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"What tools do contemporary jazz

improvisers use to expand their
musical expression by harmonic in and outside movement"?

Name: Grzegorz Torunski
Main teacher: Claudius Valk
Supervisor: Robert Weirauch
Maastricht Conservatorium, Hogeschool Zuyd

Maastricht, January 2012

Subquestions:

- Why are jazz musicians interested in harmonic
exploration?

- What is “-in and outside playing”?

- What techniques of in/out playing are being used
by prominent improvisers in the field of jazz?

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
5 Preface
Introduction word
7 CHAPTER I Why are jazz musicians interested in harmonic
exploration?
9 CHAPTER II - What is –inside and outside playing?
10 CHAPTER III - What techniques of in/out playing are being used
by prominent improvisers in the field of jazz?
10 In General
13 In Specific

13 Harmonic superimposed chords:
14 Tritone superimposition
15 Shifting bars
17 Superimposed cadencial approach (Harmonic progressions):
II-V-I Chromatic approach
Altered II-V substitutions:
20 ‘Lady Bird’ changes
21 ‘Coltrane changes’
22 Giant Steps
25 Relation between Slonimsky and Coltrane
29 ‘Countdown’
31 Turnarounds:
33 Rhythm Changes
36 “Lady Bird’ turnaround
38 Diminished Approach
40 Superimposed forms
41 Pedal note
43 Improvising with the “tone rows”

44 Different aspects:
44 Stretch of harmony / Shrink
46 Motivic work
48 Rhythmic outside, phrasing
50 Conclusion
51 Books

Introduction Word

It is in the nature of jazz to explore and to expand possibilities
In history this led to a harmonic technique known as inside/ outside playing.
Major virtue of jazz is and has always been exploration and the search of new
sounds. An extended harmonic concept offers new colors as expressional
devices in music language. This is why the jazz musicians are interested in
harmonic exploration.
As all professions, music as well seems to be limitless. Starting with the musical
intuition, following what heart says is definitely a basic step which skipped,
makes music soulless. Since the beginnings of jazz music existence jazz players
concentrated on harmonic exploration, playing according changes was not
relevant enough, music used to develop, so do players together with all harmonic
movements. When we look closer to the bebop area already Charlie Parker
claims his rights by introducing revolutionary harmonic ideas including a tonal
vocabulary employing 9ths, 11ths and 13ths of chords, rapidly implied passing
chords, and new variants of altered chords and chord substitutions. In contrast
with bebop, hard bop uses slower tempos and a less radical approach to
harmony and melody, one of the most known players Miles Davis between the
years 1951-1954 records the most known albums such as: Dig, Blue Haze, Bags'
Groove, Miles Davis and the Modern Jazz Giants, and Walkin' presenting the
modern approach to his harmony.
There comes another saxophone player in jazz history who has a lot to say about
the harmony, his name is John Coltrane. His revolutionary concept has been
marked in a huge scale. Each of jazz musician should know 'Giant Steps' ,this
track is generally considered to have the most complex and difficult chord
progression of any widely-played jazz composition.
Furthermore many modern jazz players tried to innovate the harmony structures,
the most remarkable are Michael Brecker, Chris Potter, Dave Liebman.
In decade of Hardbop and modal context playing outside defined jazz players
who intentionally roamed from key or chord changes. Many players that decade
were definite as ‘free’ , while ‘free’ means only the one of all possible
approaches linking to ‘out playing’. Next to ‘free’ stands superimposition of
alternate harmonic material including side-stepping (planning, parallelism), as
the terminology indicates, it is a type of outside playing in which a performer
super-imposes a scale a half step above or below the "inside" scale for the given
chord or key. That movement can be evident in II-V relation as well, this
increases chromatic tension as it first moves away and then towards the tonic. It

