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16.3.2009; REVISION #1: 17.11.2014


Macdonell, Arthur Anthony


A Vedic Grammar For Students


Oxford : Clarendon Press 1916


x, 508 p.


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M.A., PH.D.















A PRACTICAL Vedic grammar has long been a desideratum.
I t is one of the chief aids to the study of the hymns of the
Veda called for forty-three years ago in the preface to his
edition of the Rigveda by Max Müller, who adds, ' I doubt
not that the time will come when no one in India will call
himself a Sanskrit scholar who cannot construe the hymns
of the ancient Rishis of his country’. I t is mainly due
to the lack of such a work that the study of Vedic literature,
despite its great linguistic and religious importance, has
never taken its proper place by the side of the study of
Classical Sanskrit either in England or India. Whitney's
excellent Sanskrit Grammar, indeed, treats the earlier lan¬
guage in its historical connexion with the later, but for this
very reason students are, as I have often been assured,
unable to acquire from it a clear knowledge of either the
one or the other, because beginners cannot keep the two
dialects apart in the process of learning. Till the publication of my large Vedic Grammar in 1910, no single work
comprehensively presented the early language by itself.
That work is, however, too extensive and detailed for the
needs of the student, being intended rather as a book of
reference for the scholar. Hence I have often been urged
to bring out a short practical grammar which would do for
the Vedic language what my Sanskrit Grammar for Beginners
does for the Classical language. I n the second edition
(1911) of the latter work I therefore pledged myself to

meet this demand as soon as I could. The present volume
redeems that pledge.
When planning the book I resolved, after much reflection,
to make it correspond paragraph by paragraph to the
Sanskrit Grammar, this being the best way to enable students
to compare and contrast every phenomenon of the earlier
and the later language. To this extent the present book
presupposes the other ; but it can quite well be used inde­
pendently. The experience of many years’ teaching, however,
leads me to dissuade beginners from starting the study of
Sanskrit by means of the present grammar. Students
should, in my opinion, always commence with classical
Sanskrit, which is more regular and definite, as well as
much more restricted in the number of its inflexional forms.
A good working knowledge of the later language should
therefore be acquired before taking up Vedic grammar,
which can then be rapidly learned.
In carrying out the parallelism of this grammar with
the other I have experienced a good deal of difficulty in
numbering the corresponding paragraphs satisfactorily,
because certain groups of matter are found exclusively in
the Vedic language, as the numerous subjunctive forms, or
much more fully, as the dozen types of infinitive compared
with only one in Sanskrit ; while some Sanskrit formations,
as the periphrastic future, are non-existent in the earlier
language. Nevertheless, I have, I think, succeeded in
arranging the figures in such a way that the corresponding
paragraphs of the two grammars can always be easily
compared. The only exception is the first chapter, con­
sisting of fifteen paragraphs, which in the Sanskrit Grammar
deals with the Nāgarī alphabet. As the present work
throughout uses transliteration only, it seemed superfluous
to repeat the description of the letters given in the earlier
work. I have accordingly substituted a general phonetic

survey of Vedic sounds as enabling the student to understand
clearly the linguistic history of Sanskrit. The employment
of transliteration has been necessary because by this means
alone could analysis by hyphens and accentuation be
adequately indicated. Duplication with Nāgarī characters,
as in the Sanskrit Grammar, would have increased the size
and the cost of the book without any compensating advan­
tage. An account of the accent, as of vital importance in
Vedic grammar, would naturally have found a place in the
body of the book, but owing to the entire absence of this
subject in the Sanskrit Grammar and to the fulness which
its treatment requires, its introduction there was impossible.
The accent is accordingly dealt with in Appendix I l l as
a substitute for the ‘ Chief Peculiarities of Vedic Grammar ’
appearing at the end of the Sanskrit Grammar.
The term Vedic is here used to comprehend not only the
metrical language of the hymns, but also the prose of
the Brāhmaṇas and of the Brāhmaṇa­like portions of the
Atharvaveda and of various recensions of the Yajurveda.
The grammatical material from the later period is mainly
given in small type, and is in any case regularly indicated
by the addition of the letter B (for Brāhmaṇa). Otherwise
the phase of the earlier language presented is that of the
Rigveda, as being both the oldest and furnishing the most
abundant material. But forms from the other Vedas are
often also supplied without any distinguishing mark as long
as they conform to the standard of the Rigveda. If, how­
ever, such forms are in any way abnormal, or i f it seemed
advisable to point out that they do not come from the
Rigveda, this is indicated by an added abbreviation in
brackets, as ' (AV.) ' for ' (Atharvaveda).’ On the other hand
' (RV.) ’ is sometimes added in order to indicate, for some
reason or other, that a form is restricted to the Rigveda.
I t is, of course, impossible to go much into detail thus in

a practical work ; but the exact source of any particular
form can always be ascertained by reference to the large
Vedic Grammar. The grammatical usage of the other Vedas,
when it differs from that of the Rigveda, is regularly ex¬
plained. The reference is given with precise figures when
syntactical examples are taken from the Rigveda, but with
abbreviations only (as TS. for Taittirīya Saṃhitā or ŚB. for
Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa) when they come from elsewhere.
Syntactical citations are not always metrically intact because
words that are unnecessary to illustrate the usage in question
are often omitted. The accent in verbal forms that happen
to occur in Vedic texts without it, is nevertheless given
if its position is undoubted, but when there is any uncer­
tainty it is left out. I n the list of verbs (Appendix I) the
third person singular is often given as the typical form even
when only other persons actually occur. Otherwise only
forms that have been positively noted are enumerated.
I ought to mention that in inflected words final s, r, and d
of endings are given in their historical form, not according
to the law of allowable finals (§ 27) ; e.g. dútás, not dūtáḥ ;
tásmād, not tásmāt; pitúr, not p i t ú ḥ ; but when used
syntactically they appear in accordance with the rules of
Sandhi ; e. g. devā́nāṃ dūtáḥ ; vṛtrásya vadhā́I.
The present book is to a great extent based on my large
Vedic Grammar. I t is, however, by no means simply an
abridgement of that work. For besides being differently
arranged, so as to agree with the scheme of the Sanskrit
Grammar, it contains much matter excluded from the Vedic
Grammar by the limitations imposed on the latter work as
one of the volumes of Bühler's Encyclopaedia of Indo­Aryan
Research. Thus it adds a full treatment of Vedic Syntax
and an account of the Vedic metres. Appendix I , moreover,
contains a list of Vedic verbs (similar to that in the Sanskrit
Grammar), which though all their forms appear in their



appropriate place within the body of the Vedic Grammar, are
not again presented there in the form of an alphabetical list,
as is done here for the benefit of the learner. H aving
subjected all the verbal forms to a revision, I have classified
some doubtful or ambiguous ones more satisfactorily, and
added some others which were inadvertently omitted in the
large work. Moreover, a full alphabetical list of conjunctive
and adverbial particles embracing forty pages and describing
the syntactical uses of these words has been added in order
to correspond to § 180 of the Sanskrit Grammar.


present work therefore constitutes a supplement to, as well
as an abridgement of, the Vedic Grammar, thus in reality
setting forth the subject with more completeness as a whole,
though in a comparatively brief form, than the larger work.
I may add that this grammar is shortly to be followed by
a Vedic Reader consisting of selected hymns of the Rigveda
and supplying microscopic explanations of every point on
which the elementary learner requires information. These
two books will, I hope, enable him in a short time to become
an independent student of the sacred literature of ancient
For the purposes of this book I have chiefly exploited
my own Vedic Grammar (1910), but I have also utilized
Delbrück's Altindische Syntax (1888) for syntactical material,
and Whitney's Roots (1885) for the verbal forms of the
Brāhmaṇa literature. I n describing the metres (Appen­
dix I I ) I have found Oldenberg’s Die Hymnen des Rigveda
(1888), and Arnold's Vedic Metre (1905) very useful.
I am indebted to Dr. James Morison and to my former
pupil, Professor A. B. Keith, for reading all the first proofs
with great care, and thus saving me from many misprints
that would have escaped my own notice. Professor Keith
has also suggested important modifications of some of my
grammatical statements. Lastly, I must congratulate

Mr. J. C Pembrey, Hon. M. A., Oriental Reader at the
Clarendon Press, on having completed the task of reading
the final proofs of this grammar, now all but seventy years
after correcting Professor H. H. Wilson's Sanskrit Grammar
in 1847. This is a record in the history of Oriental, and
most probably of any, professional proof reading for the

March 30, 1916.


PREFACE . . . .





















Relation of Vedic to Sanskrit—Oral tradition and
Writing—Sounds of the Vedic Language—The Vowels—
Vowel Gradation—The Consonants—Ancient Pronuncia-

tion .












External Sandhi : Combination of Vowels and of Con¬
sonants—Internal Sandhi : Combination of Vowels and of
Consonants .
. . . . . . . . .

Nouns : Consonant Stems -^unchangeable — changeable :
with Two Stems; with Three Stems —Vowel Stems—
Degrees of Comparison—Numerals : Cardinals ; Ordinals ;
Numeral Derivatives—Pronouns: Personal— Demonstra¬
tive — Interrogative — Relative — Reflexive —Possessive—–
Compound —Derivative —Indefinite —Pronominal Adjectives .
. 47-117

Introductory—The Present System—First Conjugation
^Second Conjugation- The Augment—Reduplication—
Terminations —Paradigms — Irregularities—The Perfect
—The Pluperfect- The Aorist: First Aorist; Second
Aorist—Benedictive—The Future : Simple ; Periphrastic

. . The Vedic Accent . . . . . . . . . 208-253 CHAPTER V I : NOMINAL STEM FORMATION AND COMPOUNDS Primary Suffixes—Secondary Suffixes— Gender—Verbal Compounds—Nominal Compounds: Co-ordinatives— Deter. . . . . 471-498 GENERAL INDEx . . .CONTENTS x PAGE — Conditional—The Passive — Participles — Gerund—In¬ finitive— Derivative Verbs: Causative — Desiderative-– Intensive—Denominative . . . . 369–435 AppEND1x II. . . . 436-447 ApPEND1x III. 448-469 . . . 283-368 ApPEND1x 1. . 117-207 CHAPTER V : INDECLINABLE WORDS Prepositions—Adverbial Case-forms —Adverbs formed with Suffixes—Conjunctive and Adverbial Particles—Interjections . . . . . minatives : Dependent and Descriptive — Possessives — Governing Compounds—Syntactical Compounds—Iterative Compounds . . Vedic Metre . . . . 499-508 VED1C I N D E x . . . . . . . . . . . . . List of Verbs . . 254-282 CHAPTER V I I : SYNTAX Introductory— Order of Words —Number— Concord— Pronouns—Use of the Cases—Locative and Genitive Absolute—Participles—Gerund— Infinitive—Use of the Tenses—Use of the Moods: Imperative—Injunctive—Subjunctive—0ptative—Precative—Conditional . . . . . . . . .

^– Śatapatha Brahmaṇa. PB. ŚB. Ab. du. I. Indo-Iranian. = middle voice. ----. = feminine. = Vedic (in the narrow sense as opposed to B. = Taittirīya Āraṇyaka. ^ Taittirīya saṃhita. dative case. ^ Brāhmaṇa. N. f.indicative mood. – genitive case. --^ Latin. --^ accusative case. –^ Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. I-Ir. = nominative ease. s. middle voice. ^ Rigveda. = Classical Sanskrit.singular number. KB. pl. = Paūcaviṃśa ( = Taṇḍya) Brāhmaṇa. B. VS. RV. V. ----. ind. TB. Av. ----. Yajurveda.—Other abbreviations will be found at the beginning of Appendix I and of the Vedic Index. SV. = plural number. mid. K. AB. ^– Ātmanepada. = Brāhmaṇa). D. = active voice. = ablative case.B. = locative ease. C. ^ Indo-European. act. = Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa. Ā. m. N. = Maitrayaṇī Saṃhitā. MS. AA. -----. = Taittirīya Brāhmaṇa. Gk. .LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS A. active voice. = dual number. = Atharvaveda. TA.Greek. ^ Kāṭhaka saṃhita. — masculine. P. TS. ^ Avesta. Lat. ^ Aitareya Āraṇyaka. YV. --^ Parasmaipada. L. G. IE. = sāmaveda. = Vājasaneyi Saṃhitā. AV.instrumental case.

P. for ' f yaj ' read ‘ of yaj '. for vā read vā́. 215. for (vaś desire) read (vaś bellow). line :^0. 286. for tā́vā:n read tā́ v ām . P. . at the end of line 10. P. read á­srat. for abhi read abhí. . 352. last word. P. P. 144. last line but one.. P. line 6. P.. 200. 222. . line 5. 188. line 4. 133.. 5 7 . line 17. add ( i . line 30. for vettu read véttu. line 28. line 21. for ‘follows' read 'precedes'. 242. . for bíbhrmáhe read bibhṛmáhe. for ' hciefiy ' read ' chiefly '. P. P. line 28. P. 273.. for amī́ i t i read amī́ íti. . line 31. line 17. for vā́ y um read vayúm. line 21.. 22I. for n read m. 158. lines 6 and 10. P. footnote. 27. 69­) read (vf. 350. P. delete cucyuvīmáhi and cucyavīráta (cp.. line 4. pp. after wisdom add (i. for 'gerundive ’ read 'gerund '. 220. 59^). 174. 238. for oi­ket­a­t and ci­ket­a­thas read cí­ket­a­t and oí­ket­a­thas. line 15. P. line 24. line 15. p. line 31. footnote. line 32. P. for stride read strike. 156. 42 ). . s i ) . . for (v. P. 25. lines 30 and 31. 347. 340. line 34. P. for tā́ni read tyā́ n i. line 29.CORRECTIONS P. 351. line 9. similarly. 382 under cyu). for duścarmā read duścárma. 348.

The linguistic material of the Rigveda. represents the earliest stage. or the language of the literature of the Vedas. The language of the works forming appendices to the Brāhmaṇas. forms a transition to that of the Sutras. The prose of these works. to some extent represents better than the language of the M antras the normal features of Vedic syntax. which in the latter is somewhat interfered with by the exigences of metre. the hymns and spells addressed to the gods. considerably supplemented from the other Saṃhitās. in each of which. approximating to the stage of Classical Sanskrit. The grammatical forms of the Brāhmaṇas. is represented by two main linguistic strata. where they differ from those of Classical Sanskrit. Of these the Rigveda.CHAPTER I PHONETIC INTRODUCTION 1. The older period is that of the M antras. which is the most important. of the Āraṇyakas and Upaniṣads. however. But they still retain the use of the subjunctive and employ many different types of the infinitive. is taken as the basis of this grammar. have been indicated in notes. extensive. earlier and later phases may be distinguished. being more ancient. which are contained in the various Saṃhitās. Vedic. I t is. Linguistically even the oldest of them are posterior to most of the latest parts of the Saṃhitās. while Sanskrit has lost the former and preserves only one single type of the latter. which is practically identical with Classical Sanskrit. and authentic than that of the other Saṃhitās. while the r syntax . again. The later period is that of the prose theological treatises called Brāhmaṇas. all of which borrow largely from it. however. that is.

and whether the hymns of the Rigveda were edited in the form of the Saṃhitā and Pada texts with the aid of writing. 2 . could have been composed and preserved without such aid. There are altogether fifty-two sounds. in particular the Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa. there seems insufficient evidence to decide . owing to the adverse climatic conditions of fully dealt with. the text of the Saṃhitās has been preserved in manuscripts. b. They are the following :–--a. thirteen of which are vocalic and thirty-nine consonantal. four diphthongs : e o ai au. which has lasted down to the present day. and the TS. 2 1 The text of the Vedas. The hymns of the Vedas were composed many centuries before the introduction of writing into India. This sound is very rare. The sounds of the Vedic language. the earliest of which. Apart from Such tradition. and not at all i n the A v . which can hardly have taken place much earlier than 600 B. making a group of twenty-seven : (a) five gutturals (velars) : k kh g gh ṅ . j j h ñ .. each of which has its nasal. Twenty-two mutes divided into five classes. c. but it is almost inconceivable that voluminous prose works such as the Brāhmaṇas. H ow soon they were first committed to writing. occurring only once i n the RV. are scarcely five centuries old. The latter having been fully described in my Sanskrit grammar for Beginners (§§ 4­14). is always printed i n the Devanāgarī character. They were handed down till probably long after that event by oral tradition. i t is unnecessary to repeat what is there stated. (l^) five palatals : e ch. I t w i l l suffice here to give a summary account of all the sounds of the Vedic language. because it illustrates the construction of sentences better than the metrical hymns of the Vedas. 2. Nine simple vowels : a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ .’ 3. with the exception of Aufrecht's and Weber's transliterated editions of the RV.

