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Chapter 5

Electromagnetic Waves in Plasmas

5.1 General Treatment of Linear Waves in Anisotropic
Medium
Start with general approach to waves in a linear Medium: Maxwell:
� ∧ B = µo j +

1 ∂E
∂B
; � ∧ E = −
2
c ∂t
∂t

(5.1)

we keep all the medium’s response explicit in j. Plasma is (infinite and) uniform so we Fourier
analyze in space and time. That is we seek a solution in which all variables go like
exp i(k.x − ωt) [real part of]

(5.2)

It is really the linearised equations which we treat this way; if there is some equilibrium field

OK but the equations above mean implicitly the perturbations B, E, j, etc.

Fourier analyzed:

−iω
E ;
c2
Eliminate B by taking k∧ second eq. and ω× 1st
ik ∧ B = µo j +

ik ∧ E = iωB

ik ∧ (k ∧ E) = ωµo j −

iω 2
E
c2

(5.3)

(5.4)

So

ω2
(5.5)
E + iωµo j = 0
c2
Now, in order to get further we must have some relationship between j and E(k, ω). This
will have to come from solving the plasma equations but for now we can just write the most
general linear relationship j and E as
k ∧ (k ∧ E) +

j = σ.E
96

(5.6)

σ is the ‘conductivity tensor’. Think of this equation as a matrix e.g.:

⎞⎛

jx
σxx σxy ...
Ex



⎟⎜

j
...
...
...
=
⎝ y ⎠

⎠ ⎝ Ey ⎠
jz
... ... σzz
Ez

(5.7)

This is a general form of Ohm’s Law. Of course if the plasma (medium) is isotropic (same
in all directions) all off­diagonal σ � s are zero and one gets j = σE.
Thus

ω2
E + iωµo σ.E = 0
(5.8)
c2
Recall that in elementary E&M, dielectric media are discussed in terms of a dielectric con­
stant � and a “polarization” of the medium, P, caused by modification of atoms. Then
k(k.E) − k 2 E +

�o E =

D
����

Displacement

and �.D =

P
����

Polarization

ρ

ext
����

(5.9)

externalcharge

and one writes
P=

χ

�o E

(5.10)

����

susceptibility
Our case is completely analogous, except we have chosen to express the response of the
medium in terms of current density, j, rather than “polarization” P For such a dielectric
medium, Ampere’s law would be written:
1
∂D

� ∧ B = jext +
= ��o E,
µo
∂t
∂t

if jext = 0 ,

(5.11)

where the dielectric constant would be � = 1 + χ.
Thus, the explicit polarization current can be expressed in the form of an equivalent dielectric
expression if
∂E
∂E

j + �o
= σ.E + �
= �o �.E
(5.12)
∂t
∂t
∂t
or
σ
� = 1 +
(5.13)
−iω�o
Notice the dielectric constant is a tensor because of anisotropy. The last two terms come
from the RHS of Ampere’s law:

j + (�o E) .
(5.14)
∂t
If we were thinking in terms of a dielectric medium with no explicit currents, only implicit (in

�) we would write this ∂t
(��o E); � the dielectric constant. Our medium is possibly anisotropic

so we need ∂t (�o �.E) dielectric tensor. The obvious thing is therefore to define
�=1+

1
iµo c2
σ =1+
σ
−iω�o
ω
97

(5.15)

Then

ω2
�.E = 0
c2
and we may regard �(k, ω) as the dielectric tensor.
k(k.E) − k 2 E +

(5.16)

Write the equation as a tensor multiplying E:
D.E = 0

(5.17)

with

ω2
�}
c2
Again this is a matrix equation i.e. 3 simultaneous homogeneous eqs. for E.
D = {kk − k 2 1 +

⎞⎛

(5.18)

Dxx Dxy ...
Ex

⎟⎜

D
...
...
⎝ yx
⎠ ⎝ Ey ⎠ = 0
...
... Dzz
Ez

(5.19)

In order to have a non­zero E solution we must have
det | D |= 0.

(5.20)

This will give us an equation relating k and ω, which tells us about the possible wavelengths
and frequencies of waves in our plasma.

5.1.1

Simple Case. Isotropic Medium
σ = σ 1
� = � 1

(5.21)
(5.22)

Take k in z direction then write out the Dispersion tensor D.

2

ω

0 0 0
k 2 0 0

c2


⎟ ⎜
⎟ ⎜
2
D = ⎝ 0 0 0 ⎠−⎝ 0 k 0 ⎠+⎝ 0
0 0 kk
0 0 k2
0

��

kk

��

k2 1

−k 2 +

=

0

0

ω2

c2

0
2
−k +
0

Take determinant:
ω2
det |
D
|= −k + 2 �
c

2

��

0

ω2
� 0


c2
2
0 ωc2 �
ω2
c2

0

ω2


0
2

c
2
ω

c2
�2

ω2
� = 0.
c2

Two possible types of solution to this dispersion relation:
98

0

(5.23)

(5.24)

(A)
− k2 +

0 0

⇒⎝ 0 0
0 0

ω2
� = 0.
c2

⎞⎛

(5.25)

0
Ex
⎟⎜
0
⎠ ⎝ E
y ⎟
⎠=0
ω2
Ez

c2

⇒ Ez = 0.

(5.26)

Electric field is transverse (E.k = 0)
Phase velocity of the wave is

ω
c
=√
k

(5.27)

This is just like a regular EM wave traveling in a medium with refractive index
N≡

kc √
= � .
ω

(5.28)

(B)

Dxx

⇒⎝ 0
0

ω2
�=0
i.e. � = 0
c2
⎞⎛

0 0
Ex


Dyy 0

⎠ ⎝ E
y ⎠ = 0 ⇒
Ex = Ey = 0.
0 0
Ez

Electric Field is Longitudinal (E ∧ k = 0)

(5.29)
(5.30)

E � k.

This has no obvious counterpart in optics etc. because � is not usually zero. In plasmas

� = 0 is a relevant solution. Plasmas can support longitudinal waves.

5.1.2

General Case

(k in z­direction)

−N 2 + �xx
�xy
�xz
ω ⎢
�yx
−N 2 + �yy �yz ⎥
D =
2 ⎣

c
�zy
�zx
�zz
2

k 2 c2
N = 2
ω

,

2

(5.31)

When we take determinant we shall get a quadratic in N 2 (for given ω) provided � is not
explicitly dependent on k. So for any ω there are two values of N 2 . Two ‘modes’. The
polarization E of these modes will be in general partly longitudinal and partly transverse.
The point: separation into distinct longitudinal and transverse modes is not possible in
anisotropic media (e.g. plasma with Bo ).
All we have said applies to general linear medium (crystal, glass, dielectric, plasma). Now
we have to get the correct expression for σ and hence � by analysis of the plasma (fluid)
equations.

99

This gives a manageable problem with wide applicability. It won’t be the same as the DC conductivity which we calculated before (for collisions) because the inertia of the species will be important.33) Zero B­field case To start with take Bo = 0: Plasma isotropic Momentum equation (for electrons first) � � ∂v mn + (v. electrons) is v= j = nqv = (5. under many circumstances we can ignore the pressure force −�p.39) .2. In fact.36) nq 2 E −iωm (5. m ∂v1 = qE ∂t (Drop the 1 suffix now). to calculate the current for given (Fourier) electric field E(k.37) nq 2 ωm (5. Also. although this approach can be generalized. ω). that we can cancel n from this equation and on linearizing get essentially the single particle equation.35) This can be solved for given ω as q E −iωm and the current (due to this species. provided ω � ν¯ei (5. now.g.2 High Frequency Plasma Conductivity We want. to get the conductivity. In general will be true if ωk � vte.34) Notice the characteristic of the cold plasma approx. σ. Approximations: Collisionless ν¯ei = 0 ‘Cold Plasma� �p = 0 (e.5. (5. Do this for simplicity.32) we can ignore collisions altogether.38) So the conductivity is σ=i Hence dielectric constant is i nq 2 �=1+ σ =1− ω�o m�o � 100 � 1 =1+χ ω2 (5.1 (5. T � 0) Stationary Equil vo = 0 5.�)v = nqE ∂t (5.i We take the plasma equilibrium to be at rest: vo = 0.

43) This is called the ‘Plasma Frequency’ (more properly ωpe the ‘electron’ plasma frequency).42) In this approx. perturb a slab of plasma by shifting electrons a distance x.47) . ignore ion motions.] Solution � 2 ω = ne qe2 . Hence electric field generated E=− n e qe x �o 101 (5.41) σi me so to a first approximation. longitudinal oscillations of the electron fluid have a single unique frequency: � ωp = ne e2 m e �o �1 2 .40) [Strictly. Simple Derivation of Plasma Oscillations Take ions stationary.44) and hence i ne qe2 ni qi2 = 1+ (σe + σi ) = 1 − + ω�o �o m e �o m i � �tot � � 1 ω2 (5. If we allow for ion motions we get an ion conductivity σi = ini qi2 ωmi (5.45) � 2 2 = 1 − ωpe + ωpi /ω 2 where � ωpi ≡ ni qi2 �o mi �1 2 (5. Charge built up is ne qx per unit area.Longitudinal Waves (Bo = 0) Dispersion relation we know is nq 2 �=0=1− m�o � � 1 ω2 (5. But mi σe � (for z = 1) (5. the � we want here is the total � including both electron and ion contributions to the conductivity. (5. me �o � (5.46) is the ‘Ion Plasma Frequency’.

dt �o d2 x ne qe2 x=0 + dt2 �o me � (5.] Transverse Waves (Bo = 0) Dispersion relation: − k2 + ω2 �=0 c2 102 (5. 2. these oscillations can hardly be thought of as a ‘proper’ wave because they do not transport energy or information. 3. [Nevertheless they do emerge from the wave analysis and with less restrictive approxs do have finite vg .Figure 5.1: Slab derivation of plasma oscillations Equation of motion of electrons me i.49) Simple harmonic oscillator with frequency � ωpe = ne qe2 �o me �1 2 Plasma Frequency. Group velocity of wave.e.52) . which is the velocity at which information/energy travel is vg = dω = 0 !! dk (5.51) In a way. Phase velocity ω k can have any value. (5.48) � (5. (In Cold Plasma Limit). Notice 1. dv ne q 2 x =− e .50) The Characteristic Frequency of Longitudinal Oscillations in a plasma. ω = ωp for all k in this approx.

or � � k 2 c2 2 2 2 = � = 1 − ω + ω pe pi /ω ω2 2 � 1 − ωpe /ω 2 N2 ≡ (5.54) . Alternative expression: ω 2 ωp2 −k + 2 − 2 =0 c c 2 103 (5.2: Unmagnetized plasma transverse wave. Figure 5.53) Figure 5.3: Alternative dispersion plot.

