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Abraham Lincoln, a self-taught Illinois lawyer and legislator with a reputation as an
eloquent opponent of slavery, shocked many when he overcame several more
prominent contenders to win the Republican Party’s nomination for president in 1860.
His election that November pushed several Southern states to secede by the time of
his inauguration in March 1861, and the Civil War began barely a month later.
Contrary to expectations, Lincoln proved to be a shrewd military strategist and a
savvy leader during what became the costliest conflict ever fought on American soil.
His Emancipation Proclamation, issued in 1863, freed all slaves in the rebellious
states and paved the way for slavery’s eventual abolition, while his Gettysburg
Address later that year stands as one of the most famous and influential pieces of
oratory in American history. In April 1865, with the Union on the brink of victory,
Abraham Lincoln was shot and killed by the Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes
Booth; his untimely death made him a martyr to the cause of liberty and Union. Over
the years Lincoln’s mythic stature has only grown, and he is widely regarded as one of
the greatest presidents in the nation’s history.

Abraham Lincoln’s Early Life
Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, in a one-room log cabin in Hardin County,
Kentucky; his family moved to southern Indiana in 1816. Lincoln’s formal schooling
was limited to three brief periods in local schools, as he had to work constantly to
support his family. In 1830, his family moved to Macon County in southern Illinois,
and Lincoln got a job working on a river flatboat hauling freight down the Mississippi
River to New Orleans. After settling in the town of New Salem, Illinois, where he
worked as a shopkeeper and a postmaster, Lincoln became involved in local politics
as a supporter of the Whig Party, winning election to the Illinois state legislature in
1834. Like his Whig heroes, Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, Lincoln opposed the
spread of slavery to the territories, and had a grand vision of the expanding United
States, with a focus on commerce and cities rather than agriculture.
Did You Know?

The war years were difficult for Abraham Lincoln and his family. After his young son
Willie died of typhoid fever in 1862, the emotionally fragile Mary Lincoln, widely
unpopular for her frivolity and spendthrift ways, held seances in the White House in
the hopes of communicating with him, earning her even more derision.
Lincoln taught himself law, passing the bar examination in 1836. The following year,
he moved to the newly named state capital of Springfield. For the next few years, he
worked there as a lawyer, earning a reputation as “Honest Abe” and serving clients
ranging from individual residents of small towns to national railroad lines. He met
Mary Todd, a well-to-do Kentucky belle with many suitors (including Lincoln’s future
political rival, Stephen Douglas), and they married in 1842.

Lincoln’s Road to the White House

in which he quoted from the Gospels to illustrate his belief that “this government cannot endure. After Lincoln ordered a fleet of Union ships to supply South Carolina’s Fort Sumter in April. rather than the federal government. Lincoln’s performance made his reputation nationally. had the right to decide whether the territory should be slave or free. Lincoln went before a large crowd in Peoria to debate the merits of the Kansas-Nebraska Act with Douglas. 1854. after he delivered another rousing speech at New York City’s Cooper Union. and about choosing the ablest commanders. He surprised many by proving to be a more than capable wartime leader. In June. Lincoln again faced Douglas. During the war. Lincoln joined the new Republican Party–formed largely in opposition to slavery’s extension into the territories–in 1858 and ran for the Senate again that year (he had campaigned unsuccessfully for the seat in 1855 as well). House of Representatives in 1846 and began serving his term the following year. learning quickly about strategy and tactics in the early years of the Civil War.S. war with Mexico. A Wartime President In the general election. though beloved by his troops. Lincoln had only a brief and undistinguished period of service in the Black Hawk War (1832) to his credit. That May. denouncing slavery and its extension and calling the institution a violation of the most basic tenets of the Declaration of Independence. Lincoln removed him from command.Lincoln won election to the U. beginning the Civil War. His profile rose even higher in early 1860. Seward of New York and other powerful contenders in favor of the rangy Illinois lawyer with only one undistinguished congressional term under his belt. . half slave and half free. Hopes for a quick Union victory were dashed by defeat in the Battle of Bull Run (Manassas). though he lost the election. Republicans chose Lincoln as their candidate for president. Lincoln was unpopular with Illinois voters for his strong stance against the U. a leading Democrat in Congress. After years of sectional tensions. and when McClellan failed to pursue Robert E. Lee’s retreating Confederate Army in the aftermath of the Union victory at Antietam in September 1862.” Lincoln then squared off against Douglas in a series of famous debates.000 more troops as both sides settled in for a long conflict. however: Douglas. and by the time Lincoln was inaugurated in March 1861 seven southern states had seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. permanently. Mexican War hero and former secretary of war. and Lincoln called for 500.S. the Confederates fired on both the fort and the Union fleet. southern Democrats had nominated John C. who represented the northern Democrats. General George McClellan. the election of an antislavery northerner as the 16th president of the United States drove many southerners over the brink. With Breckenridge and Bell splitting the vote in the South. Promising not to seek reelection. While the Confederate leader Jefferson Davis was a West Point graduate. he returned to Springfield in 1849. passing over Senator William H. had pushed through the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854). On October 16. while John Bell ran for the brand new Constitutional Union Party. Lincoln won most of the North and carried the Electoral College. Breckenridge of Kentucky. With the Whig Party in ruins. which declared that the voters of each territory. Lincoln delivered his now-famous “house divided” speech. As a congressman. continually frustrated Lincoln with his reluctance to advance. Events conspired to push him back into national politics.

