Chapter 58: Coupled Advection for Heat Exchanger

58

Coupled Advection for Heat Exchanger
      

Summary Introduction

1144 1145 1145 1146

Modeling Details Solution Highlights Modeling Tips Input File(s) Video 1153

1152 1152

1144 MD Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 58

Summary
Title Features Geometry Coupled Advection for Heat Exchanger • 1-D fluid flow using PCONV1 entry • Coupled advection using PRJCON and SET3 cards

Length: 10 in. Air Channel: 5(1x0.5)

Material properties

• Aluminum: Thermal conductivity (K)= 4 W/in°C • Air: Thermal conductivity (K)= 6.66e-4 W/in°C, Specific heat (Cp) = 456.2 j/lb°C, Thermal density (ρ) = 5.01e-5 lb/in³, µ= 1.03e-6 lb/in.s, β= 3.43e-3/°C • Inner wall thickness = 0.1 in, outside wall thickness = 0.05 in. • Airflow: mass flow rate= 8.33e-3 lb/s Solution 400 / RC Network solver. Steady state thermal analysis. Inlet temp of air flow= 20°C • Top surface heat flux = 20 W/in² • Five coupled advection loads, convection coefficient = 0.3 • CQUAD4 for surface, CHBDYP/FTUBE for air flow
Temperature Results

Analysis characteristics Boundary conditions Applied loads Element type Numerical results

CHAPTER 58 1145 Coupled Advection for Heat Exchanger

Introduction
This problem demonstrates the coupled advection capability of SOL 400 RC Network Solver.

Modeling Details
This problem shows the application of coupled advection load. You will see how the air flow associates with the heat exchanger surfaces. The heat exchanger is being modeled in SimXpert. A normal flux 20 W/in² is applied on the top surface. Five curves are used to represent the air flow through the five channels. SimXpert supports the use of either fluid nodes or curves for the fluid flow. When curves are used, SimXpert automatically converts them into fluid nodes internally. For SOL400 RC Network Solver (RCNS or RCNT), the mass flow rate is a part of the 1-D fluid flow property; therefore, the mass flow rate of the flow conductors does not change if they are attached to multiple surfaces with multiple coupled advection loads. Please note: this is different with SOL400 FEM solver (HSTAT or HTRAN). For SOL400 FEM solver, mass flow rate is a part of load. If the air flow is used by different coupled advection loads, each load has its own mass flow rate. The total mass flow rate is the sum of all the coupled advection loads. The mesh on the surfaces does not need to match that of the curves. This is because the thermal contact used to attach the airfow to the surface allows for dissimilar meshes. However, using the same mesh size for the air flow and the surface (Figure 58-1) to produce a one-to-one correspondence is preferred.

Structure: Inner Wall Thickness = 0.1 in Outside Wall Thickness = 0.05 in Air Flow: Tin = 20oC mdot = 8.33e-3 lbm/s h = 0.3 W/in2oC

Aluminum Plate: K = 4.0W/inoC

Air: K = 6.66e-4 W/inoC Cp = 456.2 J/lbmoC ρ = 5.01e-5 lbm/in μ = 1.03e-6 lbm/in/s o β = 3.43e-3/ C

Figure 58-1

Heat Exchanger Model (Nastran Test File: QT26_exchang_all.dat)

Ai

rF

q = 20 W/in2

lo

w

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CHAPTER 58

Solution Highlights
As a part of MD Nastran SOL 400, the RC Network Solver is indicated by ANALYSIS = RCNS for steady state thermal analysis, and ANALYSIS = RCNT for transient analysis. SimXpert always creates a SPCADD or a LOAD in the Bulk Data Post Section for RCNS or RCNT, even if there is only one SPC or one LOAD in the Bulk Data Model Section. This is not the case for HSTAT or HTRAN models created by SimXpert. The following are the highlights of the Nastran input file necessary to model this problem:

PCONV1 entry is used by RC Network Solver for Fluid property. Mass Flow Rate is defined as a property parameter in PCONV1 entry for the fluid stream (a curve or a series of 1-D bar elements); therefore, the fluid stream’s mass flow

rate is a constant, even if it maybe referenced by multiple coupled advection loads. Please note: this is different with Nastran/Thermal where mass flow rate is a part of coupled advection load. For Nastran/Thermal, the total mass flow rate is the sum of the mass flow rates if a fluid stream is referenced by multiple coupled advection loads.

CHAPTER 58 1147 Coupled Advection for Heat Exchanger

The PRJCON entry is used to link the two SET3 cards with a constant h value. The inlet temperature is defined as a SPC for each node. The fluid flow is defined as a group of CHBDYP/FTUBE elements. The first SET3 entry contains the CHBDYE surface element IDs where the coupled advection load applies. The second SET3 entry contains the nodes along the fluid flow stream. The multiple CHBDYP elements are not allowed between the same two fluid nodes. This is difficult with Nastran/Thermal. The translator of RC Network Solver hooks the fluid stream nodes with the surface nodes during runtime based on the nearest neighbor method.

