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B.COM PART-III (Gen.

)
EXAM-2016

10, Raja Naba Krishna Street, Sobha
Bazar, Kolkata,
West Bengal 700005

CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
.PROJECT
ON
“ENVIRONMENTAL Pollution”
Submitted By:NAME: Vimal Kumar Kharwar
COLLEGE ROLL: 786

Introduction:
Pollution, contamination of the environment as a result of human
activities. The term pollution refers primarily to the fouling of air,
water, and land by wastes (see air pollution; water pollution; solid
waste). In recent years it has come to signify a wider range of
disruptions to environmental quality. Thus litter, billboards, and auto
junkyards are said to constitute visual pollution; noise excessive
enough to cause psychological or physical damage is
considered noise pollution; and waste heat that alters local climate or
affects fish populations in rivers is designated thermal pollution.
The 20th cent. has seen pollution approach crisis proportions
throughout the world. At issue is the capacity of the biosphere to
disperse, degrade, and assimilate human wastes (see ecology). The
biosphere is a closed ecological system with finite resources and is
maintained in equilibrium by grand-scale recycling. Under natural
conditions organic and certain inorganic materials in the biosphere
are continually recycled by processes including
photosynthesis and respiration, nitrogen fixation and gentrification
(see nitrogen cycle), evaporation and precipitation, and diffusion by
wind and water action. But the introduction of massive quantities of
waste matter at any point in the bio system may "overload" it,
disrupting the natural recycling mechanisms.

nitrogen oxides. sulfur dioxide. The six major types of pollutants are carbon monoxide. In this section we will discuss: 1. industrial processes. 2. Land Pollution. especially. Water Pollution. have an irritating and detrimental effect on humans and other animals. Air Pollution. growing populations. . One of the most important causes of pollution is the high rate of energy usage by modern. hydrocarbons. and photochemical oxidants. and. endanger human health or produce other measured effects on living matter and other materials.Pollution is the addition to the ecosystem of something which has a detrimental effect on it. in sufficient concentrations. Air Pollution Air pollution is the accumulation in the atmosphere of substances that. particulates. the burning of solid wastes. Among the major sources of pollution are power and heat generation. Different kinds of pollution are found. Examples of Air Pollution  Noise Pollution Noise pollution or unwanted sounds that are carried by the air. Careful planning of streets and biuldings in towns and better control over noisy vechiles may add to the control of noise pollution. transportation. 3.

brick and metal articles and pollutes water sources. they can have fatal effects and may lead to death. If winds do not blow away the poisonous gases. . There is a large variety of harmful chemicals present in these gases. Coal in South Africa is rich in sulphur and the power stations in the Mpumalanga Province could be reponsible for acid rain over other areas of our country. The acid eats into the stone. hail. with lead being one of the most dangerous.  Exhaust Gases of Vehicles Pollution from exhaust gases of vehicles is reponsible for 60% of all air pollution and in cities up to 80%. but everyone who inhales the polluted air. There is a very strong connection between smoking and lung cancer.  Combustion of Coal The combustion of coal without special precautions can have serious consequences. Bronchitis is common among smokers and unborn babies of mothers who smoke also suffer from the harmful effects of smoking. snow. It is not only the smoker who is infected. Tobacco Smoke Tobacco smoke is one of the major forms of pollution in buildings. or fog.  Acid rain Acid rain is the term for pollution caused when sulfur and nitrogen dioxides combine with atmospheric moisture to produce highly acidic rain.

etc. Examples of Water Pollution . This process ranges from simple addition of dissolved or suspended solids to discharge of the most insidious and persistent toxic pollutants (such as pesticides. Some commonly enforced control measures include  the establishment of more smokeless zones. and nondegradable. power stations. Water Pollution Water pollution is the introduction into fresh or ocean waters of chemical. chemical compounds). or biological material that degrades the quality of the water and affects the organisms living in it. heavy metals. aeroplanes. efficient control can be best achieved by legislation. physical.Control Measures Although individual people can help to combat air pollution in their own immediate environment. bioaccumulative.  control over the kinds of fuel used in cars.

