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Sawyer

Annotated Bibliography

Does music have the power to aid psychological ailments?

Regan Sawyer
Professor Malcolm Campbell
English 1103
10/12/16

Sawyer

Annotated Bibliography
Clair, Alicia A., and Concetta M. Tomaino Alzheimers Disease and Music Therapy.
Alzheimers Foundation of America. Alzheimers Foundation of America, 28 Jan. 2016.
Web. 12 Oct. 2016.
This website will not give me eyewitness accounts, nor will it give me instances of music
healing mental illnesses. However, it does show me the actual process and some effects
of music therapy on patients with Alzheimers disease. I found it to be helpful in the
scope of my research that touches specifically on music therapy programs and how they
actually work. The website also gives some specific examples of how and why music
therapy works on patients with Alzheimers disease. It also gave a timeline of sorts to
give the guardians of patients an outline to the program and when they should expect
changes to occur in the patient. I cannot gather tons of information about music therapy
and its results from this source, but I am choosing to use it because it defines music
therapy and the process behind it. The website gives me options to branch into other parts
of the program and see a timeline of the therapy process and what symptoms of
alzheimers should deteriorate over time. This website is that of a professional
organization devoted specifically to Alzheimers disease. I know the information about
the process behind music therapy that I gather will be factual. All of the contributing
authors of this website have PhDs in either music therapy, education, and neurology.
Hirsch, Jenny H., Koenig Jespersen, and Reschef A. Bloch. Music, the Mind, and Healing.
American Psychiatric Association, n.d., Web. 12 Oct. 2016.
This article was one of the most helpful sources I found. It gave a lot of information on
the effects music has in psychiatric patients. Their information covered multiple mental

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diseases. It also expanded to not only mental diseases, but other health problems such as
strokes and insomnia. The article also included a short paragraph on music helping
people cope with physical pain, and calming nerves before major surgical procedures. I
think I will find this article essential to my final paper, simply because its so diverse in
what mental illnesses and physical health problems it mentions. The article also goes
deeper in depth and explains why these changes occur in patients how music can heal all
of us, not just psych patients.
As far as examples go, theyre all quite generic and do not give specific names or
instances. The examples given are more of an average change occurring in patients
with the same disease. The article gives several great instances on how music can
change/help people. One example used is how music can reroute the brain, and open
new pathways when part of ones brain is dead. I found that utterly fascinating and plan
to include that fact in more detail in my final paper. Overall, this was a very eye-opening
article and it helped me to further my research and deepen my understanding of my topic.
Janis, Byron. Music Therapy: A Healing Art. Wall Street Journal May 08 2014, Eastern
edition ed. ProQuest. 12 Oct. 2016.
This article comes from a popular journal known as The Wall Street Journal. The article
gives personal and scientific evidence of exposure to music helping to heal illnesses and
injuries. I found this source to be quite helpful. Byron began his article with the question
can music heal? and went on to talk about when music therapy began in the US during
WWI. Byron also touched on the opinions of neuroscientists- saying that music has been
known to show curative powers over the years. One example Byron mentions is Oliver
Sacks, a British-American neurologist, who in his book Awakening gives specific

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instances of music healing catatonic patients. A catatonic patient is a patient with a


behavioral disorder that causes them to not move properly. Catatonia can be associated
with schizophrenia and symptoms often include staying still, fast movements, or lack of
speech. Another example given in the article is the claim from a man named William
Styron. Styron was a famous writer who suffered from depression. He claimed music
saved him from committing suicide. Also in the article, a woman named Gabrielle
Giffords lost her ability to speak after suffering a gunshot wound in 2011. Her speech
was re-gifted after intense singing therapy.
This article opened up many doors for me. After reading these instances, I was able to
come to a better conclusion that music really does help with illnesses both mental and
physical. I really enjoyed how the author included his own experiences as well, like his
time spent in the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, where he spent time
helping with their program Stages of Healing. This program took veterans who
suffered from various psychological and physical illnesses and exposed them to musical
therapy. The program stated that their main goal was to help relieve the stress a hospital
setting puts on its patients. Each patient had to learn and instrument, and they all showed
great progress once they were exposed to the therapy. The article doesnt go into any
detail as to what diseases the patients suffered from, however. Byron was given the
opportunity to play the piano for the patients at the medical center. Byron is a worldrenown concert pianist. He is well known for his interpretations of Chopin's music. Later
in the article he mentions the patients reactions to his performance and how the patients
were kind enough to sing him a song once hed finished. I found that particular part of the
article interesting. It was so kind of Byron to expose his art form to the patients, and they

