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Aluminum in Batch Galvanizing

– The Next Generation
Graham Poag
Senior Development Engineer
© 2009 Teck Resources Limited. All rights reserved. Private and confidential.

AGA TechForum 2010 – Philadelphia, PA
October 1, 2010

Outline • Aluminum in galvanizing – The past – brightener – The present – reactivity control – The future – improved corrosion performance • Status of development • Next steps 2 .

005% • Myth 1: Aluminum added to “deoxidize” the molten zinc bath • Myth 2: Aluminum added to improve fluidity of the molten zinc bath • How does it actually work? – Aluminum has a high affinity to oxygen • Preferentially oxidizes on the surface of the galvanizing bath – St Structure t off the th mixed i d oxides id prevents t oxidation id ti off underlying d l i zinc i b bath th – Prevents yellowish coloring associated with oxidation of zinc and other minor elements in the bath 3 .Aluminum as a Brightener • Use of aluminum dates back to early 1900s • Improves “brightness” of galvanized coating • Low levels added to zinc bath: 0.001 – 0.

Zn10Al 4 .Aluminum as a Brightener • Aluminum consumption – Oxidation – Flux interaction – Coating formation • Aluminum maintenance – Pure aluminum (sheet. (sheet bar/ingot) – Brightener bar • Zn5Al vs vs.

Aluminum for Reactivity Control • Alternative method to Zn-Ni process • Can C b be used d iin ttandem d with ith other th galvanizing l i i alloys ll • Operating levels between 0.05%Al • Extended E t d d range off control t l – high hi h silicon ili steels t l become galvanizeable • Alloy maintained using customized feed rates • Identification of aluminum uptake during galvanizing still uncertain • Pretreatment dependent • Required q new flux development p effort 5 .03 and 0.

00 0.10 0.30 Steel Effective Si Content  (wt.20 0.40 .Controlling Reactivity 350 HDG 300 Coatingg Thickness   (µm) BP‐Ni Al‐Bi‐Sn 250 200 150 100 50 0 0.25 0.05 0.35 0.%) 6 0.15 0.

Controlling Reactivity – Mid Reactivity BritePlus™ Ni SHG BritePlus™ Al 7 .

Controlling Reactivity – High Reactivity SHG BritePlus™ Ni BritePlus™ Al 8 .

White Rust Test (4 days) 0.01Al 0.032Al .001Al 0.

Stack Test 0.032Al .01Al 0.001Al 0.

Improving Corrosion Performance • Operating levels above 5%Al • Development focused on application of single dip process • Process very dependent on steel surface condition – Pretreatment maintenance – Flux Fl modification difi ti • Building upon Galfan® alloy knowledge base • Current C td development l t ffocused d on 8 tto 12%Al • Added benefit of forming no bottom dross 11 .

Improving Corrosion Resistance • Atmospheric work coordinated by Australian Tube Mills • CSIRO test site 12 .

608 2.802 2.971 Sheltered Rack 5.Corrosion Rate (µm m/yr) Improving Corrosion Resistance 12 South Rack North Rack Sheltered Rack 10 8 6 4 2 0 GL 0 2Al 0.462 2.800 1.2Al 7Al 10Al 12Al 15Al Coating Normalized Annual Corrosion Rate (µm/year) 13 GL 0.868 2.279 7.814 1.282 6.117 North Rack 1.385 7.600 3.558 .023 11.252 2.271 2.593 7.2Al 7Al 10Al 12Al 15Al South Rack 1.403 2.

Flux • Patent application allowed in July 2010 • Galvcast Manufacturing plant trial – – – – – Initiated in June 2009 New flux used with incumbent galvanizing alloys Flux can be operated at room or elevated temperature No change to existing flux tank or practices required Very little flux maintenance required • No flux modification/maintenance required to date – Flux accommodates very high iron levels without impacting coating quality • Dross generation not confirmed – Drying D i off parts t becomes b more critical iti l – flux fl iis h hygroscopic i • Australian Tube Mills adopted flux full time in their continuous profile mill – Based on improvements in processability and coating quality 14 .Current Development .

Alloys • Corrosion resistant alloy trialed on semi-continuous flux-based flux based flow coat profile mill in Australia in 2010 – Coatings exhibited minimal defects indicating successful interaction between flux and alloy – Subsequent forming tests confirmed coating formability – Corrosion results confirmed initial test data – Results were very encouraging – Customer moving ahead with full conversion of line to high aluminum alloy • Adoption of new flux and new alloy technology • Bench-scale results for BritePlus™ Al alloy have been encouraging – B Based d on success off flux fl work. k alloy ll trial t i l was initiated i iti t d att Galvcast G l t Manufacturing M f t i – Ongoing work will focus on bath chemistry maintenance and coating formation – Dross and ash generation will be evaluated and compared with incumbent process 15 .Current Development .

O ij M Max S Sorenson Ferro Technologies – Tom Ranck. Daniel Liu Steve Murray Dr. Dmitri Leychkis Galvcast Manufacturing – Steve Christopher. Nai-Yong Tang Adam Ziemiak • We wish to extend our sincere thanks to our industrial partners t who h have h contributed t ib t d tto thi this d development l t program: – – – – – Australian Tube Mills – David Harrison E Ecosil il T Technologies h l i – Wim Wi Van V Ooij. Jason Christopher Weert Groep – Willem Beljaars .Acknowledgements • Thank you to all who contributed to the development work: – – – – – Pat Ginnetti Dr.