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1. Describe 2 different uses of ‘if ’ when it introduces a clause.

Give and
explain at least 3 examples of each.
Unreal conditionals
We use ‘if’ in unreal conditional sentences which are the second and third conditional. Their forms are
as follows:
Second conditional If + past simple, would + infinitive
‘If you were rich, where would you go on holiday?’
If clause
main clause
Third conditional
If + past perfect, would have + past participle
‘If you had been rich, where would you have gone on holiday?’
If clause
main clause
These conditionals are known as subjunctive as they explore imaginary situations. They are
hypothetical, which means they leave no room for doubt. Unreal conditionals are untrue, imaginary or
past events that didn’t happen. The second conditional uses imaginary and untrue situations.
‘If we saw Johnny Depp now, I would kiss him’ (Johnny Depp lives in a different country and is highly
unlikely to suddenly appear) whereas the third conditional is used to talk about past events that didn’t
happen. ‘If we had left earlier, we would have seen them arrive’ (but you didn’t leave earlier)
It should also be mentioned that it is possible to reverse the clauses so that the ‘if clause’ is after the
main clause with the difference being that you do not need to have a comma. We can also replace the
‘would’ with the modal verbs ‘could’ and ‘might/may’ which changes the context of the sentence but
not the fact that they are unreal.
‘If she was my friend, I could talk to her’ (ability)
‘If I lived in Hong Kong, I might wear a dress like that’ (possibility)
‘If I had gone to Italy, I could have seen the Colosseum’ (ability)
‘If she had read the book, she may have known the answer’ (possibility)
In conclusion, ‘if’ is used with unreal conditions, usually in the first clause but it can be found in the
I am unsure if this is considered two uses as Reported speech uses ‘if’ but not to introduce a clause. If
this is unacceptable, please can I send you an updated version after it is marked?
2. Describe the various uses of ‘must’ and ‘must not’ (mustn’t), giving and
explaining several examples of each.
There are several uses for ‘must’ and ‘must not’ but they cannot always be used in the same context.
They have to be separated into the following:
We use ‘must’ and ‘mustn’t’ to explain that something is a rule, using the positive or negative form.
‘You must take off your shoes before entering the building’ ‘You mustn’t smoke in here’ These are
sentences in the present, which cannot change into past sentences as there is no past version, so we
have to change the modal to ‘had to’ ‘You had to take off your shoes when you entered the building’
You cannot do this with ‘mustn’t’ and so would become ‘couldn’t’ ‘You couldn’t smoke in the
It is also possible to use ‘must’ in a question ‘Must I go with you?’ but ‘mustn’t in a question is only
seen in question tags ‘It must be a law mustn’t it?’

but the meaning is dependent on the context and how it is said. What advice would you give a less experienced teacher when dealing with this issue in the classroom? Form and function The form and the function of an utterance are different as the form is about the syntactic structure in the clauses and sentences. ‘It must be him because of that coat’ We can change this to a past sentence by adding ‘have’ and a past participle ‘It must have been him because of that coat’ in a question or a negative we do not use these modals. modals in some cases use other modals in their place . in my opinion. 3. The function of an utterance is the reason why it has been said.Refusing permission ‘Mustn’t’ is used in formal situations to refuse permission and is often seen on signs or used in an announcement ‘You mustn’t talk to the driver while the bus is moving. Stress and intonation play a big part with these modals because the speaker could be using ‘must’ or ‘mustn’t’ in. a sarcastic way so it is important to take that into consideration as well. but I do not think it is something that should be taught to students with lots of jargon. If we look at the following examples. It is not always predictable and the meaning can change depending on the situation and the intonation used. that way the students will be more aware of the function of what they are being taught and use it correctly in the ‘real world. There are a lot of rules when it comes to using modals and these are perhaps the hardest thing for students to get their head around. giving several examples. From these two examples.’ Certainty We use ‘must’ and ‘mustn’t’ to suggest proof of deduction. All utterances have meaning and an intention and this needs to be remembered when teaching. unlike tenses which use the same auxiliary verbs for positives. In the classroom When you are an inexperienced teacher. which could cause confusion and therefore. we can see a clear demonstration of this. about the word order and the relationships they have with each other. The most important thing an inexperienced teacher needs to consistently address. for example.’ When I am teaching a . friend two is using the same utterance to simply answer a question. In the second example. I believe it is important to be aware of the difference between form and function. the pragmatic meaning is that friend two is using this utterance to refuse what has been asked of them. Explain the distinction between the form and the function of an utterance. In the first example. A friend to another friend playing football: Friend one: Tell him he can’t play Friend two: You are older than me! A friend to another friend: Friend one: Who is older? Friend two: You are older than me. They are the strongest way of saying that we are certain about something. It opens up a huge amount of options to students. negatives and questions. is the pronunciation involved in what they are teaching. we can see that the same statement can be used in many situations. The utterance ‘I love him’ has a completely different meaning when the subjects and objects are changed ‘he loves me’ and so this is an example of what we are looking at when we discuss the form. should be approached with thought.