This waste water may contain acids. poisons. Control Measures The following measures can be used to stop water pollution:  every intelligent people should be wise enough not to pollute water in any way. and indiscriminate disposal of urban wastes. salts.  Mining and Agricultural Wastes Mines.  by research and legislation the pollution of water bodies. mineral exploitation. are responsible for large quatities of acid water. It includes visible waste and litter as well as pollution of the soil itself. must be effectively controlled. fertilisers and herbicides may wash into rivers and stagnant water bodies. alkalis. . industrial waste dumping. Industrial affluents Water is discharged from after having been used in production processes. Land Pollution Land pollution is the degradation of the Earth's land surface through misuse of the soil by poor agricultural practices.  Sewage Disposal and Domestic Wastes Sewage as wel as domestic and farm wastes were often allowed to pollute rivers and dams. Agricultural pesticides. oils and in some cases harmful bacteria. especially gold and coal mines. even though not entirely prevented.

 inorganic materials such as metals. Control Measures The following measures can be used to control land pollution:  anti-litter campaigns can educate people against littering. However. encourages household pests and turns urban areas into unsightly. globally human-made pollutants . Litter is waste material dumped in public places such as streets. Waste Disposal The accumulation of waste threatens the health of people in residential areas. can be reclaimed and recycled. at bus stops and near shops. dirty and unhealthy places to live in. but also paper.  organic waste can be dumped in places far from residential areas. Waste decays. Sources and causes Air pollution comes from both natural and human-made (anthropogenic) sources. picnic areas. parks. glass and plastic.Examples of Land Pollution Soil Pollution Soil pollution is mainly due to chemicals in herbicides (weed killers) and pesticides (poisons which kill insects and other invertebrate pests).

said that humans have been the primary cause of global warming since 1950. according to the final report this year from the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). nuclear waste disposal activity. Mexico. plastics factories. the transition from fossil fuels like coal and oil needs to occur within decades. etc. United States. About 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year. poultry.from combustion. and other heavy industry.PVC factories.). Russia.ranked 78th among the world's nations. and policymakers from more than 120 countries. large livestock farms (dairy cows. representing the work of 2. mining. In 2007. The United States alone produces about 250 million metric tons. But to change the climate. a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). metals production factories. and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste. agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation. petrochemical plants. while still far behind based on per capita pollution . China has overtaken the United States as the world's biggest producer of CO2. construction. but produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO2. Americans constitute less than 5% of the world's population. In February 2007. Humans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the consequences of global warming. a major climate report concluded. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides. incinerators. . economists. Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. coal-fired power plants. and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. refineries. pigs.500 scientists. China. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants.

Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater). resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage.Some of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CFH). In 2001 a series of press reports culminating in a book called Fateful Harvest unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertilizer. Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. In the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle. such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers. and lead–found in lead paint. Some sources of pollution. cadmium– found in rechargeable batteries. heavy metals (such as chromium. especially substances illegally discarded there. commonly called dioxins for simplicity. zinc. arsenic and benzene. and petrochemical spills from ruptured boats or automobiles. There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. aviation fuel and still in some countries. gasoline). or from pre-1970 landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U. emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted.S. For example. MTBE. such as TCDD. . or EU. producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide.

cardiovascular disease. Older people are majorly . Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes.[Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water.Effects Human health Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans. high blood pressure. and sleep disturbance. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet.700 fatalities a year. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease. [31] Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US could be over 50. In India.656. and congestion. Noise pollution induces hearing loss. chest pain. throat inflammation.000 deaths per day. mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries.000 people die prematurely each year in China because of air pollution.000. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms.000 Indian children die of diarrheal sickness every day. Water pollution causes approximately 14. stress. and 1. air pollution is believed to cause 527.

Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. Children and infants are also at serious risk.  Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification.exposed to diseases induced by air pollution.  The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways. Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk.  Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilize land which can change the species composition of ecosystems. often reducing native species competitiveness. There are a number of effects of this:  Biomagnifications describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may pass through tropic levels. Invasive plants can contribute debris and bimolecular (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects.  Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. . becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process. Environment Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment.  Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of troposphere ozone which damages plants. the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved.

 Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. agriculture. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air. In the field of land development. prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. the waste products from consumption. Without pollution control. low impact development is a similar technique for the prevention of urban runoff. transportation and other human activities. heating. Practices  recycling  reusing  reducing  mitigating  preventing  compost Pollution control devices . whether they accumulate or disperse. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil. mining. manufacturing. water or soil. will degrade the environment. This will affect other organisms in the food web. In the hierarchy of controls. Pollution control  Pollution control is a term used in environmental management.