^tft ) in heaven. g. e. īṣúr they have sped ( = i­iṣ­úr 3. g. c. One aspiration : h . These two sounds take the place of ḍ ḍh respectively between vowels i n the RV. ā́sam — á–as­am I was. e. e. being scarcely half as common as even the palatals. v (labial) . div­í (Gk. d. ī is an original vowel . ga­tá gone beside á­gam­at has gone.’ ḍh and ḷh. The simple vowels : á ordinarily represents an original short vowel (IE.’ ṇ . náv­iṣṭha newest beside náv­yas newer. (^) five labials : p ph b bh m . 4. PI. e.THE VOWELS 3-4] 1 (y) seven cerebrals : ṭ ṭh. represent¬ ing the reduced form of the unaccented syllables an and am. ī́ḷo (but ī́ḍya). I t frequently also represents the unaccented syllable an . s (dental) . e. kha­tá dug from khan dig. pl. g. 9 . Four semivowels : y (palatal). ä represents both a simple long vowel (IE. e. but it also often replaces an original sonant nasal. ṣ (cerebral). mātár (Lat. g. texts . g. 1 This is much the rarest class of mutes. á ^ ö) . f One pure nasal : ṃ (úi) called Anusvāra (aftcr­sound). mīḷhúṣo (but mīḍhvā́ n ). I t also represents the low grade of radical ä . g. of is) . ḍ and ḷ. e. But it also often represents the low grade of yā . e. ḥ (Upadhmānīya).g. jīv­á living. (^) five dentals : t t h d dh n . vid­má (t^^) we know beside véd­a (o^a) I know . 1 (dental). e. Three sibilants : ś (palatal). aś-ī-máhi we would attain beside aś–yā́m I would attain . r (cerebral). g. a. śiṣ-ṭá taught beside śā́s­ti teaches. matī́ by thought ( = matíā). i is ordinarily an original vowel . Three voiceless spirants: ḥ (Visarjanlya). as sat­ā́ beside sánt­am being. e. I t is also frequently the low grade of e and ya . ā e o) and a contraction . g. g. h (Jihvā¬ mūlīya). or a contraction . māter) mother .

aor. pi. g. ṝ occurs only in the ace. arrangement beside kalpasva 2. e. ūc­úr = u ­uc­úr they have spoken (3. I t is also the low grade of au and vā .u is an original vowel . kálp­a m. g. seizure. ṛ is a vocalic r. . dh. e. padé = padá ī du. pious work. shaking . s. They represent (1) the high grade corresponding to the weak grade vowels i and u . subj. sleep. and I. s. g. . e. hatred . might be . bāhū́ the two arms = bāhú­ā. p^0v) honey. e. of vac) . bhrū (o­t^pó­^) I. g. and gen. bhój­am beside bhúj­am aor. séc­ati pours beside sik­tá poured . h . of dvéṣas n. g. yoking . mádhu (Gk.g. pl. impv. n. e and o stand for the original genuine diphthongs ái áu. e. sūd sweeten beside svād enjoy . maghón ( = maghá un) weak stem of maghávan bountiful . yug­á n. m. s. two steps . pitrn. bháveta — bháva īta 3. e. s v á s ṝ ṇ ā m . being the low grade of al. pf. pf. gṛbh­ī­tá seized beside grábh­a m. (2) the result of the coalescence of a with ī and ū̆ in external and internal Sandhi . 1 is a vocalic 1.) I. éndra = ā indra . m ā t ṝ ḥ . ó cit = a u cit . kḷpti (VS. and before y and v of secondary suffixes . pl. o — az before bh of ease­endings. kṛ­tá done beside ca­kár­a I have done . g. e. mid.. g. e. g. sup­tá asleep beside sváp­na m. dvéṣo­bhis inst. e. pl. e. occurring only in a few forms or derivatives of the verb kḷp (kalp) be in order : cākḷpré 3. brow. e­dhí be 2. s. g. opt. yoke beside yóg­a m. dhū­tá shaken beside dhau­tárī I. I t is also the low grade of o and va . pitṝṇā́ m . being the low grade of ar and ra . The diphthongs. g. ū is an original vowel . cīkḷpāti 3. . 3) e = az in a few words before d. e. and often represents a contraction. of as beside ás­ti . of ar stems (in which it is the lengthened low grade) . impv. b. of bhuj enjoy .

ai and au etymologically represent āi and āu. Examples are : didéś–a has pointed out : diṣ­ṭá pointed out . as is indicated by the fact that they become āy and āv in Sandhi . and that the Sandhi of a with e ( = ăi) and o ( = ău) is ai and au respectively. ar) interchange with the unaccented low grade vowels i . which are called Vṛddhi by the same authorities and may be regarded as a lengthened variety of the Guṇa syllables. Simple vowels are found to inter¬ change in derivation as well as in verbal and nominal in­ flexion with fuller Syllables. āp­nó­mi I obtain : āp­nu­más we obtain . as bibháy–a I have feared and bibhā́ y ­a has feared : bhī­tá frightened . the syllables ai. várdhāya to further : vṛdhāya. . b. juhā́ v ­a has invoked : hū­tá invoked . constituting the fundamental stage and called Guṇa (cp. The Guṇa series. but is reduced to a simple or short vowel when left by the accent. 17a) by the native grammarians. g. au. ṛ .g. 5. Beside the Guṇa syllables appear. al. H ere the accented high grade syllables ya. sáho-van mighty beside sáhas-vant. This change is dependent on shift of accent: the fuller or long syllable remains unchanged while it bears the accent. tatā́ r ­a has crossed : tir­áte crosses and tīr­ṇá crossed. u. The Samprasāraṇa series. va. váṣ­ṭi desires : uś-mási we desire . Vowel gradation. é­mi I go : i­más we go . ra (corresponding to the Guṇa stage e‚ o. or if short also with long vowels. ja-gráh-a I have seized : ja-gṛh-úr they have seized. a. ṛ. e. ār (āl does not occur). o. but much less frequently.4-5] VOWEL GRADATION 5 duvo-yú wishing to give (beside duvas-yú) . H ere the accented high grade syllables e. inter­ change with the unaccented low grade syllables i . e. i­yáj­a I have sacrificed : iṣ–ṭá sacrificed. gāv-as cows beside gáu-s . ar. ḷ respectively. This interchange is termed vowel gradation. ī̆r. The low grade of both Guṇa and Vṛddhi may be ī. id. u. ū̆r . Five different series of such gradation may be distinguished. ū.

r ā are reduced to 1. e. g.. The low grade of the Vṛddhi vowel ā is either a or total loss . g. dadhā́ ­ ti puts : dadh­mási we put . svād­ú. g. e. especially when the low grade syllable has a secondary accent. goddess . i t is a . sthā́­s thou hast stood : sthi­tá stood. pu­nā́ ­ ti purifies : pu–n–ánti they purify . The low grade of ai (which appears as ay before vowels and ā before consonants) is ī . 3. invocation: –hūti call. e. gay­ati sings. gā́h–ate plunges : gáh­ana n. e. dhā́ v ­ati washes : dhū–tá washed . ṝ. drā́ g h­īyas longer : dīrgh­á long. dī́di­vi shining: dī­páya kindle . When ā represents the Guṇa stage its low grade is normally i . pi­pṛ­tā́m 3. . as a lead The a series. g. e. Secondary shortening of ī. reduplicated forms. The ai and au series. foot : pad­ā́ with the foot . ī̆r and ū̆r(= ṝ) are further reduced to i . pā́d m. ī̆r . g. ū. 2. ja–gám–a I have gone : ja­gm­úr they have gone . owing to shift of accent from its normal position in a word to its beginning. d. da­dā́ ­ ti gives : devá­t­ta given by the gods. e. bru­yā́ ­ t would say : bruv­ī­tá id. praise (from root kṝ) . in compounds. The low grade of au (which is parallel to vā : 5 b a) is ū . Sometimes. ^. u. e. dhau­tárī I. ā́­huti I. ás­ti is : s­ánti they are . e. depth. shaking : dhū́­ti m. might : jī­yá­te is overcome . : pūr­tá full (root pṝ) . va. mother–in–law. pu­nā́ ­ ti purifies : pu­nī­hí purify. shaker. but rule it remains because its loss would in most cases to unpronounceable or obscure forms . : devī́ nom. I n its low grade stage a would normally disappear. dhū­má m. pád­ya­te goes : pi­bd­aná standing firm . ū. . śváśru voc. sometimes i t is ī owing to analogy. e. g. dévi voc. g. hán­ti slays : ghn­ánti they slay. The low grade syllables ī.^. ū. Similarly the long syllables yā. c. du. ṛ. e. cár–kṛ­ṣe thou commemoratest : kīr–tí I. smoke. sweet : sud­áya­ti sweetens .g. 1. song : gī­tá sung. g. gā­thá m. : śva–śru-s nom. and vocatives . jyā́ f.

being interchange­ able. du­dróh­a has injured beside drógh­a injurious. yoke. centum. either as final or before t. yóg­a in. śatám 100 — Lat. q-sounds). –yúg–van yoking. The guttural mutes represent the Indo-European velars (that is. it is replaced by a cerebral . yáṣ­ṭṛ sacrificer. e. The aspirate ch is derived from an I E . 7. Original palatals are represented by ch and ś. g. g. g. gáchā-mi = Gk. yoking. y immediately following . e. ^h. iṣ­ṭá sacrificed. e.6-7] H T E CONSONANTS 7 The Consonants. The breathing h represents the old palatal aspirate I­Ir. e. vac speak : fut. I t is recognizable as an old palatal when. śóc-ati shines beside śók-a m. ój­īyas stronger beside ug­rá strong . flame. g. b. e. e. The new palatals are c and to some extent j and h. . ^arou. in most roots and formatives. a proper name. 3. ádṛk-ṣata . s + aspirated palatal mute . The palatals form two series. yáj­ati sacrifices beside aor. druh­yú. a. o^vy^. the earlier and the later. with gutturals . French j) is recognizable by appearing as a cerebral when final or before mutes . They are derived from gutturals (velars). g. chid cut off = Gk. The old palatal j (originally the media of ś = I-Ir. váh­ati carries beside á­vāṭ has carried. 1. yuj­e I yoke beside yug­á n. a. cit­tá noticed beside két­a m . ^áo^^o. The sibilant ś represents an I E . g. will from cit perceive . and to some extent by j and h. 2. dṛś see : aor. g. vak-ṣyáti. 4. 6. beside drogh­a injurious. palatal (which seems to have been pronounced dialectically either as a spirant or a mute) . śúk-van flaming. śuk–rá brilliant . Gk. The original gutturals were changed to palatals by the palatal sounds i‚ ī. I n the combination k-ṣ the guttural is the regular phonetic modification of a palatal before s . e. e. yuk­tá yoked. z. g. double sound. But in the inchoative suffix cha it seems to represent s + unaspirated palatal mute . á­yāṭ has sacrificed.

pl. e. Of the five nasals belonging to the corresponding five classes of mutes. being a specifically Indian product and unknown in the Indo-Iranian period. s. Thus it often replaces p or bh in Sandhi and bh in reduplication . a. Final cerebral mutes represent the old palatals j . been greatly increased in various ways. The mutes t and d. mṛṣ–ṭá ( = mṛj­tá) cleansed . They have as a rule arisen from dentals immediately following the cerebral ṣ ( = original s. . e. rab­dhá taken beside rábhante they take . the number of words containing this sound has. g. e. rā́ṭ ( = rā́j) m. especially Dravidian. has always disappeared after cerebralizing d or dh and lengthening the preceding vowel. ṛ. place . sometimes take the place of original s before s and bh respectively . however. b. ba­bhū́ v a has been from bhū be. 10. duṣ-ṭára ( = dus-tára) invincible . ṣā́ṭ ( = sā́h) overcoming . the soft form of ṣ. where they never occur initially. á­vāṭ ( = á­vāh­t) has conveyed (3. representing the corresponding IE. Though written as a short vowel the ṛ is prosodically long. There are also many words containing b which seem to have a foreign origin. ś. j . however. 1 1 z ( = s or old palatal zh). influence. váṣ-ṭi ( = váś-ti) wishes . á­vāt­sīs (AY) aor. vipāṭ ( = ví-pāś) I. s. dṛḍhá^ ( = dṛh­tá) firm. The cerebrals are entirely secondary. They are still rare in the RV. 2 . The nasals. ruler nom. e. sounds. of vah). only the dental n and the labial m appear independently and in any part of a word. h . but only medially and finally. aor. pi­bd­aná firm beside pad­á n. nīḍá ( = nizdá) nest . h) or r-sounds (r. The dentals are original sounds. dentals. mād­bhís inst. g. The labials as a rule represent the corresponding IE. of vas dwell . dū­ḍhī́ ( = duz­dhī́) ill­disposed. g. g. 9. of mās month. ṝ) . ś.S. They are probably due to aboriginal. But b is very rarely inherited. nṛ­ṇā́m ( = nṛ­nā́m) of men. a river .

as in stems ending in ñc or ñj and in those compounded with dṛ́ś . limb . e. mother. d. páñca five . rein (yam restrain) . pratyáṅ nom. jáṅghā 1. and of labial m before certain suffixes. uṣṇá hot . of pratyáñc facing. g. and finally . s. before suffixal m or v . 3. The remaining three are always dependent on a contiguous sound. . e. of kī­dṛ́ś of what kind? a. g. imp v. name. g. yaj­ñá m. á­gan ( = á­gam­s. and the cerebral ṇ are never initial. g. or ṣ (either immediately preceding or separated from it by certain intervening letters) . of gam go) . e. vidyún­mant gleaming (vidyút I. colour . I t is substituted for m before t . e. leg. and about three times as frequent as the other three taken together. á­gan­ma. of yam restrain . food (from ad eat) . it is more frequent than m. The guttural ṅ. vā́ ñ chantu let them desire. The dental n is the commonest of the nasals . krámaṇa n. g. áṅga n. The cerebral ṇ appears within a word only. mātṛ́ I. s. staff. án­na n. yan­trá n. mṛ́ n ­maya earthen (mṛ́d I. Medially ṅ appears regularly only before gutturals . á–gam–t) 2. sacrifice . of yuj join. hook . daṇḍá m. The guttural ṅ appears finally only when a following k or g has been dropped. dán gen. but it also appears in place of the dental d or t. Before other consonants it appears only when k or g has been dropped . and before ch .g. várṇa m. and for d or t before the m of secondary suffixes . medially. yuṅ­dhi for yuṅg­dhi (=yuñj­dhi) 2. The palatal nasal occurs only before or after c or j . As a rule it represents IE. aṅká in. aṅkháya embrace . gán–vahī (aor. either before cerebral mutes or replacing dental n after ṛ‚ r. s. e. of gam go . e. e. lightning) . earth). step. the palatal ñ. e. and the last two are never final.10] NASALS 9 initially. and before suffixal s or t that have been dropped as final . nā́man n. g. nṛ­ṇā́m of men . of dám house (=dam­s). g. e. s. kī­dṛ́ ṅ nom. aor. I t is substituted for d before the suffix ­na . aor. s. n . b. á­yān ( = á­yam­s­t) 3.

i . e. which always follows a vowel and is formed by the breath passing through the nose unmodified by the influence of any consonant. Anusvāra usually represents m. e. the latter as ­ before vowels. Lat. g. 1. The semivowel y is constantly written for i before other vowels within the Veda itself. as standing midway between vowels and consonants. ^ y ­ ) . e. s. lion. yaj sacrifice (Gk. u respectively. I t usually appears before s. 11. reed . ḷ. flesh . Medially Anusvāra regularly appears before sibilants and h . Distinct from the five class nasals is the pure nasal. nā́man. but yas boil (Gk.y­tos) . g. yuj yoke (Gk. a. The semivowels y. When Anusvāra appears before ś or h ( = I E . of da give. g. before vowel suffixes . dā́–y­i 3. but before sibilants and h (which have no class nasal). guttural or palatal) it represents the corresponding class nasal. I t is probably due to this difference of origin that yas boil and yam restrain reduplicate with ya in the perfect. máṃsate 3. o­^). i ( = Gk. ^) . ṛ.e. of kram stride. havī́ ṃ ṣi offerings . r . spiritus asper) or voiced palatal spirant y (— Gk. The former is usually written with a dot before consonants. yá­s who (Gk. When final. nomen. pass. of man think . e. being more frequent than the four labial mutes taken together. kraṃsyáte fut. aor. māṃsá n. g. a. siṃhá m. Otherwise it is based either on IE. sometimes n (66 A 2). fi The pure nasal. where it always represents m or n . I t also sometimes appears without etymological justification. ^o). V are peculiar in having each a vowel corresponding to it. m . The proper use of Anusvāra is not before mutes. g. They are called anta(ḥ)sthāin the Prātiśākhyas. The labial m as a rule represents IE. piṃṣanti beside pináṣṭi from pis crush . subj. aor. . s. I t is by far the commonest labial sound. The semivowels. but yaj sacrifice with I. vaṃśá m. viz. variously called Anusvāra and Anunāsika. or ' intermediate '. e. especially after roots in -a.