contemporary jazz players are using more and more outside movements in improvising lines. This study documents and analyzes possibilities in playing outside using mentioned techniques. to express widely enough the modern improvisation without bounding nobody’s hands into standard changes. Motivic work. we are looking for new tensions implying new harmonies over the existing once. all materials such as transcriptions of solos. To generally explain it. In melodic terms. Nowadays. In my master research I would like to concentrate on tools/methods used by modern jazz improvisers in order to expend their harmonic music world. rhythmic displacement. The need of –in and –outside movements inside the jazz harmony grew up throughout the years. . side-slipping is usually done quickly and for short periods because this color can be easily recognized in repeatedly situations. Mark Levine. especially the last 30 years when the jazz education was globally accessible.the second one explains other substitutions like Pedal playing.can be reached by adding a II-V a half-step above the original II-V. The analysis is categorized in two distinct sections. Stretch of harmony / Shrink rhythmical aspect. sounding like an elegant note effect of passing chord leading to the intended tones. books written by modern jazz players (Dave Liebman. This is what the accompanying instruments often do behind a soloist. Rhythmic outside. harmonic analyses. John Valerio. The first section is an harmonic analysis of the superimposed chords used . Paul Rinzler) simplified and leaded to curiosity for many jazz players.

Creating new harmonic structures inside existing once gives new. Ornette Coleman introduces “free bop” linear counterpoint.Why are jazz musicians interested in harmonic exploration? The ongoing challenge of inventing melodies which are fresh. Later on all the upper structure notes from 9. Many musicians that time are exploring widely ‘free music’ usually based on the rhythmic concept and instrumentation. Cecil Taylor uses more rubato phrases defined as “energy music”. Already the ‘blue’ notes were sort of outside playing. meaning steady pulse oriented lines without a specific root. In the late 1950s modal playing and free-bop increased the use of superimposed dissonant tones. Early jazz until bebop era. In a situation of a chord player (harmonicist) is playing the given cycle. computers techniques. . All harmonic superimpositions are giving jazz musicians freedom in music. whole tone scale made the chromaticism sound dissonant enough. no changes’. world music using electronics. It has its place only when the harmonic and melodic structure of the outside line has to be strong enough to compete with the original line. the flatted third becomes a sharp 9 while the flatted fifth becomes a sharp 11. Miles Davis asks for increased use of superimposed dissonances. John Coltrane. on the top of that scales including altered dominant. Eric Dolphy. the melodicist is thinking and playing the superimpositions. Paul Bley. Why is it happening? Jazz improvisers used to be more and more interested in chromatic playing. Otherwise its architecture would not carry to reach all tensions. The improvisers knowing a large variety of harmonic colors can truly be spontaneous on a daily playing level. diminished whole tone. Very often already a single repeated melody harmonized in various ways results in different effects each time. has treated chromatic tones as passing notes. alive and full of meaningful emotional and thoughtful content characterizes the need of enriching developed harmonic language.11. The use of a superimposed harmony over whatever given tonal center forces players to create melodies which will appear in contrast to the original tonal center. The superimposed key centers become the source of the melodic constructions. Miles Davis Quintet together with Wayne Shorter and Herbie Hancock present ‘time. Cecil Taylor. The music of Ornette Coleman.13 chords. the increase of chromaticism is clearly visible through the development of classical music (Schoenberg ‘Emancipation of dissonance’). In the 1960s the chromatic sounds have found the way into fusion. Through using superimposed harmonies jazz players are opening an unspecified qualities of a promising nature in modern improvisation. synthesizers. Lydian augmented. powerful interactions between members in the band.

. is to hear intervallically no matter what the harmonic source is. The goal of melodic improvisation.This is where creativity is applied in order to invent interesting and unusual sequences so that the melodies are more appealing. At the same time playing shouldn’t be forced into a musical situation where it is inappropriate. especially superimposing.

superimposition also applies to rhythm and melody (chapter ‘other substitutions’). which means replacement of the original. As an improviser creates a melody in a foreign key. It should have a clear shape or contour with a defined beginning and ending. Outside movements have to be related anyhow to inside movements. he must be able to hear the original changes. given tonal center as a point of reference. . superimposition means the placement of one musical element over another to be sounded simultaneously with the original. Of course. This provides a major organizing tool for chromatic playing. using chromatic tones which are not in an original chord structure. outside playing means playing/improvising out of the “first level harmonic rules”. it is a forbidden fruit which served strong enough gives new harmonic opportunities. according Dave Liebman. overthought and played in a convincing way. Very often outside playing is called chromatic playing. Superimposition is obvious when accomplished harmonically where two or more key centers are simultaneously sounded. The difference between random playing and playing outside is the fact that outside playing is always subordinated to a clear architecture itself. Not to consuse it with substitution.What is inside and outside playing? As terminology says itself. A truly satisfying and strong melody should be able to stand alone without an harmonic or rhythmic accompaniment and still present persuasion. Harmonic superimposition precedes an intervallic construction. The relation has to be structured. Available melodic choices are realized then as a result of harmonic combinations. That characterizes playing superimposed harmony from the random playing.