Lincoln addressed the need to reconstruct the South and rebuild the Union: “With malice toward none. 1863.” As Sherman marched triumphantly northward through the Carolinas. Pennsylvania–finally turned the tide of the war. It became the most famous speech of Lincoln’s presidency. Union victory was near. the former Union General George McClellan. Lincoln was carried to a boardinghouse across the street from the theater. urging his audience to welcome the southern states back into the fold. as supreme commander of the Union forces. Lincoln issued a preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. but he considered such measures necessary to win the war. harking back to the Founding Fathers. delivered on March 4. Lincoln would not live to help carry out his vision of Reconstruction.  Tags  Abraham Lincoln  American Civil War . and Lincoln would turn by early 1864 to the victor at Vicksburg. with charity for all. and freed all of the slaves in the rebellious states but left those in the border states (loyal to the Union) in bondage. and would argue for the passage of a constitutional amendment outlawing slavery (eventually passed as the 13th Amendment after his death in 1865). Sherman’s capture of Atlanta in September) swung many votes the president’s way. In his second inaugural address. and Lincoln gave a speech on the White House lawn on April 11. In November 1863. which took effect on January 1. 1865. Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9. Lincoln faced a tough reelection battle against the Democratic nominee. and died in the early morning hours of April 15. General George Meade missed the opportunity to deliver a final blow against Lee’s army at Gettysburg. Emancipation Proclamation and Gettysburg Address Shortly after the Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg). Though Lincoln once maintained that his “paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union. Tragically. and one of the most widely quoted speeches in history. but Union victories in battle (especially William T. Victory and Death In 1864. the Declaration of Independence and the pursuit of human equality. including the right of habeas corpus. Ulysses S. Two important Union victories in July 1863–at Vicksburg. and is not either to save or destroy slavery.Lincoln drew criticism for suspending some civil liberties. Lincoln delivered a brief speech (just 272 words) at the dedication ceremony for the new national cemetery at Gettysburg. Mississippi. On the night of April 14. but he never regained consciousness. the actor and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth slipped into the president’s box at Ford’s Theatre in Washington and shot him point-blank in the back of the head. and Gettysburg. Grant.” he nonetheless came to regard emancipation as one of his greatest achievements. the Gettysburg Address eloquently expressed the war’s purpose. Published widely.

William Wallace . Réservez. Family Ties: Father: Thomas Lincoln . was very close to him.died at 18. Wife: Mary Todd . Partez ! ‫كيف يبدو العالم من السما؟‬ www.died at age 3 in 1850.batuta.lawyer and diplomat. She was considered mentally unbalanced.com/‫العالم‬-‫حول‬-‫جوية‬-‫رحلة‬ ‫!جولة مدهشة حول العالم من السماء أدخل وتعرف على أروع المدن من السما‬ Free Books to Read Online www. Join Now!  Lincoln  Abraham Lincoln Biography  President  American History  Reconstruction Abraham Lincoln's Military Career: .grew up in relative wealth. Lincoln himself stated that he had about one year of formal education. He loved to read and learn from any books he could get his hands on. Siblings: Sarah Grigsby was the only sibling to live to maturity.com/od/abrahamlincoln/p/plincoln. he was taught by many different individuals. His mother died when he was nine but he was very close to his stepmother who urged him to read. and Thomas "Tad" . Children: Edward .http://americanhistory. However.htm Abraham Lincoln's Childhood and Education: Abraham Lincoln was born in Hardin County.edreams.com Preview Sample Chapters of New Releases & Best Sellers.about.farmer and carpenter Mother: Nancy Hanks . Sarah Bush Johnston. Ads Vols Dubrovnik Airline dubrovnik-airline. Robert Todd . Four of her siblings fought for the South. Comparez.thereadingroom. 1809.died when Lincoln was nine. Kentucky on February 12.the only president's child to die in the White House.fr Prix le plus bas Garanti. His stepmother. He moved to Indiana in 1816 and lived there the rest of his youth.