(5. 104 .D.e. A wave incident on a plasma with ωp2 > ω 2 is simply reflected. Generally requires wave phase velocity � vthermal . no energy is transmitted through the plasma. It does not truly propagate through the medium but just damps exponentially. Such a wave is said to be ‘Evanescent’ or ‘Cut Off’. k(ω). Example: Figure 5. its space dependence is exponential not oscillatory.which implies ω 2 = ωp2 + k 2 c2 ω = � ωp2 + k 2 c2 (5.56) Meaning of Negative N 2 : Cut Off 5.57) i. Applicability: Most situations where (1) plasma pressure and (2) absorption are negligible.55) �1 2 .3 Cold Plasma Waves (Magnetized Plasma) Objective: calculate �.2 When N 2 < 0 (for ω < ωp ) this means N is pure imaginary and hence so is k for real ω. Thus the wave we have found goes like exp{± | k | x − iωt} (5. using known plasma equations.4: Wave behaviour at cut­off. Approximation: Ignore thermal motion of particles.2. 5.

Then all motion is due to the wave and also the wave’s magnetic field can be ignored provided the particle speed stays small. (This is a linearization). 1).E we can identify the conductivity tensor for the species (j) as: ⎡ ⎢ ⎢ σj = ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ qj2 nj iω mj ω 2 −Ω2j qj2 nj Ωj mj ω 2 −Ω2j qj2 nj Ωj mj ω 2 −Ω2j 2 qj nj iω mj ω 2 −Ω2j − 0 0 0 0 iqj2 nj m ω ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (5. q iωEx − ΩEy m ω 2 − Ω2 � � q ΩEx + iωEy = m ω 2 − Ω2 q i = Ez mω � � vx = vy vz (5. m ∂v = q(E + v ∧ B0 ). Choose axes such that B0 = B0 (0. E ∝ exp i(k.63) j So σxx = σyy = � q12 nj j mj 105 ω2 iω − Ω2j (5. Simpler just to say that all particles (of a specific species) just move together obeying Newton’s 2nd law: m ∂v = q(E + v ∧ B) ∂t (5.61) 0 where Ω = qB is the gyrofrequency but its sign is that of the charge on the particle species m under consideration.x − ωt) are wave quantities. Substitute ∂ ∂t → −iω and write out equations. due to all species. 0.3.64) .62) The total conductivity.5.59) where v. ∂t (5.60) Solve for v in terms of E. Since the current is j = qvn = σ.1 Derivation of Dispersion Relation Can “derive” the cold plasma approx from fluid plasma equations. B = B0 and zero velocity.58) Take the background plasma to have E0 = 0. − iωmvx = q(Ex + vy B0 ) −iωmvy = q(Ey − vx B0 ) −iωmvz = qEz (5. is the sum of the conductivities for each σ= � σj (5.

75) .71) is the “plasma frequency” for that species. first.69) � Ωj j 2 ωpj ω2 (5. Then Nx = N sin θ . S & D stand for “Sum” and “Difference”: 1 1 S = (R + L) D = (R − L) 2 2 where R & L stand for “Right­hand” and “Left­hand” and are: R=1− � j 2 ωpj ω (ω + Ωj ) .70) qj2 nj ≡ �o m j (5.66) mj ω 1 σ. Let θ be angle between k and B0 so that Nz = N cos θ .74) −N 2 cos2 θ + S −iD N 2 sin θ cos θ ⎢ ⎥ 2 +iD −N + S 0 D = ⎣ ⎦ 0 N 2 sin θ cos θ −N 2 sin2 θ + P ⎡ ⎤ 106 (5. L=1− � j (5.72) 2 ωpj ω (ω − Ωj ) (5.68) 2 ωpj ω ω 2 − Ω2j (5. We now have the dielectric tensor from which to obtain the dispersion relation and solve it to get k(ω) and the polarization. (5. Choose convenient axes such that ky = Ny = 0. Notice.67) where �xx = �yy = S = 1 − � j i�xy = −i�yx = D = �zz = P = 1 − � j and 2 ωpj 2 ωpj ω 2 − Ω2j (5.65) � qj2 nj i j Susceptibility χ = ω2 (5.� qj2 nj σxy = −σyx = − mj j σzz = Ωj − Ω2j (5. −iω�o ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ ⎤ �xx �xy 0 S −iD 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ S 0 ⎥ � = ⎣ �yx �yy 0 ⎦ = ⎣ iD ⎦ 0 0 �zz 0 0 P (5.73) The R & L terms arise in a derivation based on expressing the field in terms of rotating polarizations (right & left) rather than the direct Cartesian approach. that � is indeed independent of k so the dispersion relation (for given ω) is a quadratic in N 2 (or k 2 ).

84) This has a wave resonance N 2 → ∞ at ω = |Ωe |. Example: Right­hand wave N 2 = R.77) (5. written in the equivalent form (called the Appleton­Hartree dispersion relation) N2 = 1 − 2(A − B + C) 2A − B ± F (5. (Single Ion Species). N2 = R Perp: N2 = RL S π 2 i.76) A ≡ S sin2 θ + P cos2 θ B ≡ RL sin2 θ + P S(1 + cos2 θ) C ≡ P RL (5.85) . so N 2 is real ⇒ “propagating” or “evanescent” no wave absorption for cold plasma.and � D �= AN 4 − BN 2 + C (5. only. is given by F 2 = (RL − P S)2 sin4 θ + 4P 2 D2 cos2 θ (5. Solution can also be written tan2 θ = − P (N 2 − R) (N 2 − L) (SN 2 − RL) (N 2 − P ) (5. parallel N2 = L N2 = P . for historical reasons. This is often. F .81) after some algebra. N2 = 1 − 2 2 ωpi ωpe − ω (ω − |Ωe |) ω (ω + |Ωi |) (5.79) where Solutions are N2 = B±F . whose solution proves to be ⎡� |Ωe | − |Ωi | ⎣ |Ωe | + |Ωi | ω = ωR = + 2 2 107 �2 ⎤1/2 2 2⎦ + ωpe + ωpi (5.82) The quantity F 2 is generally +ve. 2A (5. Parallel: P = 0 .e.83) This compact form makes it easy to identify the dispersion relation at θ = 0 & and perpendicular propagation tan θ = 0.78) (5.80) where the discriminant. ∞. Right­hand wave also has a cutoff at R = 0.

The resulting wave resonances and cut­offs depend only upon 2 properties (for specified ion mass) (1) Density mi 2 ↔ ωpe factors. 5.Since mi � me this can be approximated as: ⎧ ω2 |Ωe | ⎨ ωR � 1 + 1 + 4 pe2 2 ⎩ |Ωe | � �1 ⎫ 2⎬ (5. We don’t have time for it here.3.. 2 (ω 2 − Ω2 ) − ω 2 (ω 2 − Ω2 ) (ω 2 − Ω2e ) (ω 2 − Ω2i ) − ωpe i pi e (5.] (2) Magnetic Field ↔ |Ωe |. One can similarly investigate LH wave and perp propagating waves. Solve the quadratic in ω and one gets � �� 2 2 ω 2 + Ωe2 − ωpi − Ω2i ω 2 + Ωe2 + ωpi + Ω2i � ± � pe ω 2 = pe 2 2 108 �2 2 ω2 + ωpe pi (5. Figure 5.88) .. [Ion values ωpi .5: The form of the dispersion relation for RH wave.2 Hybrid Resonances “Extraordinary” wave � N2 = N2 = (ω + Ωe ) (ω + Ωi ) − 2 ωpe ω Perpendicular Propagation RL S (ω + Ωi ) − 2 ωpi ω �� (ω + Ωe ) (ω − Ωe ) (ω − Ωi ) − 2 ωpe ω � (ω − Ωi ) . |Ωi | are got by m e These resonances and cutoffs are often plotted on a 2­D plane |Ω e | ω .86) ⎭ This is always above |Ωe |. n) called the C M A Diagram.87) 2 Resonance is where denominator = 0. ωp2 ω2 (∝ B.

