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57

Heating and Convection on a

Plate

Summary 1132

Introduction 1133

Modeling Details 1133

Solution Highlights 1134

Results 1141

Modeling Tips 1142

Input File(s) 1142

Video 1142

MD Demonstration Problems

CHAPTER 57

1132

Summary

Title Chapter 57: Heating and convection on a plate

Features MD Nastran SOL 400: RCNS, RCNT, HSTAT, HTRAN

Geometry and Boundary

Conditions

Material properties

Aluminum: Thermal conductivity (K)= 167 W/m/°C, Specific heat (Cp) = 880 W/Kg/°C,

Density(ρ) = 2700 Kg/m³

Analysis characteristics MD Nastran SOL 400: RCNS, RCNT, HSTAT, HTRAN

Element type CQUAD4 for surface

Numerical results Temperature results:

Heat Flux: 500 W/m

2

Convection to T = 25

o

C

1 m x 1 m x 0.001 m

1133

CHAPTER 57

Heating and Convection on a Plate

Introduction

This problem demonstrates the applications of MD Nastran SOL 400 Thermal Solver (RCNS, RCNT, HSTAT, and

HTRAN).

Modeling Details

This problem introduces the basic steps to use MD Nastran SOL 400 Thermal Solver (RCNS, RCNT, HSTAT, and

HTRAN) by a simple rectangular surface model. In this problem, you will see how to change the cards to run different

solvers. This model has only one Quad element. A constant heat flux load is imposed onto the surface while cooling

the surface with uniform convection to a constant ambient temperature. Then you will analyze the model by running

different solvers for both steady and transient analysis. You will see how easy to switch between RC Network Solver

and FEM solver.

Surface Dimension = 1.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.001 m

Normal Heat Flux = 500 W/m²

Ambient Temperature = 25ºC

The material is Aluminum 6061 T6

Thermal Conductivity = 167 W/m.K

Specific Heat = 880 W/Kg

Density = 2700 Kg/m³

Top Surface Convection Coefficient = 6.5

Figure 57-1 Heating and Convection on a Plate

Heat Flux: 500 W/m

2

Convection to T = 25

o

C

1 m x 1 m x 0.001 m

MD Demonstration Problems

CHAPTER 57

1134

Solution Highlights

The BDF files are pretty much similar, except some cards change in the Case Control Section and Bulk Data Post

Section. The main part of the BDF file is exactly the same.

MD Nastran SOL 400 RC Network Solver: RCNS (Steady State)

$# Case Control Section

TEMPERATURE (INITIAL)= 21

SUBCASE 1

$ Subcase name : NewLoadcase_RCNS

$LBCSET SUBCASE1 DefaultLBCSet

TITLE=NewLoadcase_RCNS

THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL

ANALYSIS = RCNS

NLSTEP = 1

SPC = 23

LOAD = 24

……

$# Bulk Data Post Section

TEMPD 21 0.0

SPCADD 23 2

DLOAD 24 1. 1. 1

NLSTEP 1

+ RCHEAT SNSOR 0.001 0.001 0.0 0.0 9.81

+ 5000

……

MD Nastran SOL 400 FEM Solver: HSTAT (Steady State)

$# Case Control Section

TEMPERATURE (INITIAL)= 21

SUBCASE 1

$ Subcase name : NewLoadcase_RCNS

$LBCSET SUBCASE1 DefaultLBCSet

TITLE=NewLoadcase

THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL

ANALYSIS = HSTAT

SPC = 23

LOAD = 24

NLSTEP = 1

……

$# Bulk Data Post Section

TEMPD 21 0.0

SPCADD 23 2

LOAD 24 1. 1. 1

NLSTEP 1

1135

CHAPTER 57

Heating and Convection on a Plate

As you can see, if you have a BDF file for RCNS, or HSTAT, it is very easy to manually modify the files to run with

another solver. The NLSTEP entry for RC Network Solver has more control parameters, but actually most of them are

default parameters. The minimum requirement is as follows:

$# Bulk Data Post Section

TEMPD 21 0.0

SPCADD 23 2

LOAD 24 1. 1. 1

NLSTEP 1

+ RCHEAT

MD NASTRAN SOL 400 RC Network Solver: RCNT (Transient)

$# Case Control Section

IC = 21

SUBCASE 1

$ Subcase name : NewLoadcase_RCNT

$LBCSET SUBCASE1 DefaultLBCSet

TITLE=NewLoadcase_RCNT

THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL

ANALYSIS = RCNT

NLSTEP = 1

SPC = 23

DLOAD = 24

……

$# Bulk Data Post Section

TEMPD 21 0.0

SPCADD 23 2

DLOAD 24 1. 1. 1

NLSTEP 1 2400.

