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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION TO RADAR
1.1RADAR
RADAR is an abbreviation of word RADIO DETECTING AND RANGING. It is an
electromagnetic system for detection and location of object. It operates by transmitting a
particular type of waveform.
An elementary form of radar consists of a transmitting antenna emitting electromagnetic
radiation generated by an oscillator, a receiving antenna, and an energy detecting device
or receiver. A position of the transmitted signal is intercepted by a reflecting object
(target) and is re-radiated in all the directions. The receiving antenna collects the returned
energy and delivers it to a receiver, where it is processed. The distance to the target is
determined by measuring the time taken by the radar signal to travel and come back. The
direction or angular position of the target may be determined from the detection of arrival
of the reflected wavefront .

Fig.1.1 Radar

1.2 HISTORY
As early as 1886, German physicist Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be
reflected from solid objects. In 1895, Alexander Popov, a physics instructor at
the Imperial Russian Navy school in Kronstadt, developed an apparatus using
a coherer tube for detecting distant lightning strikes. The next year, he added a spark-gap
transmitter. In 1897, while testing this equipment for communicating between two ships
in the Baltic Sea, he took note of an interference beat caused by the passage of a third
vessel. In his report, Popov wrote that this phenomenon might be used for detecting
objects, but he did nothing more with this observation.
The German inventor Christian Hülsmeyer was the first to use radio waves to detect "the
presence of distant metallic objects". In 1904 he demonstrated the feasibility of detecting
a ship in dense fog, but not its distance from the transmitter. He obtained a patent for his
detection device in April 1904 and later a patent for a related amendment for estimating
the distance to the ship. He also got a British patent on September 23, 1904 for a full
system, that he called a telemobiloscope.

Fig 1.2 A Chain Home tower in Great Baddow, United Kingdom

In 1922 A. Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young, researchers working with the U.S. Navy, had a
transmitter and a receiver on opposite sides of thePotomac River and discovered that a
ship passing through the beam path caused the received signal to fade in and out. Taylor
submitted a report, suggesting that this might be used to detect the presence of ships in
low visibility, but the Navy did not immediately continue the work. Eight years
later, Lawrence A. Hyland at the Naval Research Laboratory observed similar fading
effects from a passing aircraft; this led to a patent application as well as a proposal for
serious work at the NRL (Taylor and Young were then at this laboratory) on radio-echo
signals from moving targets.
Before

the Second

World

War,

researchers

in France, Germany, Italy, Japan,

the Netherlands, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and theUnited States,
independently and in great secrecy, developed technologies that led to the modern version
of radar. Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa followed prewar Great
Britain, and Hungary had similar developments during the war.
In France in 1934, following systematic studies on the magnetron, the research branch of
the Compagnie Générale de Télégraphie Sans Fil (CSF), headed by Maurice Ponte, with
Henri Gutton, Sylvain Berline, and M. Hugon began developing an obstacle-locating
radio apparatus, a part of which was installed on the Normandie liner in 1935.
During the same time, the Soviet military engineer P. K. Oshchepkov, in collaboration
with Leningrad Electrophysical Institute, produced an experimental apparatus, RAPID,
capable of detecting an aircraft within 3 km of a receiver. The French and Soviet systems,
however, had continuous-wave operation and could not give the full performance that
was ultimately at the center of modern radar.
Full radar evolved as a pulsed system, and the first such elementary apparatus was
demonstrated in December 1934 by the American Robert M. Page, working at the Naval
Research Laboratory. The following year, the United States Army successfully tested a
primitive surface-to-surface radar to aim coastal battery search lights at night. This was
followed by a pulsed system demonstrated in May 1935 by Rudolf Kühnhold and the
firm GEMA in Germany and then one in June 1935 by an Air Ministry team led
by Robert A. Watson Watt in Great Britain. Development of radar greatly expanded on 1

September 1936 when Watson-Watt became Superintendent of a new establishment under
the British Air Ministry, Bawdsey Research Station located in Bawdsey Manor, near
Felixstowe, Suffolk. Work there resulted in the design and installation of aircraft
detection and tracking stations called Chain Home along the East and South coasts of
England in time for the outbreak of World War II in 1939. This system provided the vital
advance information that helped the Royal Air Force win the Battle of Britain.
The British were the first to fully exploit radar as a defence against aircraft attack. Initial
research was concerned with developing death rays for use against aircraft. The Air
Ministry asked British scientists in 1934 to investigate the possibility of propagating
electromagnetic energy and the likely effect. Following a study, they concluded that a
death ray was impractical but that detection of aircraft appeared feasible. Robert Watson
Watt's team demonstrated to his superiors the capabilities of a working prototype and
then patented the device. It served as the basis for the Chain Home network of radars to
defend Great Britain, which detected approaching German aircraft in the Battle of
Britain in 1940.
In April 1940, Popular Science showed an example of a radar unit using the Watson-Watt
patent in an article on air defence. Also, in late 1941 Popular Mechanics had an article in
which a U.S. scientist speculated about the British early warning system on the English
east coast and came close to what it was and how it worked. Alfred Lee Loomisorganized
the Radiation Laboratory at Cambridge, Massachusetts which developed the technology
in the years 1941-45. Later, in 1943, Page greatly improved radar with themonopulse
technique that was used for many years in most radar applications.
The war precipitated research to find better resolution, more portability, and more
features for radar, including complementary navigation systems like Oboe used by
the RAF's Pathfinder.

1.3 APPLICATION
APPLICATION OF RADAR has been employed on the ground, in air, on the sea and in
space. Some important areas of applications are

:Air traffic control ( ATC )





A ir craft navigation
Ship safety
Space
Remote sensing
Military

1.4 PRINCIPLE
A radar system has a transmitter that emits radio waves called radar signals in
predetermined directions. When these come into contact with an object they are
usually reflected or scattered in many directions. Radar signals are reflected especially
well by materials of considerable electrical conductivity—especially by most metals,
by seawater and by wet lands. Some of these make the use of radar altimeters possible.
The radar signals that are reflected back towards the transmitter are the desirable ones
that make radar work. If the object is moving either toward or away from the transmitter,
there is a slight equivalent change in the frequency of the radio waves, caused by
the Doppler effect.
Radar receivers are usually, but not always, in the same location as the transmitter.
Although the reflected radar signals captured by the receiving antenna are usually very
weak, they can be strengthened by electronic amplifiers. More sophisticated methods
of signal processing are also used in order to recover useful radar signals.
The weak absorption of radio waves by the medium through which it passes is what
enables radar sets to detect objects at relatively long ranges—ranges at which other
electromagnetic wavelengths, such as visible light, infrared light, and ultraviolet light, are
too strongly attenuated. Such weather phenomena as fog, clouds, rain, falling snow, and
sleet that block visible light are usually transparent to radio waves. Certain radio
frequencies that are absorbed or scattered by water vapor, raindrops, or atmospheric gases
(especially oxygen) are avoided in designing radars, except when their detection is
intended.
Radar relies on its own transmissions rather than light from the Sun or the Moon, or
from electromagnetic waves emitted by the objects themselves, such as infrared
wavelengths (heat). This process of directing artificial radio waves towards objects is

called illumination. If electromagnetic waves traveling through one material meet another. polarization.3 reflection Brightness can indicate reflectivity as in this 1960 weather radar image (ofHurricane Abby).1 Reflection Fig. the target may not be visible . Radar absorbing material. or a significant change in atomic density between the object and what is surrounding it. 1. pulse form. the waves will reflect or scatter from the boundary between the materials. Radar waves scatter in a variety of ways depending on the size (wavelength) of the radio wave and the shape of the target. and antenna determine what it can observe. having a very different dielectric constant or diamagnetic constantfrom the first. will usually scatter radar (radio) waves from its surface. signal processing. making radar well-suited to the detection of aircraft and ships. If the wavelength is much shorter than the target's size. is used on military vehicles to reduce radar reflection. 1. although radio waves are invisible to the human eye or optical cameras. This means that a solid object in air or in a vacuum. If the wavelength is much longer than the size of the target. containing resistive and sometimes magnetic substances.4. The radar's frequency. the wave will bounce off in a way similar to the way light is reflected by a mirror. This is the radio equivalent of painting something a dark color so that it cannot be seen by the eye at night. This is particularly true for electrically conductive materials such as metal and carbon fiber.

such as chaff. are very reflective but do not direct the scattered energy back toward the source. They are commonly used as radar reflectors to make otherwise difficult-to-detect objects easier to detect. Half wavelength long wires or strips of conducting material. there may be resonances. for example. of targets. These precautions do not completely eliminate reflection because of diffraction. Short radio waves reflect from curves and corners in a way similar to glint from a rounded piece of glass.2 Radar equation The power Pr returning to the receiving antenna is given by the equation: where    Pt = transmitter power Gt = gain of the transmitting antenna Ar = effective aperture (area) of the receiving antenna . 1. especially at longer wavelengths. For similar reasons. an effect that creates Earth's blue sky and red sunsets. A corner reflector consists of three flat surfaces meeting like the inside corner of a box.because of poor reflection. When the two length scales are comparable. This is described by Rayleigh scattering. but not identification. make them more detectable to avoid collision or during a rescue. objects intended to avoid detection will not have inside corners or surfaces and edges perpendicular to likely detection directions. whereas some modern systems use shorter wavelengths (a few centimeters or less) that can image objects as small as a loaf of bread. Low-frequency radar technology is dependent on resonances for detection.4. which leads to "odd" lookingstealth aircraft. Early radars used very long wavelengths that were larger than the targets and thus received a vague signal. Corner reflectors on boats. The extent to which an object reflects or scatters radio waves is called itsradar cross section. The structure will reflect waves entering its opening directly back to the source. The most reflective targets for short wavelengths have 90° angles between the reflective surfaces.