which called ‘outside playing’ to be able to reach the meaning literally.What techniques of in/out playing are being used by prominent improvisers in the field of jazz? In General: In order to generate new outside tensions during the solo. before going out’. ♫Example: Improvised line inside line (harmonically) . The whole art concentrates in playing the “wrong notes and making them sounds good” (Leon Lhoest ‘Muziek Theorie’). He claims further on ‘it is necessary to play first inside with enough conviction and eloquence. the performing artist chooses improvising notes out of the certain chord scale. Possibilities Example 1: Leading a melodic phrase from inside to outside related to the harmonic environment of the original.

ending with an inside.Example 2: Starting with an outside phrase. finishing with an inside phrase. reaching an outside in the middle (increasing the tension). ♫Example: Improvised line inside line (harmonically) Example 3: Starting with an inside phrase. ♫Example: Improvised line inside line (harmonically) .

the –inside . . reaching the inside in the middle. finishing with an outside phrase (rarely seen). -outside phrases are functioning differently. ♫Example: Improvised line inside line (harmonically) Depending on using each example.Example 4: Starting with an outside phrase.

Harmonic superimposed chords: (modal context.In Specific: There are several techniques in reaching the outside phrases based within harmonic aspect as well as different once. Harmonic aspect: .Superimposed notes Confirmation vs. 26-2 Audio example ‘Count Down’ vs ‘Tune Up’ . regarding one modal chord) Explanation: .

jazz players used to create a special tension through using an triton substituted chord instead.Tritone superimposition In tonal harmony. In a language of bebop and post bop. John Coltrane uses in that aspect following chord changes: . jazz players use the triton substitutions. the triton substitution is a very useful at cadencial points of V-I. II-V-I or III-VI-II-V-I. the tritone is the interval between the 3rd and the 7th of a dominant chord that must be resolved in the cadence to the tonic. going chromatically up/down. In that certain example John Coltrane creates a triton substitution (A7) leading into the subdominant (Ab13) In order to make a progression of chords more linear. Analyzing the chord changes.

improviser then plays intentionally the chord from the measure before or after the given chord. that technique causes extra tensions inside musical phrases.Shifting bars One of the next outside technique used among such players as Cannonball Adderley or Phil Woods is ‘bar-line shifting’. An example of a "very intentional" bar-line shift may be found on Clifford Brown’s solo on “Split Kick”. . before jumping to a wrong conclusion. in which he deliberately enters and exits the bridge early. At any rate the person who analyzes should always look at the chords both before and after a point where an ‘error’ is suspected. causing considerable tension(melodic line over Bb chord).

+9) or the player wanted to play the previous chord (though it has already transpired). but was either pausing momentarily (as in taking a breath). and decides to adopt the 'better later than never' attitude. +9) progression II-V-I turnaround as only a V7(+5. . as in the case of playing a II ø to V7(+5.Bar-line shifts is most often attributable to harmonic generalization.

For example substituting for D-7 G7 C by F-7 Bb7 the result seems to reach not so much dissonances. giving result of G7(#9. The F-7 and D-7 share common chord notes while Bb7 also uses similar material as G7. it consist more common tones. David Liebman. But instead of concluding with the resolution. Two remaining pitches Bb.4 . Taking an example of substituting D-7 G7 into Eb-7 Ab7 or F#-7 B7 provides much more tensions.13).ex. ‘A Chromatic Approach To Jazz Harmony and Melody’. Ab (from the Bb7) could be interpreted as #9 and b9 of the G7 chord. they return to the original I chord at the very end of the phrase. Furthermore the Bb mixolydian scale which accompanies Bb7 is very close to a G Phrygian scale. Each II-V superimposition has won color. jazz players are using any other II-V as they were modulating to that home key.b9. tension.Superimposed cadencial approach (Harmonic progressions): II-V-I Chromatic approach Altered II-V substitutions: Instead of the normal II-V-I progression.

before finally resolving to the tonic.Examples 5a. Types of Cadences: Cadences presenting the various ways to resolve a dominant – tonic progression (V-I) Delayed – The V chord moves to an unrelated key. before actually resolving to the tonic. . Deceptive – The V chord moves to a chord that is closely related to the I. Anticipated – The V chord moves to a chord which includes the I n it. 5b and 5c are referring to melodic lines reflecting superimposition. Suspended – The V chord contains the rood of the I in its voicing. False – The V chord resolves to an unrelated key.