2 At very low density.92) ion plasma frequency 2 Usually in tokamaks ωpe ∼ Ω2e . (5. Intermediate angles of propagation have refractive indices between the θ = 0. 2 ωpi 2 ) ωpe one gets solutions 2 ωU2 H = ωpe + Ω2e 2 ωLH = 2 Ω2e ωpi 2 Ω2e + ωpe Upper Hybrid Resonance. 109 π 2 lines. shaded areas.g. ωpe � Ω2e 2 ωLH � |Ωe ||Ωi | (5. Summary Graph (Ω > ωp ) Figure 5. Intermediate.Neglecting terms of order me mi (e.91) geometric mean of cyclotron frequencies.. in the . (5. ωpe � Ω2e 2 2 ωLH � ωpi (5.89) Lower Hybrid Resonance.90) 2 At very high density.6: Summary of magnetized dispersion relation Cut­offs are where N 2 = 0. Resonances are where N 2 → ∞.

97) Group Delay is L 1 ∝ 1 3 ∝ � vg ω 2 (|Ωe | − ω) 2 1 ω |Ω e | �1 � 2 1 − |Ωωe | Figure 5. (N = kc/ω) (5. (5.) For N 2 � 1 the right hand wave can be written N2 � 2 −ωpe ω (ω − |Ωe |) .96) 1 c 2 (|Ωe | − ω) 2 ω 2 vg = ωp |Ωe | (5.93) Group velocity is dω vg = = dk � dk dω Then since N= �−1 � d = dω � ωp ��−1 .5.A. Helliwell. 1 1 2 Nω c (5.95) ω (|Ωe | − ω) 2 we have 1 ⎧ 1 ⎫ 1 1 2 ⎨ ⎬ ω d d ωp ω 2 2 2 (N ω) = = ω + p 1 1 3 1 ⎩ 2 dω dω (|Ωe | − ω) 2 ω (|Ωe | − ω) 2 (|Ωe | − ω) 2 ⎭ ωp /2 = {(|Ωe | − ω) + ω} 3 1 (|Ωe | − ω) 2 ω 2 ωp |Ωe | /2 = 3 1 (| Ωe | − ω) 2 ω 2 Thus 3 (5. R.” Stanford UP 1965.94) .3. “Whistlers & Related Ionospheric Phenomena.3 Whistlers (Ref.7: Whistler delay plot 110 �3 2 (5.98) .

Resulting form explains downward whistle. 5. If ω is low or N 2 � 1 one may have to consider thermal effects.Plot with L vg as x­axis.107) . Write down the momentum equation. (n0 v1 ) = 0 ⇒ ∂t ∂n + n0 �. (We shall go back to B0 = 0) linearized mn ∂v1 = nqE1 − �p1 .104) ∂n + �. Lightning strike ∼ δ­function excites all frequencies. ⇒ (p0 + p1 ) (n0 + n1 )−γ = p0 n−γ 0 (5.106) Fourier Transform − iωn1 + n0 ik. From the fluid viewpoint. (nv) = 0 ∂t (5.nasa.v1 = 0 111 (5.101) The key question: how to relate p to v Answer: Equation of state + Continuity State pn−γ = const. gov/istp/polar/polar_pwi_sounds.gsfc. Examples of actual whistler sounds can be obtained from http://www­istp.4 Thermal Effects on Plasma Waves The cold plasma approx is only good for high frequency. this means pressure. (5.100) Fourier Analyse (drop 1’s) mn(−iω)v = nqE − ikp (5.html.v = 0 ∂t (5. Lower ones arrive later.103) p1 n1 =γ p0 n0 (5. N 2 ∼ 1 waves. ∂t (5.105) Continuity Linearise: ∂n1 + �.99) remember these are the perturbations: p = p0 + p1 .102) Use Taylor Expansion −γ (p0 + p1 ) (n0 + n1 ) Hence � p0 n−γ 0 � p1 n1 1+ −γ p0 n0 � (5.

However.112) Hence ⎡ 1 0 inq ⎢ ⎢ 0 1 σ= ωm ⎣ 0 0 0 0 2 ⎡ �=1+ iσ ⎢ ⎢ =⎢ �0 ω ⎣ 1 k 2 p0 γ 1− mnω 2 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (5. Notice that � now depends on k as well as ω.111) q Ez m −iω + (ik 2 γp0 /mnω) (5.115) 0 This form shows isotropy with respect to the medium: there is no preferred direction in space for the wave vector k. for consistency let us proceed as before to get the dielectric tensor etc.v ω (5. 112 . so they are unaffected by pressure. Choose axes such that k = kˆ ez then obviously: vx = vz = iq Ex ωm vy = iq Ey ωm (5. Ey ) are unaffected.110) Notice Transverse waves have k.109) Hence Momentum becomes mn (−iω) v = nqE − ikp0 γ k. note that the dielectric tensor can be expressed in general tensor notation as ω2 1 � = 1 − p2 1 + kk 2 0γ − 1 ω 1 − ωk 2 pmn � � �� ⎛ ⎞ ωp2 1 ⎠ = 1 − 2 ⎝1 + kk w2 mn ω − 1 2 k p γ (5. For completeness.113) ω2 1 − ωp2 0 0 ωp2 0 0 1 − ω2 w2 0 0 1 − ω2 −kp2 p0 γ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ (5. Therefore we need only consider the longitudinal wave.114) mn (Taking account only of 1 species.i.v ω p1 = p0 γ = p0 γ = p0 γ n0 no ω (5. for now. The longitudinal wave is.108) Combine State & Continuity n0 k.v = 0.e. electrons.v ω (5.) We have confirmed the previous comment that the transverse waves (Ex .v n1 k. This is called ‘spatial dispersion’. n1 = n0 k.

1 Refractive Index Plot Bohm Gross electron plasma waves: ωp2 c2 N = 1− 2 2 γe vte ω � 2 � (5.] The above dispersion relation is called the Bohm­Gross formula for electron plasma waves.119) ω2 − k2 p0 γ mn or ω 2 = ωp2 + k 2 Recall p0 = n0 T = nT .118) γT = ωp2 + k 2 γvt2 m (5. We have relaxed the Cold Plasma approximation. (5.116) =0 .But once k is chosen. The direction of k becomes a special direction.122) These have just the same shape except the electron plasma waves have much larger vertical scale: On the E­M wave scale. This seems plausible since the electron motion is 1­d (along k) and may be demonstrated more rigorously by kinetic theory. Notice the group velocity: dω 1 dω 2 vg = = =� dk 2ω dk γkvt2 ωp2 + γk 2 vt2 � 1 �= 0. (5.e.4. Longitudinal Waves: dispersion relation is �zz = 0 which is 1− (as before) ωp2 (5. so this is usually written: ω 2 = ωp2 + k 2 [The appropriate value of γ to take is 1 dimensional adiabatic i. In the cold plasma it was exactly vertical. 5. the plasma wave curve is nearly vertical.120) 2 1 and for kvt > ωp this tends to γ 2 vt . 113 .121) Transverse electromagnetic waves: ω2 N = 1 − p2 ω � 2 � (5.117) p0 γ mn (5. γ = 3. In this limit energy travels at the electron thermal speed. � is not isotropic.

This will be at low frequency. Second solution will be where the third term is same magnitude as second (both will be � 1). So we may write the dispersion relation approximately as: 2 2 ωpi ωpi − k2 pe γe − =0 (5.8: Refractive Index Plot.123) This is now a quadratic equation for ω 2 so there are two solutions possible for a given ω.e. ω2 = 2 k 2 pi γi ωpi k 2 pe γe + 2 mi ni ωpe me ne 114 . One 2 will be in the vicinity of the electron plasma wave solution and the inclusion of ωpi which is 2 � ωpe will give a small correction.2 Including the ion response As an example of the different things which can occur when ions are allowed to move include longitudinal ion response: 0 = �zz = 1 − 2 ωpe ω2 − k2 pe γe me ne − 2 ωpi ω2 − k2 pi γi mi ni (5. Top plot on the scale of the Bohm­Gross Plasma waves.Figure 5. on the scale of the E­M transverse waves 5.4. Bottom plot.124) 2 ω 2 − kmpi inγii − me ne i.

o.A 115 .l. γe = 1.A = 0 (w.Et + �.132) ˙ = 0 (because �. e.E = N(N.125) [In this case the electrons have time to stream through the wave in 1 oscillation so they tend to be isothermal: i.E� ) − N 2 (E� + Et ) + �. Then the dispersion relation can be written N (N.E = 0 (5.g.A ˙ = 0 so A ˙ is transverse.e.128) Consider E to be expressible as longitudinal and transverse components E� .] These are ‘ion­acoustic’ or ‘ion­sound’ waves ω2 = c2s k2 cs is the sound speed c2s = (5.131) Divergence−f ree Electromagnetic and these may be termed electrostatic and electromagnetic parts of the field. conventionally −�φ E= � �� + � Curl−f ree Electrostatic ˙ � A �� � (5.E� = 0 (5.130) Now the electric field can always be written as the sum of a curl­free component plus a divergenceless component.g. and if �.Et = 0. N. What to take for γi is less clear.126) γi Ti + Te Te � mi mi (5. (E� + Et ) = −N 2 Et + �.Et = �. 5. and less important because kinetic theory shows that these waves we have just found are strongly damped unless Ti � Te . these two parts are clearly the same as the longitudinal and transverse parts because − �φ = −ikφ is longitudinal (5.E� (5.5 Electrostatic Approximation for (Plasma) Waves The dispersion relation is written generally as N ∧ (N ∧ E) + �.)) then k.E) − N 2 E + �. Et such that N ∧ E� = 0.γi pi γe pe + ni ne � � 2 γi Ti + γe Te = k mi = k2 �� � 1 mi � (5.129) or � � N 2 − � .127) Approximately non­dispersive waves with phase velocity cs . For a plane wave.