1148 MD Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 58

PCONV1

Thermal Convection Calculation Properties

Defines the properties required to calculate convective heat transfer. It can exist in a simple mode with convection coefficient defined in the MID or in advanced mode where the H value is calculated using the geometric parameters and referenced material. Format
1
PCONV1

2
PID

3

4
Corr ID Length function type

5
MID Flow Cross Section type C4 C12 C20

6
Mdot Mdot f

7
Velocity Velocity f

8
Length or Diameter

9
Flow Cross Section

10
+ +

Length or Flow Cross Diameter f Section f C7 C15 C23 C8 C16 C24

+ + +

C1 C9 C17

C2 C10 C18

C3 C11 C19

C5 C13 C21

C6 C14 C22

+ +

Example
1
PCONV1

2
2

3

4
701

5
2

6

7

8
1.0

9

10

Format and Example Field PID Corr ID MID Mdot Mdot f Velocity Velocity f Length or Diameter Contents Type Default Property identification number, referenced by CHBDYP I  0 and/or CONV. ID of convection type in correlation library. Material identification number for convection calculation. Mass flow rate. Mass flow rate TABLEDj table ID. Fluid velocity. Fluid velocity TABLEDj table ID. Geometry, based on Corr ID. 1= 2= Length or Diameter f Flow Cross Section time temperature I0 0 R  0.0 0.0 I0 I0 R I0 R0 I0 I0 0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 2

R  0.0 0.0

Length or Diameter f type Geometry function type:

Geometric function TABLEMj or TABLEDj table ID Flow Cross Section.

CHAPTER 58 1149 Coupled Advection for Heat Exchanger

Field

Contents 1= 2= time temperature

Type I0

Default 2

Flow Cross Section f type Flow Cross Section function type

Flow Cross Section f C1 thru C24

Flow Cross Section function TABLEMj or TABLEDj table I  0 ID. Geometric properties based on chosen convection correlation R

0 0.0

Remarks 1. This entry is for RC Network solver only. 2. The PCONV1 entry contains the properties for a CONV and CHDBYP, and can be used for connecting with a PRJCON. PID must be unique to both the PCONVID in PCONV and the PID in PHBDY. This will be the ID referenced by CONV, PRJCON, and CHBDYP. 3. MATID must reference a MAT4 fluid material. 4. For Corr. ID and C1 thru C24, please reference MSC SINDA User’s Guide and Library Reference or the P/Thermal User’s Guide.

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CHAPTER 58

PRJCON

Thermal RC Element Contact

Specifies a thermal connection between two regions of elements. The connection is automatically determined geometrically as a projection of the slave region on to the master, and the strength of the connection is calculated based on the properties given. HEAT1 Format
1
PRJCON

2
BID HEAT1

3
SET3 Master

4
SET3 Slave

5
h

6

7

8

9

10
+

Example
1
PRJCON

2
1 HEAT1

3
1

4
2

5
1.2

6

7

8

9

10

HEAT2 Format
1
PRJCON

2
BID HEAT2

3
SET3 Master

4
SET3 Slave

5
PID

6

7

8

9

10
+

Example
1
PRJCON

2
1 HEAT2

3
1

4
2

5
1001

6

7

8

9

10

HEAT3 Format
1
PRJCON

2
BID HEAT3

3
SET3 Master

4
SET3 Slave

5
F

6
Emis Master

7
Emis Slave

8

9

10
+

CHAPTER 58 1151 Coupled Advection for Heat Exchanger

Example
1
PRJCON

2
1 HEAT3

3
1

4
2

5
1.

6
0.85

7
0.5

8

9

10

HEAT4 Format
1
PRJCON

2
BID HEAT4

3
SET3 Master

4
SET3 Slave

5
F

6
RADC id Master

7
RADC id Slave

8

9

10
+

Example
1
PRJCON

2
1 HEAT4

3
1

4
2

5
1.

6
1001

7
1002

8

9

10

Field BID HEATx SET3 Master SET3 Slave h PID F

Contents BCBODY identification number. Indicates the start of HEAT elements. ID of the master element collection for connection. ID of the slave element collection for connection. Convection correlation.
PID of the property to be used for h value.

Type I0 C I0 I0

Default Required Required Required

R  0.0 Required for HEAT1 I0 Required for HEAT2

View factor between parts.

0.0  R Required  1.0 for HEAT3
& HEAT4

Emis Master Emis Slave RADC id Master RADC id Slave

Emissivity of master collection. Emissivity of master collection.
RADMID of the material to be used for master emissivity

R  0.0 Required for HEAT3 R  0.0 Required for HEAT4 I0 I0 Required Required

value.
RADMID of the material to be used for slave emissivity

value.

1152 MD Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 58

Remarks: 1. This HEATx and the later parameters are for RC Network solver only. 2. For HEAT2, PID must refer to a PCONV1 type, and not a PCONV or PCONVM. 3. RC Network Solver uses a projection method to determine the connection (not the “nearest neighbor method”). In most of the cases, the projection method is more accurate than the nearest neighbor method.

Results

Figure 58-2

Temperature Contour of Heat Exchanger

SimXpert cannot display the temperature contour on the fluid stream but does on solid surface such as plate or solid element faces. The air flows are heated by the wall, so the temperature at outlet points is higher than that at inlet points. This also causes the temperature gradient on the heat exchanger surfaces. The heat conducts from the top surface to the bottom surface through the six side walls; this causes the waves of the temperature contour.

Modeling Tips
The 1-D Fluid Flow properties are defined in Material and Property/1D Properties / Correlation. If you want to use constant convection coefficient in the coupled advection loads, please select the 1D Fluid Flow option. If you want to use convection correlation to calculate the convection coefficient, please pick the Convection Correlation option. Please note coupled advection can be applied to the top or bottom of a surface and will produce the same results.

Input File(s)
File QT26_exchang_all.dat Description MD Nastran SOL400/RC Network Solver thermal input file

CHAPTER 58 1153 Coupled Advection for Heat Exchanger

Video
Click on the image or caption below to view a streaming video of this problem; it lasts approximately 30 minutes and explains how the steps are performed.

Length: 10 in. Air Channel: 5(1x0.5)

Figure 58-3

Video of the Above Steps

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