You are on page 1of 16



In Tropical Rainforest there are four main characteristics: • Very high annual rainfall • High average temperatures Climate. A home for over 15 million species of plants and animals. • Nutrient-poor soil The temperature ranges from 21 to 30 degrees Celsius (70 to 85°F). despite being home to some of the most diverse and unique species on the planet. and animals from tiny organisms to large wild cats find homes amongst the range of plant life. The average annual temperature of tropical rainforests is above 20 °C. . Many of the world’s most colorful creatures reside in rainforests.Tropical rainforests are warm and humid.Tundra The tropical rainforest also called as the “World’s Largest Pharmacy” is one of the world’s most threatened biomes.

arachnids. It is dark and gloomy with very little vegetation between the trees. During heavy rainfalls this area can flood. There is limited sunlight. .Tropical rainforests have dense vegetation. and so are able to get more light than the average trees in the forest canopy. The canopy is where the upper parts of most of the trees are found. From ground level up these levels of vegetation are: The shrub layer. birds and some mammals. leaving a gap in the canopy which they can grow into. These are much higher. The under canopy is the second level up. Woody climbers called lianas avoid having to wait for gaps by rooting in the ground and climbing up trees to get to the sunlight. This leafy environment is home to insects. The emergents are the tops of the tallest trees in the rainforest. The canopy is typically about 65 to 130 feet (20 to 40 metres) tall. Saplings wait here for larger plants and trees to die.

and the islands off of Southeast Asia. While they are found in abundant in Sumatra and New Guinea. One of the reasons for this great variety of animals is the constant warmth. Small animals. and lizards are common in the tropical rainforest. Many of these animals and a multitude of insects never set foot on the ground. The world’s largest tropical rainforests are in Amazon basin in South America. hiding places from their predators. rodents. small areas are also found in Central America and parts of Australia. frogs. including monkeys. and a source of food. GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION Tropical rainforests are located around the equator where temperatures stay near 80 degrees F year round.ANIMALS LIVING Tropical rainforests support a greater number and variety of animals than any other biome. . Other tropical rainforest places are in Hawaii and the islands of the Pacific & Caribbean. LOCATION IN THE GLOBE Tropical rainforests are found in the world’s hottest and wettest areas. The animals use the tall trees and understory for shelter. snakes. Tropical rainforests also provide a nearly constant supply of water and a wide variety of food for the animals. namely those closest to the equator. The largest rainforests are in Brazil (South America). birds. lowland regions in Africa. Rainforests receive 160 to 400 inches (400-1000 cm) of rain each year. Zaire (Africa) and Indonesia (South East Asia).

Prop and Stilt Roots Prop and stilt roots help give support and are characteristic of tropical palms growing in shallow. Many tropical rainforest leaves have a drip tip. these above-ground roots can grow 28 inches a month. ferns. Many lianas start life in the rainforest canopy and send roots down to the ground. Tiny plants called epiphylls. 4. Lianas Lianas are climbing woody vines that drape rainforest trees. Why do they form? Buttress roots provide extra stability. 5. . Since this is not a concern in the high humidity of tropical rainforests. Bark In drier. especially the trunk and branches. liverworts and lichens. Buttresses Many large trees have massive ridges near the base that can rise 30 feet high before blending into the trunk. bromeliads. Most are orchids. Although the tree grows fairly slowly. Plants need to shed water to avoid growth of fungus and bacteria in the warm. most trees have a thin. The smoothness of the bark may also make it difficult for other plants to grow on their surface. wet soils. Epiphytes Epiphytes are plants that live on the surface of other plants. temperate deciduous forests a thick bark helps to limit moisture evaporation from the tree's trunk. wet tropical rainforest. Drip Tips The leaves of forest trees have adapted to cope with exceptionally high rainfall. and Philodendron relatives.ADAPTATION OF ORGANISMS 1. 3. 6. mostly mosses. live on the surface of leaves. It is thought that these drip tips enable rain drops to run off quickly. 2. especially since roots of tropical rainforest trees are not typically as deep as those of trees in temperate zones. They grow on trees to take advantage of the sunlight in the canopy. They have adapted to life in the rainforest by having their roots in the ground and climbing high into the tree canopy to reach available sunlight. smooth bark.

PEOPLE LIVING Tropical rainforests are home to tribal peoples who rely on their surroundings for food. The tallest of these people. rarely exceed 5 feet in height. most have been displaced by outside settlers or have been forced to give up their lifestyles by governments. and medicines. Their small size enables them to move about the forest more efficiently than taller people. Today very few forest people live in traditional ways. . • In Africa there are native forest dwellers sometimes known as pygmies. shelter. also called the Mbuti.