Sea-based radar systems. and radar astronomy rely on the Doppler effect to enhance performance. The propagation factor accounts for the effects of multipath and shadowing and depends on the details of the environment. This produces information about target velocity during the detection process. where R is the range. or scattering coefficient. which degrades performance. weather radar.    σ = radar cross section. . semi-active radar homing. of the target F = pattern propagation factor Rt = distance from the transmitter to the target Rr = distance from the target to the receiver. which means that the received power from distant targets is relatively very small.3 Doppler effect Frequency shift is caused by motion that changes the number of wavelengths between the reflector and the radar. military aircraft. Rt = Rr and the term Rt² Rr² can be replaced by R4. In the common case where the transmitter and the receiver are at the same location. This yields: This shows that the received power declines as the fourth power of the range. That can degrade or enhance radar performance depending upon how that affects the detection process. This also allows small objects to be detected in an environment containing much larger nearby slow moving objects. which can be used to increase detection range and reduce transmit power. Moving Target Indication can interact with Doppler to produce signal cancellation at certain radial velocities. Additional filtering and pulse integration modifies the radar equation slightly for pulseDoppler radar performance. In a real-world situation. 1. path loss effects should also be considered. As an example. The equation above with F = 1 is a simplification for transmission in a vacuum without interference.4.

300 mile/hour). and this direction of the electric field is the polarization of the wave. vertical.Doppler shift depends upon whether the radar configuration is active or passive. For example. linear and circular polarization to detect different types of reflections. Active radar transmits a signal that is reflected back to the receiver.5 Limiting factors .000 m/s (3. As an example. Linear polarization returns usually indicate metal surfaces. Doppler measurement is reliable only if the sampling rate exceeds the Nyquist frequency for the frequency shift produced by radial motion. 1. the electric field is perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Passive radar depends upon the object sending a signal to the receiver. it has no relative velocity. circular polarization is used to minimize the interference caused by rain. In the transmitted radar signal the polarization can be controlled for different effects. and is Doppler is the speed of light:[23] Passive radar is applicable to electronic countermeasures and radio astronomy as follows: Only the radial component of the speed is relevant. such as rocks or soil. Vehicles and weather moving parallel to the radar beam produce the maximum Doppler frequency shift. but cannot reliably determine radial velocity of aircraft moving 1. Random polarization returns usually indicate a fractal surface.4 Polarization In all electromagnetic radiation. where frequency. Doppler weather radar with a pulse rate of 2 kHz and transmit frequency of 1 GHz can reliably measure weather up to 150 m/s (330 mile/hour). and are used by navigation radars. The Doppler frequency shift for active radar is as follows. 1. is transmit frequency.4. Radars use horizontal.4. is radial velocity. When the reflector is moving at right angle to the radar beam.

4 Echo heights above ground The radar beam would follow a linear path in vacuum. This includes factors such as environmental conditions and the size (or radar cross section) of the target.5. This means with out a direct line of sight the path of the beam is blocked. The maximum non-ambiguous range is the distance the pulse could  travel and return before the next pulse is emitted. the signal is attenuated by the medium it crosses. Furthermore. The maximum range of a conventional radar can be limited by a number of factors Line of sight. but it really follows a somewhat curved path in the atmosphere because of the variation of the refractive index of air. which depends on height above ground.  The maximum non-ambiguous range.1.4. it will rise above it as the Earth curvature sinks below the horizon. that is called the radar horizon. and the beam disperses.5. . which is determined by the pulse repetition frequency. Radar sensitivity and power of the return signal as computed in the radar equation.2 Noise Signal noise is an internal source of random variations in the signal.4. 1.1 Beam path and range Fig 1. which is generated by all electronic components. Even when the beam is emitted parallel to the ground.

error free. This allows improved range resolution. Shot noise is produced by electrons in transit across a discontinuity. Doppler. The lower the power of the desired signal. the internal noise is typically about equal to or lower than the external noise. Noise typically appears as random variations superimposed on the desired echo signal received in the radar receiver. the instantaneous bandwidth increases linearly in frequency. Reflectors that are too far away produce too little signal to exceed the noise floor and cannot be detected. and so the best one can do is match filter all energy into a . Matched filtering allows the entire energy received from a target to be compressed into a single bin (be it a range. The one notable exception to heterodyne (downconversion) radar systems is ultra-wideband radar. Another reason for heterodyne processing is that for fixed fractional bandwidth. most importantly the natural thermal radiation of the background surrounding the target of interest. There is an appealing intuitive interpretation of this relationship in a radar. Noise is also generated by external sources. so noise introduces a radar range limitation. detection. On the surface it would appear that then within a fixed interval of time one could obtain perfect. The quantum of electrical energy is an electron. while time is arbitrarily divisible. where T is temperature. Shot noise is the dominant source in most receivers. Detection requires a signal that exceeds the noise floor by at least the signal to noise ratio. see List of UWB channels. where the scene is so "cold" that it generates very little thermal noise.Reflected signals decline rapidly as distance increases. The thermal noise is given by kB T B. An exception is if the radar is aimed upwards at clear sky. which is reduced using heterodyne amplification. Here a single cycle. In modern radar systems. To do this one simply compresses all energy into an infinitesimal time slice. or azimuth bin). and this needs to be minimized. What limits this approach in the real world is that. current is not.elevation. Noise figure is a measure of the noise produced by a receiver compared to an ideal receiver. or transient wave. There will also be flicker noise caused by electron transit through amplification devices. is used similar to UWB communications. B is bandwidth (post matched filter) and kB is Boltzmann's constant. the more difficult it is to discern it from the noise. which occurs in all detectors. The noise floor and signal to noise ratio are two different measure of performance that impact range performance.

by radar countermeasures such as chaff. These improvements depend upon coherence. We see then that radar. and other atmospheric effects.3 Clutter Clutter refers to radio frequency (RF) echoes returned from targets which are uninteresting to the radar operators. is profoundly impacted by quantum theory. The higher a system's SNR. snow or hail). it compares the level of a desired target signal to the level of background noise (atmospheric noise and noise generated within the receiver). The ability of the radar system to overcome these unwanted signals defines its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). intentionally.precipitation (such as rain. Clutter may also be returned from man-made objects such as buildings and. Noise is random and target signals are not. sand storms. Some clutter may also be caused by a long radar waveguide between the radar transceiver and the antenna. In a typical plan position indicator (PPI) radar with a rotating antenna. and three body scatter spike. SNR is defined as the ratio of a signal power to the noise power within the desired signal. animals (especially birds).4. sea. the better it is in isolating actual targets from the surrounding noise signals. The kind of signal integration used with Moving Target Indication can improve noise up to for each stage. which reduces the noise floor by the number of filters. Since the electron is moving at a certain temperature (Plank spectrum) this noise source cannot be further eroded. both passive and active. These unwanted signals may originate from internal and external sources. meteortrails.Radar systems must overcome unwanted signals in order to focus only on the actual targets of interest. Such targets include natural objects such as ground. like all macro-scale entities.single electron. 1. such as ionosphere reflections. Adjusting the timing between when the transmitter sends a pulse and when the receiver stage is enabled will generally reduce the sunburst without affecting the accuracy of the .5. Signal processing can take advantage of this phenomenon to reduce the noise floor using two strategies. atmospheric turbulence. this will usually be seen as a "sun" or "sunburst" in the centre of the display as the receiver responds to echoes from dust particles and misguided RF in the waveguide. The signal can also be split among multiple filters for pulse-Doppler signal processing.

