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My hypothesis is that a particular penny is a fair penny. In other words, that it is not weighted or in any other way designed

to favor falling with heads up or to favor falling with tails up. If this is true of my coin, then my prediction is that the

probability of flipping heads (P(H)) is 0.5, and the probability of flipping tails (P(T)) is also 0.5. This means that I am

predicting that ½ of the time the coin will come up heads, and ½ of the time it will come up tails. Therefore, if I flip a coin

300 times, my hypothesis predicts:

Expected:

Heads: 150

Tails: 150

Total: 300

**To test this hypothesis, I flip my penny 300 times. Here are the numbers I get:
**

Observed:

Heads: 162

Tails: 138

Total: 300

There are several factors which are important in determining the significance between the observed (O) and expected (E)

values.

The absolute difference in numbers is important. This is obtained by subtracting the E value from the O value (O-E).

For heads: O-E = 162 - 150 = 12

For tails: O-E = 138 – 150 = -12

To get rid of the plus and minus signs, and for other esoterical statistical reasons, these values are squared, giving us (O-E) 2

for each of our data classes.

For heads: (O-E)2 = 122= 144

For tails (O-E)2 = -122= 144

The number of trials is also very important. A particular deviation from perfect means a lot more if there are only a few

trials than it would if there were many trials. This is done by dividing our (O-E) 2 values by the expected values (which reflect

the number of trials),

For heads: (O-E)2/E = 144/150 = 0.96*

For tails: (O-E) 2/E = 144/150 = 0.96*

*These values won’t always work out to be the same for all of the categories. In this case

they do because we have only two categories of data, and our expectations for the two

categories are identical.

To calculate the chi square value for our experiment, we add together all of the (O-E) 2/E values—one for each of the

categories of results, (In this experiment, our categories of results are “heads” and “tails”; for the dice you will be using in

class, there would be six categories of results: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.)

Sum of the X2 = .96 + .96 = 1.92

Note some important features of this number. It’s the sum of two numbers derived from fractions. The absolute difference

between expected and observed results are in the numerators of those fractions, so the more you miss, the bigger the chi

square number will turn out to be. The expected values, reflecting the number of trials, are in the denominators of those

fractions, and thus the bigger your sample size, the smaller the X 2 numbers will turn out to be.

All of this information can be laid out in a Xw data table:

Class (of data)

Expected

Observed

(O – E)

(O – E)2

(O – E)2/E

So we could say that 0. The usual “level of discrimination” used by investigators is P(X 2) = 0. the smaller the X 2 value will be.05 or lower. depending upon how many subdivisions (columns) are present. If you were doing an exercise with dice. you have to be satisfied with finding the bracketing numbers. This mathematical statement means “the probability of our Chi-Square falls between 0. These tables come in a variety of sizes. respectively. the larger the X 2 value will be. The final step in our process is to refer to a professionally prepared table of the probabilities of X 2 values. To Use the Table 1.50.96 Sum of X2 = 1.10 corresponds to a “chance” of 10%. Again. Degrees of freedom will generally be the number of classes of data minus one. 3. our results would be at least this far from what we predicted. it is very likely (but not certain) that your hypothesis is not correct. Find the degrees of freedom for your data (1 in this case) in the left-hand column of the table. 2. Across the top are probability figures—the “probability of the Chi-Square. .96 falls between the numbers 0. If you had found your exact X 2 value on this table. Thus.Heads 150 162 12 144 Tails 150 138 -12 144 Total 300 300 . Degrees of freedom reflects the numbers of independent and dependent variables in your experiment.” The interior of the table consists of the sum of the X 2 values themselves. 2 – 1 = 1 degree of freedom. even though our hypothesis is correct is between 0. and how high the degrees of freedom go. If the table were subdivided into enough columns. you need one additional bit of information: the degrees of freedom (df). The table lists the degrees of freedom as the headings to the rows. This chi-square result means that. Such a table is reproduced on the last page of this document.10 < P(X2) < 0. if your chi-square value has a probability of 0. the probability that we would get results at least as bad as these.92 NOTE that the greater the deviation of any observed value from its expected value. the point of the exercise is to decide whether our actual data are far enough away from the numbers which we predicted to justify throwing out our hypothesis. To calculate the degrees of freedom. Generally. a probability of 0. In the case of this example.05. Scan across the row of X2 values beside the df number until you find two values which bracket your calculated number (1. if we were dealing with dice rather than coins. and that the larger the sample size.96 . In this case. degrees of freedom would be 6 – 1 = 5.706. Now that you have a sum of the X2 value. are your actual data different enough from your predicted data to cast your hypothesis in doubt? For the next step.96 and 1.50.10 and 0.” 4. we need to know the number of classes of data.455 and 2. Now we have two different numbers—the sum of the X2 and the degrees of freedom—1. 5.50. and the other will be smaller.50 to a “chance” of 50%. 0. Remember that the question is. the number of classes of data would be six (the six possible sides of the dice). 10% to 50% of the time. and we performed exactly this experiment over and over again. its probability would have fallen somewhere between these two. you might have found your exact calculated value on the table.50 and 0. This means that one of the figures will be larger.10 respectively. 1. So what does that mean? A probability of 0. the better the fit between our prediction and our actual data. Remember. Or. Thus. rather than coins. This particular table is rather small compared to many available tables. in general. the smaller the Sum of the X 2 value.10 and 0. that number would be two (“heads” and “tails”). Look up at the top of the table to see which probabilities correspond to your bracketing X 2 values—in this case. for our coin tossing example. you must determine how significant that value is. but you should easily be able to see why that happens only very rarely. In this case.96 in this case). if our hypothesis is correct.

070 12.706 3.449 16.735 2.676 1.841 5.812 18.156 3.236 11.010 0.086 16.307 20.635 7.278 8 1.216 0.597 3 0.831 1.024 6.188 .490 7.592 14.247 4.348 11.865 9.832 15.209 25.067 16.860 5 0.879 2 0.991 7.690 2.344 2.605 5.535 20.402 5.9 0.344 13.090 21.584 2.345 12.207 0.750 6 0.143 13.357 7.251 7.051 0.955 9 1.507 17.237 2.05 0.386 4.475 20.072 0.5 0.455 2.210 10.168 8.277 14.488 11.645 12.548 7 0.838 4 0.180 3.589 10 2.342 15.064 3.666 23.412 0.987 18.05 0.Critical Values of the X2 Distribution Probability of the Chi-Square [P (X2)] df 0.1 0.989 1.484 1.833 6.013 18.000 0.362 15.017 14.211 1.700 4.610 4.684 16.016 0.378 9.005 1 0.483 23.000 0.01 0.975 0.919 19.348 10.995 0.366 6.351 0.023 21.346 12.815 9.779 9.343 14.

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