. If you use a context that will also help you to understand as well. I would advise teachers to have a silent correction code that the students are familiar with so they can guide the students when mistakes with form are made. A sentence such as ‘ I have mixed atoms and particles to create a new kind of substance’ is not going to engage the students and also has language that only a handful of students will understand. so that students can see the difference. with sentences. for example: ‘I have seen Harry Potter. The ‘I have never’ game is a good communicative activity. It is hard enough as a new teacher to teach new uses for Present perfect. it is probably just the translation.’ ---X-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Past Present Future ‘I saw Harry Potter on Monday’ X Mon Tues Wed Thurs Fri today Once students are familiar with this set up. How would you provide constructive support to a teacher who was unsure about Teaching the present perfect to a group of intermediate students? Use timelines Rule number one for teaching a grammar point. focusing on the function is. so they should not be offended if they think a student is being rude. but for the teachers that are new to teaching grammar. so it is good to dedicate two or three lessons going through it. more important because that is where students will get a feel for the root of English and the society that they are embracing by learning it 4. I would also advise the teacher not to get too caught up in correcting if it interrupts the conversation or flow. If students are understanding each other. Have fun with it Find activities that you would enjoy doing as well if you were learning this aspect. When specifically teaching the Present perfect. Remember that students will not pick up on this immediately. It is a central part of avoiding miscommunication. Finally. I used films and places (for experiences and no time frame) when I first started teaching it. which you can join in with as well if you feel comfortable doing it. so I would make time to address those as well. For me.grammar point or new lexis. this should not be disturbed but errors should be recorded and addressed later. it is very useful to compare it in a timeline with the Past simple. they can be used time and time again. so it is worthwhile recapping what students already know about the Present perfect in a little quiz or by eliciting answers. in the first instance. you will feel more confident when explaining. There is no point in giving examples of the Present perfect with sentences that you and the students cannot relate to. Use a natural context Try to think of examples that you would use the aspect yourself. I always write the phonemes down and go through the stress and intonation with the class. It is better to focus on the facial expressions and body language if they think there is a problem. is to use timelines when applicable. I also think it is important for unexperienced teachers to remember that intonation and stress are not the same in all languages. without worrying that students are not aware of many past participles. They are your friends and they simplify things not only for the students. although even that can be unreliable at times. For example: ‘I have been to Thailand’ and ‘I have seen the new James Bond’ Check existing knowledge There will be students that have started at the school in the class you are teaching and students that have moved up from Pre intermediate.

. the more you teach this. and get back to them. If you are unsure how to answer a question about the Present perfect. the easier it will become.Finally. write it in the corner of the board and tell the students you will come back to it later as you do not have time to address it now and then seek guidance. Always remain confident.