It is for N 2 to be very large compared to all the components of � : N 2 �� � �. (5. If we choose axes such that N is along zˆ. If we simply say Et = 0 then the dispersion relation becomes �.‘Electrostatic’ waves are those that are describable by the electrostatic part of the electric field.�.135) and the purely longitudinal case �.N �= 0 (5.N = N 2 �zz = 0 (5. It is too restrictive.�.D = �.138) So for plane waves 0 = k. leaving N.N = 0 (5.�.E� = (N.k = 0 .N = 0. If this is the case. 116 .E = ik. which is the longitudinal part: |E� | � |Et |. In general. The electric displacement. is purely transverse (not zero) but the electric field. applied to a dielectric medium of dielectric tensor �. from Maxwell’s equations. This is not the most general dispersion relation for electrostatic waves.134) When the medium is isotropic there is no relevant difference between the electrostatic dis­ persion relation: N.N = 0.N = 0 requires �zz = 0 ⇒ �.136) there may be off­diagonal terms of � that make �. then the dispersion relation is approximately N 2 Et = �. We can then annihilate the Et term by taking the N component of this equation. there is a more significant way in which to get solutions where |E� | � |Et |.�.k = 0. (�0 �.E� = 0. (5. in an anisotropic medium (for example a magnetized plasma) the electrostatic approximation can give waves that have non­zero transverse electric field (of order ||�||/N 2 times E� ) even though the waves are describable in terms of a scalar potential.kφ.�.�.E� .E) = ρ = 0 (no free charges) (5. If N 2 �� � � then this magnetic (inductive) component can be considered as a benign passive coupling to the electrostatic wave. To approach this more directly.�. In summary. the electrostatic part of the electric field is derived from the electric displacement �. However if the medium is not isotropic. E then gives rise to an electromagnetic field via � ∧ H = ∂D/∂t.137) In other words. the electrostatic dispersion relation is k.133) Et is small but not zero.�.�.N) E� = 0 : k. then the medium’s isotropy ensures the off­diagonal components of � are zero so N. or in coordinates where k is in the z­direction. then even if � � N.D = k. �zz = 0. D.

j = j1 .144 ∧B0 and substituting from 5.144) E + V ∧ B0 = 0 (5.5.139) (5. Hence Dielectric Tensor ⎡ ρ σ = 1 + −iω�0 �0 B 2 � �=1+ � ⎤ 1 0 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 0 1 0 ⎦.143) Fourier Transform: ρ(−iω)V = j ∧ B0 (5. E+ or E=− 1 (j ∧ B0 ) ∧ B0 = 0 −iωρ (5.141) (5.146) 1 B02 {(j. Ny = 0 �⎡ � −N 2 + 1 + � � 0 | D | = ��⎢ ⎣ � � N⊥ N� ρ �0 B 2 0 2 2 −N� − N⊥ + 1 + 0 117 ⎤� ρ �0 B 2 N⊥ N� �� � 0 ⎥ ⎦� = 0 � � ∞ (5.147) So conductivity tensor can be written (z in B direction).6 Simple Example of MHD Dynamics: Alfven Waves Ignore Pressure & Resistance.145.B0 ) B0 − B02 j} = j⊥ −iωρ −iωρ (5.149) Dispersion tensor in general is: D= � ω2 � 2 NN − N + � c2 (5.151) . B = B0 + B1 (B0 uniform). DV =j∧B Dt E+V∧B=0 ρ (5.148) where ∞ implies that E� = 0 (because of Ohm’s law).145) Eliminate V by taking 5.140) Linearize: V = V1 . ⎡ ⎤ 1 0 0 −iωρ ⎢ ⎥ σ = 2 ⎣ 0 1 0 ⎦ B0 0 0 ∞ (5. 0 0 ∞ (5.142) ρ (5.150) Dispersion Relation taking N⊥ = Nx . ∂V = j ∧ B0 ∂t E + V ∧ B0 = 0 (5.

Works by field line bending (Tension Force) (no compression).e. Meaning of ∞ is that the cofactor must be zero i.Figure 5.156) . k 2 c2 N�2 = �0ρB 2 = ω� 2 Any ω has unique k� . Ex = 0. So final waves are 1. 118 (5.152) The 1’s here come from Maxwell displacement current and are usually negligible (N⊥2 � 1).9: Compressional Alfven Wave. N 2 = ρ �0 B 2 ⇒ Non­dispersive wave with phase and group velocities c vp = vg = = N where we call � B2 µ0 ρ � c2 � 0 B 2 ρ �1 2 B2 = µ0 ρ � �1 2 (5. Works by magnetic pressure (primarily).155) Polarization: E� = Ez = 0. � −N�2 ρ +1+ �0 B 2 �� ρ −N + 1 + �0 B 2 2 � =0 (5.154) ⇒ Vy = 0 Vx = � 0 (Vz = 0) (5. 2.153) �1 2 ≡ vA the ‘Alfven Speed’ (5. Ey = � 0 Party longitudinal (velocity) wave → Compression “Compressional Alfven Wave”. Polarization Ez = Ey = 0 Ex = � 0 ⇒ Vx = 0 Vy = � 0 (Vz = 0) Transverse velocity: “Shear Alfven Wave”. Wave has unique velocity in � direction: vA .

Locally. Even if the coupling is small. the wave length of the wave.7 Non­Uniform Plasmas and wave propagation Practical plasmas are not infinite & homogeneous. WKBJ solution Consider the model 1­d wave equation (for field ω) d2 E + k2E = 0 dx2 with k now a slowly varying function of x.158) . For a given ω. so that locally the wave propagates as if in an infinite uniform plasma. we still need a way of calculating how the solution propagates from one place to the other.f. This is handled by the ‘WKB(J)’ or ‘eikonal’ or ‘ray optic’ or ‘geometric optics’ approximation.157) (5. then coupling to other waves will be small (negligible). Figure 5. the plasma dx dx appears uniform. slowly varying plasma means N/ dN � λ or kN/ dN � 1. So how does all this plane wave analysis apply practically? If the spatial variation of the plasma is slow c.Figure 5.11: Comparison of sudden and gradualy refractive index change. Seek a solution in the form E = exp (iφ (x)) 119 (−iωt implied) (5.10: Shear Alfven Wave 5.

the Liouville of Sturm Liouville theory. So in slightly non­uniform.8 1 1 k2 .166) 1 k2 This is classic WKBJ solution. the Green of Green’s functions.165) � kdx (5. Two Stream Instability An example of waves becoming unstable in a non­equilibrium plasma.159) Substitute into differential equation to obtain � Recognize that in uniform plasma ignore this term. Analysis is possible using Cold Plasma techniques.162) so � �2 dφ dk � k2 ± i dx dx � � dφ i dk � ± k± dx 2k dx Integrate: φ�± � Hence E is E = eiφ = (5. 1st approx is to dφ � ±k(x) dx Then obtain a second approximation by substituting (5.163) using Taylor expansion. 120 . to get k(x). Originally studied by Green & Liouville (1837). Basic idea of this approach: (1) solve the local dispersion relation as if in infinite homogeneous plasma.161) d2 φ dk �± 2 dx dx (5. Differentiate twice d2 E d2 φ dφ = {i − dx2 dx2 dx � �2 }eiφ (5. Phase of wave varies as integral of kdx. dφ dx d2 φ dx2 �2 = k2 + i d2 φ dx2 (5.160) = 0.φ is the wave phase (= kx in uniform plasma). In addition.164) (5. This is required to make the total energy flow uniform. (2) form approximate solution for all space as above. x 1 � kdx + i ln k 2 1 � exp ±i � � x (5. amplitude varies as 5. Consider a plasma with two participating cold species but having different average velocities.

We analyse by obtaining the susceptibility for each species and adding together to get total dielectric constant (scalar 1­d if unmagnetized).˜ v + ρv ˜ j.˜ vρj + ik.j + ∂ρ = ik. Speed v (5.˜ v ρ˜j = ρj ω − k.vj ) v mj ∂t (5.g.˜ vρ − iωρ˜ = 0 ∂t k.169) Proof from equation of motion: ˜ qj ∂v ˜ = −i (ω − kvj ) v ˜.E . a stream j has the (Cold Plasma) suscepti­ bility 2 −ωpj χj = .171) Current density Substitute in �.E = ρ˜j = ρj q j k.175) Proof by transforming frame of reference: Consider Galileean transformation to a frame moving with the stream at velocity vj .174) which shows the longitudinal susceptibility is χj = − 2 −ωpj ρj q j 1 = mj �0 (ω 2 − kvj )2 (ω − kvj )2 (5. mj −i (ω − k. (5.170) j = ρj vj + ρj . Species1 Species2 . In a frame of reference in which it is stationary.�˜ v = (−iω + ik. species (stream) 2 stationary or 1 stationary (or neither). (k & vj in same direction) (5. 121 t� = t (5. E= + v. e. .vj )2 (5.176) .These are two “streams”.→ M oving.173) ˜ in terms of E: Hence substituting for v − χj �0 �. (5.vj (5.172) (5.168) ω2 If the stream is moving with velocity vj (zero order) then its susceptibility is χj = 2 −ωpj (ω − kvj )2 . Stationary. x = x� + vj t .167) We can look at them in different inertial frames.

x − ωt) = exp i (k.vj ) t� ) (5. If not.178) Thus for n streams we have �=1+ � χj = 1 − � 2 ωpj j (ω − kvj )2 j . If � crosses zero between the wells. ω (ω − kvj )2 (5.180) − ωP2 2 (ω − kv2 )2 (5.177) So in frame of the stream. then ∃ 4 real solutions for ω.x� − (ω − k.179) Longitudinal wave dispersion relation is � = 0. (Case B). Substitute in stationary cold plasma expression: 2 2 ωpj ωpj χ j = − �2 = − . It has the form: Figure 5.181) For given real k this is a quartic in ω. The time dependence of these complex roots is exp (−iωt) = exp (−iωr t ± ωi t) . (5. ω � = ω − k. Two streams 0=�=1− 2 ωp1 (ω − kv1 )2 (5. then 2 of the solutions are complex: ω = ωr ± iωi (Case A). 122 (5.182) .12: Two­stream stability analysis.vj .exp i (k.