Dust collection systems   Bag houses  Cyclones  Electrostatic precipitators Scrubbers   Baffle spray scrubber  Cyclonic spray scrubber  Ejector venture scrubber  Mechanically aided scrubber  Spray tower  Wet scrubber Sewage treatment    Sedimentation (Primary treatment) Activated sludge bioreactors (Secondary treatment. also used for industrial wastewater)  Aerated lagoons  Constructed wetlands (also used for urban runoff) Industrial wastewater treatment   API oil-water separators[15][35]  Biofilters .

 Dissolved air flotation (DAF)  Powdered activated carbon treatment  Ultra filtration  Vapor recovery systems  Phytoremediation .

asbestos.Solid wastes Solid waste means any garbage. but does not include solid or dissolved materials in domestic sewage. paint cans and compressed gas cylinders . mining and agricultural operations. resulting from industrial. and from community activities. sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. or air pollution control facility and other discarded materials including solid.furniture and toys . water supply treatment plant.uncontaminated used oil and anti-freeze . .scrap metal .empty aerosol cans.latex paints .discarded appliances and vehicles .construction and demolition debris. refuse. semi-solid. liquid.domestic refuse (garbage) . commercial. or solid or dissolved materials in irrigation return flows or industrial discharges that are point sources Examples of solid wastes: waste tires Seepage . or contained gaseous material.

 Electrical and electronic waste (WEEE) . computers. fabrics. batteries etc.  Composite wastes: waste clothing.  Inert waste: construction and demolition waste. chemicals. debris.  Hazardous waste including most paints.  Recyclable material: paper. dirt. Such . certain plastics. TVs. fertilizer and containers  Toxic waste including pesticide. structures and roads. cans. fungicides  Medical waste.electrical appliances. paper (can also be recycled). light bulbs. screens. bottles. clothes.Biodegradable waste: food and kitchen waste. remodeling. spray cans. repair and demolition of utilities.. metals. and uncontaminated solid waste resulting from land clearing. glass. etc. rocks. waste plastics such as toys. Tetra Packs. fluorescent tubes.Waste can be classified in several ways but the following list represents a typical classification. herbicides. green waste. Observations at solid waste site Construction and demolition (C&D) debris means: Uncontaminated solid waste resulting from the construction.

non-asbestos insulation. repair and demolition of utilities. markets. wood (including painted. packing. furniture. offices. garden trimmings Commercial Waste. soil. other than that employed at a department-approved C&D debris processing facility.waste includes.Household Waste-Kitchen. electrical wiring and components containing no hazardous liquids. such as pulverizing or shredding. asphaltic pavement. Domestic waste. drums. Specifically excluded from the definition of construction and demolition debris is solid waste (including what otherwise would be construction and demolition debris) resulting from any processing technique. treated and coated wood and wood products). departmental stores(paper. old papers. carpeting. plumbing fixtures. structures and roads and land clearing) includes. waste contained in an illegal disposal site may be considered C&D debris if the department determines that such waste is similar in nature and content to C&D debris. crockery wares. containers greater than ten gallons in size. bottles. wall coverings. corrugated container board. rock.land clearing debris. house cleaning. appliances. empty buckets ten gallons or less in size and having no more than one inch of residue remaining on the bottom. that renders individual waste components unrecognizable. electrical fixtures containing hazardous liquids such as fluorescent light ballasts or transformers. plaster. packing material. and pipe and metals that are incidental to any of the above. roofing shingles and other roof coverings. concrete and other masonrymaterials. glass. plastics that are not sealed in a manner that conceals other wastes. furnishing materials. but is not limited to asbestos waste. shops. . fluorescent lights. any containers having more than one inch of residue remaining on the bottom and fuel tanks. Solid waste that is not C&D debris (even if resulting from the construction. tires. Also. but is not limited to bricks. drywall. remodeling.Waste generated at business premises. garbage.