Coltrane created tunes to train this way of playing “Moments Notice” . -in movements.training the –out. –transcription .Moments notice – Coltrane Example 1: Relation II-V played a half tone lower then the original II-V.

which is a IV-bVII going back to I. Following bars 11-12 provide an surprising modulation A-7 D7 which resolves to unreal I (D-7 G7). to reach in bars 15-16 is typical “Lady Bird’ turnaround Cmaj7 Ebmaj7 Abmaj7 Dbmaj7 (triton substitutions). The chord progression for Lady Bird is shown below in the original key of C. . CMaj7 / / //// / CMaj7 / / //// / AbMaj7 / //// // G7 / Dm7 / / / // Fm7 / / / Bb7 / / / Bbm7 / / / Eb7 / / / Am7 / / / D7 / / / CMaj7 / EbMaj7 / AbMaj7 / DbMaj7 / One of the characteristic aspects is the unexpected modulation down a major 3rd. The last two bars of this sixteen-chord progression is referred to as the Dameron Turnaround. Bars 7-8 are illustrating another backdoor resolution of II-V progression Bb-7 to Eb7. This was an unusual harmonic change at that time. that substitution is considered as a “backdoor resolution”. Already in bar 3 and 4 there is a superimposed II-V relation F-7 to Bb7 (instead of D-7 G7).‘Lady Bird’ changes The progression for this turnaround was first used by Tadd Dameron in his 1947 jazz standard Lady Bird.

One of the first its appearance comes on the legendary album “Giant Steps” where Trane transforms harmonically the composition “Tune up” into “Countdown”.example: It became to be common that jazz musicians typically refer to this chord progression as “Coltrane Changes”.‘Coltrane changes’ Relation between Nicolas Slonimsky “Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patters” and harmonic approach of John Coltrane in “Giant Steps” In the article Chromatic Third Relations in the Music of John Coltrane. Demsey claims that John Coltrane uses chromatic third relations in compositions such a “Giant Steps” . The composition itself (Giant Steps) is functioning as a progression of the minor thirds cycles. Those ‘changes’ are gathered substitutions for an ordinary II-V7-I chord progression. David Demsey presents a practice of root movement by major or minor thirds in chord progressions. .

In recordings from that period. the rhythm section actually played the substitutes along with Trane’s lines.Giant Steps The Coltrane cycle and its variations are a well known substitution device. . The “Giant Steps” cycle was an early example of chromatic superimposition.

As well as other related superimpositions: .

The chart provides all of the harmonic possibilities of substituting the II-V7-I original progression: .Following an illustration of all possible substitutions developed from ‘Coltrane Changes’.

Slonimsky. and the whole-tone progression (major second). it is a noticeable whole-tone progression with an ultrapolation of one note a perfect fifth above the principal interval (pattern #574). the sesquitone progression (minor third). Following example is taken from Mars (1967) where John proceeds the cycle of perfect four intervals (or its interversions-perfect fifth): Mars.Relation between Slonimsky and Coltrane The cyclic patterns used by John Coltrane concern a progression of intervals that divide one octave into equal parts: the triton progression (augmented forth). similar cycle of forths is underlined by brackets: . the ditone progression (major third). 1967 John Coltrane. Thesaurus Of Scales And Melodic Patterns. Duo with Rashid Ali. Regarding N.

One Down.Nikolas Slonimsky. Nikolas Slonimsky. Once again the augmented thirds are illustrated by brackets and circle signs: John Coltrane. One half step apart). As an example of ditone progression (major third) it is obvious the similarity between John Coltrane and N. One Up” consist of 2 hexachords (two augmented triads. Thesaurus Of Scales And Melodic Patterns. In the composition of John “One Down. One Up” there is a link to pattern #186 (Thesaurus Of Scales And Melodic Patterns). Thesaurus Of Scales And Melodic Patterns. Slonimky idea. One Up The relation between Coltrane and Slonimsky in that case is labeled as ‘ditone progression with an ultrapolation of one note” according Slonimsky vocabulary. #574. The notes of the melody in “One Down. .