acceleration. 5. 2 2 Simple interpretation (ωp2 � ωp1 .183) Small enough k (long enough wavelength) is always unstable. dz ˆ ) − ax f (x.9 Kinetic Theory of Plasma Waves Wave damping is due to wave­particle resonance. v) − vx f (x. v). Negative � implies charge perturbation causes E that enhances itself: charge (spontaneous) bunching. a is “velocity space motion”. v velocity. 5. Write down an equation that is conservation of particles for this volume − ∂ � 3 3 � f d xd v = ∂t + + + [vx f (x + dxˆ x.13: Difference in flow across x­surfaces (+y + z). It is straightforward to show that Case A occurs if � 2 3 2 3 | k (v2 − v1 )| < ωp1 + ωp2 �3 2 . 123 (5.e. v). i.The +ve sign is growing in time: instability. v1 = 0) a tenuous beam in a plasma sees a negative � if < |kv2 | ∼ ωp1 . v)] d3 xdvy dvz [ax f (x. At any instant a particle occupies a unique position in phase space (x.184) . at (x. Consider an elemental volume d3 xd3 v of phase space [dxdydzdvx dvy dvz ]. (5. v + dvx x same for dvy . To treat this we need to keep track of the particle distribution in velocity space → kinetic theory.9. v)] dydzd3 v same for dy. dvz Figure 5.1 Vlasov Equation Treat particles as moving in 6­D phase space x position.

(v ∧ B) m m q = B.v) f + (v.190) So RHS is zero. ∂v ↔ �v ]. + a. We want a smoothed out field.189) (5. and the Lorentz force q a= (E + v ∧ B) (5. (E + v ∧ B) = �v .185) = [Notation: Use ∂ ∂x ∂ ↔ �. Take this simple continuity equation in phase space and expand: ∂f + (�.a) f + (a. 124 (5. = ∂t ∂x ∂v � ∂f ∂t � (5. That is collisions.�) f + (�v . dt ∂t dt ∂x dt ∂v Coupled to Vlasov equation for each particle species we have Maxwell’s equations.�v ) f = 0.Divide through by d3 xd3 v and take limit − ∂f ∂t ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ (vx f ) + (vy f ) + (vz f ) + (ax f ) + (ay f ) + (az f ) ∂y ∂z ∂vx ∂vy ∂vz ∂x = �. keeping v constant so that �. + . So ∂f ∂f ∂f + v. However in the use of smoothed out E we have ignored local effect of one particle on another due to the graininess.v = 0 by definition.188) m Actually we don’t want to use the E retaining all the local effects of individual particles. + a. = −f (�v . ∂t ∂x m ∂v (5.192) Interpretation: Distribution function is constant along particle orbit in phase space: d f dt = 0. For electromagnetic forces: ∂f q ∂f ∂f + v. (vf ) + �v . (af ) (5. + (E + v ∧ B) = 0.191) collisions Vlasov Equation ≡ Boltzman Eq without collisions. (�v ∧ v) = 0. d ∂f dx ∂f ∂v ∂f f= + . m (5.187) Now we want to couple this equation with Maxwell’s equations for the fields. Ensemble averaged E.193) . Boltzmann Equation: ∂f ∂f ∂f + v. ∂t Recognize that � means here ∂ ∂x (5.186) etc.a = �v .a) ∂t ∂x ∂v (5. Evaluate q q �v .

198) j Describe phenomena in which collisions are not important.200) = 0.v) m ∂v For convenience. ∂f0 m 1 ∂v i (ω − k. it is an independent variable.196) Coupling is completed via charge & current densities.x − ωt) Zeroth order f0 equation satisfied by ∂ .B = 0 �.E = �0 + v.204) . 6­dimensional. = 0.202) 0 is in direction v so v ∧ B1 .Vlasov­Maxwell Equations ∂fj ∂t ∂fj qj ∂fj + (E + v ∧ B) .203) We want to calculate the conductivity σ. � ∧ B = µ0 j + 2 c ∂t ∂t ρ .x − ωt) B = B1 exp i (k. ∂f =0 ∂v q E .9. f1 small. nonlinear.199) (5. �. keeping track of the (statistically averaged) particle distribution function. First order: q ∂f0 (E1 + v ∧ B1 ) .x − ωt) . integral­differential equations! 5. Do this by simply integrating: j= � 0 q 2 � v ∂f ∂v qf1 vd v = d3 v . =0 ∂x mj ∂vj 1 ∂E −∂B �∧E = .2 Linearized Wave Solution of Vlasov Equation Unmagnetized Plasma Linearize the Vlasov Eq by supposing f = f0 (v) + f1 (v) exp i (k.v) (5.E1 . Plasma waves are the most important phenomena covered by the Vlasov­Maxwell equations.197) J � qj nj Vj = j � qj � fj vd3 v.195) (5.] Solution: f1 = 1 q ∂f0 (E1 + v ∧ B1 ) . ∂ ∂t ∂x − iωf1 + v. time­dependent. ρ = � qj n j = � j j = qj � fj d3 v (5. Then f1 = ∂f0 ∂v (5. also E = E1 exp i (k.ikf1 + (5. i (ω − k.v 3 125 (5. assume f0 is isotropic. im ω − k. (5. m ∂v (5.194) (5. (5.201) [Note v is not per se of any order.

Path of velocity integration First. if we start up the wave suddenly there will be a transient that makes g non­zero.] Solution of this is f1 = g(vt − z.206) Such an expression applies for the conductivity (susceptibility) of each species. Hence we have the tensor conductivity. v) (5.211) and g must be determined by initial conditions. Crucial to get right.209) qE ∂f m ∂v = 0. At least we can do 2 of 3 integrals by defining the 1­dimensional distribution function fz (vz ) ≡ Then � f (v)dvx dvy (k = kˆz) ∂f q 2 � vz ∂vzz χ= dvz ωm�0 ω − kvz (5.Here the electric field has been taken outside the v­integral but its dot product is with ∂f0 /∂v.208) (drop the z suffix from now on. 0 q 2 � v ∂f ∂v σ= d3 v im ω − k.205) Focus on zz component: 1 + χzz = �zz = 1 + ∂f σzz q 2 � vz ∂vz0 3 =1+ dv −iω�0 ωm�0 ω − k. How do we integrate through the pole at v = ωk ? Contribution of resonant particles.v (5. Hence general solution is f1 = q 0 E ∂f m ∂v i (ω − kv) exp i (kz − ωt) + g (vt − z. 1­d problem). realize that the solution we have found is not complete. 126 . v) (5.210) where g is an arbitrary function of its arguments.207) (5. In general.v (5. The integrand has a zero in the denominator. It looks as if we are there! Just do the integral! Now the problem becomes evident. if more than one needs to be considered. In fact a more general solution can be constructed by adding any solution of ∂f1 ∂f1 +v =0 ∂t ∂z [We are dealing with 1­d Vlasov equation: ∂f ∂t + v ∂f + ∂z (5.

14: Contour of integration in complex v­plane. Thus if ωi > 0.So instead we consider a case of complex ω (real k for simplicity) where ω = ωr + iωi and ωi > 0. taken along the real axis. We can deform the contour how we like. The pole of the integrand is at v = ω k which is above the real axis.16) 127 . of F (z). This case corresponds to a growing wave: exp(−iωt) = exp(−iωr t + ωi t) (5. Remember (Fig 5. For ωi > 0 the complementary function. as things change continuously. The answer is by “analytic continuation”. provided no poles cross it. Physically this can be thought of as treating a case where there is a very gradual. is zero.213) where there is now no difficulty about the integration because ω is complex. This is satisfied by taking g = 0. so that no transients are generated. with no additional terms. (5.214) c (Cauchy’s theorem) Where residues = limz→zk [F (z)/(z −zk )] at the poles.212) Then we can take our initial condition to be f1 = 0 at t → −∞. the solution is simply the velocity integral. For ∂f q2 � v ∂v χ= dv ωm�o C ω − kv ωi > 0. changing the ωi ) but never allowing any poles to cross the integration contour. Figure 5.g. regarding all quantities as complex. The question then arises as to how to do the calculation if ωi ≤ 0. smooth start up.15) � F dz = � residues × 2πi (5. “Analytic Continuation” of χ is accomplished by allowing ω/k to move (e. zk . Hence contour (Fig 5. g.

To express our answer in a universal way we use the notation of “Principal Value” of a singular integral defined as the average of paths above and below ℘ � F 1 dv = v − v0 2 �� + C1 � C2 � F dv v − v0 (5.215) Figure 5.216) k Second term is half the normal residue term. so it is half of the integral round the pole. It includes the pole also. 128 .17: Two halves of principal value contour. Then � 0 v ∂f 1 ω ∂f0 �� 12 ∂v dv − 2πi 2 χ= {℘ } � ω − kv 2 k ∂v �v= ω ωm�o � (5.16: Landau Contour We conclude that the integration contour for ωi < 0 is not just along the real v axis. Figure 5.Figure 5.15: Cauchy’s theorem.

