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TURNING RADIUS

Introduction
This article describes the calculation of the turning radius of a car or bicycle.
This radius depends on two things:
- the wheelbase w , which is the distance between the front- and the rear wheel
- the angle  of the front wheel
We suppose that only the front wheel is able to turn.
See figure below:

side view

Calculation
The front and rear wheel follow a circle with the same center.
At all times, the direction is perpendicular to the radius.
See figure below:

movement
The radius of the front wheel is R, the rear wheel r.
From the figure above we conclude:

top view

. Ideally. This is the most important factor governing how the kart will handle.. the greater the “jacking effect” on the chassis. Camber Angle This is the inclination inwards at the top of the king pin towards the center of the kart. and through the bolts holding the track rods. when the kart is being turned – this is most especially important at low speeds. the heavier the steering and tendency to self-center... Generally this angle is between 10 degrees and 12 degrees. and on tight corners. The . which will be able to withstand higher shearing forces.. and it is aimed at counteracting the jacking effect of the castor: at the same time it helps to produce a stronger joint.sin  = w R . In practice. in relation to the chassis. and to allow the wheels to stand flat on the floor.. The greater the angle. is offset by a similar angle on the stub axle. If there is too little. the kart will tend to understeer. interrelated with the other angles.. In the case of the King Pin inclination. and the greater the oversteer the kart will develop. lines projected through the center of the King Pins. should meet at the center point of the rear axle. The effect of this is that the inside wheel always describes a smaller radius arc than the other wheel. and the rear axle.. This is however.so R= w sin  also tan  = w r . Ackermann Angle This refers to the placement of the steering arms (when viewed from above).. the greater the angle.so r= w tan  Castor Angle This is the inclination of the King Pin whose top leans in a backwards direction towards the rear of the kart. many people settle for angles between 20 and 25 degrees.

.length of the steering arm. A long steering arm causes slow but very light steering. in relation to the spade/drop arm. effects the “speed” of the steering reaction. whereas a short arm causes quick steering but requires greater effort.