Otherwise it seems always to be based on IE. spirant v not interchangeable with u. I t is much rarer than r. 1 became r (the Vedic dialect) . on a v interchangeable with u. This letter occurs eight times as often in the latest parts of the RV. 1. e. g. as in the RV. A gradual increase of 1 is apparent in the RV. also i n brahman m. where is and us would become ir and ur. lohitá. r is secondary when it takes the place of phonetic ḍ (= z) as the final of stems in is and us before endings beginning with bh. 1 and in a few instances IE. I t is rarer than in any cognate language except Old Iranian. The semivowel v is constantly written for u before other vowels within the Veda itself. . that is. g. it seems as if there had been a tendency to rhotacism in the Indo­Iranian period. and it is seven times as common in the AV. another in which IE. sacrificial litter (from bṛh or barh make big) . which is seven times as frequent. and the nouns lóman. d. The semivowel r generally corresponds to IE. dráṣṭum to see. I t appears i n forms of dṛś see and sṛj send forth . e. in which it does not occur at all. and a third in which IE. u. This substitution is due to the infiuence of external Sandhi. as in the oldest . r. bráhman n. r and 1 were kept apart . I t seems likely that the recorded Vedic dialect . r. and i n a few other words. r became 1 throughout (the later Māgadhī). a. rabh seize. but never on an IE.SEMIVOWELS 11 b. I n order to account for the Vedic relation of r to 1. Metathesis of r takes place when ā́r would be followed by ṣ or h + consonant. hair. róman n. sáṃsraṣṭṛ one who engages in battle . which in the earlier books appear as mruc sink. The semivowel 1 represents IE. As Old Iranian invariably has r for both. thus in the tenth book are found the verbs mluc and labh. devotion beside barnís n. rohitá red. priest. but also often to IE. e. havír-bhis and vápur-bhis. it appears necessary to assume a mixture of three dialects: one in which the IE.

g. RV. impf). sometimes when final . Kaṇva) = ī́ḍe (RV. cf. hare. palatal (mute or spirant). there are no verbal forms preserving IE. 15. subj. g. mṛṣ-ṭa 3. 1. b. śloka m. śváśura (Lat. I n a good many words l is probably of foreign origin. Sometimes this substitution takes place. but there are various traces of the earlier existence of voiced sibilants (cp. g. r and 1 were kept distinct. like the cerebral mutes. . 8 . s. as in kéśa m. z) and the combination kṣ before the cerebral tenues ṭ ṭn (themselves produced from dental tenues by this ṣ) . chiefly as a result of assimilation. e. e. naṣ–ṭá from naś be lost . indraś ca). r became 1 throughout . under the influence of allied words. ś) and j ( = I-Ir. Medially it represents the palatals s ( = I-Ir. and ­dṛ́k[s] nom. The sibilants are all voiceless.). bal íti (Av. g. and only a few nouns : (u)loká m. 1le (vs. but here it interchanges much oftener with s than with ṣ. hair beside késara (Lat. caesaries). free space. I n the later Saṃhitās l occasionally occurs both medially and finally for ḍ .. s. socer) father-in-law . dṛ́k­ṣ­a­se 2. g. e. from mṛj wipe . and a third in which IE. The cerebral ṣ is. always representing either an original palatal or an original dental sibilant. e. Before s the palatal ś becomes k. altogether secondary. The palatal sibilant ś represents an IE. a. ī́ḷe) . báḷ itthá. 2 k). from dṛś see. regularly when medial. aor. taṣ-ṭá from takṣ hew. it occasionally represents that sibilant within words by assimilation . and -miśla mixed. I n the oldest parts of the RV. śaśá (IE. 12. but that there must have been another Vedic dialect in which IE. I t is also to some extent confused with the other two sibilants in the Saṃhitās. without assimilation. from the latter two 1 must have found its way into the literary language to an increasing extent. 7 a 3 . Besides being the regular substitute for dental s in external Sandhi before voiceless palatals (e. There is a considerable interchange between the sibilants. a.was descended from an Indo-Iranian one in which rhotacism had removed every 1 . s. call. mid. kasó) m.

the phonetic past participle of muh be confused. as is recognizable by its being replaced as final or before t by a cerebral . ^r-rt. zh). ánu ṣṭuvanti they praise . s . pl. jaghā́na . áśva-s horse. this origin being recognizable by the appearance of the guttural in cognate forms . e. g. equo-s. dudróha has injured beside drógha injurious. tiṣṭhati from s t h ā stand . Lat. Thus beside mugdhá. g. e.12­14] BREAT H ING H —SPIRANTS 13 Medially it is regularly. in gā́h­ate plunges beside gādhá n. havíṣ­ṣu in oblations . The dental s as a rule represents IE. g. ford . g. hán­ti strikes beside ghn­ánti. váh­ati carries beside á­vāṭ has carried. e. ṛṣabhá m. ás-ti‚ Gk. e. 13. hi­tá placed beside dhi­tá from d h āput. varṣá n. It stands for dh e. ukṣán m. diví ṣán being in heaven. ox .) bewildered. Visarjanīya has its proper place in pausā. rain . appears mūḍhá (AV. from svap sleep. There are three such represent­ ing original final s or r. go­ṣáṇi winning cattle . I t usually stands for palatalized gh. substituted for dental s after vowels other than a and after the consonants k. bull. pf. s. The various origins of h led to a certain amount of confusion in the groups of forms from roots containing that sound. g. e. ṣāṭ victorious nom. g. Jihvāmūlīya (formed at the root of the tongue) is the guttural spirant and is appropriate before initial voiceless . sex) . but occasionally of the dental dn and the labial bh. r. and initially very frequently. ṣáṣ six (Lat. ūḍhá ( = uz­ḍhá) for vah­tá. The breathing h is a secondary sound representing as a rule the second half of an original guttural or palatal aspirate. Occasionally ṣ represents dental s as a result of assimila­ tion . Voiceless spirants. 14. I n Sandhi it is often replaced by the palatal ś and still offener by the cere­ bral ṣ. I t sometimes represents an old palatal aspirate ( = I­Ir. su­ṣup­ur 3. from sáh overcoming. ṣ . I t represents bh in the verb grah seize beside grabh. c.

and especially from the detailed statements of the Prātiśākhyas. 15. The vowel ṛ.. Upadhmānīya (on-breathing) is the bi-labial spirant f and appears before voiceless labials (p. but that. ph. and always does so in the printed texts of the Saṃhitās. a. though the written text drops it in about 75 per cent.C. I t is described in the RV. Pāṇini and his school . Ancient pronunciation. The internal evidence supplied by the phonetic changes occurring in the language of the texts themselves and the external evidence of comparative philology justify us in concluding that the pronunciation in the period of the Saṃhitās was practically the same as in Pāṇini's time. the ancient phonetic works dealing with the Saṃhitās. we have a sufficiently exact knowledge derived from the transcription of Sanskrit words in foreign languages. The simple vowels ī̆‚ ū̆ and a were pronounced as in Italian. the close pronun­ ciation was already becoming general. The vowels. As regards the pronuncia¬ tion prevailing about 500 B. however. from the information contained in the old grammarians. Prātiśākhya . at the time when the Saṃhitā text was constituted. I t is. somewhat like the sound in the final syllable of the French chambre. But ă in the time of the Prātiśākhyas was already sounded as a very short close neutral vowel like the u in English but. was in the Saṃhitās pronounced as a vocalic r. Visaṛjanīya may take the place of the latter two. especially Greek . The following few remarks will therefore suffice on the subject of pronunciation : 1.). probable from the fact that the metre hardly ever admits of ă being elided after e and o in the RV. that at the time when the hymns were composed the pronunciation of ă was still open.gutturals (k. now usually sounded as r i (an early pro­ nunciation as shown by the confusion of ṛ and r i in ancient inscriptions and MSS. of the occurrences. kh).). The only possible exceptions are a very few doubtful points.

sū­yá­te is pressed (√su) . But that they represent the original genuine diphthongs ăi and ău is shown by the fact that they are produced in Sandhi by the coalescence of a with i and u. gū–ḍnáforguh­tá (15. janī­yánt desiring a wife (jáni) . u often become long before v . 2 . d. c. 2 a a 1 A term used i n the Prātiśākhyas and meaning ‘ vowel-part '. e. śrudhī hávam hear our prayer. ā́–vidh­yat he wounded (a is augment) . containing an r in the middle. e. g. b. the equivalent of ṛ in Old Iranian. gnā́ = g nā́ woman. 2 k) . i . g. now usually pronounced as l r i . the metre shows that a very short vowel must often be pronounced between them . ji­gī­vā́ṃs having conquered ( √ji) . e. But that they etymologically represent āi and au is shown by their Sandhi. described in the RV. g. índra = índ­ra . and that this was even the case in the Saṃhitās is shown by the fact that their Sandhi before a was no longer ay and av‚ and that the a was beginning to be elided after e and o. Lengthened vowels. was in the Saṃhitās a vocalic 1. e. yā́ ­ vant how great . Svarabhakti. as compensation for the loss of a following consonant . g. also before r when a consonant follows. ṛtā́–van observing order (ṛtá) . they are also often pronounced long for metrical reasons .. e. The diphthongs e and o were already pronounced as the simple long vowels ē and ō in the time of the Prātiśākhyas. e. and were so pronounced even at the time of the Prātiśākhyas. This agrees with ɘrɘ.’ When a consonant is in conjunction with r or a nasal. or mora i n length and generally as equivalent to a i n sound. a. gīr­bhís (but gír­as) . The vowels i and u were often pronounced long before suffixal y . The very rare vowel ḷ. The diphthongs ai and au are at the present day pro¬ nounced as ái and áu.g. yajñá — yaj ná sacrifice . Prātiśākhya as corresponding to l representing an original r. Described by the Prātiśākbyas as equal to ^.

e. Loss of vowels. With very few exceptions the only
vowel lost is initial a which, in one per cent. of its occurrences
in the RV. and about 20 per cent. in the AV. and the metrical
portions of the YV., is dropped in Sandhi after e and o.
In a few words the disappearance of initial a is prehistoric ;
e. g. ví bird (Lat. avi­s) ; sánti they are (Lat. sunt),

fi. Hiatus. I n the written text of the Saṃhitās hiatus,
though as a rule tolerated in diphthongs only, appears in
Sandhi when a final s, y, v has been dropped before
a following vowel ; when final ī, ū, e of dual endings are
followed by vowels ; and when a remains after final e
and o.
Though not written, hiatus is common elsewhere also in
the Saṃhitās : y and v must often be pronounced as i and u,
and a long vowel or diphthong as two vowels, the original
vowels of contractions having often to be restored both
within a word and in Sandhi; e.g. jyéṣṭha mightiest as
jyá­iṣṭha ( = jyā́­iṣṭha from jyā be mighty).
2. Consonants. a. The aspirates were double sounds,
consisting of mutes followed by a breathing ; thus k­h is
pronounced as in ' ink­horn ' ; t­h as in ' pot­house ’ ; p­h as
in ' top­heavy ' ; g­h as in ' log­house ' ; d­h as in ' mad­house ’;
b­h as in ' Hob­house ’.
b. The gutturals were no doubt velars or sounds pro­
duced by the back of the tongue against the soft palate.
They are described by the Prātiśākhyas as formed at the
' root of the tongue ' and at the ' root of the jaw ’.
c. The palatals c, j , ch are pronounced like ch in ' church ',
j in ‘join’, and ch in the second part of ‘Churchill‛.
d. The cerebrals were pronounced somewhat like the
so-called dentals t, d, n in English, but with the tip of
the tongue turned farther back against the roof of the
mouth. They include the cerebral ḷ and l h which in
Rigvedic texts take the place of ḍ and ḍh between vowels.
The latter occurs medially only; the former finally also.