It grows on the surface of other plants. The average temperature of the tropical rainforest remains between 70 and 85° F. it is responsible for the majority of the oxygen production in the air that we breathe.FACTS Rainforests are extremely important because the water they produce is evaporated and then used as rain in other areas. Some people choose to live in the tropical rainforest and become farmers for the food and spices people eat. Orchids are a type of epiphyte plant that grows in the tropical rainforest. Insects make up the majority of living creatures in the tropical rainforest.500 different vine species in the tropical rainforest. Rainforests provide people with many cooking spices such as vanilla. Tropical rainforests are one of the oldest biomes on Earth and therefore have a great variety of animals living there. . There are some tropical rainforests that have been around since dinosaurs roamed the Earth. Most of the animals living in the tropical rainforest live in the trees. Because of the amount of trees in the tropical rainforest biome. usually trees. The rainfall can reach up to 400 inches in one year. There they can find all of their necessities and rarely have to come down to the floor of the forest. Some have a thickness that equals the circumference of a human being. allspice. The droppings of birds in the tropical rainforest grow into new plants. The tropical rainforest is very rainy as its name implies. There are over 2. About half of all known species of plants and animals live in the tropical rainforest. The tropical rainforest has hundreds of different types of trees living there. and black pepper.

The precipitation is so erratic that drought and fire prevent large forests from growing. There are two main divisions of grasslands: (1) tropical grasslands. hot summers and cold winters. called savannas. Their stems can grow again after being burned off. The soil of most grasslands is also too thin and dry for trees to survive. Savanna is grassland with Temperate grasslands have scattered individual trees. Grasses can survive fires because they grow from the bottom instead of the top. with central Africa) and large areas taller grasses in wetter General Characteristics  dominant vegetation  trees and large shrubs are absent  temperatures vary more from summer to winter  The amount of rainfall is less in temperate grasslands than in savannas. . and (2) temperate grasslands. generally grassland vegetation. A grassland is a region where the average annual precipitation is great enough to support grasses. and in some areas a few trees. Savannas of one sort or Rainfall is moderate.Grassland and local climates for the most part determine what kinds of plants grow in a particular grassland. The another cover almost half the amount of annual rainfall surface of Africa (about five influences the height of million square miles.

coyotes. grasses remain to thePrairie grasslands are found the globe. In North America the dominant grazing animals are bison and pronghorn.of the growing season. Thetotwo major areas are teeth digestive systems especially adapted feed the prairies in North America and the steppe which straddles Europe and Asia.  Many prairie animals have front legs and paws that allow them to burrow into the ground. Grasses ofoccurring this area in have adapted to cold temperatures. while winter Low to moderate precipitation temperate grasslands temperatures can makes be as low as -40 degrees Fahrenheit. Animal Thriving Temperate grasslands have a low diversity of wildlife. grasses to remain firmly rooted in the ground to reduce erosion and to conserve water. Taller grasses can be foundacross in warmer areas that of the in world: pampas in South America. swift foxes. where they are protected from predators. badgers Adaptation and black-footed ferrets. hawks and owls. and occasional fires. flat-topped Foundand in the middle of large land masses or continents. Theyreceive have a variety of names in other ground. such as bison. which helps conceal their presence from predators. meadowlarks. veldt in more rainfall. Geographical  Some animals. Summer temperatures can be well over 100 degrees Fahrenheit. quails. . In areas that receive little precipitation. Snow often serves as a drought. Location in the Globe There twobebroad Temperate grassland vegetation can are either shorttypes or tall. Carnivores include wolves. much of it grow. haveLocation broad. on grasses.Climate Vegetation Temperate grasslands have hot summers and cold winters. they are active at night. Some examples ofparts vegetation temperate South Africa and puszta in Hungary.of grasslands in temperate latitudes: Prairie and low Steppe. reservoir of moisture for thehave beginning massive root systems that drought take hold in occasional the soil. The majority of this biome is found between 40° and 60° north or south of the Equator.  Many prairie animals are adapted for nocturnal life. but a high abundance of wildlife. This allows Seasonal and fires helpthe maintain these grasslands. that is. Rodents include pocket gophers and prairie dogs. Birds include grouses. They typically a difficult place for tall plants such as trees to have between 10 woody and 35shrubs inches and of precipitation a year. sparrows. the late spring and early summer. These grasses deep.