+ RCHEAT FWDBKL 0.001 0.001 0.0 0.0 9.81 1.

+ 5000 100 0.0

MD NASTRAN SOL 400 FEM Solver: HTRAN (Transient)

$# Case Control Section

IC = 21

SUBCASE 1

$ Subcase name : NewLoadcase_NTTR

$LBCSET SUBCASE1 DefaultLBCSet

TITLE=NewLoadcase_NTTR

THERMAL(SORT1,PRINT)=ALL

ANALYSIS = HTRAN

SPC = 23

DLOAD = 24

NLSTEP = 1

……

$# Bulk Data Post Section

TEMPD 21 0.0

SPCADD 23 4

DLOAD 24 1. 1. 1 1. 2

NLSTEP 1 2400.

+ ADAPT 100

MD Demonstration Problems

CHAPTER 57

1136

It is also easy to manually modify the files to switch to another solver. The NLSTEP entry for RC Network Solver has

more control parameters, but again most of them are default parameters. The minimum requirement is as follows:

$# Bulk Data Post Section

TEMPD 21 0.0

SPCADD 23 2

DLOAD 24 1. 1. 1

NLSTEP 1 2400.

+ RCHEAT FWDBKL

+ 100.

1137

CHAPTER 57

Heating and Convection on a Plate

NLSTEP specifies the convergence criteria, step size control between coupled loops and step/iteration control for each

physics loop in MD Nastran SOL 400. Additional fields were included in this pre-existing entry to provide control for

Resistance-Capacitor method of Heat Transfer Analysis.

Format

Example: Steady State

Example: Transient

NLSTEP

Control Parameters for Mechanical, Thermal, and Coupled Analysis

(MD Nastran SOL 400 only)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

NLSTEP ID TOTTIME +

“GENERAL” MAXITER MINITER MAXBIS CREEP +

+ “FIXED” NINC NO +

+ “ADAPT” DTINITF DTMINF DTMAXF NDESIR SFACT INTOUT NSMAX +

+ ... +

“RCHEAT” SOLVER DRLXCA ARLXCA BALENG DAMPC GRVCON CSGFAC +

+ NRLOOP OUTINV DTIMEI

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

NLSTEP 1 +

+ RCHEAT SNSOR 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.0 0.0 9.81 +

+ 5000

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

NLSTEP 1 1000 +

+ RCHEAT SNDUFR 0.001 0.001 0.0 0.0 9.81 1.0 +

+ 5000 100.0 10.0

Field Contents Type Default

ID Identification number. I > 0

TOTIM Total time for the load case R 1.0

“GENERAL” Keyword for parameters used for overall analysis.

... ...

“COUP” Keyword for parameters used for coupled analysis.

“RCHEAT” Keyword to indicate that RC Heat Transfer Analysis is

to be performed. See Remark 10.

SOLVER The Relaxation scheme to be used. C SNSOR - See Remark 12.

DRLXCA Diffusion node convergence criterion. R > 0 1.0e-3 - See Remark 11.

MD Demonstration Problems

CHAPTER 57

1138

Remarks

1. Only one of FIXED, ADAPT, or ARCLN load time stepping scheme can be used on a specific NLSTEP entry.

FIXED or ADAPT may be used for a single physics STEP or for a coupled physics STEP/SUBSTEP. ARCLN is

only valid for a single physics STEP. If no FIXED, ADAPT, or ARCLN appear on a NLSTEP entry, then the default

is FIXED, with 50 increments.

2. The desired number of recycles is only used in static mechanical and heat transfer, not in dynamic mechanical.

In a coupled analysis, the time step change is calculated separately for heat and mechanica,l and the smallest

of the two is used.

3. When the time step is increased due to desired number of recycles, the previous time step is multiplied with

SFACT. When the time step is decreased, the factor is calculated internally based upon the minimum time step.