John Bell ran for the Constitutional Union Party which basically took votes from Douglas. He ran on a platform denouncing disunion and calling for an end to slavery in the territories. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1836. .1860: Lincoln was nominated for the presidency by the Republican Party with Hannibal Hamlin as his running mate. The Democrats were divided with Stephen Douglas representing the Democrats and John Breckinridge the National (Southern) Democrats. Lincoln served as a US Representative (1847-49). now the National Union Party. they disagreed over the morality of slavery. Lincoln won 40% of the popular vote and 180 of the 303 electors. had some concern that Lincoln wouldn't win but still renominated him with Andrew Johnson as his Vice President. Ads Enregistrez en PDF? www. He saw no real action during his short stint in the military. Stephen Douglas. He was appointed as Postmaster of New Salem by Andrew Jackson (1833-36). Lincoln lost the state election to Douglas. Lincoln enlisted to fight in the Black Hawk War. He ran for the state legislature and lost in 1832. While they agreed on many issues. His company joined regulars under Colonel Zachary Taylor. He was quickly elected to be the captain of a company of volunteers. Lincoln did not believe that slavery should spread any further but Douglas argued for popular sovereignty.com/Gratuit Téléchargez Notre Logiciel Gratis ! Convertissez Tout Types de Fichiers Bid for the Presidency . Reelection in 1864: The Republicans. In the end. He was elected as a Whig to the Illinois legislature (1834-1842). and the pursuit of happiness. Career Before the Presidency: Lincoln worked as a clerk before joining the military. liberty. He then joined the Independent Spy Corps. Lincoln explained that while he was not asking for equality. He was elected to the state legislature in 1854 but resigned to run for the US Senate. Lincoln-Douglas Debates: Lincoln debated his opponent. seven times in what became known as the Lincoln-Douglas Debates. He only served 30 days in this capacity and then signed on as a private in the mounted Rangers.In 1832. He gave his famous "house divided" speech after being nominated. he believed African-Americans should get the rights granted in the Declaration of Independence: life.fromdoctopdf.

Lincoln died on April 15th. 1865. His opponent. His platform was that the war was a failure. Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. the war was the most costly in American history. On April 26th. George McClellan. Grant to be Commander of all Union forces. Also. Sherman's raid on Atlanta helped clench Lincoln's reelection in 1864. He is credited with holding the Union together and leading the North to victory in the Civil War. and Lincoln firmly believed in the importance of not only defeating the Confederation but eventually reuniting North and South. Actor John Wilkes Booth shot him in the back of the head before jumping onto the stage and escaping to Maryland. at the end of the Civil War. However. the Confederate officers were allowed to return home with dignity. Further. Events and Accomplishments of Abraham Lincoln's Presidency: The main event of Lincoln's presidency was the Civil War that lasted from 1861-65. This freed the slaves in all Southern states. In the end. 1865. his actions and beliefs led to the emancipation of AfricanAmericans from the bonds of slavery. Lincoln curbed civil liberties including suspending the writ of habeas corpus. Eleven states seceded from the Union. Eight conspirators were punished for their roles. Historical Significance: Abraham Lincoln is considered by many scholars to have been the best President. Lincoln won because the war turned in the North's favor during the campaign. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse. Booth was found hiding in a barn which was set on fire. during Lincoln's administration the Homestead Act was passed which allowed squatters to take title to 160 acres of land after having lived in it for five years which helped populate the Great Plains. Lincoln was assassinated while attending a play at Ford's Theater in Washington. . In April. D. Slavery was forever ended with the passage of the 13th amendment. Other than the Civil War. In 1864. Lincoln promoted Ulysses S. Due to opposition to Virginia's secession from the Union. In September 1862. Nevada was made a state in 1864.C. Learn about the details and the conspiracies surrounding Lincoln's assassination. He was then shot and killed. had been relieved as the head of the Union armies by Lincoln. Assassination of Abraham Lincoln: On April 14. During the Civil War. and Lincoln had taken away too many civil liberties. Richmond fell and Robert E. West Virginia broke off from the state in 1863 and was admitted to the Union.Their platform demanded unconditional surrender and the official end to slavery.