discarded goods)organic. markets selling vegetables. laundry waste and other material. urine. wooden logs. animal houses and Microbiology/ biotechnology laboratories. fish etc. that may cause puncture and cuts. syringes.(batteries.)Sewage Waste Sewage is the liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water. large hotels and restaurants. discharge from hospitals. This includes both used and unused sharps etc. blades. Debris or Construction rejects Comprises earth. stones. glass etc. religious places. Industrial/Trade Waste-Waste generated through manufacturing and material processing. inorganic. rubbish from drain cleaning. vehicular travel c.spoiled. Hospitals. especially the pre-school children. waste generated by veterinary hospitals. stray animals. Bio Medical Waste-Animal waste such as animal tissues.. Impacts of solid waste on health The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste include – the population in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method. body parts. roadside tree leaves. Other high-risk group include population living close to a waste . Colleges.. cleaning aids. Waste sharps viz. pesticides etc. colleges. blood. brickbats. littering made by pedestrian travel c. debris etc. organs. needles.. chemically reactive and hazardous waste Institutional Waste-Schools.Waste with properties that make it dangerous or potentially harmful to human health or the environment. scalpels. community halls. Waste listed in Hazardous waste management rules 1989. bleeding parts.. waste workers. function sites Street Sweeping-Unconcerned throwing. carcasses. and workers in facilities producing toxic and infectious material. faces. Hazardous Waste. fruits. quid.

may sustain injuries and come into direct contact with these infectious items. Improperly operated incineration plants cause air pollution and improperly managed and designed landfills attract all types of insects and rodents that spread disease. Rag pickers and others who are involved in scavenging in the waste dumps for items that can be recycled. Recycling too carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken. In particular. and research centres such as discarded syringe needles. since they ferment. Disposal of health-care wastes require special attention since it can create major health hazards. plasters. whose water supply has become contaminated either due to waste dumping or leakage from landfill sites.dump and those. Uncollected solid waste also increases risk of injury. Landfill sites should be well lined and walled to ensure that there is no leakage into the nearby ground water sources. bandages. Disposal of hospital and other medical waste requires special attention since this can create major health hazards. Workers working with waste containing chemical and metals may experience toxic exposure. Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers and the rag pickers being the most vulnerable. health care centres. creating conditions favorable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens. and other types of infectious waste are often disposed with the regular non-infectious waste. Ideally these sites should be located at a safe distance from all human settlement. Waste treatment and disposal sites can also create health hazards for the neighbourhood. organic domestic waste poses a serious threat. through wounds caused by discarded syringes. medical laboratories. This waste generated from the hospitals. such as Hepatitis B and C. and infection. swabs. Impact of solid wastes on environment .

Some studies have detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed to hazardous waste. and polychlorinated biphenyls are highly toxic and exposure can lead to disease or death. lead.g. In most industrialized countries. and cadmium.• Waste breaks down in landfills to form methane. Some of the harmful metals found in plastics are copper. a potent greenhouse gas • Change in climate and destruction of ozone layer due to waste biodegradable • Littering. cobalt. Diseases Certain chemicals if released untreated. illegal dumping. chromium. mercury. . Wastes treatment • Incineration: • Solidification: solid waste are melted or evaporated to produce a sand like residue. Leaching: is a process by which solid waste enter soil and ground water and contaminating them. colour plastics have been legally banned. Coloured plastics are harmful as their pigment contains heavy metals that are highly toxic. The role of plastics The unhygienic use and disposal of plastics and its effects on human health has become a matter of concern. cyanides. Many studies have been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste. due to waste pollutions. e. selenium.

• Chemical treatment: is the application of chemical treatment in the treatment of corrosive solid. animals. plants and the environment by pollution. destroy the leaves of plants. is used in treating volatile solvents. we only discuss the effects of pollution on plants and trees.• Heat treatment: Heat applied at moderate temperature. Some of them are outlined here as follows: Air Pollution  Acid rain can kill trees. Pollution Effects On Plants and Trees Although there are so many effects on humans. can infiltrate soil by making it unsuitable for purposes of nutrition and habitation .