Examples are: íḷā refreshment; turā­ṣā́ ḷ abhi­bhūtyójāḥ ;
á­ṣāḷha invincible.
e. The dentals in the time of the Prātiśākhyas were
post-dentals, being produced by the tongue, according to
their description, at the ' root of the teeth ' (danta-mūla).
f. The class nasals are produced with organs of speech
in the same position as for the formation of the correspond­
ing mutes while the breath passes through the nose.
The pure nasal, when called Anunāsika, combines with the
preceding vowel to form a single sound, a nasalized vowel,
as in the French 'bon'; when called Anusvāra (aftersound), it forms in combination with the preceding vowel
two successive sounds, a pure vowel immediately followed
by the pure nasal, though seeming to form a single sound,
as in the English 'ba-ng' (where, however, the nasal is
guttural, not pure).
g. The semivowel y is the voiced palatal spirant produced
in the same place as the palatal vowel 1. The semivowel v
is described by the Prātiśākhyas as a voiced labio-dental
spirant. I t is like the English v or the German w. The
semivowel r must originally have been a cerebral, as is
shown by its phonetic effect on a following dental n. By
the time of the Prātiśākhyas it was pronounced in other
positions also. Thus the RV. Prātiśākhya speaks of it as
either post-dental or produced farther back (but not as
The semivowel 1 is described in the Prātiśākhyas as
pronounced in the same position as the dentals, which
means that it was a post-dental.
h. The sibilants are all voiceless. The dental s sounds
like s in ' sin ’ ; the cerebral ṣ like sh in ' shun ’ (but with
the tip of the tongue farther back) ; while the palatal is
produced midway between the two, being the sibilant pro¬
nounced in the same place as the spirant in the German
ich. Though the voiced sibilants z, z (palatal — French j),

z, zh (cerebral) have entirely disappeared, they have generally
left traces of their former existence in the phonetic changes
they have produced.
i. The sound h was undoubtedly pronounced as a voiced
breathing in the Saṃhitās. The Prātiśākhyas describe it as
voiced and as identical with the second element of voiced
aspirates (g-h, d-h, b-h). This is corroborated by the
spelling ^ l-h ( = ḍh) beside ^O ḷ ( = ḍ).
j . There are three voiceless spirants appearing only as
finals. The usual one, called Visarjanīya in the Prātiśākhyas,
is according to the Taittirīya Prātiśākhya articulated in the
same place as the end of the preceding vowels. Its place
may be taken by Jihvāmūlīya before the voiceless initial
gutturals k, k n ; and by Upadhmānīya before the voiceless
initial labials p, ph. These two are regarded by the RV.
Prātiśākhya as forming the second half of the voiceless
aspirates kh and ph respectively (just as h forms the second
half of gh, bh, ^c.), They are therefore the guttural spirant
(Greek) ^ and the bilabial spirant f respectively.
k. Loss of consonants. This is almost entirely confined
to groups of consonants. When the group is final, all but
the first element, as a rule, is dropped in pausā and in
Sandhi (28). I n initial consonant groups a sibilant is often
lost before a mute ; e. g. candrá shining beside ścandrá ;
stanayitnú m. beside tanayitnú thunder; tāyú m. beside
stāyú thief; tṛ́ beside stṛ́ m. star; páśyati sees beside spáś
m. spy, ­spaṣ­ṭa seen. I n a medial group the sibilants s
and ṣ regularly disappear between mutes ; e. g. á­bhak­ta,
3. s. aor. for á–hhak­ṣ­ṭa beside á­bhak­ṣ­i. A mute may
disappear between a nasal and a mute ; e. g. yuṅ–dhí for
a. Medially, voiced sibilants, the dental the cerebral z,
and the palatal z, have disappeared before the voiced dentals
d, dh, and h, but nearly always leaving a trace of their
former existence. Only in the two roots containing ā‚

ās sit, śās order, the sibilant has disappeared without a trace :
ā́­dhvam, śa-śā-dhi. But when a preceded the z the loss
of the sibilant is indicated by e taking the place of az ;
e. g. e­dhí (for az­dhí) from as be ; sed, perfect stem of sad
sit for sazd; similarly in de­hí give (for daz­dhí) beside
dad­dhí. When other vowels than a preceded, the ^ was
cerebralized and disappeared after cerebralizing the follow­
ing dental and lengthening the preceding vowel ; thus
á­sto­ḍhvam ( = á­stoz­ḍhvam for á­sto–s–dhvam) 2. pl.
aor. beside á­sto­ṣ­ṭa ; similarly mīḍhá n. reward (Gk.
^o­^o­^), Similarly the old voiced palatal z disappeared after
cerebralizing a following d or dh and lengthening the
preceding vowel ; e. g. tā­ḍhi for taz–ḍhi ( = tak­ṣ­dhi) from
takṣ fashion ; ṣo­ḍhā́ for ṣaṣ­dhā́ ( = sak–ṣ–dhā́) beside
ṣaṣ­ṭhá sixth. Still commoner is the loss of the old aspirated
palatal zh represented by h, which was dropped after
cerebralizing and aspirating a following t and lengthening
the preceding vowel ; e. g. sā–ḍhṛ for sáh­tṛ conqueror from
sah ; gūḍhá concealed for guh­tá (from guzh­tá).
l. H aplology. When two identical or similar syllables
are in juxtaposition, one of them is sometimes dropped ;
e. g. tuvī–rá[va]–vān roaring mightily beside tuvī­ráva ;
ir[adh]ádhyai inf. of iradh seek to win; ma­dúgha m.
a plant yielding honey, beside madhu­dúgha shedding sweet­
ness ; śīrṣa-[sa]ktí I. headache.

16. Though the sentence is naturally the unit of speech,
which forms an unbroken chain of syllables euphonically
combined, it is strictly so only in the prose portions of the
A V and the YV. But as the great bulk of the Vedas is
metrical, the editors of the Saṃhitā text treat the hemistich
(generally consisting of two Pādas or verses) as the euphonic
unit, being specially strict in applying the rules of Sandhi
between the verses forming the hemistich. But the evidence
of metre supported by that of accent shows that the Pāda is
the true euphonic unit. The form which the final of a word
shows varies according as it appears in pausā at the end of
a Pāda, or in combination with a following word within the
Pāda. With the former is concerned the law of finals in
pausā, with the latter the rules of Sandhi. Avoidance
of hiatus and assimilation are the leading principles on
which the rules of Sandhi are based.
Though both are in general founded on the same phonetic
laws, it is necessary, owing to certain differences, to dis­
tinguish external Sandhi, which determines the changes
of final and initial letters of words, from internal Sandhi,
which applies to the final letters of verbal roots and
nominal stems when followed by certain suffixes and
a. The rules of external Sandhi apply with few exceptions
(which are survivals from an earlier stage of external Sandhi)
to words forming compounds, and to final letters of nominal
stems before the case­endings beginning with consonants
(­bhyām ­bhis, ­bhyas, ­su) or before secondary (182, 2)
suffixes beginning with any consonant except y.

A. External Sandhi.
Classification of Vowels.
17. Vowels are divided into
A. 1. Simple vowels : a ā ; i ī ; u ū ; ṛ ṝ ; ḷ.
2. Guṇa vowels : a ā ; e
ar al.
3. Vṛddhi vowels: ā ; ai ; au ; ār.
a. Guṇa (secondary duality) has the appearance of being
the simple vowel strengthened by combination with a pre­
ceding a according to the rule (19a) of external Sandhi
(except that a itself remains unchanged) ; Vṛddhi (increase),
of being the Guṇa vowel strengthened by combination with
another a.
B. 1. Vowels liable to bechangedinto semivowels : i , ī ;
u, ū ; ṛ^ and the diphthongs e, ai, o‚ au (the latter half of
which is i or u) : consonantal vowels.
2. Vowels not liable to be changed into semivowels (and
only capable of coalescence) : a, ā : unconsonantal vowels.


Combination of Final and Initial Vowels.
IS. I f the same simple vowel (short or long) occurs at
the end of one word and the beginning of the next,
contraction resulting in the long vowel is the rule in the
written text of the Saṃhitās. Thus ihā́sti = ihá asti ;
índrā́ = índra ā́ ; tvāgne = tvā agne ; vtdám = ví idám ;
sūktám = su uktám.


The Vṛddhi form of ḷ (which would be āl) does not occur.
I n this vowel gradation, as Comparative Philology shows, the
Guṇa vowel represents the normal stage, from which the simple
vowel was reduced by loss of accent, while Vṛddhi is a lengthened
variety of Guṇa (5 a). The reduction of the syllables ya, va, ra (which
are parallel w i t h the Guṇa stage) to the corresponding vowels i‚ u, ṛ
(5 b) is termed Samprasāraṇa (distraction).
ṝ never appears under conditions rendering i t liable to be changed
into r (cp. 4 a, p. 4).
ṝ does not occur because ṛ ṛ never meet i n the Saṃhitās, and final
ṛ does not even occur i n the RV.



a. The contraction of ā + a and of ū̆ + ū̆ occasionally does
not take place, even in the written text of the RV., both
between the Pādas of a hemistich and within a Pāda ; thus
manīṣā́ , agníḥ ; manīṣā́ abhí ; vīḷū́ u t á ; sú ūrdhváḥ ;
and in a compound, su­ūtáyaḥ.
b. On the other hand, the metre requires the contracted
vowels of the written text to be restored in pronunciation.
I n such cases the restored initial is long by nature or
position, while the preceding final, if long, must be shortened.
Thus cāsā́t is pronounced as ca āsā́t ; cārcata as ca arcata ;
mā́péḥ as mā́ āpéḥ (for mā́ āpéḥ) ; mṛḷatīdṛ́ ś e as mṛḷati
īdṛ́śe ; yántī́ n davaḥ as yánti índavaḥ ; bhavantūkṣáṇaḥ
as bhavantu ukṣáṇaḥ. When the first word is a mono­
syllable (especially ví or hí), the written contractions ī and
ū are usually to be pronounced with hiatus ; thus hlndra as
hí índra.
19. a and ä
a. coalesce with the simple vowels ī̆ and ū̆ to the Guṇa
vowels e and o respectively ; e. g. ihéha — ihá iha ;
pitéva = pitā́ iva ; ém = ā́ īm ; óbhā́ = ā́ ubhā́.’ They
are never contracted to ar in the written text of the R v or
VS. ; hut the metre shows that the combination is sometimes
to he pronounced as ar, for instance in the compound
sapta­ṛṣáyaḥ the seven seers = saptarṣáyaḥ.





Because of the prosodical rule that a long vowel is always
shortened before another vowel. Cf. note 5.
Occasionally ā 4­ i remain uneontracted i n the written text of
the RV., as jyā́ iyám, pibā imám, raṇayā ihá.
3 This contraction is a survival because é and ö are simple long
vowels, but they were originally –­­­ ái, áu.
But i n many instances where the contraction is written, the
original simple vowels must be restored with hiatus ; thus subhágosā́ ḥ
= subhágā uṣā́ḥ.
ā is always shortened or nasalized before ṛ in the written text ;
e. g. tátha ṛ t ú ḥ (for t á t h ā ) ; vipanyā́ m ṛtásya (for vipanyā́ ) .


b. coalesce with Guṇa vowels to Vṛddhi ; e. g. áibhiḥ
= ā́ ebhiḥ.
c. are absorbed by Vṛddhi vowels ; e. g. sómasyauśijáḥ
— sómasya auśijáḥ.
20. The simple consonantal vowels ī̆ and ū̆ before dis­
similar vowels or before diphthongs are regularly changed
to the semivowels y and v respectively in the written text
of the Saṃhitās ; e. g. práty āyam — práti ayam ; jánitry
ajījanat = jánitrī ajījanat ; ā́ tv éta = ā́ tú étā. But the
evidence of the metre shows that this y or v nearly always
has the syllabic value of :t or ú. Thus vy ùṣā́ḥ must be
read as ví uṣā́ḥ ; vidátheṣv añján as vidátheṣu añján.
a. Final ṛ (which does not occur in the RV.) becomes r
before a dissimilar vowel ; an example is vijñātr ètát —
vijñātṛ́ etát (ŚB.).
21. The Guṇa vowels e and o
a. remain unchanged before a.’ which is generally elided
in the written text of the Saṃhitās, but according to the
evidence of the metre, must almost invariably in the RV.,
and generally in the AV. and YV., be pronounced.’ whether
written or not. I n devā́so aptúraḥ (1. 3^) the a is both





a instead of contracting with e is sometimes nasalized before i t :
aminantaṁ évaiḥ (for a e) ; upásthām ékā (for ā e). Again á is
sometimes elided before e and o ; as úp'sṣatu (for a e), yáth'ohiṣe
(for ā 0 ) .
Because ī and ū are prosodically shortened before a following
vowel (p. 22, note 1).
The exceptional treatment of e i n stótava ambyām for stótave
ambyām is a survival showing that the Sandhi of e and 0 before a
was originally the same as before other vowels.
I n the RV. i t is elided i n about 75 per cent., i n the A v . i n about
66 per cent. of its occurrences.
I n the RV. i t must be pronounced i n 99 per cent., i n the A v . and
the metrical parts of the Y v . i n about 80 per cent. of its occurrences.
The frequent elision of the a i n the written text compared with
its almost invariable retention in the original text of the RV., indicates
a period of transition between the latter and the total elision of the
post-vedic period.





written and pronounced ; in sūnávé ’gne (i. 1^) it must be
restored as sūnáve l ágne.
b. before every other vowel (or diphthong) would naturally
become ay and av (the form they assume within a word),
but the former drops the semivowel throughout, while the
latter does so only before ū̆ ; e. g. agna ihá (for agnay) ;
vā́ya ukthébhīḥ (for vāyav) ; but vāyav ā yāhi.
22. The Vṛddhi vowels ai and au are treated before
every vowel (including a) or diphthong exactly in the same
way as e and o before vowels other than a. Thus ai
becomes ā (through āy) throughout, but au only before ū̆
(through āv) ; e. g. tásmā akṣī́ (for tásmāy), tásmā índrāya ;
sujihvā́ úpa (for sujihvā́v), but tā́v ā́, tā́v indrāgnī.
a. The (secondary) hiatus caused by the dropping of y
and v in the above cases (21 b and 22) as a rule remains.
But further contraction is sometimes actually written in the
Saṃhitās ; e. g. sártavā́ j áu for sártavā́ ājáu (through
sártavāy for sártavái) ; vāsáu for vā asáu (through vā́y
for vái). Sometimes, again, the contraction, though not
written, is required by the metre. Thus ta indra must be
pronounced as tendra, and goṣṭná úpa (AV.) for goṣṭhé úpa
(through goṣṭháy) as goṣṭhópa.


Irregular Vowel Sandhi.
23. Vṛddhi instead of Guṇa results from the contraction of
a. the preposition ā (in the AV. and VS.) with initial ṛ
in ārti = ā ṛ t i and in ārchatu — ā ṛchatu. I n the case of
the 1atter verb, the TS. extends this contraction to prepositions
ending in a : úpārchati = úpa ṛchati and avārcháti =
ava ṛcháti.


Because e and 0 were originally = ái and áu.
This is also the sandhi of the AB. and K B .




b. The preposition prá (in the RV.) with initial i in
práiṣayúr = prá isayúr.
c. The augment a with the initial vowels i , u, r ; e. g.
áichas 2. s. impf. of is wish ; áunat 3. s. impI. of ud wet ;
ārta 3. s. aor. of ṛ go.

Absence of Vowel Sandhi .
24. The particle u is unchangeable^ in pronunciation
before vowels, though as a rule written as v after a con­
sonant ; e. g. bnā u aṃśáve, but ávéd v índra. When it
combines with the final a of a particle to o, in ó — ā
u, átho = átha u, u.tó = utá u, mó = mā́ u‚ it remains
unchanged even in the written text ; e. g. átho índrāya.
25. a. The ī and ū of the dual (nom. acc.) never change
to y and v. This dual ī is never to be pronounced short,
but the ū sometimes is ; e.g. hárī (^ —) ṛtásya, but sādhu.
(— ^) asmai. This ī may remain before i‚ as in hárī iva,
but in several instances the contraction is written, as in
ródasīmé = ródasī imé, while in several others, though
not written, it must be pronounced.
b. The rare locatives singular in ī and ū are also regularly
written unchanged in the RV., but they seem always to be
treated as prosodically short.
c. The ī of the nom. plur. m. (of the pronoun asáu) amī́
is always given as unchangeable in the Pada text (amī́ iti),
but it never happens to occur before a vowel in the RV.



This is perhaps a survival of a prehistoric contraction of ā (the
original form of the augment) with i , u, r to āi, āu, ār.
The term applied by the native phoneticians to unchangeable
vowels is pragṛhya separated. Such vowels are indicated i n the Pada
text by an appended i t i . u is always there written i n its lengthened
and nasalized form as um i t i .
I t is occasionally written unchanged i n its lengthened form even
after a consonant, as tám ū akrṇvan.
Except védy asyā́m, to be pronounced védi asyā́m.