Slonimky labels this patter as a “sesquitone progression with an infrapolation of one note”. This pattern involves two different minor thirds cycles. Nikolas Slonimsky. Thesaurus Of Scales And Melodic Patterns. In an composition “Saturn” John Coltrane uses an ultrapolation. Further on Coltrane transposes the pattern down a perfect forth from the starting note of the previous cycle. Saturn 1967 . each ditonal progression is supported by half tone note creating the major third above of the principal interval: John Coltrane. #447.An example of a sesquitone (minor third) progression used as melodic vocabulary in a Coltrane improvisation occurs in a composition “Brasilia”. John Coltrane “Brasilia” Thesaurus patter #447 corresponds to the two minor thirds cycles that appear in “Brasilia” from John Coltrane.

this particular pattern of John Coltrane is constructed around a progression with a use of ultrapolation of one note a minor third abouve the principal interval progression. #47. As the last example of progression of whole steps John Coltrane uses in “Jupiter”. In a related language of Nikolas Slonimsky.A response comes from Thesaurus pattern #47. Nikolas Slonimsky. Thesaurus Of Scales And Melodic Patterns. Nikolas Slonimsky. . Thesaurus Of Scales And Melodic Patterns. a whole tone progression with an ultrapolation of one note located a minor third above the principal interval pitches. The model of Coltrane’s pattern from “Jupiter” appears as a Thesaurus pattern #570. called ‘a sesquitone progression with an ultrapolation of one note”. #570.

V and I chords shoved to either side to make way for the elaboration chords: | Dm7 | G7 | CM | | Dm7 X | X X | X G7 | |Dm7Eb7 |AbM B7| EM G7| / | CM | CM | Miles Davis wrote a tune called Tune Up in the mid-1950s (Quintet album. It is a II-V-I with the II. It is a composition of comprising II-V-Is descending by tone. Cookin’). it provides a structure which has the look and feel of an elaborated II-V-I cadence and can be played as a substitute for a straight IIV-I in C.COUNTDOWN The main concept is to divide the octave into three equal parts: | CM | AbM | EM | CM | Approaching each major chord with its V chord (to do this in the second half of the preceding bar) gives the following result: | CM Eb7 | AbM B7 | EM G7 | CM | Making the first chord a Dm7. with the final one repeated (with variation): | Em7 | A7 | | Dm7 | G7 | | Cm7 | F7 | | Em7|F7 | DM | CM | BbM | BbM | / | / | / | E7| .

Coltrane moves the harmony by major 3rds. between D. . Gb and Bb. Trane continued to apply his Giant Steps principles to lots of different standards. Incidentally. These are exactly the key centres from the first three four-bar phrases of Tune Up and performed a complete tritone substitution on the whole of the second phrase.Coltrane reharmonised this tune using the above principle : | Em7 F7 | BbM Db7 |GbMA7 | |Dm7 Eb7| AbM B7| EM G7| |Cm7 Db7| GbMA7| DMF7| | Em7 | F7 | BbM | DM | CM | BbM| Eb7+9 | Coltrane choses to leave the final four bars unaltered (the chord on the final bar isn’t structurally incorrectly significant). He usually allowed some of harmonic relief by leaving part of the original harmony unchanged. sometimes writing new melodies on the reharmonised changes – the two most well-known examples are 26-2 (based on Confirmation) and Satellite (based on How High the Moon). on the rarely played coda to Countdown.

-(♭6).II7 . it can lead either harmonically. It is apparent in the roots (D .F . .D♭ . thirds (F .C .A .V . the vi chord would be a minor chord (min. and fifths (A .I.A♭ .♭VI7♯11 .Turnarounds Turnaround is a chord progression at the end of section which leads to the next section.G).♭V/V (or ♭II) . The obvious chromatic movement is thorough.C. which are also useful for turnarounds.I turnaround. as a chord progression or melodically. In C major: C .I.V7 . which is a variation on the standard ii . -7.V . In key of C the original turnaround would be d min . Another popular turnaround which may be considered as a secondary dominant analysis is ii .G (dom) .I ♭IIIo .V/V . Using bV/V instead of V allows for a smooth chromatic descent.V – I V – IV – I “I – VI – II – V – I” In the blues aspect. -6.C). The third of the VI chord (in this case.G (dom) .d min .I V/II . C♯) allows for chromatic movement from C (the root of I) to C♯ (the third of VI) to D (the root of ii).D♭ . Similar chromaticism and harmonic interest can be achieved by the use of a secondary dominant. The simplest example is V7/V . Typical turnarounds: VI – II – V .V7 – I VI . instead of ii . F is often used as a pedal tone). etc) but here the major third allows for a more interesting modulation.V .E.I . while the modified would be d min .