clay and other similar materials  Plants may be killed by herbicides in water. ozone can also decay plant cells directly by entering stomata Water Pollution  May disrupt photosynthesis in aquatic plants and thus affecting ecosystems that depend on these plants  Terrestrial and aquatic plants may absorb pollutants from water (as their main nutrient source) and pass them up the food chain to consumer animals and humans  Plants may be killed by too much sodium chloride (ordinary slat) in water  Plants may be killed by mud from construction sites as well as bits of wood and leaves. herbicides are chemicals which are most harmful to plants Soil Pollution  May alter plant metabolism and reduce crop yields  Trees and plants may absorb soil contaminants and pass them up the food chain . Ozone holes in the upper atmosphere can allow excessive ultraviolet radiation from the sun to enter the Earth causing damage to trees and plants  Ozone in the lower atmosphere can prevent plant respiration by blocking stomata (openings in leaves) and negatively affecting plants’ photosynthesis rates which will stunt plant growth.

predator. The oxygen cycle will stop. especially if the water gets polluted. Pollution and the ecosystem Pollutants like oil. There are many different ways in which the community of organisms interacts. dynamic system made of a population of species in its physical environment. and fungi . for example. Vegetation can be affected when a substance enters the plant through the pores in its leaves or is absorbed directly into leaf tissue. nitrogen and phosphate from fertilizers and lead can have a tremendous impact on the ecosystem. the natural balance in the system is disturbed and this affects the organisms in different ways. In a lake. and the polluted water will also affect the animalsdependant on the lake water. Ecosystem health The effects of air pollution on ecosystems are diverse. consumer.that make up the community. animals. and prey relationship. Pollutants from the air can also be deposited in the soil then absorbed by the roots and transported to the leaves. detergents. Symptoms can . bacteria. This concept is used to study the complex interactions between the organisms plants. it can wreak havoc on the ecological balance by stimulating plant growth and causing the death of fish due to suffocation resulting from lack of oxygen. It is important to know how a simple act like introducing sewage water or toxic waste into a lake can threaten several life species and plants in the area. When an ecosystem gets polluted. There is the food chain where each organism is in a producer. there is the oxygen cycle and the water cycle that sustains the organisms.Study the effect of pollution on an ecosystem An ecosystem is a self-contained.

Where organisms have been adversely affected by air pollution.include yellowing or death of part or entire leaves. the water we drink and the food that we eat. reducing water quality and affecting health of organisms in that water body. Substances in the air can also be deposited in water bodies. It is in the air that we breathe. All organisms in an ecosystem interact with one another to maintain a healthy ecosystem. as well. Some substances can build up in the tissue of vegetation and can then affect the health of wildlife and animals that eat the vegetation. the biodiversity of the ecosystem may be changed. especially the birds. reduced growth and in the case of some sensitive plant species. But humans are not the only ones combating the problems of poor air quality and chemically laced food and water. The animals of our planet are in crisis. Noise Pollution . death. Pollution Effects on Birds Pollution Effects on Birds Pollution is all around us.

When birds unexpectedly happen on an oil spill in their home water area.o Some people just want some peace and quiet. affecting their ability to attract a mate and socialize with the other birds in their community. Feathers ordinarily provide a waterproof protection for birds. but when the feathers are covered in oil they lose this quality. and apparently. This causes some of their skin to become exposed and at risk to the elements. Birds who attempt to clean their feathers will often ingest the oil and become ill or even die from poisoning. Birds that vocalize at lower frequencies are easily drowned out by noise pollution. The University of Colorado at Boulder has conducted a three-year study that proves that noise pollution affects birds and their habits. Oil Pollution o Birds that are considered "water birds" are greatly affected by what is known as oil pollution. o Sponsored Links Suspended Sediments  Monitor suspended sediments: single point and profile measurements . so do the birds.000 water birds are killed every year due to oil spills. the oil coats their feathers and causes them to stick together. approximately 500. The biggest problem that birds face when there is too much noise is their ability to communicate. But finches and other birds that vocalize at a higher frequency appear uninfluenced by the hustle and bustle of noise pollution--apparently ignoring the mass exodus of their fellow. winged friends. According to National Geographic.