7 ^. 2 3 4 Combination of Final and Initial Consonants. yuṣmé itthā́ . of a stems. Final n and r are. asmé in us. i n prthivī́ . a. for there was origin­ ally no difference between this dual e and any other e i n middle forms. The diphthong e is unchangeable in various nominal and verbal forms. s. and Visarjanīya are tolerated. By this law the thirty­nine consonants classified in ^ 3 are reduced to 1 The unchangeableness of the vowel here being only occasional is not indicated with i t i i n the Pada text. though it is nearly always prosodically shortened . utī́ often. dual ( = a + ī ) . suśámī once. samrā́ j ñī ádbi. g. The verbal dual e of the 2. The e of the locative of the pronominal forms tvé in thee. fem. nasals. e. sing. 3. asmé ā́yuḥ . yuṣmé in you are unchangeable . 2 3 4 5 6 . suśámī abhūvan.. The external Sandhi of consonants is primarily and almost exclusively concerned with the assimilation of a final to a following initial sound. remains unchanged before vowels . They are always written with i t i i n the Pada text. and the plur. b. however.26 CONsONANT sANDH1 ^-. and neut. Except dhíṣṇyemé for dhíṣṇye imé. and palatals are excluded. to.’ it is necessary to state the law of allowable finals at the outset. Also used as dat. Since the Sandhi of final consonants generally speaking starts from the form they assume in pausā. is not liable to Sandhi . ródasī ubhé ṛghāyámāṇam. e. The ī of the nom. g. never combines. i n the RV. tvé i t . The e of the nom. acc. such as the dual vane. samrā́ j ñī rarely. g. 27. e. ante. ^' e. and perf. 1 26. as finals. but of etymology. to a considerable extent treated not on the basis of their pausal form. e. of the iṅstr. g. pres. mid. and of the instr. Under the influence of the nominal dual e . prthu­jráyī. parimamnā́ t he asmā́n. as i t is also probably to be pronounced. That law may be formulated as follows : only unaspirated hard mutes.

tudán striking (for tudánts) . áchān 3. s. Visarjanīya. k. 1 ^. impI. aor. like mā́s moon. n . of dṛ cleave beside á­dar 2. s. s. prā́ṅ forward (through prā́ ṅ k for prā́ñc­s) . of vṛj bend (for várk­t) . are allowed to remain . e. á­bhanas (for á­bhanak­s) 2. s. ū́rk nom. ṅ . t. are replaced by k or ṭ (ñ by ṅ). puro­dā́s sacrificial cake (for puro­dā́ ś -s). a kind of priest . of sṛj emit . (2) s or t similarly appears i n the following four singular verbal preterite forms : á­yā­s (for á­yaj­s) beside a­yāṭ 2 s. draviṇo­dā́ – s wealth­giver. aor. when they follow an r and belong to the root. g. 2 1 The only instance of a suffix remaining after r is i n dar­t 3. p. The rule is that only a single consonant may be final. The appearance of s or t here is due to the beginnings of the 3 . There are seven instances i n the Saṃhitās i n which a suffixal s or t is retained instead of the preceding radical consonant. of bhañj break . v (3 c) do not occur. g. ā́vayās (for ā́vayāj–s) m. (for á­dar­s). s. sacrificial share . (1) s thus appears i n the following four nominatives sing. and á­srat (for a­sras­t) 3 3. The palatals (3 b ^). s. s. várk 3. of mṛj wipe . ava­yā́s (for ava­ yā́j­s) f. s (3 d) and r (3 e) by Visarjanīya. 1. á­mārṭ 3. aor. including ś (3 d). 2 S. ṣ (3 d) is replaced by ṭ. leaving only hard unaspirated mutes to represent them. of sras fall. ^c. á­sras (for á­sraj­s) 2. or t. The aspirate and soft mutes (3 b) are eliminated. of ū́rj strength . s. those (for tans) . ṭ . of vṛt turn . tā́n ace. ábhavan 3. : sadha­mā́ s beside sadha­mā́ t (for sadha­mā́ d ­s) companion of the feast. aor. impf. s. pi. aor. of suhā́ r d friend. aor. a.the following eight as permissible in pausā :—k. The nasal ṇ (3 b y) and the three semivowels y. ā́–vart 3. and h (3 e). ­ The s is probably due to the analogy of nominatives. were (for ábhavant) . impf. e. su­hā́ r t nom. s. m . pi. of yaj sacrifice . s. t. has pleased (for áchantst). aor. H ence all but the first of a group of consonants must be dropped .

g. ā́­ves 2. d. with the palate the palatals. some half­dozen examples of this have been found i n the Brāhmaṇas . 29. French j). H ence it is necessary to understand fully the classification of consonants from these two aspects. the tongue being in partial contact with the place of articulation in the first three. which are phonetically described in ^ 15. is of two kinds. There are no corresponding soft sibilants (English z. u. and labial respectively. while contact between the lips produces the labials. s. the breath partially passes through the nose while the tongue or the lips are in the position for articulating the corresponding tennis. ṛ. dental. b. 15. The three sibilants are hard spirants produced by partial contact of the tongue with the palate. of which the application of the rules of consonant Sandhi consists.). 2b­h) an arrangement according to the place of articulation is given of all the consonants except four. e. but their prehistoric existence may be inferred from various phenomena of Sandhi (cp. Contact of the tongue with the throat produces the gutturals. and the lips in partial contact in the fourth. ḷ. I n forming the nasals of the five classes.Classification of Consonants. I t is concerned either with a shift of the phonetic position in which a consonant is articulated. the breathing h and the three voiceless spirants. or with a change of the quality of the consonant. impf. while the tongue is in the position for forming the particular vowel which the Anusvāra accompanies. The semivowels y. 1‚ v are palatal. pronounced in the same position as the corresponding vowels i . roof. s. . and t i n the 3. with the teeth the dentals. and teeth respectively. a. The real Anusvāra is formed in the nose only. e. r. The assimilation. with the roof of the mouth the cerebrals. 15. tendency to normalize the terminations so as to have s i n the 2. 2 ko. 2 ij. (­­– á­ved­s) from v i d know. cerebral. s. In ^ 3 b c d (cp.

ṭh ḍh ḷh. ś ṣ s . ḥ only after vowels and before certain hard letters. gámad . ḥ h ḥ (3) . k. Hence final k‚ ṭ. while the change of c to g (hard palatal to soft guttural) or of t to j (hard dental to soft palatal) is one of both position and quality. b respectively . g. I . p ph .e. ś ṣ s . eh j h . 31. 32. ṭ ṭh. Changes of Quality. 3 b ^y) . Consonants are 1. A final consonant (that is. a mute or Visarjanīya) is assimilated in quality to the following initial. havyavā́ḍ juhvā̀ s yaḥ (through -vā́ṭ for ­vā́h) . The latter are then modified without reference to their etymological value (except partially in the case of n and Visarjanīya). p. t. Hence the change of c to k is a change of the position of articulation (palatal to guttural). t. viz. or soft (sonant. and that of e to j is a change of quality (hard to soft) . Quality of consonants. voiced): all the rest (3) (besides all the vowels and diphthongs). arvā́g rā́dhaḥ (through arvā́k for arvā́c) . voiceless) : k kh‚ c ch. h occurs only before soft letters. h and ḥ are respectively soft and hard spirants produced without any contact. h ḥ h h. Only six of these allowable finals occur at all frequently. I t is essential to remember that consonant Sandhi cannot be applied till finals have been reduced to one of the eight allowable sounds (27). and Visarjanīya. p before vowels and soft consonants become g. m. e. ḍ. and remaining hard before hard initials (consonants). d. either hard (surd. 30. n. and articulated in the position of the vowel that precedes or follows. becoming soft before soft initials. while the cerebral ṭ and the guttural ṅ are rare. ṣáḷ urvī́ḥ (through ṣáṭ for ṣáṣ : cp. t th. or unaspirated : all the rest. 2. either aspirate d : kh gh. th dh‚ ph bh.

t. b. ahjā́ (for ap­jā́). Changes of Position. pratyáfik sá beside pratyáṅ sá. tán mitrásya (for tád) . v. Before p i t sometimes becomes ṃḥ . g. e. which is rare. The dental nasal n remains unchanged before (1) the gutturals k. dh. tā́n­t sám. a. ṣáṇ­ṇavati (TS. e.’ ph. palatals. bh.g. 2) . p before n or m may. 52). áṅgāl lómnaḥ (for áṅgāt). and Visar¬ janīya. 5. The only four final consonants (27) liable to change of position are the dental t and n. práṇaṅ mártyasya (through práṇag for práṇak) . (2) the labials p.vā́jebhiḥ (for gámat) . agníd ṛtāyatáḥ (through agnít for agnídh) . ṭ. do not occur as finals. g. become the nasal of their own class . and sometimes p (40). Before ṣ and s a transitional t may be inserted. 36. 2 . r. Since the nasals have no corresponding hard sounds. g.g. trikakúm nivártat (through trikakúb for trikakúp from trikakúbh). (3) the soft dentals d. Final t becomes 1 through d . 37. āsīn nó (through asīd for asīt) . triṣṭúb gāyatrī́ (through triṣṭúp for triṣṭúbh) . generally also before t (40. gh. the semivowel 1. they remain unchanged in quality before initial hard sounds. but it may before sibilants insert a transitional k. (5) the cerebral and the dental sibilants ṣ and s. cp. The guttural ṅ. kh. 35. (4) the semivowels y. áhan­t sáhasā . dentals. 1 I I . Fina1 k. remains otherwise unmodified also (cp. as has already been stated. and in practice regu1arly do. e. 52) . virā́ ṇ mitrā́ v áruṇayoḥ (through virā́ ḍ for virā́ṭ) . the labial m.) (through ṣáṭ­) for ṣáṣ­navati . n . 40. 1 The palatal and cerebral nasals. 34. e. Final dental n is liable to change before vowels (42. 33. and the breathing h . Final m is liable to change of position before all consonants (42). m .

ch. e. Final t before palatals (c. Before c the palatal sibilant is sometimes inserted in the RV„ the preceding n then becoming Anusvāra. 39. e. vajṛnt śnathihi may (through vajriñc ^' śnathihi) become vajṛñ chnathihi. No initial cerebral mutes occur i n the RV. That is. Final t.^ 2. ṝmr occurs only once. 38. and once i n ṣā́ṭ for sā́ṭ from sā́h.’ a. ṝ. after a long vowel. t before ś becomes o (38). yātayáj­ jana for yātayát­jana .. That is. The two dentals become palatal before palatals. 72 ). e. tác cákṣuḥ for tát cákṣuḥ. j . to Anusvāra : if the preceding vowel is ā. Visarjanīya and m adapt themselves to the phonetic position of the following consonant. and even the cerebral sibilant ṣ occurs only i n sás suc and its compounds. abhī́śūm̐r iva for abhī́śūn . rohíc chyāvā́ for rohít śyāvā́. Final n before vowels is changed. to m̐r . 1. nṛm̐r abhí for nṝ́n. ā n īn ūn remain unchanged at the end of a Pada (as being i n pausā) before a vowel . if it is ī. 1. There are no examples of the inserted sibilant before ch in the Saṃhitās. Both m and mr here represent original ns through mḥ. urdhvā́ ñ caráthāya for ūrdhvā́ n . after c initial ś may become ch (53).a.g. to m̐. but since before ś a transitional t may be inserted. 40. the Sandhi of ḥ being here the same as that of āḥ īḥ ū ḥ ṝ ḥ before vowels. On the change of ś to ch after c see 53. otherwise remaining unchanged as ṝn‚ because two r sounds are avoided i n the same syllable (cf. 2 3 7 4 5 6 7 .’ b. Final n before all palatals that occur becomes palatal ñ . e. sárgām íva for sárgān . vajriñ śnathihi for vajrin. g.g. This 3 4 7 1 Final dentals never come into contact w i t h initial cerebrals i n the Saṃhitās. devayā́ n ān'átandraḥ (f. vidvā́m̐ agne for vidvā́ n . Final n. ū . Vedic Grammar. paridhī́m̐r áti for paridhī́ n . § 79). ś) is changed to a palatal (c or j) . tā́ñ juṣethām for tā́ n .g.

but the dental sibilant is sometimes inserted in the RV. pl. dadvā́m̐ vā (for dadvā́n) . Final m. jigīvā́l lakṣám. 1 That is. occurring even where not etymologi¬ cally justified. agním H e Ipraise Agni. but svávām̐ yātu (for svávān) . impf. g. Final n usually remains unchanged before dental t. Final m remains unchanged before vowels . h (36. 4). īmr. 5. dás¬ yūm̐r yónau (for dásyūn). of n stems. g. rā́jan (which never ended in s). ūmr as before vowels (39) . and loc. only when the sibilant is etymologically justified. occurring even where not etymo­ logically justified. pī́vo­annām̐ rayivṛ́dhaḥ (for annān) . devā́n havāmahe . 4. ábhavan (originally ábhavan­t) and the voc. No initial th occurs i n the RV. īn. I n the later Saṃhitās the inserted sibilant becomes commoner. e. e.. only when the sibilant is historically justified . I n the later Saṃhitās the inserted sibilant becomes commoner.g. 3. ūn sometimes become ām̐. and acc. almost exclusively (though not without exception even here ^) before ca and cid . E.. paśū́ ñ ca sthātṝ́ ñ carátham (i. Though final n generally remains unchanged before y. e. e. e. s. e. m. r. svátavāṃḥ pāyúḥ (for svátavān). g. i n the nom. thus nṛṃḥ pāhi (for nṝ́n) . tvā́vān t m á n ā . ān. 72 ). 1 3 4 1 3 3. As in the 3. g.g. 2) . g.. Final n before initial 1 always becomes nazalized 1.insertion takes place. Final n when etymologically representing ns sometimes becomes ṃḥ before p (36.g. v. amenā́ṃś cit. e. 2. paṇī́m̐r hatam (for paṇī́n) . the preceding n then becoming Anusvāra. 41. e. p i . 2 3 4 6 . āvádaṃs tvám (for āvádan). which originally ended i n ns. anuyājā́ṃś ca. This insertion takes place. g. nṝ́ṃḥ pā́ t ram .

1. g. Final m before consonants is changed 1. Most MSS. and of t before n (33). the three sibilants ś. v it becomes nasalized y. bhadráṃ naḥ. e. bhadráṃ kariṣyási. before the semivowel r. 2. before y. 3. 1 Anusvāra seems to have been used originally before the sibilants and h only. 42. Max Müller i n his editions prints Anusvāra throughout. e. and the printed texts. 1 2 3 4 3 6 This Sandhi is identical with that of n before the palatals c‚ j . 1. e. but the printed texts regularly use Anusvāra instead . as i n durgáhaitát for durgáham etát. before mutes it becomes the class nasal.^. even before labials . and forms like jagan­vā́ n (from gam go) point to its having at one time become n before v i n Sandhi.Forms w i t h internal m like yam­yámāna and ápa­mlukta show that m originally remained unchanged i n external Sandhi before y and l . s and the breathing h to Anusvāra . dḥ. tyáñ camasám . I n a very few instances the m is dropped and the vowels there­ upon contract. návan tváṣṭuḥ . sáṃ yudhí . Compounds like sam­rā́ j show that m originally remained unchanged before r (49 b). however. 3). bhadrán kariṣyási . g. mitráṃ huve (for mitrám). neither here (durgáhā etát) nor elsewhere analyses a contraction i n this way. I t is very rarely written. This Sandhi is mostly indicated by the metre only : thus rāṣṭrám ihá must be pronounced rāṣṭréhá. 2 4 5 6 . Before labials it of course remains. n (36. bhadrán nah. yajñáṃ vaṣṭu.g. e. however. hótāraṃ ratnadhā¬ tamam (for hótāram) . represent this assimilated m by Anusvāra . v . The Taittirīya Prātiśākhya allows the optional use of Anusvāra before these semivowels. tyáṃ camasám. várdhamānaṃ své (for várdha¬ mānam) . where he retains m. and n before n . Aufrecht has Anusvāra except before labials. návaṃ tváṣṭuḥ. led to ambiguity i n some instances and consequent wrong analysis by the Padapāṭha. '. ch (40) and the soft dentals d. The Pada text. This assimilation before n being identical with that of d. s. g.

it becomes the corresponding Sibilant . dyáuḥ pṛthivī́. divás pári . g. it either remains or is assimilated . pū́ś ca (through pū́ḥ ca for pur ca. dúṣ–ṭara hard to pass. víṣṇoḥ kármāṇi (for víṣṇos) . ū‚ ṝ . though contrary to etymology. pátnīvatas kṛdhi . it either remains or becomes Jihvāmūlīya (ḥ) before the gutturals and Upadhmānlya (h. The only exception i n the RV. agníṣ ṭe . 43. I n the RV. Assimilation is undoubtedly the original Sandhi . devā́ś cakṛmá (through devaḥ for devā́s) . púnaḥ­ punaḥ (for púnar) . kh) or labial (p. before pronouns. and ṣ after ī̆. e. duṣ­pád evil­footed. e. Visarjanīya is the spirant to which the hard s and the corresponding soft r are reduced in pausā. g. e.4. I n compounds this change takes place regularly i n all the saṃhitās . índraḥ páñca (for índras) . g. g. a simple sibilant. this occurs chiefly. dévīḥ ṣáṭ or dévīṣ ṣáṭ . 2 2. duṣ­kṛ́ t evil­doing. is universal in external Sandhi . vaḥ śivátamaḥ or vaś śivátamaḥ . I f followed by a hard sound. g. krátuṣ ṭām . dyáuṣ pitā́ . baviṣ­pā́ drinking the offering . e. and was doubtless the original one in sentence sandhi. before dental t often becomes cerebral s. áṇvībhis tánā (for ­bhiḥ). 4 1 This combination (in which visarjanīya represents original r) is contrary to etymology.) . 1 a. naḥ sapátnāḥ or nas sapátnāḥ .) before the labials . 3 a. e. 1. Visarjanīya. yás te (for yáḥ) . e. which cerebralizes the following initial t to t. ph) mute. but 2 3 4 . After a i t often. i f preceded byī̆ and u. 3. ch) or a dental (t) mute. a palatal (c. g. but is universal in sentence sandhi and is subject to only two exceptions i n compounds : svār-cakṣas and svārcanas. This treatment before gutturals and labials corresponds to that before t ( l a). i n the Rv„ becomes s. I n compounds this change takes place in all the saṃhitās . This combination (in which visarjanīya represents original r ) . Final Visarjanīya. a guttural (k. púnaḥ sám or púnas sám. paras­pā́ far­protecting . also nákiṣ ṭanū́ ṣ u. e. g. and in the later Vedas only. is cátus-triṃśat thirty-four.