4. User criteria can be given in the TABSCTL entry via CRITTID. These criteria include rotation, displacements,

stresses, strains, creep strains. The time step is decreased if the current value of the value is larger than the user

specified limit. If LIMTAR is equal to 1 (“target”), it also increases the time step for the next increment if the

current value is smaller than the target value given.

5. If MAXITER is given a negative value and the MAXITER number of iterations are obtained, convergence is

assumed and the analysis will continue with the next increment.

6. The “ARCLN” entry is applicable to “MECH” analysis only and is ignored for creep analysis. The available

constraint types are as follows.

TYPE = “CRIS”:

TYPE = “RIKS”:

TYPE = “MRIKS”:

where:

ARLXCA Arithmetic node convergence criterion. R > 0.0 1.e-3 - See Remark 11.

BALENG Allowable system energy imbalance. R > 0.0 1.0e-3° - See Remark 11.

DAMPC Damping constant. R > 0.0 0.0 nondimensional

GRVCON Gravitation constant. R > 0.0

9.81 length/time

2

.

CSGFAC Time step control factor. R > 0.0 1.0 non dimensional. See

Remark 13.

NRLOOP Number of relaxation loops allowed. I > 0 5000 loop

OUTINV Output interval. R > 0.0 60.0 time. See Remark 13.

DTIMEI Time step. R > 0.0 0.0 time. See Remark 13.

Field Contents Type Default

U

n

i

U

n

O

– { }

T

U

n

i

U

n

O

– { } w

2

u

i

u

O

– ( )2 + Al

n

2

=

U

n

i

U

n

i 1 –

– { }

T

U

n

i

U

n

O

– { } w

2

Au

i

+ 0 =

U

n

i

U

n

i 1 –

– { }

T

U

n

i 1 –

U

n

O

– { } w

2

Au

i

u

i 1 –

u

O

– ( ) + 0 =

1139

CHAPTER 57

Heating and Convection on a Plate

The constraint equation has a disparity in the dimension by mixing the displacements with the load factor. The

scaling factor is introduced as user input so that the user can make constraint equation unit-dependent by a

proper scaling of the load factor ( ). As the value of is increased, the constraint equation is gradually

dominated by the load term. In the limiting case of infinite, the arc-length method is degenerated to the

conventional Newton’s method.

7. The MINALR and MAXALR fields are used to limit the adjustment of the arc-length from one increment to the

next by:

The arc-length adjustment is based on the convergence rate (i.e., number of iterations required for convergence)

and the change in stiffness. For constant arc-length during analysis, use:

MINALR = MAXALR = 1

8. The arc-length l for the variable arc-length strategy is adjusted based on the number of iterations that were

required for convergence in the previous increment ( ) and the number of iterations desired for convergence

in the current increment (NDESIRA) as follows:

9. If a negative value is given to MAXCLP, the coupled analysis will proceed to the next increment even if the

coupled loop has not converged when the maximum number of coupled loops, |MAXCLP|, has been reached.

10. This entry is used for a nonfinite element, Resistance-Capacitor network method of analysis for heat transfer.

11. Convergence is determined by the combination of DRLXCA, ARLXCA, and BALENG. DRLXCA and ARLXCA

determine if relaxation is met on a node by node basis, rather than a residual vector length.

12. If, in Case Control, the ANALYSIS=RCNS, then valid values are:

If, in Case Control, the ANALYSIS=RCNT, then valid values are:

= user specified scaling factor (SCALEA)

= load factor

= the arc-length

SNSOR (Default) Successive over-relaxation method

SSQMR Steady state Quasi Minimal Residual method

SSSPM Steady state sparse matrix solver method

STDSTL An iterative solver aimed at the fourth root of a quartic for the network equations

(good for strong radiation dependence)

SNDUFR (Recommended) An unconditionally stable, explicit method based on a modified Dufort-Frankel

scheme

SNFRDL Fast, accurate explicit forward differencing transient method

FWDBKL Implicit forward/backward differencing Crank Nicolson method

w

u

l

w

MINALR Al

new

Al

ol d

MAXALR s s

MIMAR MAZALR 1 = =

I

max

Al

new

Al

ol d

NDESIRA I

max

( )1 2 =

MD Demonstration Problems

CHAPTER 57

1140

If SOLVER is left blank or set to SNSOR and ANALYSIS=RCNT, then internally the RC code will select SNDUFR.