since most sunburst is caused by a diffused transmit pulse reflected before it leaves the antenna. This can be adapted for systems that lack a coherent transmitter. Constant False Alarm Rate. and therefore use linear polarization to detect precipitation). Clutter moves with the wind or is stationary. This requires a coherent transmitter. Other methods attempt to increase the signal-to-clutter ratio. The receiver's gain is automatically adjusted to maintain a constant level of overall visible clutter. desirable targets will appear to move. AGC became computersoftware controlled and affected the gain with greater granularity in specific detection cells. since it only appears in response to radar signals sent by the radar. while rain is reduced with circular polarization (note that meteorological radars wish for the opposite effect. radar AGC was electronically controlled and affected the gain of the entire radar receiver.range. and all stationary echoes can be eliminated. it does help to distinguish strong target sources. In the past. The most effective clutter reduction technique is pulse-Doppler radar. so individual signals can be separated from multiple reflectors located in the same volume using velocity differences. is a method that relies on clutter returns far outnumbering echoes from targets of interest. on subsequent scan echoes. Clutter is considered a passive interference source. Clutter is detected and neutralized in several ways. . Sea clutter can be reduced by using horizontal polarization. Doppler separates clutter from aircraft and spacecraft using a frequency spectrum. As radars evolved. a form of Automatic Gain Control (AGC). Two common strategies to improve measure or performance in a clutter environment are:   Moving Target Indication. which integrates successive pulses and Doppler processing. such as time-domain pulse-amplitude radar. which uses filters to separate clutter from desirable signals. Another technique uses a moving target indicatorthat subtracts the receive signal from two successive pulses using phase to reduce signals from slow moving objects. Clutter tends to appear static between radar scans. While this does not help detect targets masked by stronger surrounding clutter.

. Anomalous propagation). atmospheric ducting or ionospheric reflection/refraction (e. Jamming is considered an active interference source. Clutter may also originate from multipath echoes from valid targets caused by ground reflection.4 Jamming Radar jamming refers to radio frequency signals originating from sources outside the radar. This clutter type is especially bothersome since it appears to move and behave like other normal (point) targets of interest.5. Terrain bounce jamming exploits this response by amplifying the radar signal and directing it downward. 1. an aircraft echo is reflected from the ground below. In newer air traffic control radar equipment. [24] These problems can be overcome by incorporating a ground map of the radar's surroundings and eliminating all echoes which appear to originate below ground or above a certain height. or unintentional. . The radar may try to unify the targets.4. or eliminating it on the basis of jitter or a physical impossibility. since it is initiated by elements outside the radar and in general unrelated to the radar signals. In a typical scenario. transmitting in the radar's frequency and thereby masking targets of interest.Fig 1. Monopulse can be improved by altering the elevation algorithm used at low elevation. reporting the target at an incorrect height.5 Radar multipath echoes from a target cause ghosts to appear. appearing to the receiver as an identical target below the correct one. as with friendly forces operating equipment that transmits using the same frequency range. algorithms are used to identify the false targets by comparing the current pulse returns to those adjacent. Jamming may be intentional. as well as calculating return improbabilities.g. as with an electronic warfare tactic.

Mainlobe jamming can generally only be reduced by narrowing the mainlobe solid angle and cannot fully be eliminated when directly facing a jammer which uses the same frequency and polarization as the radar.5 WORKING OF A SIMPLE RADAR A simple RADAR system. has three main parts. Other anti-jamming techniques are frequency hopping and polarization. Though it is varied to suit requirements. In all RADARS it is vital that the transmitting and receiving in the transceiver are in close harmony. The frequency of the radio waves is usually about 10. the antenna is rotated at the speed of 10 to 25 revolutions per minute so that the radar beam sweeps through 300 degrees all around the ship out to a range of about 90 kilometers.Jamming is problematic to radar since the jamming signal only needs to travel one way (from the jammer to the radar receiver) whereas the radar echoes travel two ways (radartarget-radar) and are therefore significantly reduced in power by the time they return to the radar receiver. The antenna is about 2 or 3 meters wide and focuses pulses of very high frequency radio energy into a narrow vertical beam. 1. Jammers have an added effect of affecting radars along other lines of sight through the radar receiver's sidelobes (sidelobe jamming).  The transmitter/receiver or transceiver  The visual display unit. Sidelobe jamming can be overcome by reducing receiving sidelobes in the radar antenna design and by using an omnidirectional antennato detect and disregard non-mainlobe signals. Short pulses are best for .000 pulses per second are transmitted.000 MHz. as found on many merchant ships. Everything depends on accurate measurement of the time which passes between the transmission of the pulse and the return of the ECHO about 1. Jammers therefore can be much less powerful than their jammed radars and still effectively mask targets along the line of sight from the jammer to the radar (mainlobe jamming). These are: Antenna unit or the scanner.

known as the trace. the resulting spot of light can be seen through a glass surface. another device called duplexer is used. The display unit usually carried all the controls necessary for the operation of the whole radar. The screen is circular and is calibrated in degrees around its edge. The gun shoots a beam of electron at a phosphorescent screen at the far end. The beginning of each trace corresponds exactly which the moment at which the radar energy is transmitted. As the trace rotates. Once the two are mixed. the antenna is pointing dead ahead. This random motion of the electron beam. when the trace is at zero degrees on the tube calibration. In order to modify these pulses into radio frequency pulses or RF pulses. two-way communication is established. a signal is produced in the output witch is of intermediate frequency range or IF range. The RF echoes emerging from the duplexer are now fed into the mixer where they are mixed with pulses of RF energy. by means of a duplexer. The weak echoes from the target are picked up by the antenna and fed into the receiver. we need to generate power. the transmitter is switched off and isolated. So. longer pulses are better for long range. for exactly the right length of time. undisturbed. a complete picture is built up from the coating . or pulses. This keys the transmitter so that it can oscillate. The electron beam travels out from the center to the edge. The transmitted power is generated in a device called ‘magnetron’. and its distance from the center of the tube corresponds exactly with the time taken for the radar pulse to travel to the target and return. The pulses so generated are video pulses. amplified. These pulses are short range pulses and hence cannot serve out purpose of long-distance communication. and then passed to the display unit. An important part of the transceiver is the modulator circuit. It has a cathode ray tube. When an echo is received it brightens up the trace for a moment. This is a blip. The IF signals is received by a receiver where it is demodulated to video frequency range. These pulses are generated by means of a local oscillator. To avoid overlapping of these echoes with the next transmitted pulse. So that blip on the screen gives the range and bearing of the target. which can handle these very short pulses and very high oscillations. Between each pulse.short-range work. The phosphorescent screen glows when hit by the electrons and. is matched with the rotation of the antenna. Thus. which consist of an electron gun in its neck.

The basic operation of a secondary radar is as follows: 1. The reply. providing a two way data link to separate transmit and receive frequencies. In other words. But in cases such as controlling of air traffic. the controller must be able to identify the air craft and know whether it is of a friend or a foe.of the tube. This works differently and needs the help of the target aircraft. To give the controller this information. RADAR may be classified as:   PRIMARY RADAR SECONDARY RADAR 1. The transponder.2 SECONDARY RADAR The secondary radar system consists of an INTERROGATOR and a TRANSPONDER. called an transponder fitted on the aircraft. a second radar called a ‘secondary surveillance radar’ (SSR) is used. on board the aircraft.6.6 TYPES OF RADAR Based on its functions. A SECONDARY RADAR SYSTEM is similar in operation to primary radar except that the return signal is radiated from a transmitter on board the target rather than by reflection. secondary radar operates with a co-operative ACTIVE TARGET while the primary radar operates with a PASSIVE TARGET. It senses out the sequence of pulses to an electronic black box. automatically transmits a reply. The interrogator transmitter in the ground station interrogates transponder equipped aircraft.1 PRIMARY RDAR A PRIMARY RADAR locates an object by transmitting a signal and detecting the reflected echo. It is also desired to know the height of the aircraft. coded for purposes of .6. 1. This type of display is called a PPI (plane position indicator) and is the most common form of presenting radar information. on receipt of a chain of pulses from the ground interrogator. so that on the same source but flying at different levels can be kept apart.

IFF ANTENNA RF SWITCH UNIT TRANSMITTER REMOTE CONTROL PANEL RECEIVER MK X DECODER CONTROL UNIT MODE S DRAWER (INTERROGATOR – DECODER) GROUND / SHIP INTERROGATOR PPI .Identification is received back at the ground interrogator where it is decoded and displayed on a radar type presentation. by providing the interrogation pulses above the minimum triggering level. the transponder makes a powerful reply. The secondary radar gives the aircraft identity code and height data derived from a pressure capsule in the aircraft. This enables the interrogator transmitters to be of lower power and the ground equipment simpler. In the Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR).