46. sutā́ imé (through sutā́ḥ for sutā́s) . e. e. after which a may be elided (21 a) . 2. 1 . b. vā́r water . antár within. ṛ́ṣibhir ī́ḍyaḥ (through ṛ́ṣibhiḥ for ṛ́ṣibhis) .(for kṛtaḥ) . e. drops its Visarjanīya before vowels except a . The final syllable āḥ ( = ās) drops its Visarjanīya before vowels or soft consonants. svàr light . e. āvar. vanar­sád. the 2. of past tenses from roots i n ṛ. prātár early . This survival shows that r originally remained before sibilants i n sentence sandhi. agnír hótā (through agníḥ for agnís) . g. a final Visarjanīya is optionally dropped . a final visarjanīya is dropped . a. e. The final syllables aḥ ( = ar) and āḥ ( = ar). in the comparatively few instances in which the Visarjanīya represents an etymological r. bhrā́ t ar . before soft consonants and before a. e. Before a sibilant immediately followed by a nasal or semivowel. vā́r protector. mandíbhi stómebhiḥ (through mandí¬ bhiḥ for mandíbhis) . p ú n a r again. e. dhur­ṣád. ill-praise (for duṣ-ṣṭutí).but the M SS.g. of ṛ stems. 3. paribhū́ r ási (through ­bhū́ ḥ for ­bhū́s). áhar āay. s. ū́dhar udder. The dropping is prescribed by the Prātiśākhyas of the Rv„ the v s „ and the TS. vā́r avāyatī́. 1 in compounds the original r frequently remains . vánar wood. b. g. g.. e. púnar naḥ . do not form an exception (45) to the general rule (44) . e. ^:c. g. g. g. 44. Thef i n a lsyllable aḥ ( = as) a. índavo väm (through índavaḥ for índavas) . khya ā́ (through khyaḥ for khyas). prātár agníḥ .g. 1. the voe. Before a sibilant immediately followed by a hard mute. svar druháḥ . r is original i n dvā́r door. du-ṣṭutí f.g. 45. e. from vṛ cover. usually employ Visarjanīya and European editions regularly do so. avár down. Visarjanīya (except after a or ā) before a soft sound (vowel or consonant) is changed to r . uṣár dawn. and is applied by Aufrecht i n his edition of the RV. g. is changed to o. vádhar weapon. víśvā ví (through víśvāḥ for víśvās). ni­svarám (through n i ḥ ­ for nis–). kṛta śrávaḥ . no áti (through naḥ for nas) or nó ' t i .

The euphonic combination at the junction of the members of compounds is on the whole subject to the rules prevailing in external Sandhi. also i n the compound aho-rātrá for aha-. e. 1). ū́dho romaśám (for udhā––udhar) . s. I n sam­rā́ j sovereign ruler m appears instead of the Anusvāra required before r (42. padīṣṭá sáḥ 1 cakra eṣáḥ l . Thus the evidence of metre shows that contracted vowels are often to be pronounced with hiatus when the initial vowel of the second member is prosodically long (cp. The three pronouns (nom. with a following vowel . . viś-páti has in post-Vedic Sanskrit become viṭpati. sá‚ however. eṣó asura. Sandhi i n Compounds. só apáḥ. syá dūtáḥ. yuktá-aśva (for yuktā́ ś va) having yoked horses. g. eṣá tā́m. r followed by r is always dropped. sáuṣadhīḥ for sá óṣadhīḥ. sáḥ páliknīḥ (v. m. 2 3 a. g. 3 syáḥ never occurs i n the RV. 33 ) for sáḥ. however.) sáḥ that. sáḥ. generally combines i n the RV. g. eṣó 'mandan (for amandan). as i n saṃ­rā́ j antam. g. e. ácha-ukti (for áchokti) invitation. sā́smai for sá asmai . Compounds have. 2 ) and sás táva (viii. at the end of a Pāda. e. g. and before vowels. devá-iddha kindled by the gods (for devéddha).’ 4S. e. The Visarjanīya is here otherwise treated regularly . syáḥ that. b. e. preserved many archaisms of Sandhi which have disappeared from Sandhi in the sentence. séd for sá íd . púnā rūpā́ ṇ i for púnar. e. I n viś-páti lord of the house and viś–pátnī mistress of the house ś remains instead of the ṭ required by external Sandhi. g. 2 4 16 4 . g. twice retains i t i n the RV. sá vánāni. sá óṣadhīḥ. 18 b) . 4 1 I n a few instances 0 appears instead of ā (­­ ar) under the influence of aḥ as the pausal form of neuters i n as . eṣá índraḥ. before a vowel or at the end of a Pāda. eṣáḥ this. a preceding short vowel being lengthened .47. drop the Visarjanīya before all consonants . a. e. however. 49.

pūr–ṣú. vanar­sád and vanar–ṣád sitting in the wood. duḥ-ṣáha har d to resists 1 But dur­ the form required by the later external sandhi is already commoner i n the RV. But gir retains its short vowel i n gír­vaṇas fond of praise and gír­ vāhas praised in song. svār­pati lord of heaven . 1 d. . Final (etymological) r i n the first member is preserved i n the RV. g. ph . before hard sounds where the rules of external Sandhi require visarjanīya or a sibilant (43): var­káryá producing water.^ b. 2 3 2 4 50. H ow nearly extinct ścandrá is as an independent word is indicated by the fact that in the analysis of its six compounds i t always appears as candrá i n the Padapāṭha. a. e. dhūr­ṣú. svar­ṣā́ winning light. dū-ṇáśa hard to attain (for dur-náśa). e. g. puru-ścandrá ver y brilliant. e. e. A final s of the first member or an initial s of the second member is cerebralized . Compounds further often contain archaisms which though still existing in external Sandhi are obsolescent and disappear entirely in later periods of the language.g. dur­dṛ́ ś īka. invariably candrá. I n six compounds ścandrá bright retains its old initial sibilant in the second member . dū–ṇā́śa (for dus­nā́ ś a) hard to attain and hard to destroy. Radical stems in i r . also has ahar­páti lord of day. dū­ḍhī́ malevolent (for dus­dhī́ ) . and dhūr­ṣā́ h bearing the yoke. The VS. Nouns ending in radical r retain the r before the ending su of the loc. duṣ-ṭára har d to cross. duḥsaha. svār­oakṣas brilliant as light . svāḥ­pati i n the Sv. ur mostly lengthen their vowel before con sonants (as they do within the simple word). dur­ṇā́ m an. External sandhi gradually encroaches here i n the later Saṃhitās . I n post-vedic sanskrit only dustara. dhūr­ṣád being on the yoke. A group of compounds formed with dus ill as first member com­ bine that adverb with a following d and n to dū–ḍ (–­­­­­ duz­d) and du­ṇ (=duz­n) instead of dur­d and dur–ṇ : dū­ḍábha (for dus­dábha) hard to deceive. g. As an independent word it is. pū́ r ­pati lord of the stronghold. svār­ṣati acquisition of light. dū­ḍā́ ś not worshipping (for dus–dā́ś). 2 3 4 5 6 .e.. áśva-ścandra brilliant with horses. e. pūr­yā́ ṇ a leading to the fort. g. excepting three occurrences in the RV. gīr­ṣú. dhur­sád being on the yoke . e.

e. when a vowel follows. . especially before v . Doubling of Consonants. e. urū­ṇasá broad­nosed. ā–cchád–vidhāna. For the latter reason the RV. g. when a verbal derivative is compounded with a preposition that contains r . pṛthivi­ṣṭhā́ standing on the earth (pṛthivī́) . v. r. g. I t is also followed i n the present work. or final in a root. ^. annā́ ­ vṛdh prospering by food. e. Schroeder in his edition of the MS. d. ^y. e. medial. púnar­nava again renewed. but puro­yā́ v an beside prātar­yā́ v aṇ going out early. and. g. prá­ṇapāt great­grandson . predominantly i n other compounds when the second member is a verbal noun . Cerebralization never takes place i n ­ghn the weak form of –han killing . advance (from yā go). Prātiśākhya prescribes the doubling of ch (in the form of cch) after a short vowel. nor i n akṣā­náh tied to the axle. The palatal ch etymologically represents a double sound and metrically lengthens a preceding short vowel. g. after ā́ only. g. pitṛ– yā́ṇa trodden by the fathers.c. Final ā or ī of the first member is often shortened before a group of consonants or a long syllable . e. dur­gā́ ṇ i dangers. . e. almost invariably write the simple oh. as regards long vowels. A dental n in the second member is cerebralized after ṛ. as pra­yā́ ṇ a n. g. 51. rathā­sáh able to draw the ear. bright garment. 1 i The Vedic MSS. yuṣmā́ ­ nīta led by you. The final vowel of the first member is often lengthened. grāma­ṇī́ chief of a village. ṣ in the first member : a. This rule is followed by Max Müller in his editions of the RV. rakṣo­háṇ demon­slaying . almost invariably. kravya­vā́ h ana conveying corpses. e. breath . and this practice is followed by Aufrecht in his edition of the Rigveda and L. but me chantsat. and even i n suffixes. whether initial. prāṇ­á m. but candrá­nirṇij having a brilliant garment. less regularly when the second member is an ordinary (non­ verbal) noun . utá cchadíḥ. ū́rṇa­ mradas soft as wool (ū́rṇā) . e. carma­mná tanner. nir­ṇíj f. g. amīva­cā́ t ana driving away disease (ámīvā). This is often due to an old rhythmical tendency (also appearing in the sentence) to lengthen a vowel before a single consonant between two short syllables . pári­hṇuta denied.

s. 1) and before secondary suffixes (182. After a final c. Initial h. t. áhann índraḥ. turāṣā́ ṭ chuṣmī́ (for śuṣmī́). the initial consonants are aspirated by way of compensation . 53. if preceded by a short vowel. ­búdh waking becomes ­bhút . kīdṛ́ ṅ ṅ índraḥ . 1 B. is changed to the soft aspirate of that mute . The same change occasionally takes place after ṭ . thus vípāṭ chutudrī́ (for śutudrī́) . the metre shows that this rule is only partially applied as regards pronun­ ciation in the RV. The rules of internal Sandhi apply to the finals of roots and nominal and verbal stems before all endings of de­ clension (except those beginning with consonants of the middle stem : 73 a) and conjugation. before primary suffixes (182. 2) beginning with a vowel or y. dh. g. . dúh milking becomes dhúk. e. a.52. Though the nasal is always written double. g. or h are at the end of a (radical) syllable beginning with g. The compound vrṣaṇ-aśvá with stallions as steeds ( ṇ = n ) is an exception. from dagh reach the 3. 54. Many of these rules agree with those of external Sandhi. 56. The most important of those which differ from external Sandhi are the following : 1 This is not really compensation but the survival of the original initial aspiration of such roots. a. which was lost owing to the avoidance of an aspirate at the beginning and end of the same syllable. are doubled . injunctive is dhak (for dagh­t) . or b. initial ś regularly becomes ch . the initial returned. ávāḍ ḍhavyā́ n i for ávāṭ havyā́ni . after softening a preceding k. Internal Sandhi. bh. d. g. Before vowels final ṅ and n. t. sī́d́ ad dhótā for sī́d́ at hótā. e. Initial Aspiration. I f gh. g. sadhryāg ghitā́ for hitā́ . H ence when the final aspirate disappeared. 55. o. e. and lose their aspiration as final or otherwise. p. yáe chaknávāma for yád śaknávāma.

e. is done. The final consonant that remains is then treated according to the rules of external . g o + y a — g á v ­ y a relating to cows. e.ṇ á filled. e. e. v á c ­ m i I speak (but v á k t i speaks) . chin­ná cut o^ (for chid­na) . duras­yú worshipping. g. 61. b h ú + i = b h u v . o. g ī r . āy. āv respectively . a. s. n a u + i = n ā v ­ í in a boat. pl. ai. after labials to ū r . voc­am I will speak. food (for ad­na). 57. p ū r . e. I n the nominal case­form ṣaṇ­ṇā́m (for ṣaṭ­nā́m) of six (ṣáṣ) the final ṭ is assimilated. g. forward.y á t e 3. au are changed before suffixes beginning with vowels or y to ay. vā́ c ­ya to be spoken. 3) . for thought . e. r a i + e = rāy­é for wealth . vidyún­mant accompanied by lightning (vidyút) and mṛn­máya consisting of clay (mṛ́d). Nominal or verbal stems ending in consonants and followed by terminations consisting of a single consonant. d is assimilated . 60. yu-yuv-é has joined ( √ yu).ú lying . Final ṛ before y becomes r i (154. s. prā́ ñ c­ aḥ nom. I n many cases before a vowel ī is changed to i y . F i n a l Consonants. 32) of roots and verbal or nominal stems before suffixes and terminations beginning with vowels. e.y á t e is filled.ṇ á swallowed . g. k ṛ make : k r i . t and d .í on earth . pres. Final ṝ before consonant terminations is changed to īr.40 INTERNAL SANDH I [57-61 FinaI Vowels. g. papṛc­yāt would mix . g ṝ swallow : gīr–yáte is swallowed. and before the secondary suffixes mant and maya. g. go + e = gáv­e for a cow. pass. śe + u = ś a y . p ṝ fill : p ū r . semivowels and nasals (while before other letters they usually follow the rules of external Sandhi). The most notable divergence from external Sandhi is the unchangeableness of the final consonants (cp.g. dhī + e = dhiy-é dat. drop the termination altogether. án­na n. Before the primary suffix na. u and ū to uv . av.g. 58. 59. e. yáśas-vat glorious . two consonants not being tolerated at the end of a word (28).