13. About the time step:

a. The default computed time step (DTIMEU) = CSGMIN* CSGFAC. CSGMIN is based on the conductance in

the model and can be checked in the .sot file. If CSGFAC is not specified, it is internally set to 1.0.

b. In a normal sized model, CSGMIN is usually small enough for the time step which will assure a convergent

transient run.

c. CSGFAC is used to adjust the time step. It is recommended to determine the best CSGFAC to the model while

maintaining acceptable temperature errors.

d. If OUTPUT < CSGFAC*CSGMIN or OUTPUT < DTIMEI, then OUTPUT becomes the time step. All the

OUTPUT points are automatically required to be calculated.

e. DTIMEI is the forced time step which will ignore any other factors. Sometimes it may lead to inaccurate

answer if it is too large. DTIMEI does not affect the automatic time step solvers.

f. If the model size is very small, CSGMIN may be too big for the time step. A small CSGFAC or DTIMEI should

be used to adjust the time step.

g. CSGFAC*CSGMIN or DTIMEI should be small enough to “catch” any details in time fields, temperature

fields, or orbital flux arrays.

SNADE Alternating direction explicit method

ATSDUF SNDUFR with automatic time step based on ERRMIN/ERRMAX

ATSFBK FWDBKL with automatic time step based on ERRMIN/ERRMAX

SNTSM Weighted implicit forward/backward differencing method

SNTSM3 Weighted implicit forward/backward differencing method

SNTSM1 Weighted implicit forward/backward differencing method

SNTSM4 Weighted implicit forward/backward differencing method

TRSPM Transient sparse matrix solver method

ATSSPM TRSPM with automatic time step based on ERRMIN/ERRMAX

TRQMR Transient Quasi Minimal Residual

ATSQMR TRQMR with automatic time step based on ERRMIN/ERRMAX

1141

CHAPTER 57

Heating and Convection on a Plate

Results

Figure 57-2 Temperature Contour of Plate (Steady State)

Figure 57-3 Temperature Curves of Plate (Transient State)

MD Demonstration Problems

CHAPTER 57

1142

RCNS and HSTAT have the same steady state result. RCNT and HTRAN have the same transient temperature curves. These

curves are drawn in SimXpert/Result/Chart. The curves from RCNT/FWDBKL and HTRAN fit perfectly. The total time

(end tine) is 2400 seconds. The output interval is 100 seconds.

Modeling Tips

SimXpert uses ATSDUF as the default solver, and Sinda for Patran uses SNDUFR as the default solver. RC Network

Solver has other solvers available. For this specific model which has only one element and the thickness is very thin,

therefore CSGMIN is very small (CSGMIN is the minimum value of CSG for each node in the model. ,

where is the capacitance, and is the conductors for this node), a very small time step will be required. We need

to set up some control parameters for ATSDUF or SNDUFR to make sure they have small enough time step to start

the transient analysis. For more information, please reference the MSC Sinda User's Guide or Sinda for Patran User's

Guide. The solver FWDBKL is an implicit solver which does not have this problem. FWKBKL is one of the implicit

transient solvers of RC Network Solver.

Input File(s)

Video

Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and

explains how the steps are performed.

Figure 57-4 Video of the Above Steps

Files Description

QT34_conv_rcns.dat MD Nastran SOL400/RC Network Solver thermal input file

QT34_conv_ntss.dat MD Nastran SOL400/FEM Solver thermal input file

QT34_conv_rcnt.dat MD Nastran SOL400/RC Network Solver thermal input file

QT34_conv_nttr.dat MD Nastran SOL400/FEM Solver thermal input file

CSG C Gi

¯

=

C Gi

Heat Flux: 500 W/m

2

Convection to T = 25

o

C

1 m x 1 m x 0.001 m

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This problem demonstrates the applications of MD NASTRAN SOL 400 Thermal Solver (RCNS, RCNT, HSTAT, and HTRAN).

This problem demonstrates the applications of MD NASTRAN SOL 400 Thermal Solver (RCNS, RCNT, HSTAT, and HTRAN).

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