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INTRODUCTION
These are two types of turbines, reaction and the impulse, the difference being the

manner of head conversation. In the reaction turbine, the fluid fills the blade passages and the
head change or pressure drop occurs within the runner. An impulse turbine first converts the
water head through a nozzle into a high- velocity jet, which then strikes the buckets is
essentially at constant pressure. Impulse turbines are ideally suited for high power and
relatively low power. The Pelton turbine used in this experiment is an impulse turbine. This
turbine consists of three basic components as shown in Figure 1, a stationary inlet nozzle, a
runner and a casing. The runner consists of multiple buckets mounted on a rotating wheel.
The jet strikes the buckets and imparts momentum. The buckets are shaped in a manner to
divide the flow in half and turn its relative velocity vector nearly 180º .

Figure 1.0 : Pelton wheel
The primary future of the impulse turbine is the power production as the jet is
deflected by the moving buckets. Assuming that the speed of the exiting jet is zero (all of the
kinetic energy of the jet is expended in driving the buckets), negligible head loss at the nozzle
and at the impact with the buckets ( assuming that the entire available head is converted into
the jet velocity ), the energy equation applied to the control volume shown in Figure 1
provides the power extracted from the available head by the turbine.

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8. 5. 3. OBJECTIVE To learn the design and function of a Hydraulic turbine To determine the impulse turbine characteristic To determine the power curves characteristic To produce the data of output power and torque against speed To test the output performance at different nozzle setting To determine the optimum efficiency point To compare the mechanical and electrical power To determine the generator efficiency 2 .0 1. 4. 9.2. 7. 6. 2.

0 THEORY Pelton wheels are the preferred turbine for hydro-power. where the Pelton wheel geometry is most suitable. and can be used to tap power from mountain streams having flows of a few gallons per minute.3. Some of these systems use household plumbing fixtures for water delivery. (dimensioned parameter). These small units are recommended for use with 30 metres (100 ft) or more of head.800 metres (50–5. It also allows a new turbine design to be scaled from an existing design of known performance. The specific speed is the main criterion for matching a specific hydroelectric site with the optimal turbine type. There exist multi-ton Pelton wheels mounted on vertical oil pad bearings in hydroelectric plants. Pelton wheels are made in all sizes. although there is no theoretical limit.910 ft). in order to generate significant power levels. when the available water source has relatively high hydraulic head at low flow rates. Pelton wheels operate best with heads from 15–1. The smallest Pelton wheels are only a few inches across. Depending on water flow and design. The largest units can be over 400 megawatts. where:  = rpm  = Power (W)  = Water head (m) 3 .

Pelton Turbine instrument 2.0 = Density (kg/m3) APPARATUS 1. 4. Optic tachometer 3. Stopwatch 4 .

Then. 2.07 769.3 7351. The time was taken until the volume reach 5L 10.0 PROCEDURE 1. 8211. Make sure to lift the ball before switch on the pump 3. Pull down the ball in the turbine drum 9.7 9 944.8 6318.5N to 6.4 7678. Based on the highest pitched sound produced.1 6402. switch on the pump 4. record the pressure reading. 9021. 6.7 (rad/s) 4 7 5 . 5.8 6658. Get the reading of W2 8. Then get the reading of rpm 7. Switch off the pump 13. lift the ball again 11. After time was recorded. Fully closed the value controller 12.68 507. Open the value controller from the minimum level to the maximum level.50 661.0N RPM 1067.23 670. Repeat all the step by using range of 1.90 804.88 697.7 859. Switch on belt brake on the value of W1.5.6 4848 ω 0 111.

5 2.65 34.042 0.9 94.6 1.02 0 101.W1 0 1.5 4.22 100.0 5.0 5.0 (litre) Time 27 28 27 30 27 26 25 27 27 (s) Flowrate 0.20 39.000 0.2 4.85 36.0002 0.60 39.6 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 m Pm 0 36.0 5.14 159.048 0.1 (N) W 1−W 2 0 1.5 (N) W2 0 2.31 96.6 4.0 5.78 (W) Rotation 0 0.01 81.0 3.078 τ( N m ¿ Volume 5.8 5.14 37.4 1.2 5.0001 0.9 3.0 5.2 (N) Drum radius x 30 30 10−3 (m 3 H O¿ Pw (W) Efficienc y 1 η (%) 6.7 1.0 1.12 38.039 0.14 39.0 5.0001 0.0001 0.26 37.051 0.11 35.6 2.3 2.0 4.051 0.8 1.5 3.000 0.054 0.78 110.14 41.0 2.08 38.76 55.0 5.048 0.0 RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS 6 .19 83.0001 0.7 1.6 7.02 39.14 35.3 1.000 ( m3 /s ¿ Pressure 19 21 18 21 9 21 7 21 9 21 9 21 0 21 9 21 7 21 39.0001 0.0 5.20 31.