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responded by sharing their art form with him. Byron went on to mention that many
patients he talked with admitted that even though they werent musically inclined,
playing an instrument helps the brain facilitate healing. This article will be one of the
most useful articles I find. It gave several instances of music helping illnesses, and it also
went as far as to explain the history of music therapy.
Music Therapy. Perf. Jennifer Puckett, Brooke Ann, Chelsea Kinsler. CNN, n.d. Web.
This video allowed me to see first-hand the effect that music therapy has on children with
down syndrome and speech disabilities. The therapists gave insight to their procedures
and stated the childs progress over the time period they are in therapy. Both children
showed improvements in speech and body movements. I found it quite remarkable.
Jennifer Puckett, one of the therapists, works with a young girl who has down syndrome.
Jennifer said within months the child showed immense progress in her movements, and
she has also begun to speak. Jennifer explains that by singing commands to a child with a
disability, they are able to understand it, and associate the melody with certain words or
body movements depending on what the therapist wants. Jennifer also explained how the
brain responds to singing, and how channels open up, giving more room for
understanding. This will be a neat source to incorporate into my final paper, but I will not
touch on it for a majority of the paper. I plan to use it as an example on both how therapy
works, and how it affects the children.
Schaeffer, Juliann. Music Therapy in Dementia Treatment- Recollection Through Sound. Aging
well, n.d., Web. 12 Oct. 2016
This article was also very helpful to my research. It touched on several topics, one of
them being how music affects emotions and different parts of the brain. Along with that

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information, the article provides examples on dementia patients in particular, whove


shown promising changes in their mental state after being exposed to music therapy. The
doctor running the tests concludes that music is a sensory and intellectual stimulation
that can help maintain a persons quality of life or even improve it.
The article also touches on an aspect of why music therapy works- called Memory in
Sound. This section focuses on how certain songs and chords can trigger memories and
open up different channels in the brain. It also mentions how music can be the key for
opening up conversation between a patient and therapist. The patient finds it easier to
communicate through music.
One super interesting example that the article gave was one of an older male patient. He
barely knew his name, yet was able to sing old Italian songs from memory. These songs
were provoked after he was sung Finnish folk songs. This man barely knew who he was,
but has Italian arias up his sleeve. Amazing. The article also gives information on how
music being played while exercising makes the time seem to go by faster. It also
mentions the history of music therapy and all of its roots within the therapist community.

Regan,
Im not able to go over all the document because of all the grading Im doing; however,
Ive seen enough to know that you need to go over each of your citations and make sure
theyre correct using Purdues OWL as a source for MLA formatting. (Each citation has
errors.) Note a big, easy error to fix: your sources arent in alphabetical order.
Also, your annotations need to be more thorough in capturing the full scope of coverage
of the source what does it cover? Whats it about? Make sure your evaluations show
youve thought carefully about the source and what works and what doesnt, in your
opinion. For example, does the author do a good job of providing enough examples to
support his or her claims? Always mention the source and author and their credibility.

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Proofread your work carefully and get rid of any incomplete sentences. Have a friend
read it to point out where your writing isnt clear. I dont see an academic/peer-reviewed
source. Make sure you find one there are many out there.
Youre doing a good job for a rough draft and youre working ahead, which is great. I
realize this is first-draft work, but I wanted to provide some comments as if this were
final so you can see how Ill evaluate it.