219) 0 The Laplace Transform inversion formula is 1 � s+i∞ pt ˜ e A(p)dp A(t) = 2πi s−i∞ (5. 129 . (1946) Corrected Vlasov’s assumption that the correct result was just the principal value of the inte­ gral.) (5. Such a prescription seems reasonable. Landau recognized the importance of initial conditions and so used Laplace Transform approach to the problem � ∞ ˜ A(p) = e−pt A(t)dt (5. Our expression is only short­hand for the (Landau) prescription: “Integrate below the pole”. (Nautilus). then it must be of the form g = exp[ik(z − vt)]h(v) where h(v) is an arbitrary function. 5. the value of h(v) must be (for real ω) � q 1 ∂f0 �� ω � δ v− h(v) = π m k ∂v � w k � � (5. We shall see in a moment. We don’t have to calculate it explicitly because the Landau prescription takes care of it. v). s large enough). The inversion formula can also be proved rigorously so that gives confidence that this is the right approach. non­zero.218) k This Dirac delta function says that the complementary function is limited to particles with “exactly” the wave phase speed ωk .3 Landau’s original approach.Figure 5.18: Contour equivalence.e. It is the resonant behaviour of these particles and the imaginary term they contribute to χ that is responsible for wave damping. Therefore there will generally be a complementary function. If we make �(p) large enough then the A˜(p) integral will presumably exist. that the standard case will be ωi < 0.220) where the path of integration must be chosen to the right of any poles of A˜(p) (i.9.217) k ⎛ (so that � � ⎞ q ω ∂f0 �� ⎠ q 2 � vgdv = ⎝πi 2 −iω�o k ∂v � ω ωm�o . describing resonant effects. Contribution from the pole can be considered to arise from the complementary function g(vt − z. To get the result previously calculated. If g is to be proportional to exp(ikz). so the opposite of the prescription ωi > 0 that makes g = 0.

We previously argued that cold­plasma is valid if ωk � vt .9.. the wave we are discussing. It is all bound up with satisfying causality.223) Here we have assumed we are in the particles’ average rest frame (no bulk velocity) so that f0 vdv = 0 and also we have used the temperature definition � nT = � mv 2 f0 dv . Making �(p) positive enough to be to the right of all poles is then equivalent to making �(ω) positive enough so that the path in ω­space is above all poles.225) . For real velocity. v. Presumably.. ⎦ dv −1 3nT k 2 � n+ + .221) k for a general isotropic distribution. Need to do the integral and hence get �. in particular ωi > �(kv).. 5.. which can be identified as the Fourier transform that would give component A˜ ∝ e−iωt ..⎦ dv ω ∂v ω ω ω 1 − kv ω 0 v ∂f dv ⎡ � −1 � 2kv kv = +3 fo ⎣1 + ω ω ω ⎤ �2 + . we ought to be able to get back the cold­plasma result as an approximation in the appropriate limits. plus some corrections. Ignoring the higher order terms we get: ⎧ � ⎫ ω2 ⎨ T k2 ω 2 1 ∂f0 �� ⎬ � � = 1 − p2 1 + 3 + πi ω ⎩ m ω2 k 2 n ∂v � ω ⎭ k 130 (5. So regard kv as a small quantity and expand: ω ℘ � ⎡ ⎤ � �2 1 � ∂f0 ⎣ kv kv � � dv = v 1+ + + . ω m ω2 (by parts) � � (5. then the transform is A˜ = e iωt A(t)dt.224) appropriate to one degree of freedom (1­d problem). (5.222) Giving transverse waves N 2 = �t and longitudinal waves � = 0. if we have done this right.� If we identify p → −iω. we adopted before to justify putting the complementary function zero.. Either approach gives the same prescription.4 Solution of Dispersion Relation We have the dielectric tensor ⎧ � ⎫ 0 ω ∂f0 �� ⎬ q 2 ⎨ � v ∂f ∂v � ℘ dv − πi 2 . this is precisely the condition ωi > 0. �=1+χ=1+ ω − kv k ∂v � ω ⎭ ωm�0 ⎩ (5. We also know that the dispersion relation is −N 2 + �t 0 0 � �2 ⎢ ⎥ 2 2 0 −N + � 0 ⎣ ⎦ = −N + �t � = 0 t 0 0 � ⎡ ⎤ (5.

Solution is then more complex.This is just what we expected. 5. 2. Solve the dispersion relation for longitudinal waves � = 0 (again assuming k real ω complex). This is Landau Damping.228) mv mv 2 − exp − n T 2T � m 2πT �1 2 � � mωr2 m exp − 2T k 2 T � (5.230) The difference between ωr and ωp may not be important in the outside but ought to be retained inside the exponential since mωp2 T k2 m ωp2 3 = 1+3 + 2 2 2 2 2T k m ωp 2T k � � So ωi � −ωp � �1 π 8 2 ωp3 1 mωp2 3 exp − − 3 3 2 k vt 2T k 2 � (5. correction 3 m = 3 vvpt due to finite temperature.232) Imaginary part of ω is negative ⇒ damping.227) For a Maxwellian distribution m f0 = 2πT � ∂f0 m = ∂v 2πT � �1 2 �1 � π ωr2 ωi � −ωp2 2 k3 2 � mv 2 exp − n 2T � � (5. We could have ω2 got this from a fluid treatment with pressure. To real part of �. 131 . Note that we have been treating a single species (electrons by implication) but if we need more than one we simply add to χ.5 Direct Calculation of Collisionless Particle Heating (Landau Damping without complex variables!) We show by a direct calculation that net energy is transferred to electrons. Assume ωi � ωr then T k2 ω 2 1 ∂f0 |ω } + πi m ω2 k 2 n ∂v k T k2 ωr2 1 ∂fo + πi | ωr } � ωp2 {1 + 3 m ωr2 k 2 n ∂v k 1 2 ωr2 1 ∂f0 π ωr 1 ∂f0 � ωp πi 2 | ωkr = ωp2 | ωr 2ωr i k n ∂v 2 k 2 n ∂v k (ωr + iωi )2 � ωr2 + 2ωr ωi i = ωp2 {1 + 3 Hence ω1 (5. ω2 We have two corrections �2 T k 1.231) � (5.226) (5.229) � (5. Imaginary part → antihermitian part of � → dissipation. Cold plasma value was � = 1 − � 2 ωp2 .9.

. dt where zi = const is the initial position.233) Equations of motion of a particle dv q = E cos(kz − ωt) dt m dz = v dt (5. z = z0 (t) + z1 (t) + . z0 = zi + v0 t (5.. � sin kzi qE cos kzi − cos (kzi + Δωt) z1 = −t 2 m Δω Δω � (5. 2nd Order (Needed to get energy right) dv2 qE {cos (kzi + kv0 t − ωt + kz1 ) − cos (kzi + kv0 t − ωt)} = dt M qE = kzi {− sin (kzi + Δωt)} (kz1 � 1) m (5. v2 = 0. m kv0 − ω take initial conditions to be v1 ..234) (5.239) qE sin (kzi + Δωt) − sin (kzi ) m Δω (5. Zeroth order: dvo = 0 ⇒ v0 = const .235) Solve these assuming E is small by a perturbation expansion v = v0 + v1 + ..240) where Δω ≡ kv0 − ω.236) First Order dv1 q q = E cos (kz0 − ωt) = E cos (k (zi + v0 t) − ωt) dt m m dz1 = v1 dt (5. ...237) (5.238) Integrate: qE sin (kzi + kv0 − ωt) + const.241) (using z1 (0) = 0).242) Now the gain in kinetic energy of the particle is 1 2 1 1 2 mv − mv = m{(v0 + v1 + v2 + .243) . is (­) the frequency at which the particle feels the wave field.Suppose there exists a longitudinal wave E = E cos(kz − ωt)ˆz (5. Then v1 = v1 = (5..)2 − v02 } 2 2 0 2 1 = {2v0 v1 + v12 + 2v0 v2 + higher order} 2 132 (5.

249) (5.E.250) This is the space­averaged power into particles of a specific velocity v0 . � � � � �� d 1 2 dv1 dv2 dv1 mv = v0 + v1 + v0 m (5.252) . i.248) m2 2 Δω 2 Δω � = = � v0 dv2 dt � = = = � Hence � d1 2 mv dt 2 � q 2 E 2 sin Δωt sin Δωt cos Δωt = − kv0 + kv0 t 2 2m Δω Δω Δω � 2 2 � q E −ω sin Δωt ωt = + cos Δωt + t cos Δωt 2m Δω 2 Δω � � (5.246) v0 dt � � � � �� dv1 q 2 E 2 sin (kzi + Δωt) − sin kzi v1 = cos (kzi + Δωt) dt m2 Δω � q 2 E 2 sin (kzi + Δωt) − sin (kzi + Δωt) cos Δωt + cos (kzi + Δωt) sin Δωt = m2 Δω � cos (kzi + Δωt) q 2 E 2 sin Δωt cos2 (kzi + Δωt) m2 Δω q 2 E 2 1 sin Δωt (5. This will cancel any component that simply oscillates with zi . A trick identify helps: −ω ωt ∂ sin Δωt + cos Δωt + t cos Δωt = 2 Δω Δω ∂Δω � � 1 ∂ ω sin Δωt = + sin Δωt k ∂v0 Δω 133 � ω sin Δωt + sin Δωt Δω � (5.244) We need to average this over space. over zi . We need to integrate over the distribution function.e.and the rate of increase of K.251) (5.247) m2 2 Δω �� � � −q 2 E 2 cos kzi − cos (kzi + Δωt) sin kzi kv0 sin (kzi + Δωt) −t 2 2 m Δω Δω �� � � −q 2 E 2 sin Δωt cos Δωt 2 sin (kzi + Δωt) kv0 −t m2 Δω 2 Δω � � q 2 E 2 kv0 sin Δωt cos Δωt − +t (5.245) dt 2 dt dt dt � � dv1 = 0 (5. is � d 1 2 dv1 dv1 dv2 mv = m v0 + v1 + v0 dt 2 dt dt dt � � � (5.

