the necessary information's of usage.

(e)

The treatment must be done at early morning or before sun set, water shall not be
applied only at least 24 hours after treatment.

(f)

The contractor must not spray pesticides during windy and rainy weather. Ideal
pressure setting shall be used to avoid air drifting of pesticides.

(g)

Prior to application the Contractor shall submit a pesticide's treatment plan to the
Engineer, applying program to be approved and supervised by the Engineer.

(h)

The contractor shall use the same active ingredients mentioned in the plan, approved
by the Engineer who will preserve the rights to increase or decrease the dosage and
choose the best formulations of each pesticide.

(i)

Hydraulic equipment spraying machine shall be provided for liquid application of


pesticide with a leak proof tank, two operational nozzle's to ensure a good and
sufficient coverage, positive agitation methods, controlled application pressure and
metering gauges , the Contractor may use the pesticide's holder with multi nozzle's
for application.

(j)

The contractor must not apply all pesticides mentioned in the specification at the same
application to prevent the bad effects of the chemical on plants or soil, he shall also
use a vary types of pesticides alternatively to avoid the pest's resistance, this to be
approved and supervised by the Engineer.

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(k)

The contractor must keep newly treated area's with pesticides off limit as per the
manufacturer's recommendations, he shall protect treated area's with warning tape
and signage approved by the Engineer showing the date of re-entry in Arabic and
English.

(l)

According to the activity peak of the pests in Qatar , the Contractor shall do four
preventive applications to ensure the inhibition of the pests during season as following
(i)

In November, the Contractor shall apply fungicide of Metalaxyl in a slow release


formulation such as granules to control the soil born fungi's addition to another
general fungicide and a systemic insecticide to control the other types of fungi's
and the insects which are capable of being active during cold weather.

(ii)

In February, The contractor shall apply the same formulation of Metalaxyl with a
mixture of another general fungicide and a systemic insecticide taking into
consideration that the Contractor shall use a different types of the general
fungicide and insecticide than the previous application to avoid pest's
resistance.

(iii)

In May, the Contractor shall apply a mixture of insecticides consisting of


systemic and contact insecticides addition to a general fungicide.

(iv)

In September, the Contractor shall apply the same mixture of insecticides and
fungicides but he shall use different active ingredients to ensure the best results
from application.

(m)

Any occurrence of infection with different types of pests, insects, fungi's and
nematodes during the whole project's period, the Contractor shall be responsible of
identifying and controlling all type of infections by using the proper pesticides.
Selection of pesticides with a proper formulation and dosage will be done by the
Engineer.

(n)

The contractor shall fill the pesticides treatment in a schedule contains all the
necessary information in an approved form by the Engineer.

16

Top dressing: immediately after pesticide application and plug aeration spread and brush in
organic fertilizer as per quantities shown above in Table 11 & 12.

17

Lawn mowers: maintenance shall be in accordance with manufacturer's recommendation


especially in regard to greasing and blades sharpening.

18

Blunt blades shall not be used; they alter the general appearance of lawns.

19

Spiking and raking: once a year, during the dormant period, spike the grassed area, using a
spiked or hollow tined roller and rake to remove matted and dead grass and roots.

20

Weeding: remove weeds as they develop either by hand or use of approved selective weed
killer. Apply herbicides in accordance with manufacturer's recommendation. Remedy
damage resulting from improper use of herbicides.

QCS 2014
1.12

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

APPENDIX A LANDSCAPING DETAILS 1

Appendix A contains the details listed below:


1

30mm / 20mm Cell to Capture Surface Water

Palm Planting Details

Palm Tie Details

Typical Tree and Excavation Details

Typical Tree Wooden Stakes Details

Small Shrub Planting Details

Hedge Planting Details

Large Shrub Planting Details

Grass Planting Details

10

Ground Cover Planting Details

11

Plan for Ground Covers

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Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

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Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

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QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

1.13

APPENDIX B ASHGHAL IRRIGATION RATES

1.14

APPENDIX C LANDSCAPING DETAILS 2

Appendix C contains the details listed below:


1

Building Foundation

Drainage Pipes

Nursery Pot

Side Walk / Kerbs and Cart Paths

Greens / Trees

New Applications

Underground Tank

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Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

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QCS 2014

Section 28: Landscaping


Part
01: Landscape Planting

EN D O F P A RT

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