9 w 1 = 1.4 N Rotation.2.5 w 1−w 2 = 1.04 Nm Pm =ωxτ = 859.9 = 1.τ = 0.4 x (30 x 10−3 ) = 0.ω (rad/s) Example: RPM = 8211.90 rad/s w 1−w 2 (N) Example: w 2 = 2.12 W 7 .4 ω = RPM x 2π 60 = 8211.4 x 2π 60 = 859.042 Nm Pm (W) Example: ω = 859.4 N τ (Nm) = w 1−w 2 (N) x Drum Radius = 1.042 = 36.5 . τ (Nm) Drum Radius = 30 x 10−3 Example: w 1−w 2 = 1.90 x 0.90 rad/s Rotation.

11 W η=( Pm ) x 100 Pw = (36.78 % 8 . η (%) Example: Pm (W) = 36.12 W Pw (W) = 38.85 x 10−4 ) = 38.11) x 100 = 94.85 x 10−4 m3 /s Pw (W) = ρgHQ = 1000 x 9.0 liter = 5.85 x 10−4 Pw m3 /s (W) Pressure = 21 m H 3 O Example: Q = 1.Flowrate ( m3 /s ¿ Volume = 5.12 / 38.005 m3 Example: Times = 30 s Q = volume ( m3 ) / time (s) = 0.0 / 1000 = 0.005 m3 / 27 s = 1.11 W Efficiency.81 x 21 x (1.

Different flow rates give different value of work input. 9 . the direction of the water velocity changes to follow the contour of the bucket. From the results obtained. the turbine system is designed such that the water-jet velocity is twice the velocity of the bucket. The slower the flow rates. this allows the bucket to be emptied at the same rate it is filled. For maximum power and efficiency. the water's momentum is transferred to the turbine. The speed of the wheel also dropped when much weight being dropped until it stopped suddenly when the weight is too much for it to go against. thus allowing the water flow to continue uninterrupted. the larger the work being put into the wheel. A very small percentage of the water's original kinetic energy will still remain in the water however.7. The efficiency of the slower flow rates is also better than faster one. As water flows into the bucket.0 DISCUSSION The working principle of Pelton wheel turbine is water flows along the tangent to the path of the runner. the water exerts pressure on the bucket and the water is decelerated as it does a "u-turn" and flows out the other side of the bucket at low velocity. we can see how Pelton Wheel reacts to different kind of input. When the water-jet contacts the bucket. This "impulse" does work on the turbine. Nozzles direct forceful streams of water against a series of spoon-shaped buckets mounted around the edge of a wheel. In the process.

0 REFERENCE 1. https://en. The combination of flow rate and jet velocity manipulates the power or work input.com/turbines/impulse-turbines. The bigger the diameter nozzle the faster the flow rates but lower in velocity jet.wikipedia. impulse turbine is high-head. 9.eternoohydro. Therefore we need the perfect combination of both. So we can assume that our experiment is successful due to the result we obtained. http://www.0 CONCLUSION As a conclusion from the experiment that had been performed. for the turbine with the load need higher average speed compared to turbine without load to get the best performance of the turbine.html? gclid=Cj0KEQjwmpW6BRCf5sXp59_U_ssBEiQAGCV9GtmL1k8wnprX_F_OO AGCN3PI4-B3JnDuAgDpY2dk650aAi5g8P8HAQ 2. low flow rate device. In general.8. The best performance of the turbine can be known from the average speed of the turbine. we can conclude that different range of flow rates and rotational speeds influences the performance of Pelton wheel turbine. For the maximum power of the turbine produced showed that with load in turbine can get higher power compared to the turbine without load.org/wiki/Pelton_wheel 10 .