Figure 5.253) As t becomes large. We found that the energy gain was of the form � sin Δωt d (Δωt) .Hence power per unit volume is � � � d1 2 P = mv f (v0 ) dv0 dt 2 � � q2E 2 � ∂ ω sin Δωt = f (v0 ) + sin Δωt dv0 2mk ∂v0 Δω � � q 2 E 2 � ω sin Δωt ∂f = − + sin Δωt dv0 ∂v0 2mk Δω (5. The latter is easier to deal with. or equivalently it is kv0� where v0� is particle speed in wave frame of reference.256) 2mk 2 ∂v k We have shown that there is a net transfer of energy to particles at the resonant velocity ωk from the wave.255) x = Δωt = (kv0 − ω)t.9.6 Physical Picture Δω is the frequency in the particles’ (unperturbed) frame of reference. � sin x and dz = π so x πq 2 ω ∂f0 | ω (5.254) becomes a highly localized. Δωt = kv0� t is the phase the particle travels in time t. That enables the rest of the inte­ grand to be evaluated just where Δω = 0 (i.e. sin Δωt = sin(kv0 − ω)t becomes a rapidly oscillating function of v0 . kv0 − ω = 0). So: P = − q 2 E 2 ω ∂f � sin x |ω dx 2mk k ∂v k x (5. delta­function­like quantity.19: Localized integrand function. Hence second term of integrand contributes negligibly and the first term. (Positive if ∂f | is negative. (5.) ∂v P = −E 5.257) Δωt 134 . ∝ ω sin Δωt sin Δωt = ωt Δω Δωt (5.

Particles moving slightly slower than wave are speeded up. they spend less time in the ‘down’ region. This integrand becomes small (and oscillatory) for Δωt � 1.22: Particles moving slightly faster than the wave. this means that if particle moves through many wavelengths its energy gain is small. This is a second­order effect. they spend more time in up region. Figure 5. Summary: Resonant particles’ velocity is drawn toward the wave phase velocity.21: Dominant contribution Particles moving slightly faster than wave are slowed down.Figure 5. Net effect: tendency for particle to move its speed toward that of wave. B’s are slowed. Some particles of this v0 group are being accelerated (A) some slowed (B). To show this we need to show energy conservation. Is there net energy when we average both slower and faster particles? Depends which type has most. Our Complex variables wave treatment and our direct particle energy calculation give con­ sistent answers. Physically.20: Phase distance traveled in time t. Dominant contribution is from Δωt < π. (Same argument). These are particles that move through less than 12 wavelength during the period under consideration. Because A’s are then going faster. These are the resonant particles. But this is only true for particles that have “caught the wave”. Energy density of 135 . Figure 5.

Our direct intuitive calculation gives the correct answer more directly. (5. ωi and dW 1 dE 2 =W 2 = 2ωi W (5.262) k This exactly agrees with the damping calculated from the complex dispersion relation using the Vlasov equation. Hence 2 πq ω ∂f −P +E 2 2mk2 ∂v0 | ωk 2 2 π ω 1 ∂f0 ω � ωi = = | k × 2 � = ωp 2 ω ω2 2 �0 E 2W 2 k n ∂v 1 + ωp2 1 + ωp2 1 (5. it has imaginary part of ω. just for electron plasma waves.259) When the wave is damped. We showed in Cold Plasma qE treatment that the velocity due to the wave is v˜ = −iωm Hence ωp2 1 �0 E 2 W � 1+ 2 2 2 ω � � (again electrons only) (5.261) So for waves such that ω ∼ ωp . P .23: Damping or growth depends on distribution slope wave: W = 1 1 [ �0 |E 2 | + 2 � �2 �� � � �� <sin2 > Electrostatic 1 n m|v˜2 | ] � 2 �� � (5.Figure 5. This is the Landau damping calculation for longitudinal waves in a (magnetic) field­free plasma. Strictly.258) P article Kinetic Magnetic wave energy zero (negligible) for a longitudinal wave. 136 . How does this apply to the general magnetized plasma case with multiple species? Doing a complete evaluation of the dielectric tensor using kinetic theory is feasible but very heavy algebra.260) dt E dt Conservation of energy requires that this equal minus the particle energy gain rate. which is the dispersion relation to lowest order. we get ωi = � π ωp2 ωr 1 ∂f0 �� � 2 k 2 n ∂v � ωr .

However we need to observe notation.B = B.267) � � 1 �P � = E∗ .268 shows that < P >= 0. σ ∗T + σ .5. These average to zero. transposeT = original matrix.265) But for arbitrary matrices and vectors: A.j∗ e−2iφ 4 (5.σ.E 4 (5.x − ωt)) � 1� � 1 � iφ (φ = k.] This means no damping (dissipation).) = Ee + E∗ e−iφ .A.269) .x − ωt.266) (in our dyadic notation we don’t explicitly indicate transposes of vectors).E] 4 (5.E∗ + E∗ .MT .j∗ ) (5.E and substitute �P � = 1 [E. The proof of this fact is simple but instructive. Any dissipation of wave energy is associated with an antihermitian part of σ and hence �. Notation is that E(k.E (5.� (j exp i (k.9.x − ωt)) . Can be included in equation of motion m dv = q (E + v ∧ B) − mv ν dt where ν is the collision frequency.j] = � (E.j∗ + E∗ .je2iφ + E. equation 5. We usually average over at least a period.σ ∗ . [Complex conjugate*. Hence 1 1 �P � = [E.M.j. Collisions introduce damping. (5. ω) is amplitude of wave which is really �(E(k.j + E∗ .268) 1 If � = 1 + −iω� σ is hermitian �∗T = �. Rate of doing work on plasma per unit volume is P = E. 137 (5. No dissipation.σ ∗T .264) 4 2 Now recognize that j = σ.σ ∗ . then the conductivity tensor is antihermitian 0 σ ∗T = −σ (if ω is real).j∗ + E∗ .E∗ = E∗ . ω) exp i(k. So P = � (E exp i (k. In that case. jeiφ + j∗ e−iφ 2 2 � 1� = E. Whenever products are taken: must take real part first. So hence E. Cold Plasma has none.7 Damping Mechanisms Cold plasma dielectric tensor is Hermitian.263) The terms e2iφ & e−2iφ are rapidly varying.x − ωt)) and similarly for j.

then there’s no damping by definition. We shall not bother with this because in fusion plasmas collisional damping is usually neg­ ligible. Speed 3 × 10+8 m/s (5.8 Ion Acoustic Waves and Landau Damping We previously derived ion acoustic waves based on fluid treatment giving �zz = 1 − Leading to ω 2 � k 2 � γi Ti +γe Te mi � 2 ωpe ω2 − k2 pe γe me ne . We need to deal with σ = −iω�o χ.9. and then σ is anti­Hermitian. So we can’t necessarily detect damping or growth just by inspecting the dieletric tensor form when it depends on both ω and k.270) (Collision frequency)−1 ∼ 10µs → 1ms. When is the conductivity tensor Antihermitian? Cold Plasma: ⎡ 2 ωpj j ω 2 −Ω2 � Ωj ωpj j = j ω ω2 −Ω2 j 2 � ωpj = 1 − j ω2 S =1− ⎤ S −iD 0 S 0 ⎥ iD � = ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ 0 0 P where D P � (5. depending on Te . This observation is sufficient to show that if the plasma is driven with a steady wave. But that just begs the question: If ω and k are real.Whole calculation can be followed through replacing m(−iω) with m(ν − iω) everywhere. which indeed has a Hermitian component for the two­stream instability (even though χ is Hermitian) because ω is complex.273) .272) In this case. Electrostatic Waves in general have � = 0 which is Hermitian. Two stream Instability �zz = 1 − � 2 ωpj j (ω − kvj )2 (5. the relevant component is Hermitian (i. So really it is not enough to deal with � or χ. D. and k does not acquire a complex part. P . there is no damping. 5.e. See this physically by saying that transit time of a wave is Size 1 meter ∼ � 3 × 10−9 seconds.271) This is manifestly Hermitian if ω is real. This introduces complex quantity in S. ne . real) if both ω and k are real. 138 − 2 ωpi ω2 − k2 pi γi mi ni (5.

so ω2 3Ti k 2 ω 2 1 ∂foi χi � − pi2 1 + + πi |w/k m ω2 k 2 ni ∂v ω � Electrons: we regard ℘ � ω k � (5. k vti < (<) ω k (5.278) .Kinetic treatment adds the extra ingredient of Landau Damping. Also cs is somewhat larger than the ion thermal speed. (5. So we adopt approximations vte � ω .24: Distribution functions of ions and electrons near the sound wave speed. Based on our fluid treatment we know these waves will have small phase velocity relative to electron thermal speed. unmagne­ tized: 2 � 2 � ωpe 1 ∂foe dv ωpi 1 ∂foi dv �zz = 1 − 2 − 2 (5. Figure 5. Vlasov plasma.275) and expand in opposite ways.274) ω k C v − k ∂v n k C v − ωk ∂v n Both electron and ion damping need to be considered as possibly important. Ions are in the standard limit. Contribution from the pole is as usual so ⎡ ⎤ ω2 m ∂Foe �� ⎦ ⎣− e + πi χe = − pe � k2 Te ∂v �ω/k � 139 (5.277) Write F0 = fo /n.276) as small and write 1 v− ω k � ∂foe dv 1 ∂foe dv � ℘ ∂v n v ∂v n � 2 ∂foe = dv n � ∂v 2 2 me = − foe dv n 2Te me = − Te for Maxwellian.