1. self-sufficient .1 HISTORY After Independence India had many responsibilities from basic necessity to telecomm & defence equipment so after adoption of its constitution in 1950.Fig. the government was seized with the plans to lay the foundation of a strong.6 IFF system CHAPTER 2 COMPANY PROFILE 2.

To keep in pace with the component and equipment technology. the manufacturing has CNC machines and a Mass . the company’s equipment designs have had a long voyage through the hybrid. the company established its own electron valve manufacturing facility. The design groups have CADD’s facility. On the industrial announced in the year 1952.Modern India. has met the requirements of state-of –art professional electronic equipment for Defence. with a noteworthy history of pioneering achievements. With the Research & Development efforts. The company has a unique position in India of having dealt with all the generations of electronic component and equipment. Over the years. BEL was established in 1954 as a Public Sector Enterprise under the administrative control of Ministry of Defence as the fountain head to manufacture and supply electronics components and equipment. BEL was born to meet the growing needs of Indian Defence services for electronic systems.industrial policy resolution (IPR) was BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED. multi-unit and technology driven company with track record of a profit earning PSU. the idea of Public Sector Enterprise (PSE) was mooted. It was recognized that in certain core sectors infrastructure facilities require huge investments. It moved on to semiconductors with the manufacture of germanium and silicon devices and then to manufacture of Integrated circuits. its engineers have fructified it into a world-class organization. BEL. In the component arena also. Civil Defence and telecommunications as well as the component requirement of entertainment and medical X-ray industry. Having started with a HF receiver in collaboration with T-CSF of France. Employing the best engineering talent available in the country. its manufacturing and product assurance facilities have also undergone sea change. Radars and strategic components.Under this a Professional Electronics company in India incorporated that was front. which cannot be met by private sector and as such. BEL has diversified to meet the needs of civilian customers as well and has provided products and network solutions on turnkey basis to customers in India and abroad. BEL has grown to a multi. BEL has progressed manufacturing state-of-the-art products in the field of Defence Electronics like Communications including encryption.product. solid-state discrete component to the state-ofart integrated circuit technology. Over the years. broadcasting.

BEL offers a variety of services like Telecom and Radar Systems Consultancy. Central Research Laboratory (CRL) at Bangalore and Ghaziabad works as independent agency to undertake contemporary design work on state-of-art and futuristic technologies. A team of more than 800 engineers is working in R&D. Optical & Opto-electronics. BEL could not progress in its computer manufacturing plans. the company continued to develop computers based application. Contract Manufacturing. environmental labs to check extreme weather and other operational conditions are there. As many of its equipment were microprocessor based. Sound and Vision broadcasting. Telecommunications. BEL assembled a limited number of 1901 systems under the arrangement with ICIL. the company is installing MSSR radar at important airports under the modernization of airports plan of National Airport Authority (NAA). Radars. Each unit has its own R&D Division to bring out new products to the production lines.Besides manufacturing and supply of a wide variety of products. Electronic components. Automatic testing machines. BEL has nurtured and built a strong in-house R&D base by absorbing technologies from more than 50 leading companies worldwide and DRDO labs for a wide range of products. About 70% of BEL‘s products are of in-house design. Calibration of test& measuring instruments. All these facilities have been established to meet the stringent requirements of MIL grade systems. Its manufacturing units have special focus towards the product ranges like Defence Communications. However. BEL was amongst the first Indian companies to manufacture computer parts and peripherals under arrangement with International Computers India Limited (ICIL) in 1970’s. At the moment. following Government’s decision to restrict the computer manufacture to ECIL. EMCCA.Manufacture Facility. Product mix of the company are spread over the entire electromagnetic (EM) spectrum ranging from tiny audio frequency semiconductor to huge radar systems and X-ray tubes on the upper edge of the spectrum. and QC checks are performed with multi-dimensional profile measurement machines. Most of its software requirements are in real time. both hardware and software. etc. software intensive naval ships control and command system is probably one of the first project of its nature in India and . etc.

BEL was listed 3 rd among the Mini Ratna’s (category II) by the Government of India. Safety etc. These are distributed in all over the India as:  BANGALORE (Corporate Office)  GHAZIABAD  PANCHKULA  MACHILIPATNAM . This organization also stands on number 7th position in the best 100 public and private companies according to the "electronic for u" in 2002. Productivity. 49 th among Asia's top 100 Electronic Companies by the Electronic Business Asia and within the top 100 worldwide Defence Companies by the Defence News. Bangalore complex is the BEL’s first and largest unit and it accounts for two-thirds of both the company’s turnover and manpower.P.2 VARIOUS UNITS Its corporate office is at Bangalore. Chennai. communication equipments & microwave-components. Quality. Taloja (Maharashtra).P. BEL has won a number of national and international awards for Import Substitution. Ghaziabad. Quality. Ghaziabad is the second largest unit of BEL and it specializes in radars. This unit’s product range covers over 300 Defence and Civilian products. Pune. BEL was ranked no. 2. Today.) BEL has won a number of national and international awards for Import Substitution. BEL has set up impressive infrastructure spread in 9 location with 29-production division and manufacturing facilities in their ISO-9001/9002 certified production units around the country.) and Kotdwara (U.1 in the field of Electronics and 46th overall among the top 1000 private and public sector undertakings in India by the Business Standard in its special supplement "The BS 1000 (1997-98)". Panchkula (Haryana). Hyderabad. USA. In total BEL has got 9 units. Machilipathnam (A. Productivity.Asia. Safety Standardization etc. They are –Bangalore.

1 Location of bharat electronic 2.1 Equipment Table 2.1 Equipment Defence .3 CUSTOMER PROFILE 2.3. PUNE  HYDERABAD  CHENNAI  KOTDWARA  TALOJA Fig 2.

Tank Fire Control Systems. Solar Panels for Rural Exchanges. Cameras. NCERT TV Studios on Turnkey Basis for Educational Programs. Studio Equipment. Battlefield Surveillance Radars. All India Radio MW. Digital Switches. Space Department Precision Tracking Radars. Communication Equipment and Systems. SONAR Systems. Hub Stations. SW & FM Transmitters. Rural and Main Automatic Exchanges. Secondary Surveillance Radars. Flight and OnBoard Sub-systems. Department of Transmission Equipment (Microwave and UHF) and PCM Telecommunications Videsh Sanchar Nigam and other Multiplex. Display Systems. Flyaway Earth Stations. Navy Navigational. Opto-Electronic Instruments. Simulators. Air Force Surveillance and Tracking Radars. Stabilizer Systems. SCPC VSATs. Communication Equipment and Systems. MCPC VSATs.Army Tactical and Strategic Communication Equipment and Systems. Doordarshan Low. Secrecy Equipment. Torpedo Decoys. Mobile and Transportable Satellite Uplinks. Air Defence and Fire Control Radars. Flyaway Satellite Terminals. Up/Down Convertors. . Medium and High Power Transmitters. Surveillance. EW Systems. Fire Control Radars. (TV Network) OB Vans. Non-Defence Para-Military Communication Equipment and Systems. IFF and EW Systems. IFF. Antennae. Stimulators and Trainers. Ground Electronics. LNA Modems Corporate Bodies Civil Aviation Airport Surveillance Radars.

Health Care Railways Communication Equipment for Metros. Microwave Tubes. 2. Ceramic Capacitors and SAW Filters.2 component Defence Transmitting Tubes.3. Transmitting Tubes. . Oil Industry Communication Systems. Integrated Circuits. Hybrid and Integrated Circuits. Silicon Transistors. Doordarshan (TV Network). Non-Defence All India Radio. Digital Microwave Radio Relays. and Vacuum Tubes. Forest Departments.2 Components Table 2. Piezo Electric Crystals. Bipolar and CMOS. Lasers. Irrigation & Electricity Boards Medical & Clinical and Surgical Microscope with Zoom. Microwave Radio Relays. Communication Systems. Radars.Meteorological Cyclone Warning and Multipurpose Meteorological Radars. Crystals. Department of Telecomm and Civil Industries Entertainment Industry Telephone Industry B/W TV Tubes. Department Power Sector Satellite Communication Equipment. Batteries. Semiconductors-Discrete. Integrated Circuits. Microwave Tubes.