giving I-VI7-II7-V or C-A7-D7-G. giving C-E♭7-D7-D♭7. or C-E♭7-A♭M7-D♭7 The extended secondary dominants and subdominants iii .V7 .I. which replaces the subdominants with their tritone substitutes and moves the half-step-wise descending line cliche away from the tonic.ii . the vi and ii chords may be substituted with dominant chords.V7 – I are very common in jazz music.♭II7 . The tritone substitution may be applied to the vi and V chords.♭III7 . For example.ii .I. which replaces the dominants with their tritone substitutes. following examples which may replace that include iii .♭vi .VI7 . .I-vi-ii-V may be transformed through various chord substitutions. and ♭vii .VI7 .

Rhythm Changes are a 32-bar chord progression in the AABA form.V progression. Since then countless jazz compositions have been made that use the chord progression of that tune in one of its many modifications. The chord progression is known as Rhythm Changes. There are several techniques: Bb major scale F bebop scale D minor pentatonic . Lots of new themes were written over this chord. The basic progression is following: |Bb Bb7 Gm7 |Cm7 F7 |Bb |Eb Ebm |Bb Gm7 |Bb Bb7 Gm7 |Cm7 F7 |Bb Gm7 |Cm7 |Eb Ebm |Bb F7 |Bb | |D7 |G7 |Bb Bb7 |D7 |C7 |G7 |C7 Gm7 |Cm7 F7 |Cm7 F7 | |F7 F7 |F7 Gm7 |Cm7 F7 |Bb Gm7 |Cm7 |Eb Ebm |Bb F7 |Bb | |Bb |Bb | F7 |Bb The basic building block of the A part of a rhythm changes is a simple diatonic I VI .Rhythm Changes In 1930 George Gershwin wrote a song called "I Got Rhythm". In order to follow Rhythm Changes in fast tempo there is point to use limitations. In bar 5 the Bb7 introduces the IV in the 6th bar. Rhythm changes started to be popular in the swing era. but got even more popular in the bebop era. The IV changes to a IVm. such as playing in a simple way using less changes.II .

3 and 7 is substituted by G7 Bar 1: the G7 is substituted by B°7 (=G7b9) to get the chromatic line to Cm7 Bar 3: the Dm7 is the II of G7 Bar 2: the C#°7 is in fact A7b9 (the V of II) and continues the chromatic line initiated in bar 1.Arpeggio's In the swing era there was common a variation of chord from original Rhythm Changes : |Bb B°7 Bb7/D |Cm7 C#°7 |Dm7 |Eb E°7 |Bb/F G7 |Cm7 G7#5|Cm7 F7 F7 | |Bb | To explain it widely: The Gm7 in bar 1. . The following variation of the A part became popular in the bebop era and is the version that is used the most often today: |Bb G7b9 Fm7 Bb7b9 |Cm7 F7b9 |Dm7 |Ebmaj7 Ab7#11|Dm7 G7b9|Cm7 G7b9|Cm7 F7b9 | F7b9 | The diminished chords of the previous version are changed for the chords they were substitutes for. the dominants. The dominants are all altered or b9. the V of G7 in bar 7. There is more movement in the 5th bar where the V of the IV gets its II The Ab7#11 in bar 6 is the tritone substitute for D7.

the first chord of the bridge: |D7 F7 | | |G7 | | |C7 | The obvious scales to play are: D7: D Mixolydian G7: G Mixolydian/ G altered C7: C Mixolydian F7: F Mixolydian/ F altered In the bebop era there is in use very often the II in front of the V . the chord in the last 2 bars of the bridge.B-part of the Rhythm Changes The bridge is build out of secondary dominants (=dominant of the dominant). The tonality is Bb major. The dominant of F7 is C7. the dominant of C7 is G7 and that of G7 is D7.back cycle: |Am |D7 |Dm7 |G7 | |Gm7 |C7 |Cm7 |F7 | | . so the primary dominant is F7.