Interesting Grassland Biome Facts: Grasslands are also known as prairies. wolves. There is only 2% of the original grassland left in North America. very few people live Grassland biomes are made mostly of grasses. There is a grassland biome on each continent with the exception of Antarctica. are very important to the grassland to ensure that invasive plants do not take over. Periodic fires. In fact. whether they are human induced or occur spontaneously. There are two seasons in the temperate grassland: the growing season and the dormant season. prairie dogs. Plants do not grow during the dormant season because the climate is too cold during that time. lions. They do not receive enough rainfall to grow trees like a forest but they contain lots of grass so they receive more rain than a desert. The animal diversity is dependent upon the . pampas. much of them are used for farming. Grassland biomes are normally situated between a forest and a desert. and foxes. Animals that you can expect to find in a grassland biome are zebras. On the contrary. Tropical and temperate are the two kinds of grasslands. and savannas. In America. Grasslands are perfect for cropping and pasturing because its soil runs deep and is extremely fertile. Since grassland biomes have rich soil. Twenty-five percent of the Earth is covered by the grassland biome.People Living About 800 million people live in grasslands. steppes. most of the original land has Facts been turned into agricultural uses and urban Grassland Biome Facts areas. They are said to be between a forest in the Steppe climate because of the harsh and a desert when it comes to rainfall. Tropical grasslands experience warm weather all year long while temperate grasslands are warm part of the year and very cold during the other part. The grasses in the tropical grassland biome tend to be taller than that of the temperate because of the constant warm weather and additional rainfall it receives. Tropical grassland biomes are located in the Southern Hemisphere while temperate grassland biomes are located in the Northern Hemisphere. grasslands surround every desert in Asia.

There are four major types of desert: Hot and Dry Semiarid Coastal Cold A Hot and Dry Desert is. hot and dry. They only come out in the night when it is a little cooler. The only animals they have that can survive have the ability to burrow underground. Just maybe a few grasses and mosses. Cold Deserts are near the Arctic part of the world. . They do have some low down plants though. as you can tell from the name. That is why you might find some of the same animals here as you would in the Hot and Dry Deserts. It never gets warm enough for plants to grow. not cool. The animals in Cold Deserts also have to burrow but in this case to keep warm. Most Hot and Dry Deserts are near the Tropic of Cancer or the Tropic of Capricorn. A cold desert is a desert that has snow in the winter instead of just dropping a few degrees in temperature like they would in a Hot and Dry Desert.Desert Deserts cover about one fifth of the Earth's land surface. This is because they would not be able to live in the hot sun and heat. Most Hot and Dry Deserts don't have very many plants.

bring low concentrations Summer temperatures usually average between 21-27° C. Greenland. They also include the Nearctic realm (North America. Newfoundland. The climate controls for this region are latitude because they are positioned near the equator. For all of these plants to survive they have to have adaptations. Deserts are usually located in areas near the equator. Not many plants and animals can survive. winter temperatures are 5° C or below. warm summers. Another control is land & water because land heats up and cools down much Vegetation faster than water making the climate more extreme. A good exampleofisrainfall. . The coastal deserts occur in moderately cool to warm areas such as the The summers are moderately long and dry. the winters Nearctic andnormally Neotropical realm.The major deserts of semiarid include the sagebrush of Utah. but the ones that do are adapted to the torturous climate. As if the heat were not enough. Plants are almost all ground-hugging shrubs and short woody trees. and like hot deserts. The cool winters of coastal deserts are followed by moderately long. Russia. Hot and Dry Deserts vegetation is very rare. General Characteristics  the presence of high pressure. Europe and northern Asia). the Atacama of Chile. at night it cools down to very cold temperatures. All of the leaves are replete (packed with nutrients). Most are just barren land with sand that stretches for miles. The average summer temperature ranges from 13-24° C. creating cloud-free conditions  cold ocean currents  mountain ranges to create rain shadows Climate The desert's climate is very hot and dry. Montana and Great Basin. Some of the adaptations in this case are the ability to store water for long periods of time and the ability to stand the hot weather.

Some animals sleep during the summer. Nomads in Africa live in tents and move around . Such plants can live with very little water. The seeds may be in the desert ground for years and when it rains they start to blossom. like snakes. They were created by air that rises over the equator and comes down over the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. such as the kangaroo rat and kit fox. Mostly because of all the plants and animals that call the desert "home". and lizards. Some plants have long roots that reach up to 80 metres below the surface. They get water from the food they eat or from the water holes in People Living the desert. They can gothemselves on for daysfrom without People liveininthe deserts must protect highdrinking temperatures during the daytime and low temperatures at night and in the winter. Adaptation Desert plants must change their way of life and get used to the heat and the dryness. Camels are animals that are fitwho to live desert. Some animals that live in the hot desert are cold-blooded. Some people live in mud houses that are painted white. Mammals that live in the desert are usually small. Some flowers only live for a few days. insects. They keep out the heat during the daytime and protect people from cold evenings. Most animals stay in the shade during the daytime and look for food at night when it gets cooler.Animal Thriving Deserts are a very important biome. All over the world many deserts lie in these regions. Location in the Globe Most deserts lie between 15° and 35° north and south of the equator. Plants of the desert usually have small leaves that look like needles. which they store in the needles or stems.

rocky plateaus and sandy plains called ergs.The Sahara . It flows through the Sahara in Sudan and Egypt. The highest peaks are in the Tibesti mountains.500 meters. The Nile is the only river that carries water all year long.The biggest desert in the world The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. . They reach a height of about 3. The landscape is made up of mountain ranges.500 km. The desert reaches from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red Sea in the east –over 3.