City birds are also finding it very difficult to sleep with all of the bright lights. but that is no consolation for the bird that can't find the way home. and when the city lights interfere with their view. World Migratory Bird Day explains that light pollution can affect the flight patterns of birds. and some birds have become uncharacteristically active at night. rendering their usual migration paths impossible to follow. at least. agricultural and industrial waste account for the majority of water pollution throughout the world. Water Pollution o Think twice before you send that helium balloon up into the sky. Pesticides and heavy metals that are leaked into rivers. birds can become confused and disoriented. But balloons are just the beginning. Birds use the bright stars in the sky to determine the route for the next day.Light Pollution o There is such a thing as too much light. and many a bird has been found with a balloon string hanging from his beak or wrapped around his neck. Bright city lights look beautiful at night when viewed from a distance. in the bird world. Water pollutants can also reduce the amount of oxygen in the water that eventually kills . Unfortunately. threatening individual species. Heavy winds commonly lead balloons to the ocean. light pollution also causes some birds to succumb to deadly collisions with buildings and other objects in the sky that may be difficult to see when "blinded by the light". The University of Michigan reports that municipal. lakes and streams can cause illnesses and death in birds.

campaign environment friendly 6. According to PowerWorks Incorporated. these pollutants have even drifted up into the polar regions.encourage people to prevent pollution 5.use bicycles instead of cars because cars release dangerous smoke like CO2 3.make posters about what may happen when pollution continues 4.make some activities to help the environ more clean . Birds that rely on fish as a source of food will often need to move to other areas to feed. birds have very high respiratory rates. which make them even more susceptible to pollutants in the air and to airborne impurities. Air Pollution o Poor air quality due to smog and noxious gases can have a devastating effect on the bird population in dense areas. Suggestions to prevent pollution 1. putting the lives of arctic birds at risk. Not surprisingly.of course don't throw garbage anywhere 2. causing an upset to the natural balance.the fish.

of connecting with the environment. and rising. to help reduce the impact you are having on the earth. the blatant misuse of energy and resources potentially threatens our long-term survival as a species. While wars are devastating to humankind. consumption and waste are all at peak levels. It is up to each of us to act individually and together to effect change that will make the planet habitable in the years to come. They are practices of awareness. and of hope. We must act now! Here then is a compendium of ten things that you can do today. and growing an environment consciousness in our communities. compost biodegradable garbage 10. if we are to continue to live and breathe on this planet! Use of natural resources. recycle garbage 9. it is important that you inspire others. or this week. As you go about implementing these ideas into your life. 1) Bring your own bag when you go grocery shopping. By embodying these qualities in our attitude. be an environment friendly Ways to reduce pollution in the environment One world is large enough for all of us! As we continue to live and breathe on this planet. we must become more energy conscious. we create a positive experience for ourselves and the people we that we touch. Please bring your attention to the personal enrichment that each of these items brings to you. or you can just recycle ones that you already . that we can turn around the dire situation that the world is in now. Many grocery stores sell cloth bags.7. segregate garbage 8. It is by conserving energy at home.

And if you have to use your car (as I feel I have to) combine errands. They are very sturdy. Just unplug it when not in use. here.have. You can buy a cloth bag online if you like. in the form of carbon dioxide. and hold as much as the paper or plastic ones do. They consume almost as much energy off as they do when they are on! Anytime an appliance is off and there is a light. There are benefits to not driving as well. .There is a converter here. You'll save energy. or clock going (like on a microwave) there is what is called a ghost load. 3) Increase your awareness of electricity use. Turn off appliances and lights when they are not in use. 2) Park your car. or better yet put it on a power strip with an on/off switch. initiated in 2002. whether it is exercise and neighborly interactions when walking or biking.that are often coal powered create. or time to read or talk if carpooling or on the bus. video boxes. that will tell you about how much you can reduce environmental pollution by driving less. work and other activities to promote driving less overall. Every mile driven in a typical car produces a pound of exhaust waste. and to a lesser extent TVs and DVD players. it has eliminated 1 BILLION plastic bags per year. This amounts to tons of waste over a year. You can see an article here about how Ireland has addressed the issue of plastic bags by passing a 15 cent tax on each bag. Be particularly aware of cable boxes. and cut down on the air pollution that electrical plants .