CMaj7 Am7 Dm7 G7 -Original Standard Progression CMaj7 A7 Dm7 G7 -Quality Substitution: Dominant for Minor CMaj7 A7 D7 G7 -Quality Substitution: Dominant for Minor CMaj7 Eb7 Ab7 Db7 -Tritone Substitution CMaj7 EbMaj7 AbMaj7 DbMaj7 -Quality Substitution: Major for Dominant . Cmaj7 Ebmaj7 I Abmaj7 Dbmaj7 I (triton substitutions) 2 last bars of the chorus The Dameron Turnaround can be created from the Standard (I-vi-ii-V) Progression by applying the chord quality and tritone substitutions as shown below. The chord progression for Lady Bird is shown below in the original key of C.“Lady Bird’ turnaround” Dameron Turnaround (IMaj7-bIIIMaj7-bVIMaj7-bIIMaj7) The progression for this turnaround was first used by Tadd Dameron in his 1947 jazz standard Lady Bird. The last two bars of this sixteen-chord progression is referred to as the Dameron Turnaround.

the Dbmaj7 skips down two minor thirds to ii7 (Bbm7 to Gm7). it is a bone of contention between the more rabid players. this is: Fm7 – C7/E – Ebm6 – Dm7(b5) – Dbmaj7. In either case." . proceeding to V7 – I. This is not necessarily an improvement over the original however. In the original key.Some players perform this starting in the parallel minor and then follow a descending bass line.

For instance. F#7b9. Eb7b9. .Diminished Approach Illustrating a superimposition II –V relation using the diminished approach: David Liebman. Since. the C tritone scale with C7b9. and A7b9. the tritone scale is interchangeable with the diminished scale. Examples of Chromatic Lines by David Liebman The most obvious use for a triton superimposition in a context of diminished scale is with a V7b9 chord. the use of it is possible with any of four different dominant chords.

Dave Liebman: .Doube diminished Chords.

. . rhythm section plays major blues) Audio example .improviser plays minor blues.Creating outside effect by simplifying the harmonic candenca and reducing to a central tonality (Rhythm Changes example) .using for example different II-V-I relations.Superimposed forms (For example an improviser plays the different blues form then the rhythm section plays.

Important is to keep the common connection. During the 12 bars form: Using the pedal note e. D min for 8 bars. cadenzas should be always a way back -in and –out. Outside line ‘Hyperdoor’   ‘Hyperdoor’   The  same  chord   Inside line .Pedal note (as a part of superimposed forms) Creating the new form using pedal note/chords. Concept with the ‘Hyperdoors’ (Claudius Valk)–in and –outside. further 4 bars Eb.c. common notes. common chords. Replacing a whole form of for example ‘Blues’ or ‘Rhythm Change’ simultaneously to relating a single chord on the original chord on the moment.

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But its limitations have stayed the same. and as it stands it's unfinished business. a band that merges jazz improvisation with a highly sophisticated use of a funk rhythm section." and Mr. Andy Milne on piano. Steve Coleman Expands The Limits of a Musical Idea By PETER WATROUS Published: June 06. and it was fascinating to see how far he has taken the idea. the band -.Improvising with the “tone rows” Steve Coleman. This kind of intelligent work falls outside any easy definition. But Mr. Coleman suggested that Mr. ‘Five Elements’ Review/Jazz. with pieces weaving in and out of one another and inspiring fervent improvisations. Coleman is clearly trying to expand the emotional range of the music.featuring Ravi Coltrane on tenor saxophone. but he has made it all more complex and pliable. Reggie Washington on bass and Gene Lake on drums -. His formula has stayed the same. trying to merge odd pieces. Coleman has been doing this for a while now.never lost some of the chill that Mr. Coltrane join in on "Chelsea Bridge. technically interesting but mostly mute emotionally." a tune that Mr. 1994 The alto saxophonist and composer Steve Coleman's first set at Zanzibar on Wednesday night featured his group Five Elements. with its difficult meters and distinct rhythmic conception. One piece mixed one of Mr. and for that sort of bravery. Coleman and the band were fooling around. Mr. Coleman's music often has. As able as the musicians are at playing the music. Coltrane didn't appear to be completely at home with. In part it was the set's fault: Mr. and his own increasing improvisational power as a saxophonist. Coleman's originals with "Stablemates. . the group rarely raised it above the level of a musician's exercise. At the opening of its five-night stand. he deserves respect.