 Office Automation Software.Switching Industry Vacuum Interrupters. The ministry of defence immediately realized the need to establish production capacity for meeting the electronic equipment requirements for its Plan ADGES. This led to the formulation of a very major plan for an integrated Air Defence Ground Environment System known as the Plan ADGES with Prime Minister as the presiding officer of the apex review committee. 2.3 Systems / Network Table 2.3 system  Identity Card Systems Software.1 Formation of unit In the mid 60's. At about the same time. Industry Medical & X-ray Tubes. .3. the government focused its attention to strengthen the air defence system.4. Instrumentation Liquid Crystal Displays. while reviewing the defence requirement of the country. for the air defence network. Public attention was focused on the report of the Bhabha Committee on the development and production of electronic equipment. in particular the ground electronics system support. Health Care 2.  LCD On-line Public Information Display Systems  Communication Networks / VSAT Networks.4 GHAZIABAD UNIT 2.

the Unit has successfully manufactured a wide variety of equipment needed for defence and civil use. Ghaziabad unit is primarily engaged in manufacture. sanctioned an additional unit for BEL. Development and Engineering-C and Development and Engineering-Antenna. Over the years. 1972 saw the commencement of construction activities and production was launched in 1974. Communication. F&A 2. In December 1970 the Govt.  Low Flying Detection Radar for both the Army and the Air force.P&M. The operations at BEL Ghaziabad are headed by General Manager with Additional / Deputy General Manager heading various divisions . SYSTEMS . P&A.Design & Engineering Divisions. the industrial license for manufacture of radar and microwave equipment was obtained. MM. MKTG & CC.2 PRODUCT RANGE The product range today companies: 2. supply and Turn-key execution of Radars. Communication equipments & Antennas /Systems for defence as well as nondefence sectors. In 1971. It has four major manufacturing divisions i.BEL was then entrusted with the task of meeting the development and production requirement for the Plan ADGES and in view of the importance of the project it was decided to create additional capacity at a second unit of the company.4. Radar. More than 30 versions of IFF’s have already been supplied traveling the path from vacuum technology to solid-state to latest Microwave Component based system. .2. It has also installed and commissioned a large number of systems on turnkey basis.e.1 Radar Systems:  3-Dimensional High Power Static and Mobile Radar for the Air Force. The Unit enjoys a unique status as manufacturer of IFF systems needed to match a variety of Primary Raiders. Development and Engineering-R. QA&T. CS. Antenna & Microwave Components with support divisions like D&E.4.

Turnkey Communication Systems Projects for defence & civil users.  Radar & allied systems Data Processing Systems.2.  Antennae for Line-of-sight Microwave Communication Systems. 2.1 Communications:        Digital Static Troposcatter Communication Systems for the Air Force. Terrestrial & Satellite Communication Systems. UHF & Microwave Communication Equipment.2 Antenna:  Antennae for Radar.2.  Antennae for TV Satellite Receive and Broadcast applications. Bulk Encryption Equipment. Fig 2. . Tactical Control Radar Systems for the Army  Battlefield Surveillance Radar for the Army  IFF Mk-X Radar systems for the Defence and Export  ASR/MSSR systems for Civil Aviation.4.2 Antenna 2.4. Digital Mobile Troposcatter Communication System for the Air Force and Army VHF. Static and Mobile Satellite Communication Systems for Defence Telemetry/Tele-control Systems.

INDRA. etc 2.3 Microwave Component  Active Microwave components like LNAs. Synthesizer. Reporter.4. Flycatcher Secure Facsimile (SECFAX) Integrated Fish finder Cum Navigational Guidance Systems (IFFNGS) GPS Based Vehicle Tracking Systems Energy Savers for Air Conditioners Alarm Systems for Railway Unmanned Level Crossings Pager Amplifier/UHF Paging Transmitter Cockpit Display System for LCA Automatic Test Equipment Cellular Antenna PC Mother Board SIMPUTER X-Ray Cables Television Receive Only Antenna Electronic Warfare Equipment Train Actuated Warning System Magnesium Manganese Dioxide Battery Packs Dosimeter Locket Telemedicine System VLSI & ASCIs .  Passive Microwave components like Double Balanced Mixers.4. and Receivers etc.2.3 SPECIFIC PRODUCT OF ‘BEL’                      Electronics Voting Machine IRMA.2.

The transponder.CHAPTER 3 IDENTIFICATION FRIEND AND FOE 3. The interrogator transmitter in the ground station interrogates transponder equipped aircraft. i. on receipt of a chain of pulses from the ground interrogator. A secondary radar system is similar in ration to primary radar except that the return signal is radiated from a transmitter on board the target rather than by reflection. is received back at the ground interrogator where it is decoded and displayed on a radar type presentation. automatically transmits a reply. providing a two way data link on separate transmitting and receiving frequencies. coded for purposes of identification.1 IFF SYSTEM BASIC PRINCIPLE The identification of Friend and Foe (IFF) is basically a radar beacon system employed for the purposes of general identification of military targets. it operates with a co-operative ‘active’ target while the primary radar operates with ‘passive’ target. on board the aircraft.Primary radar locates an object by transmitting a signal and detecting the reflected echo. .Secondary radar system consists of an interrogator and a transponder.e. The beacon system when used for the control of civil air traffic is called as secondary surveillance radar (SSR).

The transmitter can be triggered either . The position of the scanning antenna and the elapsed time between the interrogation and receipt of the transponder reply give the azimuth and range. The interrogator transmitter operates in S Band at 1030 MHz and the airborne transponder operates at 1090 MHz. 3. Thus range. 3. Special code provisions enable to declare an emergency or communication failure.1 OPERATION The SSR system can operate in association with both static and mobile primary radar or independently with its own monitor display.2 ADVANTAGES OF SSR OVER PRIMARY RADAR: a) Reply pulses are stronger than the echo signals of primary radar. c) Reply signal is independent of target cross section. azimuth and altitude are derived. d) Interrogation and reply path coding provide discrete target identification and altitude data. b) Separate transmitting and receiving frequencies eliminate ground clutter and weather return problems. Two pulses in this code train define the pulse train and the other pulses contain the code data these positions provide up to 4096 discrete identify codes including the altitude.3. spaced at multiples of 1.3 BASIC CONSIDERATIONS: The SSR interrogate transponder equipped aircraft with coded pulses train whose spacing denotes whether identity or altitude replies are being requested. special identification of a particular aircraft when the same identify code has been used by two or more aircraft. The elicited reply comprises up to 14 pulses.45 microseconds.3.

. The PRF of the interrogation transmission is either the same as the primary radar or counted down to maintain a nominal value as the case may be.internally or externally.g. The Beacon System is designated in general as Secondary Radar and the normal radar as Primary Radar for distinguishing.2 PURPOSE The IDENTIFICATION FRIEND AND FOE (IFF) is basically a Radar Beacon System employed for the purpose of general identification of Military targets. mode C is the automatic altitude mode. 3. 3.3. 3.3 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS INTEROGATION AND RESPONSE SIGNALS INTERROGATION SIGNAL P1 P2 Fi g. Interrogations are pre-triggered with respect to the primary radar pulse transmission (external triggering) to provide for a timing match between radar echoes and SSR replies at the PPI display. Interlacing of two modes is done to update identity and altitude data on each scan of the ground based antenna.1 Iff pulse IFF INTEROGATION SIGNAL P3 .3. For e. The interrogation modes provide for separation of replies by function. The Beacon System when used for the control of civil air traffic is called as secondary surveillance Radar (SSR).

8 microseconds each. The interrogation is done on a particular mode to obtain a desired response from the airborne transponder. 3. The P2 pulse determines whether the interrogation is true or false. P2 and P3 are of same width viz 0.3. P2 and P3 are transmitted in succession in different directions in such a manner that amplitude of P1 and P3 are greater than that of P2 only along the direction of the main beam of the signal. control pulse. is always positioned at 2 microseconds from P1 and is used for achieving the 3 pulse side lobe suppression. P3 are produced to achieve the 3 pulse side lobe suppression. P2 and P3 as shown in the figure above.The pulse P2. P2. P3 pulse pairs signify the mode of interrogation of the ground transmitter.The three pulses viz P1. P1. The P1 and P3 pulses are known as the INTERROGATE PULSES and pulse P2 is known as the CONTROL PULSE. The aircraft transponder on receipt of the mode pulses P1and P3 recognizes the mode and responds with its suitable reply code. .4 MODE PULSES The combination of P1 and P3 interrogation pulses is known as MODES. In this technique. If the interrogation is false. amplitude of P2 is greater than that of the other pulses. P3 combination is known as MODE. The pulse interval between P1 and P3 ranges from 3 microsecond to 21 microsecond to form 4 different modes. The target is required to respond only when it finds the amplitude of the P1 and P3 greater than that of P2. The pulses P1. In all other directions.The interrogation signal of the IFF ground equipment consists of a signal consisting of 3 pulses are designated as P1. P1. The mode pulse pair protects against random signal pulses eliciting a response from the transponder . the aircraft transponder uses side lobe suppression technique to inhibit the reply.The P1 and P3 pulses occur at discrete pulse intervals and the P1.