containing. A believer in white supremacy.S. 1862. John Hope.D.let. 1. This Emancipation Proclamation actually freed few people. 1865--it did make that accomplishment a basic war goal and a virtual certainty. Mr. U. including the military and naval authority thereof. 22. As pressure for abolition mounted in Congress and the country. The Great Proclamation (1960). 18. 1863. It did not apply to slaves in border states fighting on the Union side. Lincoln became more sympathetic to the idea. the following.. President Abraham Lincoln declared free all slaves residing in territory in rebellion against the federal government. DOUGLAS T. nor did it affect slaves in southern areas already under Union control.D. among other things. all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States shall be then.and the world--that the civil war was now being fought to end slavery. Lincoln had been reluctant to come to this position. ed. Franklin. Donovan. in those states still in rebellion. will recognize and maintain the freedom of such persons and will do no act or acts to . the states in rebellion did not act on Lincoln's order. 1.http://www. Henry Steele. On Sept. however. to wit: "That on the 1st day of January. Naturally.nl/usa/presidents/abraham-lincoln/the-emancipationproclamation-1863. Frank. and the executive government of the United States. A. 1863. a proclamation was issued by the President of the United States. But the proclamation did show Americans-.php Abraham Lincoln The Emancipation Proclamation 1863 Context On Jan. Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not end slavery in America--this was achieved by the passage of the 13TH Amendment to the Constitution on Dec. A. 1862. and forever free. By the President of the United States of America: A PROCLAMATION Whereas on the 22nd day of September. he issued a preliminary proclamation announcing that emancipation would become effective on Jan. 1863.rug. Lincoln's Proclamation (1964). thenceforward. he initially viewed the war only in terms of preserving the Union. The Emancipation Proclamation (1964). MILLER Bibliography: Commager.

including the city of New Orleans). A. designate the States and parts of States. Palquemines. Georgia. and in accordance with my purpose so to do. and also the counties of Berkeley. St. Princess Anne. and the fact that any State or the people thereof shall on that day be in good faith represented in the Congress of the United States by members chosen thereto at elections wherein a majority of the qualified voters of such States shall have participated shall. in the absence of strong countervailing testimony. St. Lafourche. Morthhampton. Assumption. Florida. they labor faithfully for reasonable wages. or any of them. And I further declare and make known that such persons of suitable condition will be received into the armed service of the United States to garrison forts. will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. I." Now. including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth). publicly proclaimed for the full period of one hundred days from the first day above mentioned. Ascension. in any efforts they may make for their actual freedom. order and designate as the States and parts of States wherein the people thereof. to wit: Arkansas. respectively. Mary. and other places. North Carolina. unless in necessary self-defence. Accomac.D. Bernard. if any.repress such persons. And by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid. Mississippi. free. 1863. are this day in rebellion against the United States the following. Terrebone. by proclamation. and to man vessels of all sorts in said service. "That the executive will on the 1st day of January aforesaid. St. Charles. Texas. Louisiana (except the parishes of St. and I recommend to them that. on this 1st day of January. be deemed conclusive evidence that such State and the people thereof are not then in rebellion against the United States. Elizabeth City. President of the United States. I do order and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States and parts of States are. including the military and naval authorities thereof. St. and Norfolk. and Virginia (except the forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia. and which excepted parts are for the present left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued. St. and henceforward shall be. And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence. in all case when allowed. and that the Executive Government of the United States. Martin. Jefferson. South Carolina. James. therefore. and as a fit and necessary war measure for supressing said rebellion. Abraham Lincoln. positions. stations. in which the people thereof. Alabama. shall then be in rebellion against the United States. by virtue of the power in me vested as Commander-In-Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States. do. . John. York. and Orleans. respectively.

I invoke the considerate judgment of mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God.And upon this act.Disclaimer . sincerely believed to be an act of justice.Copyright .org/president/lincoln  Home  Outlines  Documents  Essays  Biographies  Presidents  Presidents > o Abraham Lincoln >  First Inaugural address 1861  Second Inaugural address 1865  The Gettysburg Address  Last speech April 11 1865  State of the Union 1861  State of the Union 1862  State of the Union 1863  State of the Union 1864  The Emancipation Proclamation 1863  Proclamation on the Wade-Davis Bill July 8 1864 About .© 1 .Contact . http://millercenter. warranted by the Constitution upon military necessity.