then ε(ω) = iεi (ωr ) + iωi ∂ ε(ωr ).280) The real part is essentially the same as before.284) (5.281) Since our kinetic form is based on a rather inaccurate Taylor expansion.285) Let ωr be the solution of εr (ωr ) = 0. The extra Bohm Gross term in ions appeared previously in the denominator as 2 ωpi ω2 − ω2 3Ti k 2 ↔ pi2 1 + ω mi ω 2 � k2 pi γi mi � (5.279) (5. but we’ve proved that γe = 1 is the correct choice.283) i Then the solution of εr (ωr ) = 0 is � � as before. ∂ωr (5. The imaginary part of ε gives damping. it is not clear that it is a better approx.Collecting real and imaginary parts (at real ω) 2 2 ωpe me ωpi 3Ti k 2 εr (ωr ) = 1 + 2 − 2 1+ k Te m ωr2 ωr � � 1 2 ∂Foe 2 ∂Foi |ω/k εi (ωr ) = −π 2 ωpe |ω/k + ωpi k ∂v ∂v � � (5. (5.286) This is equal to zero when ωi = − εi (ωr ) ∂ε(ωr ) ∂ωr 140 . ωi small. General way to solve for damping when small We want to solve ε(k. ω) = 0 with ω = ωr + iωi .282) ωr2 Te + 3Ti 1 = k2 mi 1 + k 2 λ2De (5. and kept the k 2 λ2De term (1st term of εr ).287) . ik ω 2 1 − 3T 2 mω (5. We are probably better off using 2 ωpi 1 2 . Taylor expand ε about real ωr : dε |ω dω r ∂ = ε(ωr ) + iωi ε(ωr ) ∂ωr ε(ω) � ε(ωr ) + iωi (5.

291) De where the exponent is of order me /mi here.If. or more precisely (in the vicinity of ε = 0). εi � εr .294) .290) r For Maxwellian distributions. by presumption. ∂εi /∂ωr � ∂εr /∂ωr then this can be written to lowest order: εi (ωr ) ωi = − ∂εr (ωr ) (5. using our previous value for ωr .293) �3 2 1 + Tei π 1 × i 2 [1 + k 2 λ2 ] 32 2 + 4 Te3T +3Ti De �� � me mi �1 �� � 2 electron Te + Ti � � � 23 ⎛ ⎞� 3T Te 1 + Tei ⎠ exp ⎝− .288) ∂ωr Apply to ion acoustic waves: ω2 ∂εr (ωr ) 4Ti k 2 = pi3 2 + 4 ∂ωr ωr mi ωr2 � so ⎡ � (5. ∂Foe | ωr ∂v k � = me − 2πTe � �1 2 1 = − √ 2π � me Te �3 � 1 = − √ 2π � me mi �1 2 2 � me v − m2Te v2 e e Te Te + 3Ti mi v= ωkr 1 2 � ⎛ ⎞ 3T me 1 + Tei ⎠ � exp ⎝− 2mi 1 + k 2 λ2D 1 + k 2 λ2D 1 �1 � 3T 2 me 1 + Tei � .292) D Hence ωi π = − √ ωr 2π ⎡ m ⎣ i me ωi = − ωr ωr2 k2 ⎡ ⎣ ⎤ � 3Ti Te �1 2 1 ⎦� × 2 i k 2 + 4 3T 2 1 + k 2 λ2D mi ω r � me mi �1 2 me mi + Te Ti � � � 1+ Te Ti 3T � 21 ⎛ ⎞⎤ 3T Te 1 + Tei ⎠⎦ ⎝ exp − 2Ti 1 + k 2 λ2D (5.289) ⎤� ∂Foe π ω3 1 2 ∂Foi ⎦ ω2 ωi = 2 2r ⎣ |ω/k + ωpi |ω/k 2 pe 4T k i k ωpi 2 + 4 m ω2 ∂v ∂v i � (5. Te 1 + k 2 λ2 (5. and so the exponential is 1. 2Ti 1 + k 2 λ2De �� ion damping 141 � (5. And �1 � ⎛ ⎞ 3T 2 � �1 3T ∂Foi 1 mi 1 + Tei Te 2 Te 1 + Tei ⎠ � | ωkr = − √ exp ⎝− ∂v 2Ti 1 + k 2 λ2D 2π Ti 1 + k 2 λ2 Ti (5.

297) (5.] 5.302) . χxy ) l �= z and j �= l then the integral over vl yields � vj � ∂fo dvj = − fo dvj . 70 Ion Landau damping is large.294 for ωi /ωr reduces to � − π/8 for Ti /Te � 1 and kλD e � 1. [Note.301) = 0. Many texts drop terms of order TTei early in the treatment.298) (5. (Multi dimensional distribution f0 ). Other elements of χ involve integrals o vj ∂f ωm�o � ∂vl d3 v .9. We have kept the first order.� [Note: the coefficient on the first line of equation 5. giving extra coefficient 3Ti 1+ Te � � 23 � Te + 3Ti 3 Ti �1+ Te + 6Ti 2 Te � (5.300) is the normalized distribution function.9 Alternative expressions of Dielectric Tensor Elements This subsection gives some useful algebraic relationships that enable one to transform to different expressions sometimes encountered. but that is not really accurate. When Ti ∼ Te we ought really to use full Te solutions based on the Plasma Dispersion Function. ∼ 1 unless the term in the exponent is large. o q2 ω � ∂fo ω q 2 � v ∂f ∂v dv = 2 dv −1 ω m�o k C ω − kv ∂v ωm�o C ω − kv q2 1 � 1 ∂fo dv ω 2 m�o k C k − v ∂v ωp2 � 1 1 ∂fo dv ω k 2 C k − v n ∂v � � � ωp2 ∂Fo 1 ∂Fo ℘ ω dv − πi |ω k2 − v 2v ∂v k k � � χzz = = = = where Fo = of the form fo n (5.. ∂vj 142 � ∂fo dvl ∂vl (5.g.296) i and an extra factor 1 + 3T in the exponent.295) pulls the phase velocity of the wave: Ti .v = kz vz . k. = q2 ω − k.299) (5. That is unless Physics is that large thermal velocity vti = Te T� i Te �1 . Ti (5.] Electron Landau damping of ion acoustic waves is rather small: ωi ωr ∼ � me mi ∼ 1 . χjl If (e.v When k is in z­direction. mi � Te +3Ti mi = cs above the ion If cs � vti there are few resonant ions to damp the wave. If j = l �= z then (5.

by parts.303) The fourth type of element is χxz ∂f q 2 � vx ∂vzo 3 = dv.v ω (5.304) This is not zero unless fo is isotropic (= fo (v)). with k in the z­direction. recalling the definition fz ≡ f dvx dvy .306) (since the vx ­integral of ∂fo /∂vx is zero).307) (and the terms 0+ are the ones that need isotropy to make them zero).310) All integrals are along the Landau contour. ⎡ ω2 − ωp ⎢ ⎢ χ=⎢ ⎣ � Foz C ω−kvz dvz 0 0 ω2 − ωp 0 � Foz C ω−kvz dvz 0 0+ ⎤ + ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 0 ωp2 k � ∂Foz 1 C ω−kvz ∂vz dvz (5. ω − k.309) �l (5. ⎡ ⎤ �t 0 0 ⎥ �=⎢ ⎣ 0 �t 0 ⎦ 0 0 �l (5. Hence for isotropic Fo = f0 /n. � χxx = χyy q2 � foz = − dvz ωm�o ω − k. If f is isotropic dfo ∂v vz dfo ∂fo = = ∂vz dv ∂vz v dv (5. ωm�o ω − kz vz (5. So.305) Then ∂fo � vx ∂v vx vz 1 dfo 3 3 z dv = dv ω − kz v z ω − kz vz v dv � vz ∂fo 3 = d v=0 ω − kz vz ∂vx � (5. 143 . passing below the pole.v ω2 � Foz = − p dvz .308) where ωp2 � Foz dvz ω C ω − kvz ω2 � 1 ∂Foz = 1 − 2p dvz k C v − ωk ∂vz �t = 1 − (5.

And relativisitically zero. 2 ω ω m � � 2 ωp k 2 vt2 1+ 2 ω2 ω 2 ωp ω2 � �t � 1 − = 1− � 1− � 1− Thermal correction to the refractive index N is small because � k2 vt2 ω2 (5. However. dvz oz ω ω ω 2 n −∞ � � 2 2 ωp k T 1 + 2 + . Con­ sequently.311) This has. The imaginary part of �t from the pole is negligible... ωp2 1 � ∞ kvz k 2 vz2 f 1 + + 2 + . Therefore: 1. thermal velocity is � c and the EM wave has phase velocity ∼ c.10 Electromagnetic Waves in unmagnetized Vlasov Plasma For transverse waves the dispersion relation is ωp2 1 � k 2 c2 foz dvz 2 = N = � = 1 − t ω2 ω n C (ω − kz vz ) (5.312) � 1.5. 2. for all velocities vz for which foz is non­zero kvz � ω. Cold Plasma treatment is generally good enough. for a non­ relativistic plasma.9. Electromagnetic waves are hardly affected by Kinetic Theory treatment in unmagnetized plasma.. We have seen with the cold plasma treatment that the wave phase velocity is actually greater than c. Therefore a proper relativistic distribution function will have no particles at all in resonance with the wave. a contribution from the pole at ω − kvz = 0.. 144 . in principle.