. .2 Mode pulse The following are the different modes employed in IFF MK 10 ground equipment. MODE 1 MODE 2 MODE 3/A MODE C MODE S Fig 3.

3 frame structure The bracket pulses or frame pulses are designated as F1 and F2 .The framing pulses F1 and F2 are spaced at 20.3.1 modes To each proper interrogation the aircraft transponder transmits a reply containing the required data for the particular mode of interrogation.MODE P1 P3 INTERVAL (IN µ SECS) 1 3 2 5 PURPOSE Defence Air Craft Defence Air Craft 3/A 8 Civil/International C 21 Altitude-Height Table 3. The bracket pulses. The complex code trains consist of a series of pulses. are known as frame pulses.The reply pulse code train consists of twelve information pulses bracketed between the two frame pulses F1 and F2. representing coded intelligence. F1 C1 A1 C2 A2 C4 A4 X B1 D1 B2 D2 B4 D4 F2 Fig.3 microsecond apart and form the .3 microsecond apart (between leading edges). contained within a pair of bracket pulses spaced at 20. are an essential part of the response code and are always present. The other pulses making up the actual code are the information pulses.

90 C2 4.35 A2 5. The information pulses are spaced in increments of 1.most elementary code.15 .2 pulse positing PULSES POSITION (µSECS) C1 1. The designation and position of these information pulses are as follows: Table 3.45 microseconds from the first frame pulse F1.80 C4 7.70 X 10.45 A1 2.25 A4 8.

85 The position of the X pulse is specified only as a technical standard and at present is not used.45 ±0.The pulse spacing tolerance for each pulse including the last frame pulse F2 with respect to t he first frame pulse F1 of the reply group is ± 0. the reply code train consists of 12 pulses formed by A B C D combination and bracketed within F1 and F2 pulses.1 microseconds.60 D1 13.15 microsecond. .95 B4 17.50 D2 15.15 microsecond. The pulse amplitude variation of one pulse with respect to any other pulse in a reply train does not exceed 1dB. All reply pulses have pulse duration of 0. eliminating the pulse X.1 microseconds and pulse decay time between 0.05 and 0.B1 11.05 to 0.05 B2 14.40 D4 18. 1 microsecond and pulse rise time between 0. Thus.The pulse spacing tolerance of any pulse in the reply group with respect to any other pulse (except the first frame pulse F1) does not exceed + -0. It is reserved for future use.

The pulse interval tolerance of the SPI pulse with respect to the last frame pulse of the reply group is ±0.35 microseconds following the last framing pulse F2. The different types of reply received are: a) NORMAL REPLY The normal reply consists of the F1. there are 8 possible ABCD combinations. is positioned at a pulse interval of 4.SPECIAL POSITION IDENTIFICATION In addition to the information pulses provided. a special position identification pulse (SPI) which may be transmitted with any of the other information pulses. the transponder sends back accede train with the characteristics of the SI code train. F2 frame pulses bracketed the code pulses appropriate to that particular aircraft for the mode of interrogation b) MODE 1 REPLY When an aircraft is interrogated in mode 1. which consists of P1 and P3 pulses spaced 3 microseconds apart. SI is another designation for mode 1 and is the abbreviation for . 3.1 microsecond. DIGIT PULSE GROUP First (least significant) A Second B Third C Fourth D Thus.3.5 CODE NOMENCLATURE The code designation consists of digits between 0 and 7 inclusive and consists of the sum of the subscripts of the pulse numbers. making 4096 total code possibilities extending from 0000 to 7777.

45 microseconds apart. The reply signal consists of the framing pulses F1 and F2 spaced at 20. P3 spaced at five microseconds apart. f) MODE C REPLY The mode C interrogation. P3 spaced at 21 microseconds apart. and the designation of the PI codes for specific aircraft varies in different areas or zones.3 microseconds apart. The IFF MK 10 with SIF (SELECTIVE IDENTIFICATION FEATURE) has the ability to change operating frequencies for security and also has complex coded replies to positively identify the aircraft as friendly.The returning SI code train is the basic “FRIEND AND FOE” identification. The mode 3 reply is assigned differently in certain areas or zones. The mode C is employed for altitude data. consisting of two interrogation pulses P1.consisting of P1. Besides distinguishing the aircraft as friendly.“SECURITY IDENTIFICATION” . Different aircraft return different codes.The replies on the above modes of interrogation consist of the two frame pulses F1. .45 microseconds. It would be practically impossible for any unfriendly aircraft to know the frequency and codes with which we were expecting the friendly aircraft to reply. the aircraft transponder replies with a PERSONAL IDENTITY (PI) code train.45 microseconds and 1. consisting of P1. the SIF reply codes tell its type and mission.3 microseconds apart with all the pulses having pulse duration of 0. P3 spaced at 8 micro second . F2 spaced at 20. F2 spaced at 20. with pulse duration of 0. On interrogation in mode c the transponder responses for automatic pressure altitude – transmission.3 microseconds apart bracketing the information code pulses. e) MODE 3 REPLY The aircraft transponders response to mode 3 interrogation. The code train consists of the two frame pulses F1. c) MODE 2 REPLY When the IFF ground interrogator transmits a mode 2 interrogation. is common for both military and civil use.

EMERGENCY REPLY CODES : Code Military emergency condition : 0000 Civil emergency : 7700 Military/civil communication failure : 7600 Hijacking code 7500 : ALL AIRCRAFT SIGNAL EMER / COMMN FAILURE SPECIAL POSITION IDENTIFICATION (SPI) PASSIVE CODE MATCH Fig.3.3.6 REPLY CODE IDENTIFICATION On all modes except mode C the transponder manually selects the codes from the 4096 possible codes while in mode C interrogation the transponder automatically replies the pressure – altitude data.4 DISPLAY OF IFF SYMBOLS ON PPI .3. The pressure.altitude is reported in 100 ft increments by selection of pulses.

MILITARY EMERGENCY CONDITION Military emergency reply consists of four frame pulse pairs spaced at 4. CIVIL EMERGENCY Under civil emergency the normal reply code on mode A. The IFF decoder processing unit does the decoding of the received signal and generates video pulses to be displayed on the PPI at the request of the operator. For identification purposes. MILITARY / CIVIL COMMUNICATION FAILURE The communication failure reply consists of a normal reply with code 7600 in response to mode 2. or B interrogations. Such type of video . the reply code is declared as military emergency. The indicator lamp for garble glows. the first frame pulse pair carries code 7700 with rest 3 pairs may or may not carry any code. In modes 1 and 2 the first pair carries the normal reply code while in mode 3 ( common with civil mode A). 3/A. remaining pairs may or may not contain information pulses. GARBLE INDICATION Whenever two reply code pulse trains are received in interleaved or overlapped condition the indication for garble detection is provided. SYSTEM OPERATIONS The air surveillance over the thousand of square kilometers surrounding the equipment site must depend on the data obtained from the search radar and the radar identification systems. B interrogations carries the code 7700. when two SPI pulses are identified in a reply code train. The first frame pulse pair carries the normal code.35 microseconds apart. The identified data must be decoded and presented in such a way that the PPI operator can interpret it quickly and easily.

1 Operating Principle The Interrogator-Decoder system with integrated feed antenna is designed to identify aircraft fitted with MK-X transponders within the intended radius of operation. By examining all the code trains received and then decoding only the ones chosen by the PPI operator at a particular scope. o Passive decoding . The operator can select the mode and code he wants to monitor. The slashes are generated by the symbol generation circuitry.4 BRIEF DESCRIPTION 3. The intended range of operation of IFF is specified as 90 kilometers when integrated with INDRA PC MK11 RADAR. Interrogation is done by radiating two RF pulses P1 and P3 with interval depending upon mode of interrogation through a directional pattern.presentation is known as the passive decoding. 3. The transponder fitted in aircraft compares pulse P1 and P2 and initiates reply only if P1 is greater than P2 by 9dB corresponding to reception within main beam of directional pattern. the passive decoding circuits present the data as slashes or arcs on the PPI. After matching. Presence or absence of these pulses determines the reply code to one of the 4096 possible combinations. Pulse P2 is radiated through control pattern for achieving interrogation side lobe suppression (ISLS). and see on his PPI the identification for only the air craft replying in that mode and with that particular code. the video signals are send to the primary radar system. The mode/code combinations of friendly aircraft are preset on the ground equipment and identification is done by matching the received code with the preset code.4. The reply consists of two framing pulses (F1 and F2) with 12 possible pulses within the frame. Separation between P1 and P3 is used for identifying the mode of interrogation and selecting the corresponding replies.