Stretch of harmony / Shrink – rhythmical aspect. rhythmic displacement) Stretch of harmony/Shrink means the duration and beat placement of any given note in the melodic line. According David Liebman “the appearance of a temporary key enter will be reinforced or weakened as will the line’s contour. depending to some degree upon the duration of a pitch and/or its relationship to the ongoing metric cycle.Different aspects: . .

variation in jazz is very often simply a case of juggling rhythms in combination with changing the sequence of the original pitches.Therefore. . in constructing chromatic lines. In fact. varied rhythms and syncopations can affect the final result each time in an entirely different manner.

Motivic work Chromatic Motivic Development Musical ideas may be planed freely or systematically. three major third intervals. G# minor and B minor before returning to D minor. A four-note motive is played over D dorian and sequenced down major thirds through Bb and F# before returning to D dorian. One more repetition of the motive occurs up a perfect fourth. or twelve half-steps. six whole steps. four minor third intervals. Planning by transposing motive down by major thirds The four-note motive in following example is transposed up by minor thirds beginning in D minor and moving through F minor. Planning by transposing motive up by minor thirds . Many improvisers avoid this by planning motives with a mixture of intervals. Some improvisers choose to plane their musical motives following one of the symmetrical divisions of the octave: two tritone intervals. Much of traditional music is based on moving musical ideas the interval of a perfect fourth or fifth as dominant theme moving up a perfect fourth to the tonic. following arpeggios and by scale steps.

This is like playing outside “with one foot still in the door”. As the motives get transposed. A six-note motive is sequenced in following example with its original intervals intact and the top note following the D dorian mode from A down to A. the top note remains within the tonal center while many of the other pitches create dissonance.A motive can be transposed following any set of pitches. Eleven notes of the chromatic scale occur in that line: .

knowing where to enter and exit the music. phrasing The duration and beat placement of any given note in the melodic line. dynamics and expression.Rhythmic outside. usually rhythm section. Finally it is a matter of taste and judgment. This what makes jazz improvisers unique is a time feel. varied rhythms and syncopations can affect the final result each time in an entirely different manner. It has something to do with personal musician’s aesthetics. No two players are alike in this respect. This refers to the start and conclusion of a line in relation to its accompaniment. or slightly behind or ahead . This concerns the exact placement of a musician’s pulse in relation to the ongoing beats played by the other band members. Time feel is one of the most important musical characteristics which separates individuals from each other. Not to overplay but plan the lines by leaving space. In a phrasing aspect. In Constructing chromatic lines.. In improvisation the placement of an idea takes a major role. There are 3 ways of creating those lines: - Into the time – played on the beat or in the middle of the time. rhythmic placement includes also a articulation.

Over the time – played in rubato. a-rhythmical manner. ignoring the beat. The goal is that each artist explores these areas and finds his own solution in picking the various aspects of phrasing with chromatic playing. there is still a great room for individual approaches to that very specific challenge of phrasing. Phrasing is how the individual comes forth.- Against the time – meaning a Cross Rhtythm which groups beats over the established quarter note. that area used to be still undiscovered. or a Polirhythm which after several repetitions will be placed with the first beat of the continued beat cycle. It characterizes the modern jazz improvisers. . simultaneously being aware to return to its origin.

Conclusion These are analyzes of in/out architectures used by stile creating improvisers. Including this in his unique way of creating and developing melodic ideas will enable him/her to expand his/her skills of expression and to get a big step forward in his/her personal exploration into improvised music. . All of them are reversible – means an improviser can use all of them to create own in/out lines within his personal melodic language.

html Review/Jazz.uk/jazzarticles. David Demsey - Nikolas Slonimsky. Thesaurus Of Scales And Melodic Patterns.opus28. Steve Coleman Expands The Limits of a Musical Idea By PETER WATROUS Published: June 06. 1994 .co. - David Liebman “Chromatic Approach” - David Liebman.Books: - Chromatic Third Relations in the Music of John Coltrane. Examples of Chromatic Lines by David Liebman - © Jason Lyon 2007 www.