and is usually picked the day before. the main focus of the collective action against pollution has been in the urban areas.4) Eat less meat. Opinion(Conclusion): In the recent past environmental pollution caused due the industrialization has become the focus of collective action by the civil society organizations. 5) Buy locally. delivery. One really good source of information here is a book by Michael Pollen called The Omnivores Dilemma. the average piece of produce found on your grocer's counter has traveled 1500 miles! In addition. scientists. if we examine the water required to produce a pound of beef. NGOs. beans or soy protein. The water pollution is one problem that is out of control when it comes to the meat industry. concerned individuals. they can often be purchased second hand. especially lawyers. However. And it's not just produce that is made locally. Locally grown food travels at most a couple of hundred miles. A lot of pollution can be avoided by just buying locally whenever possible. many things you can get at the big box is either being made locally. it often need some refrigeration and packaging to survive the 4 . environmentalists and social activists. or in those cases where they aren't. It is mindboggling. and grains makes a significant dent in the overall environmental picture. Every meal that replacesmeat with vegetables.7 days it takes before it gets there. if not the day of. however. The energy required to produce 1 calorie of beef is 18 TIMES more than that required to make a calorie of wheat. They sought the intervention of the judiciary and drew the attention of the state for showing concern to the pollution caused by the process of modernization. it is just over 5200 gallons. Certain tragedies like . In contrast.

and to have compassion for living creatures”. etc. Continuous immigration of the people from rural areas into the cities. In the face of indifference of the executive and legislature about the people’s problems. Justice Krishna Iyer. This pollution made people susceptible to multiple diseases. and unplanned expansion of cities. have created levels environmental hazards. Though the 1990s have seen increased concern about the environmental pollution. The intervention of the judiciary forced the state to introduce some measures for prevention of environmental pollution. The protection of environment did not form significant part of the policies of the state. Chernobyl in former Soviet Union where thousands of people were killed created worries among the people on the negative effect of the industrialization. All the major cities of India are facing acute air.gas leakage in Bhopal based Union Carbide MNC. The Peruvian model gave more emphasis to the industrialization without showing much concern for the pollution it was going create. the PIL has become an effective weapon through which people seethe intervention of the state on these issues. lakes. open drainage. increasing number of vehicles. their habitat in the congested areas which exist along with the polluting small scale industries. The judiciary has become the arbiter of people’s rights which include their protection from the environmental protection also since the emergence of the device of the Public Interest Litigation ( PIL). However. In the following decades the state passed legislations to prevent air pollution and environmental protection like The Air Act of 1981 and Environmental Protection Act of 1986. in 1976 an Constitutional Amendment called upon the state “to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forest and wildlife of the country” and made the fundamental duty of every citizen “to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. rivers and wildlife. awareness about the disastrous impact of the environmental pollution started growing in the 1960s. water and other kinds on environmental pollution. Justice Kuldeep Singh and advocate MC Mehta have made .

and increasing usage of the vehicles is stopped. Delhi is one of the most polluted cities in the world. this is related to the unplanned development policy. which killed one laborer.remarkable contribution in protection of the environment. Reacting to the court order which was result of a PIL. especially children and old vulnerable to multiple diseases. It resulted in the police firing. The introduction of the CNG vehicles has resulted in the reduction of the environmental pollution in the city. In fact. the Delhi government has been force to shift the polluting industries out of the city and launch the Yamuna River cleaning operation. The number of private and public vehicles has increased many folds in the recent past. Unless some measures are adopted to absorb the migrating population. Similarly. . Three issues related to the environmental pollution have been focus of activities of some concerned of the civil society components in the recent past. This has polluted the environment and made people. the government made it compulsory to introduce the CNG vehicles and make the pollution check mandatory for all private vehicles. it seems the environmental pollution will remain. The closing down of the polluting factories and industries proved the labor unrest in the city. These are air pollution caused due to the vehicular and industrial pollution and water pollution in Yamuna river. The migration to the cities from the villages is inevitable.

Jaipuria College. and the Endeavour shown by them in being a real environmentalist.-:Acknowledgement:I . . am greatly thankful to all the teachers of my college for giving their valuable suggestion to make this project and also for guidance over the subject matters.Com(HONS) from S.A. I find myself fortunate enough for having experienced every bit of what environmental education is. constant support. It was enlightening to know more and more from the never ending resources of teachers while composing this project was highly obliging.Nilesh Priyadarshi as a student of final year of B.

journals. . Articles from newspapers have also been referred to.Wikipedia. Books referred. magazines and course prescribed books on EVS.class notes.com etc.Bibliography: References. green.com. discussions. google. Websites referred.