While . In the case of military emergency the received signal consists of 4 pairs of frame pulses with the first pair carrying the reply code and the rest three pairs may or may not carry any reply code. The SPI recognition is represented by the three arcs one above the other space apart by 24. the IFF video-processing unit (decoder unit) along with decoding the reply code generates video pulses to be displayed on the PPI.5 µ secs from the first frame pulse. The operator sets the mode and code combinations on the thumbwheel switches (code match) provided in the control units and the decoded reply codes are displayed as ‘slashes’ or ‘arcs’ on the PPI. The slash patterns for different situations are as follows:  Normal reply A single slash or arc represents the normal reply also known as the all aircraft signal or AA signal after decoding.o Active decoding PASSIVE DECODING In passive decoding.65 µ secs behind preceding is over the radar reply. An aircraft transponder transmits a SPI pulse. spaced at 24. This slash appears over the radar reply.  Military/Civil Emergency And Communication failure This response is also controlled in the air craft and is used to indicate an emergency condition or communication failure.  Passive Decoding Signal Whenever there is passive code match between the reply received and interrogated mode and code the passive match is represented in the PPI in the form of two arcs over the radar reply.  Special Position Identification This response is controlled in the aircraft and is send back for positive identification of the location of the specific aircraft.

The timing of the active gate input to the decoder from the PPI position defines the range and azimuth of the designated aircraft. In addition to passive decoding the Decoder processing unit does the active decoding function . The active decoding operation does not interfere with the passive decoding.the civil emergency signal is represented by the reply code carrying code 7700. There will be two slashed on over the radar reply and the second slash with 5 times the width of the first slash and precedes the first arc by 24. The communication failure reply code contains code 7600. The response is taken as valid when at least five replies from the air craft are identified in a beam width period. The function of active decoding is to display the incoming code corresponding to a selected target on digital indicators located on the control panel. The actively decoded signal is displayed by numerical indicators on the control panel located near the PPI. 12. On designation of an air craft. active enable gate signals are generated and fed to the decoder. 18 or 24 µ secs depending on the requirements.65 µ secs.By this process the IFF equipment actively decode the code train of an unknown air craft . There will be two slashed on over the radar reply and a second slash with 5 times the width of first slash and precedes the first arc by 24. In active decoding the operator designates the target on the PPI with a suitable designation unit. The display of the IFF signal on the PPI is shown. ACTIVE DECODING With the help of designation pulse generated from primary radar display. The .  Passive height match The display on the passive height match on the PPI consists of a slash with width equal to 5 times the normal slash width. the actual code of the designated target can be read on control unit by means of active decoding. In the control panel a provision exists for variation of slash width to 6.65 microsecond.

mode for active decoding can be selected with the help of thumbwheel switches (as in passive decoding) provided in the control units. The code is then displayed on a 4 digit numeric indicator. They now play an important role in weather forecasting and are also found on board spacecraft . Radars are also fitted on board of some aircraft to warn the pilot of air turbulence and thunderstorms.4. radar may be employed for other purposes as well. Altitude of the target aircraft can also be displayed on control unit when the IFF is operated in mode ‘C’ 3. The fifth digit displays the validity of the incoming code. Radars using continuous wave transmission rather than pulses are fitted in devices such as the proximity fuse which causes the missile or shell to explode when closed to the target. Most missiles to their respective destination by means of a radar mounted on their nose.2 OTHER USES OF RADAR Apart from the above mentioned uses.

It provides information about BHARAT ELECTRONICS LIMITED(BEL). 4. I t lacks in explaining the circuit of IFF. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION . No photo of machinery is provided.1 POSITIVE POINTS    It provides introduction about the radar. It provides a detailed information about INDENTIFICATION FRIEND OR FOE   (IFF). It tells you how IFF works and secure the country.2 NEGATIVE POINTS    BEL is a defence company so no live project is explained. It tells you how the radar works.CHAPTER 4 ACHIEVEMENTS 4.

it also tells you about IFF used in INDRA radar.This projects provides you the knowledge of Radar and its various parts. CHAPTER 6 FUTURE SCOPE .It make you understand various concept of IFF and its working and how it helps the defence and various airlines company in examing whether the plane entering in country boundary is friend or an enemy.

It is almost impossible to understate the value and importance of radar to the Allied effort during World War II in terms of being a real game changer. and can serve several different functions—such as wide-area search.Radar—short for radio direction and ranging—has been with us for nearly seven decades. target tracking. when British systems designers first deployed this technology to give the Royal Air Force early warning of Nazi bombers crossing the channel to attack cities and towns in England. In those days a radar contact was just a blip on the screen. tube-based. can be networked together so the total system is greater than the sum of its parts. Today’s radar technology is every bit as decisive as it was during the Battle of Britain. fire control. Modern radar systems often have imaging capability. relatively lowfrequency systems that once stood as electronic sentinels along the English coast. mechanically steered. radar may have been the decisive factor in the British victory in the Battle of Britain in the spring of 1940. and weather monitoring—where previous generations of radar technology required separate systems to do the same jobs. and provided only rudimentary information on the contact’s speed and direction. can yield digitized signals quickly and easily for use with graphical overlays. Put simply. . yet it is worlds away from the large. it did not offer information on the size or type of the contact.

or reflected signals from objects that are not of interest. in Tewksbury.” says Mark Russell. and a video display. Those early radar systems were tube based and mechanically steered. is the relative ease and speed with which modern analog radar signals can be converted to digital information. however. Large . but it also enables radar information to be made available in real time or near real time on Internet-type networks for inclusion in the digital battlefield and Global Information Grid visions of the future. Mass.Fig 4. radar systems improved in sensitivity to where they could virtually detect and monitor waves on the ocean and insects in the air. this was not a big problem. vice president of engineering for integrated defense systems at Raytheon Co. Increasing sensitivity. RF receivers.1The Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) Radar system Most important. and involved RF transmitters. analog signal processing. RF energy Radar works essentially by bouncing radio waves off a target and detecting the return signals. Later. compounded one of the biggest challenges that radar systems confront—so-called clutter. but were state-of-the-art for that time. Not only does this open a wide variety of signal processing options. “Radar systems as early as World War II were simple. In World War II when radar technology was not nearly as sensitive as it is today. however.

At the lower frequencies the radiating elements get bigger. and weather monitoring. which enabled us to go to active electronically steered arrays. all the way down to small panel-type radars on unmanned aerial vehicles and the active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar systems on the F/A-18 jet fighter bomber. ranging from the huge Sea-Based XBand (SBX) Radar that sits essentially on a mobile offshore oil rig to search for ballistic missile launches.” Raytheon designs radar systems that run the gamut. Radar designers originally dealt with the clutter problem by finely tuning transmitted RF signals to match the return signals of targets of interest as closely as possible. target tracking. ultrafast analog-to-digital (A-D) and digital-to-analog (D-A) converters. Finely tuning transmit signals for targets of interest has helped reject clutter. and inside of those are transmitters. Digital radar signals The first glimmer of what lay on the horizon in radar technology came with the invention of solid-state technology. while relatively small things of no interest didn’t show up at all. You can have a radar system the size of buildings.” Russell says. Solid-state technology led to digital signal processing. but can make radar systems useful only for a narrow range of applications. fire control. fast commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) . all the way up to an airborne radar that would fit on your table—yet always one radar had its own function. Increasingly sensitive radar systems were able to detect wave action on the ocean’s surface.” Russell explains. “We moved into solid-state radars with processing and RF chips. Engineers tune transmit signals by altering the size of transmit antenna modules.objects showed up as blips. users needed a separate radar system for wide-area surveillance. Hence. “Each was tuned to its own frequency for that function. but they could have difficulty trying to find an enemy periscope in a rough ocean. “It has come from a simple concept that there was one radar per function.

“It’s not a processing problem. In fact today’s latest generations of FPGAs.” says Arlan Pool.Y.” says Jerald Nespor. N. In essence. Increasingly. Mass. and high-speed digital networking. N. Lockheed Martin senior fellow for radar development at the company’s facility in Moorestown. explaining that new powerful generations of field-programmable gate arrays are available to process complex fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms on which radar processing depends. radar systems segment in Syracuse. “We need A-D converters with sufficient sampling rates to do that. and can begin designing systems able to sample signals immediately after they are digitized. digital signal processors (DSPs). radar systems designers can even start thinking about doing without processes like digital down-conversion. radar systems handle all signal processing in the digital realm.” Russell says. vice president and chief engineer of the Lockheed Martin Corp.” says Douglas Reep.J. . which today is not a serious limitation at all.microprocessors. “We are seeing a trend where we remove analog components from systems. rather than in analog. once radar signals are converted from analog to digital.” “Now we can almost digitize microwave signals without the down-convert. fellow and technical director of the Mercury Computer Systems federal systems segment in Chelmsford. powerful COTS microprocessors. and multiprocessing computing architectures are enabling radar systems designers to put radar-processing algorithms written decades ago into use. With such digital computing power at their command. as well as innovative new ways to display radar information. “We can now use commercial parts for A-D converters that enable us to do direct digital sampling. which offers increasingly fast and efficient processing. they are limited only by the state of the art in digital processing. “Sometimes we can use algorithms that have been on the shelf for 50 years by applying new technology for them. broad new opportunities for offering radar information on the tactical Internet.