forward becomes prā́ ṅ (the s being first dropped.Sandhi. díp–sa–ti desires to injure.­ which are softened . On the other hand. Palatals. 1abh + sya­te = 1 lap­syate (B. pl. s. b. fut. While c regularly becomes guttural before consonants (cf. randh + dhí = rand­dhí 2. nor at the end of one and the beginning of the next. if possible. thrown back before dnv. 2 3 . 27 . a. s. impv. g. e. ind­dhvam 2. and the k being then dropped by 28) . s . there is no loss of aspiration i n the root i f an aspirate (after a vowel) which belongs to a suffix or a second member of a compound follows . of mṛj wipe. 134 B b). will take . bhud­bhís inst. thus from dabh harm : des. impv.) 3. ruṇádh + t i = ruṇád–dhi . 62. ṣ) . e. vibhú­bhis with the Vibhus . e..’ in others cerebral (ṭ. guh hide : des. rabh + ta — rab­dhá seized . the weak stem of which dadh (following the analogy of 62a) becomes dhat before t and t h (cf. semivowels or nasals (60) lose their aspiration . ā­rábh­ya seizing. but yudh­í in battle . 63. bhut­sú loc pl. breeding­place. Thus p r a ñ c + s nom. Aspirates followed by any sounds except vowels. g. g. 7 b). e. follow the general rule. g. 4) . g. But it is thrown forward on a following t and th. dah burn : part. of indh kindle . mṛk¬ ṣva 2. let him obstruct. pl. impv. j always becomes k before a conjugational s (cp. s (55) . and ja­hí strike for jha­hí. 1 For the Vedic language tolerates two aspirates neither at the beginning and the end of the same syllable. aor. e. impv. g). But before s this rule applies only partially . subject . bh. similarly a­doh + t = á­dhok he milked (55). a. ju­guk­ṣa­tas beside aghukṣat . duh milk : aor. (The two imperatives bo¬ dhí be for bho­dhí. rundh + tām = rund­dhām 3. bhas chew : báps­a­ti chews . s.) Except in the case of the root dhā place. ḍ. 144. A lost soft aspirate is. garbha­dhí m. the palatals being changed to gutturals by 27. á­duksat beside á–dhukṣat. dákṣat beside dhákṣant . s. dip­sú intending to hurt . 61 . j in some cases (the majority) becomes guttural (k.

viḍ-bhís with tribes (víś) . but rā́ṭ nom. 64. c. s. sis­ aor. dviṣ + s — dvíṭ nom. colour . av­iṣ ­1­ dhí=aviḍ–ḍhí 2. 64). yaj + na = yaj-ñá sacrifice. uṣ + na — uṣṇá hot . s. pl. hating. of náś night . m. of díś 1 2 direction . var + na = várṇa m. pitṝ + nām — pitṝṇā́ m of fathers . pl. av­iṣ + dhi = aviḍ­ḍhí 2. práṣ­ṭum inf. y. The ch of the root praoh ask is treated like ś : á­prāk­ṣīt 3. ṣaṇ + n ā m (for ṣaṭ­nām) = ṣaṇ­ṇā́m (cp. nák nom. inj. of av favour . impv. No example occurs of this sound before the su of the loc. 65). s. to ask. A preceding cerebral ṛ. ṝ. vik-ṣú loc. y. (víś) . s. e. dík nom. but praś-ná question. Change of dental n to cerebral ṇ. víṭ (víś). s. nṛ + nām = nṛṇā́m of men . sa­ aor. mṛḍ­ḍhi 2. 3 g in cases of díś and dṛś : dig­bhyás‚ drg­bbís. g. is + tá = iṣ–ṭá . vi­prúṣ + s = vi–prúṭ drop. v) to cerebral ṇ . Cerebrals change following dentals to cerebrals (39). rāṣ­ṭrá kingdom (for rāj­tra: cp. iṣ­aor. But i n the nom. vek-ṣyási fut. 60a). king (for r ā j + s ) . vi­prúḍ­bhis inst.e. 65. e. s. á­prāṭ 3. c and j (not ś) palatalize a following n . rug­ṇá broken (√ruj: cp. The palatal ś before bh (73 a) normally becomes ḍ . of dviṣ hate. e. s­ aor.g. 33. paḍbhís with looks (páś). 64) . uk­tá spoken (√ vac) . r. e. k before s . g. gut­ tural or labial mutes or nasals. is­ aor. a. s. b. wipe (for mṛj–dhi) . While the cerebral sibilant ṣ seems always to be¬ come a cerebral mute (t or ḍ) in declension and becomes ḍ in conjugation. g. 63 b and 67) . yuk­tá joined (√yuj) . . d.. of av. ṣ (even though vowels. ví-pāṭ (ví-pāś) and spáṭ spy (spáś) the cerebral has taken the place of the phonetic k owing to the influence of other forms i n which tlie cerebral is phonetic. e. pṛṣ­ṭá asked. dviṣ+sa­t= dvik­ṣat 3. g. viṣ-ṭá entered (√viś). it regularly becomes k before s in conju­ gation (cp. s. ( = á­prach­s­t) . always ṣ before t and th (cp. plur. s. 1 2 3 . V. or h intervene) changes a dental n (followed by a vowel or n. impv. s. of viś enter . g. impv.

pári­hṇuta denied . I n nominal compounds n is usually cerebralized when i t is the initial of the second member i n the RV. uṣuvāṇáḥ (for u suvānáḥ). . parā­ṇúde (nud thrust). rarely in other monosyllables such as n ú now. but pari­pā́ n a n. h. pūrvāhṇá forenoon. vṛ́ ṣ a­maṇas manly­spirited. índra eṇam.g. Cerebralizatien is even extended to external Sandhi i n a closely connected following word. m.g. gór óheṇa. sahó ṣú ṇaḥ . most often initially i n the enclitic nas us. After the final cerebral ṭ of ṣáṭ (for ṣáṣ six). y.g. g. the gen. pra­ṇetṛ́ guide (nī lead). but ṛṣi­manas offar­seeing mind . arkéṇa (guttural and vowel) . g. g. n followed by y). e. The cerebralization of n takes place almost as regularly in verbs compounded with the prepositions prá before. to n. occasionally i n other words also . ṛ ṝ r ṣ 1 in spite of intervening vowels. step (vowels and labial nasal intervene). viśat. I t is less fre­ quent medially . ṇ There are two exceptions to this rule i n the RV. . initial dental n is cerebralized i n sáṇ­ṇavati ninety­six (Ts. e. vowel . plur. pári ṇetā́ . labials (including v). e. g. e. labial nasal. I t occasionally appears i n accented words also after final r . ná like. Table showing when n changes to ṇ. but not i n forms with ghn (e. abhi­pra­ghnánti) .65] CEREBRALIZATION OF DENTAL N 43 krámaṇa n. n í r haṇyāt (ban strike). but tri­nāká n.’ This rule is followed throughout within a word even when a ṣ which it contains is produced by Sandhi. úṣṭrānām and rāṣṭrā́ n ām. g. e. b. drink (cp. assimilated to the following n (33). c. gṛbhṇā́ti seizes (labial mute) . gutturals (including h). prá hiṇomi. but pari­hinómi (hi impel).). pári round. párā away. e. 50 c ^ ) . nír (for nís) out. a. prā́ ṇ iti breathes ( √ an) . brah¬ maṇyā́ devotion (vowel. dur–ṇā́man ill­named. third heaven. 2 . oftenest in the enclitic pronoun ena this . nṛ­pā́ ṇ a giving drink to men. I t some­ times occurs medially.) and i n ṣaṇ ṇiramimīta (B. . as well as i n nominal derivatives of these combina­ tions . ^ e. prá­ṇapat great­grandson .. v. and y change if followed n by vowels.

is probably not a phonetic change. mād­bhís. as tatan­vát extending far. n. in vat-su. No example occurs in the RV. s. s. *á-vās-t having thus become á-vāt instead of *ávas. pl. having awakened . s. of bhaj share. g. 5) and jignat­sú hungry. B. There having been no case-ending s here. uṣád­bhis from uṣás I. of a loc. This change was extended without phonetic justification to the nom. and AV. vát­syati will shine . The dental s 1. e. thus a­vāt–sīs thou hast dwelt . and ghas eat . dawn . A similar loss occurs in verbal compounds formed with 2 1 The change of s to t before the t of the 3. s­ aor. ji­ghat­sati wishes to eat (171. as i n vy-āvāt has shone forth from vi-vas. 2. before the s of verbal suffixes (future. aorist. of other preterites with t . ji¬ ghāṃ­sa­ti wishes to kill (√ han) . e. remains unchanged before y and v . between mutes . but is rather due to the influence of the 3. e. a-gdha uneaten for a-ghs-ta from ghas eat. 83). of a past tense. of cakṣ speak . s. havīṃṣ­i n. pres. becomes dental t as the final of roots or nominal stems a. svátavad­bhyas from svá­tavas self­strong. énāṃs­i n. asan­vánt having a mouth. pl. s. month . pi. índnan­van possessed of fuel (indhana). disappears a. g. in the RV. e. á­bhak­ta 3. caṣ­ṭe for cakṣ­ṭe ( = original caś–s–te) 3. 1 b.. of havís oblation (83).. for á­bhak­s­ta beside á­bhak–ṣ–i. han­yáte is slain . as final of a root becomes Anusvāra before s . desiderative) in the three verbs vas dwell. vas shine.g. tan–v­āná stretching. also when it is inserted before final s or ṣ in the neuter plural (71c. of énas sin . pl. g. 2 . participle and in four other words : thus jāgṛvád­bhis inst. before case­endings with initial bh in the reduplicated perf. mād­bhyás from mā́s m. ace. 2.44 INTERNAL CONSONANT SANDH I [6^ 66 A. The dental n 1.




the preposition ud and the roots s t h ā stand and stambh
support ; c. g. út-thita and út-tabhita raised up.
b. before dh ; e. g. śā-dhi for śās-dhi 2. s. impv. of śās
order ; ā–dhvam 2 pl. mid. impv. of ās sit ; also after
becoming ṣ and cerebralizing the following dental ; e. g.
á­sto­ḍhvam (for á­sto­s­dhvam) 2. pl. aor. of stu praise.
67. Change of dental s to cerebral ṣ.
A preceding vowel except a (even though Anusvāra
intervenes) as well as k, r, ṣ change dental s (followed by
a vowel, s, t, th, n, m, y, v) to cerebral ṣ ; e. g. from havís
oblation: havíṣ­ā inst. s., havī́ṃṣ­i nom. pl. ; cákṣus n.
eye : cákṣuṣ­ā inst. s., cákṣūṃṣ­i nom. pl. ; havíṣ–ṣu loc.
pl. ; sráj I. wreath : srak­ṣú loc. pl. ; gír I. song : gīr­ṣú
loc. pl. ; tí­ṣṭhati stands from sthā stand ; cákṣuṣ­mant
possessing eyes ; bhavi­ṣyáti will be from bhū be ; su­ṣvā́pa
has slept from svap sleep. But sarpíḥ (final) ; mánas­ā
(a precedes) ; us­rá matutinal.



a. The cerebralization of s regularly takes place i n the RV. initially
in verbal compounds after prepositions ending i n i and u‚ as well as i n
nominal derivatives from such compound verbs ; also after the preposi­
tion nís out ; e. g. ní ṣīda sit down, ánu ṣṭuvanti they praise ; niḥ­ṣáha¬
māṇaḥ conquering.
b. I n nominal compounds, s is more usually cerebralized than not,
when the initial s of the second member is preceded by vowels other
than ā́ ; e. g. su­ṣóma having abundant Soma. But s is often retained i n
the RV., not only when ṛ or r follows, as i n hṛdi­spṛ́ś touching the heart,
rṣi–svará sung by seers, but also when there is no such cause to prevent


The s, however, remains i n forms of hiṃs injure, niṃs kiss, and
puṃs man, probably under the influence of the strong forms hinásti,
púmaṃsam, ^e.
words i n which s otherwise follows r or any vowel but ā must be
of foreign origin, as bṛ́saya a demon, bísa n. root fibre, busá n. vapour.
s remains when immediately followed by r or ṛ, e. g. tisrás, tisṛ́¬
bhis, tisṝṇā́m f. of tri three; usrás gen., usrí and usrā́m loc, beside
uṣar voc. dawn.
The s remains unchanged when followed by ṛ (even when t i n ­
tervenes) or r (even though a intervenes, with additional m or v in
smar remember and svar sound).



the change ; e. g. gó­sakhi beside gó­ṣakhi possessing cattle. After r the
s becomes ṣ i n svar­ṣā́ light winning, svār­ṣā́ t i f. obtainment of light.
o. Cerebralization is even extended to externa1 Sandhi i n initial
s after a final i and u in the RV. when the two words are syntactically
closely connected. This change chiefly takes place i n monosyllabic
pronouns and particles, such as sá, syá, sīm, sma, svid, and particu­
larly sú ; e.g. ū ṣú. I t also occurs i n numerous verbal forms and
participles ; e. g. yūyáṃ hí ṣṭhā́ for ye are, diví ṣán being in heaven. I n
other words the change is rare ; e. g. trī́ ṣadhásthā. I n the later
saṃhitas this form of external Sandhi is very rare except i n the
combination u sú.

Table showing when s changes to ṣ.
Vowels except a
(in spite of inter­
vening Anusvāra),
k, r, ṣ


if followed
by vowels,
t, th, n,
I n , y‚ v.

68. The labial m remains unchanged before y, r, I (op.
60 and 42 B 1) ; e. g. yam­yámāna being guided, vam­rá m.
ant, ápa­mlukta concealed. But before suffixes beginning
with v it becomes n ; e. g. jagan­vā́ n having gone (from
gam go).
69. a. The breathing h becomes k in all roots before s ;
e. g. dhák­ṣi 2. s. pres. from dah burn : sak­ṣi 2. s. pres.
from sah prevail.
b. I n roots beginning with d it is treated like gh before
t, th, dh ; e. g. dah + tá = dag­dhá burnt (62 b), dun + tām
= dug­dhām 3. du. pres. Similarly treated is the oldest
form of the perf. pass. participle of the root muh : mug­dhá

c. h in all other roots is treated like an aspirate cerebral,
which after changing a following t, th, dh to ḍh and

I n the RV. occurs the sandhi yájuḥ ṣkannám (for skannám) with­
out cerebralization of the nn (cp. 65).

lengthening a preceding short vowel, is dropped ; e. g.
sah + ta — sā­ḍhá overcome ; r i h + ta = rī­ḍhá ticked ;
muh + ta — mū­ḍhá (AV.) bewildered; vah + ta = ū­ḍhá ; ­
vah + dhvám = vo­ḍhvám (VS.).’
d. An exception to e is the root nah bind, in which h is
treated as dh : nad­dhá bound. An exception to both b
and e is the root dṛh : dṛ­ḍhá firm (begins with d and has
a short vowel).


70. Declension, or the inflexion of nominal stems by
means of endings that express the various syntactical rela­
tions represented by the cases, is most conveniently treated,
owing to characteristic difference of form, meaning, and use,
under (1) nouns (including adjectives) ; (2) numerals; (3) pro­
In Vedic there are
a. three genders : masculine, feminine, and neuter ;
b. three numbers : singular, dual, and plural ;
e. eight cases : nominative, vocative, accusative, instru­
mental, dative, ablative, genitive, locative.’

I n all these past participles the ḍh is i n the RV. written as ḷh.
with Samprasaraṇa.
Through vazh­dhvam : azh here becoming o just as original as
(through az) becomes o (cp. 45 b).
Before this ḍ h the vowel ṛ never appears lengthened, but it is
prosodically long (cp. 8, note 2).
This is the order of the cases i n the H indu Sanskrit grammarians,
excepting the vocative, which is not regarded by them as a case. I t
is convenient as the only arrangement by which such cases as are
identical in form, either i n the singular, the dual, or the plural, may
be grouped together.