“The NGT program is important because it is the first significant government-funded contract to address the use of the more capable GaN semiconductors in a relevant environment. says Lockheed Martin’s Nespor. as well as mixed-signal integrated circuits from companies like TriQuint Semiconductor Inc. in Hillsboro. . is not happening only on the digital side.” In addition to GaN and GaAs semiconductors. Raytheon.” Transmit/receive efficiency Improvement in radar systems.Raytheon is using GaN technology developed for the U. Mass. and search capabilities. Russell says. and we can do that with COTS technologies and innovative architectures. Missile Defense Agency (MDA) called Next Generation Transmit/Receive Integrated Microwave Module— otherwise known as NGT—that seeks to use GaAs and GaN technologies for major radar systems upgrades. is involved in a project with backing from the U. “This recent demonstration shows that GaN technology performs better in transmit/receive modules representative of those used in modern radars. Raytheon radar experts are demonstrating GaN-based monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers with substantially higher RF power with greater efficiency than does current radar technology. GaN technology not only can extend radar ranges.. in Norwood. such as gallium arsenide (GaAs) and gallium nitride (GaN) are helping systems designers improve efficiency and shrink overall system size. Ore. Va. for example. but also can help designers reduce the size of radar antennas. New semiconductor materials. the NGT program manager at Raytheon. As part of the program. as part of the agency’s Wide Bandgap Semiconductor program. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency in Arlington. complex A-D converters (CADCs) from companies like Analog Devices Inc. sensitivity.” says Steve Bernstein.S. however.. also are contributing to the improvement of next-generation radar systems..S.Everyone wants higher efficiency and more dynamic range.

Processing time is less than aperture time. or radar acting like a camera. Signal-processing experts at Mercury are working on a technology called circular synthetic aperture radar—also known as circular SAR.” Mercury and other signal-processing experts are using cell processors to break radar image processing tasks down into separate.” . but you have to glue stuff together. and builds a 3D image based on successive layers of radar data. such as circular SAR. Mercury is involved in synthetic aperture radar and ground-moving target indication. which requires significant numbers crunching. “The processorintense part of radar is image formation. “Today the imaging radars are doing image formation in real time. You look at the capability of the processor to handle the tile. says Mercury’s Pool. are coming up with a tiling scheme that breaks the image down into little tiles. Although imaging radar is not a new technology. is where the research is going. so it is nearly real-time image generation. or video SAR. market segment director at Mercury. “Going to things that are more processor intensive. A specialist in multiprocessing and other computer-intensive applications.” says Jon Lathrop.Imaging radar The enhanced transmit/receive and computer-processing technologies of modern radar systems also are giving rise to imaging radar systems—or those that produce highresolution pictures from returning signals. so you keep chip count as low as possible. “You are doing FFTs. manageable tasks.” Lathrop says.” Pool says. “SAR image formation. “We would just let the numbers crunch and spend days analyzing it. Circular SAR involves flying a specialized radar system aboard an aircraft that files around an area of interest.” Lathrop explains. and the cell processor. until recently it involved recording volumes of radar data in the air and performing intensive processing later on the ground.

Multifunction radar Perhaps the most important development in radar technology in recent years is the shift to multifunction radar—or systems that can perform a variety of applications with the same system. “A lot of weather radars look to get Doppler. operators cannot look at separate portions of the return signals all at the same time.” Multifunction radar systems can save on space. although they can switch among signal portions quickly enough so that it appears to be near real time. and that gives you a more cost-effective infrastructure.” says Raytheon’s Russell.” Sophisticated and rapid processing of digitized radar signals enable systems designers essentially to slice return signals from wideband radars into two or more portions. and that is how we get away from the single-purpose radar. and can predict tornadoes that occur in the lower atmosphere. and weight allocated for antennas on ships shrinking. Our customers are looking for as much functionality as possible. systems designers must determine the radar’s priorities. as well as their functionality increasing. “It is a cost tradeoff. As always. The move to solid-state radar gave the first glimpse of performing several applications with the same radar. and use the separate portions for separate applications—such as wide-area search as well as target tracking. and also can help reduce demands for human operators by combining functions and systems. size. The latest incarnations of the Raytheon Spy 1 and Spy 3 dual-band shipboard radar may replace as many as a dozen conventional antennas. Today. Russell says.” Russell says.” Russell says. and power by combining several stand-alone radars into one system.000 feet in range. The kinds of active electronically steered radar arrays that solid-state technology enabled “is where you get into the transmit/receive module. “You will start seeing the space. . for the same price or less. “Today a lot of acquisitions are coming along where a given radar procurement will replace four or five radars current in the field. yet now we have weather radars looking down below 10. weight.

In these budget-constrained days they also are looking into radar architectures designed for growth. England. and we also are using Windows NT and are moving to Vista. We are using a Linux-based operating system more than we used to.” 4. technology insertion. so we don’t want to get locked into proprietary software.” says Raytheon’s Russell. . “We use VME and other commercial standards at the backplane level.“You can choose to make the antenna wideband. however. product manager for access multiprocessor AXIX at GE Fanuc Intelligent Platforms Embedded Systems in Towcester.” says Michael Stern. “We are using open architectures to design for growth.” says Lockheed Martin’s Reep.” Sustainability and growth Radar designers are not only seeking to improve system capability.2 The Lockheed Martin TPS-79 radar system Embedded computer suppliers to Lockheed Martin and other large defense contractors also are keeping a close eye on sustainable technology. Software changes about as fast as the hardware. “Those trades are what the radar engineer does today. “We produce a variety of ‘shop window’ products—board-level hardware and software that is truly COTS. or have multiple bands you switch in and out to design antennas and receivers with broader bandwidths. and long-term sustainability.

You have to do the . and as many as 70 or 80 central processing units per enclosure. “Radar signals and frequency bands are getting wider—in the hundreds of gigahertz and beyond—to provide better resolution and precision in positional tracking.J. “Wider-bandwidth radar signals create two burdens—digitizing that signal with A-D conversion.” Hosking says. Cyber warfare must deal with this. in Upper Saddle River. “Wide-open sensor apertures could be wide-open doors to bad guys.GE Fanuc aims its embedded technology at medium-sized radar systems that call for multiboard embedded computers with five or six quad processors. Signal processing demands fall into two general categories—converting signals from analog to digital. This level of digitally processing and disseminating radar data could have its downside. they want to find him with precision before he moves.” Radar signal processing faces the twin burden of A-D conversion and data processing Radar signal processing is one of the most demanding embedded computing applications known in deployed military and aerospace systems.” explains Rodger Hosking. and then back into analog.” Reep says. The future of radar Placing real-time radar information on tactical networks and viewing the data through Internet-like interfaces may open new possibilities in disseminating radar to those who need it and blending information from one radar system with another or other kinds of sensors. and making sense of signals once they are digitized. N. and the power of the signal processor that follows. “Radar users today are dealing with an enemy amidst civilian buildings. warns Lockheed Martin’s Nespor. vice president of signal processing specialist Pentek Inc. “We are looking at XML techniques so that sensor information can look like a Web page.

processing proportionally faster because you want to do the same kind of algorithm you did before. product marketing manager for Curtiss-Wright Controls Embedded Computing in Leesburg. Effectively they have algorithms that consume an unlimited amount of compute power. “It is the radar developers who are quickest to adopt the highest-performance computing capability. but at a higher bandwidth.” Stalker says. the processing technology most in demand from radar systems integrators is the VPX high-speed serial switched fabric.” Stalker says. so you need more horsepower.” says Ian Stalker. “Way over 50 percent of our radar processors are going with VPX.” For Curtiss-Wright.” It is computer horsepower that is the operative phrase when it comes to radar signal processing. “Radar guys are up against the highest performance and the highest risk. “The never-changing requirement from our radar customers is more performance. “VPX is truly a sea change. Va.” .

com www.com www.com www.BIBILOGRAPHY     www.com REFERENCE .google.slideshare.googlemaps.wikipedia.

www.google. History of radar. www.com: images of indra radar. www.1. 2.com : IFF information .goolgemap.report.slideshare. 3. . 4.com : location of bel . Wikipedia: Introduction to radar.