71. The normal case­endings added to the stem are the
following :—
-^L F .

V. —^
A. am

M. F .
M. F .







G. 1






a. The vocative is the same (apart from the accent) as
the nominative in all numbers except the mase. and fem.
sing. of vowel stems generally and the masc. sing. of con­
sonant stems in ­an, ­man, ­van ; ­mant, ­vaut ; ­in ; ­as ;
–yāṃs, ­vāṃs ; ­tar.
b. The nom. acc. sing. has the bare stem excepting the
words in ­a, which add m.
c. The nom. voc. ace. plur. neut. before the ending i
insert n after a vowel stem and before a single final mute
or sibilant of a consonant stem (modifying the n according
to the character of the consonant : cp. 66 A 2).
72. An important distinction in declension is that between
the strong and the weak stem. I t is fully developed only
in derivative consonant stemsformedwith the suffixes ­añc,
­an, ­man, ­van ; ­ant, ­mant, ­vant ; ­tar ; ­yāṃs, ­.vāṃs.
I n the first four and in the last the weak stem is further
reduced before vowel endings. The stem here has three
forms, which may be distinguished as strong, middle, and
a. Shift of accent was the cause of the distinction. The
stem, having been accented in the strong cases, here naturally
preserved its full form ; but it was shortened in the weak
cases by the accent falling on the endings. For a similar
reason the last vowel of the strong stem, if long, is regularly

shortened in the vocative, because the accent always shifts
to the first Syllable in that case.
73. The strong stem appears in the following cases :
Nom. voc. acc. sing.
Nom. voc. acc. dual
of masc nouns.’
Nom. voc. (not acc.) plur.
Nom voc. acc. plural only of neuters.
a. When the stem has three forms, the middle stem
appears before terminations beginning with a consonant
(bhyām, bhis, bhyas, su) ; the weakest before terminations
beginning with a vowel in the remaining weak cases ;
e. g. pratyáñc­au nom. du. ; pratyág­bhis inst. pl. ;
pratīc­ós gen. du. (93).
b. I n neuters with three stems, the nom. voc. acc. sing.
are middle, the nom. voc. acc. du. weakest; e.g. pratyák
sing. ; pratīc­ī́ du. ; pratyáñc­i pl. (93). The other eases
are as in the masc.

74. Nominal stems are, owing to divergences of inflexion,
best classified under the main divisions of consonant and
vowel declension.
I . Stems ending in consonants 3 may be subdivided into
A. unchangeable ; B. changeable.
I I . Stems ending in vowels into those in A. a and ā ; B. i
and u ; C. ī and ū.

Excepting names of relationship i n ­tar (101), nearly all nouns
with changeable stems form their feminine with the suffix ­ī (100).
Changeable stems are named i n this grammar i n their strong and
original form, though the middle form would be more practical, inas¬
much as that is the form in which changeable stems appear as prior
member in compounds.
Some sanskrit grammars begin with the vowel declension i n a
( I I . A) since this contains the majority of all the declined stems i n
the language. But i t appears preferable to begin with the consonant
declension which adds the normal endings (71) without modification.


I . A. Unchangeable Stems.
75. These stems are for the most part primary or radical,
but also include some secondary or derivative words. They
end in consonants of all classes except gutturals (these having
always become palatals, which however revert to the original
sound in certain cases). They are liable to such changes only
as are required by the rules of Sandhi before the consonant
terminations (cp. 16 a). Masculines and feminines ending
in the same consonant are inflected exactly alike ; and the
neuters differ only in the acc. s. and nom. voc. ace du. and pl.
76. The final consonants of the stem retain their original
sound before vowel terminations (71) ; but when there is no
ending (i.e. in the nom. sing., in which the s of the m. and
f. is dropped), and before the ending su of the loc. pl., they
must be reduced to one of the letters k, t, t, p or Visarjanīya
(27) which respectively become g, ḍ, d, b or r before the
terminations beginning with bh.
a. The voc. sing. m. I. is the same as the nom. except in
stems in (derivative) as (83).
b. Forms of the nom. voc acc. pl. n. seem not to occur
in the Saṃhitās except in the derivative as, is, us stems,
where they are common ; e.g. ápāṃsī, arcī́ṃṣi, cákṣūṃṣi.

Stems i n Dentals.
77. Paradigm tri­vṛ́ t m. I. n. threefold.



N. m. I. trivṛ́ t
n. trivṛ́ t N.A. trivṛ́ t ­ā, N. m. I. trivṛ́ t ­as
A. m. f. trivṛ́ t ­am n. trivṛ́ t
m. f. trivṛ́t–au A. m. I. trivṛ́ t ­as
D. [trivṛd­bhyām]^ ^
trivṛ́ t ­e
Ab. G.
trivṛ́ t ­as
[trivṛ́ t ­os] G.
trivṛ́ t ­am
trivṛ́ t ­i
trivṛ́ t ­os
trivṛ́ t ­su
m. I. v trívṛt­as.

But i n the Brahmaṇas are found from –bhrt bearing, ­vṛt turning,
­hu­t sacrificing the N. pl. n. forms –bhṛ́nti, ­vṛnti, ­hu:nti.

1. Of the stems in t most are radical, nearly thirty of
them being formed with a determinative t added to roots
ending in the short vowels i , u, ṛ ; e.g. jí-t conquering,
śrú­t hearing, kṛ́­t making. Nearly all of them, however,
appear as the last member of compounds, except cít I. thought ;
dyú­t I. brilliance ; nṛ́t I. dancing ; vṛ́­t I. host. From sarva­
hu­t offering completely occurs in N. pl. n. the form sarva­
hunti in the AB. There are also a few derivative stems
formed with the suffixes ­vat, ­tāt, ­it, ­ut, and secondary
­ t ; e.g. pra­vát I. height, devá–tāt I. divine service; sar­ít
I. stream ; mar­út m. storm­god ; yákṛ–t n. liver, śákṛ-t n.
2. There are only three stems i n th : kápṛth, n. penis,
páth m. path, abhi-śnáth adj. piercing.
3. a. About 100 stems end i n radical d, all but a few
being roots used as the final member of compounds ; e. g.
nom. adri­bhíd mountain­cleaving. Only eight occur as
monosyllabic substantives : níd I. contempt, bhíd I. destroyer,
víd I. knowledge, úd I. wave, múd I. joy, mṛ́d I. clay, hṛ́d n.
heart (used in weak eases only) ; and pád m. foot. The
latter lengthens its vowel in the strong eases :
Sing. N. pā́t. A. pā́d­am. I . pad­ā́ . D. pad­é. Ab.G.
pad–ás. L. pad­í.
Du. N.A. pā́d­ā. I . Ab. pad­bhyā́ m .
G.L. pad­ós.
Pl. N. pā́d­as.
A. pad–ás. I . pad­bhís. D. pad­bhyás.
G. pad­ā́m. L. pat­sú.
b. There are also six stems formed with derivative d
(suffixal –ad ­ud), seemingly all feminine : dṛṣ­ád and dhṛṣ–ád
nether millstone, bhas­ád hind quarters, van­ád longing, śar-ád
autumn, kak-úd summit, kāk-úd palate.
4. There are about fifty radical stems i n dh, simple or
compound. They are almost restricted to m. and I., no
distinctively n. forms (N. A. du. pl.) occurring and only four
forms being used as n. in the G. L. s. Seven stems appear

as monosyllabic nouns : vṛ́dh strengthening as a masc. adj .,
the rest as fem. substantives : nádh bond ; srídh foe ; kṣúdh
hunger ; yúdh fight ; mṛ́dn conflict ; vṛ́dh prosperity ; spṛ́dh

5. Radical stems i n n are formed from half a dozen roots.
Four of these are monosyllabic substantives: tánI.succession ;
rán m. joy ; ván m. wood ; sván adj. sounding. There are
also the compound adjectives tuvi­ṣván roaring aloud and
go­ṣán winning cows. H an slaying occurs as the final
member of at least thirty­five compounds, but as it follows
for the most part the analogy of the an stems, it will be
treated under these (92).

Stems i n Labials.
7S. These stems, which end in p, bh, and m only, are not
numerous. No neuters occur in the first two and only one
or two in the last.
1. A l l the monosyllabic stems i n p are fem. substantives.
They are: áp water, kṛ́p beauty, kṣáp night, kṣíp finger,
ríp deceit, rúp earth, víp rod. There are also about ā dozen
compounds, all adjectives except vi­ṣṭáp I. summit. Three
of the adjectives occur as I., the rest as m. ; e. g. paśu-tṛ́ p
m. delighting in cattle.

a. áp lengthens the stem in the N.V. pl. ā́p­as, a form
sometimes used for the A. also. The forms occurring are :
Sing.I. ap­ā́. Ab.G. ap–ás. Du. N. ā́p­ā. Pl. N.V. ā́p–as. A.
ap­ás. I . ad­bhís. D. Ab. ad­bhyás. G. ap­ā́m. L. ap­sú.
2. The six uncompounded stems i n bh are all I. substan­
tives : kṣúbh push, gṛ́bh. seizing, nábh. destroyer, śubh
splendour, stúbh praise (also adj. praising), and kakúbh peak.

There are also more than a dozen compounds : the substan­
tives are all I., the rest being m. or I. adjectives ; there are

The accent of these stems is irregular i n remaining on the radical
syllable (App. I I I . 11, 1), except tanā́ (beside tánā) and vanā́ m .

no neuters. The cases of tri-ṣṭúbn I. triple praise (a metre)
are : Sing. N. triṣṭúp. A. triṣṭúbh-am. L triṣṭúbh-ā. D.
Ab. triṣṭúbh-as.
L. triṣṭúbh-i ; Pl. A.
a. nábh lengthens its vowel in the N. pi. nabh-as.
A. nábh-as.
3. There are five or six monosyllabic stems i n m, and
one compound : śám n. happiness, dám n. (?) house, kṣám,
gám, jám I. earth, hím in. (?) cold ; saṃ­nám I. favour.

a. Gám and jám syncopate in the s. I.Ab.G. : gm­ā, jm­ā ;
gm–ás, jm­ás ; kṣám syncopates in the Ab. G. s. and
lengthens its vowel in N. du. pl. : kṣm­ás; kṣā́m­ā; kṣām­as.
Dám has the G. s. dán (for dám­s) in the expressions pátir
dán and pát1 dán = dám­patis and dám­patī lord of the
house and lord and lady of the house.

Stems i n Palatals.
79. The palatals (c, j , ś) undergo a change of organ when
final and before consonant terminations (cp. 63). e always
becomes guttural (k or g), j and ś nearly always become
guttural, but sometimes cerebral (ṭ or ḍ).
1. The unchangeable stems i n c when uncompounded
are monosyllabic and almost exclusively I. substantives.
Tvác skin, however, twice occurs as a m., and krúñc curlew
is m. Compounds, as adjectives, are often m., but only one
form occurs as a n., in the adv. ā–pṛ́k in a mixed manner.
Vā́c speech would be declined as follows :

Sing. N.V. vā́k.
A. vā́c­am (LaI. voc­em). I . vac­ā́.
D. vāc­é. Ab. G. vāc–ás. L. vāc­I.
Dual. N.A.v vā́c­ā, vā́c­au. I . vā́g­bhyā́m.
Plur. N.V. vā́c­as. A. vā́c­as (rarely vāc­ás). I . vāg­bhís.
D.Ab. vāg­bhyás. G. vāc­ā́m.
Stems i n derivative añc are changeable (93).


Similarly declined are :—tvác skin ; sic hem ; rúc lustre,
súc flame, srúc ladle ; ṛ́c stanza, mṛ́c injury ; ni­mrúc

sunset and other compounds. Krúñc forms its N. s. krúṅ,
du. krúñcau.
2. There is only one stem i n ch, formed from the root
pṛch ask : N. du. m. bandhu­pṛ́ch­ā asking after kinsmen ;

also the D. and A. infinitive forms pṛch–é to ask, sam­pṛ́ch–e
to greet ; vi­pṛ́ch­am and sam­pṛ́ch­am to ask.
3. a. Uncompounded radical stems i n j are mostly I.
substantives ; but áj driver, víj stake at play are m., and

yúj, rā́j, bhrā́j are m. as well as I. Neut. forms occur in
compound adjectives, but never the distinctively n. endings
of the N.A.V. du. and pl.
When the j is derived from a guttural, i t becomes a
guttural in the N. s. and before consonant endings ; when
derived from an old palatal, it becomes a cerebral in the
N. s. and before consonants, but k before the su of
the L. pl.
Thus in the N. ū́rk (ū́rj) vigour ; nir­ṇík (nir­ṇíj) bright
garment; but bhrā́ ṭ m. shining (bhrā́j), rā́ṭ m. king, I.
mistress ; L .pl.srak­ṣú garlands (sráj), pra­yák­ṣu offerings


^. The N. of ava­yā́j f. share of the sacrificial oblation and of ā́vayaj m.
priest who offersthe oblation is anomalous in dropping the j and adding
the s of the nom. : ava­yā́s, ā́vayās (cp. 28^).

b. There are seven m. and I. adj. or subst. formed with
the suffixes ­aj and ­ij : á­svapn­aj sleepless, tṛṣṇ­áj thirsty,

From vyac extend occurs the strong form uru­vyáñcam far extend¬
ing, and from sac accompany only the strong forms A. ­sā́c­am, and N. pl.
This word meaning companion also has a nasalized form i n
N.A. s. du. : y ú ṅ (for yúṅk), yúñj–am, yúñj­ā.
But i n a Brāhmaṇa ­bhāj sharing forms the N. pi. n. form ­bhāñji.
Except in ṛtv­ík from ṛtu­íj m. sacrificing in due season, priest (from
yaj sacrifice).



Nine mono¬ syllabic stems are I. D. uśij-as.dhṛṣ-áj bold. Viḍ-bhyás. du. uś-íj desiring. There are about sixty monosyllabic and compound stems in ś formed from about a dozen roots. This word is of obscure origin. arm. v r í ś finger. L. I . p á ś sight. G. uś1j-e. víś and ví-pāś a river. Pl. normally becomes cerebral ḍ before bh. p í ś ornament. sacrificial cake : N . díś direetion. víś-am. of some compounds of drś is nasalized. if made from víś settlement. but no distinctively n. The normal forms. uśíj-ām. usíj-as.b h í s . I t usually also becomes k in the N. forms (N. N. viś-í. I. D.A. A. The N. b h u r . A. vaṇ-íj m. I . but the j probably represents a reduced suffix. but in díś and dṛś a guttural.A. n á k . víś-ā.v v í ṭ . víś-as. pi. PI. uśíg-bhis. víś settlement. n á ś night. A l l the rest are compounds (about twenty of them formed from –dṛ́ś). There is also the n. víś-au. L uśíj-ā. ásṛj blood. it phonetically and regularly becomes k. 4. N. dṛ́ś look. uśík. G. puroḍā́s. uśij-ā. Two are 1n. Before the su of the L. san-áj old . puroḍā́ ś am. viś-ā́. uśíj–as. : ī́ś lord and spáś spy. G.b h y a s . u ś í g . s. would be declined as follows : Sing.N.) occur. uśíj-am. would be : N. prā́ ś dispute. Ab. trader. A. v i k ­ ṣ ú . I . N.í j f. as it represents an old palatal.G. D. A.L. as kī­dṛ́ ṅ (for kī–dṛ́ ṅ k) of what kind but tā­dṛ́ k such.A. pl. The N. D. s irregularly represents the final palatal (28 a) i n puroḍaś m. Du. viś-é. (which originally ended in s). G. : dā́ś worship. uśíj-os. 1 . 1 uśij m.N. but cerebral ṭ in spáś and vi-spáś spy. The ś. Du. L. v i ḍ . as dík. Some half-dozen cases of the latter are used as neuter. viś-ā́ m . viś-ás.

A l l three genders are found in their inflexion. excitement. but the cerebral represents both in the only two forms that occur with a bh ending. sah overcome .. The final becomes k i n the adverbial neuter form dadhṛ́k boldly. and before consonant endings. drop. Of monosyllabic stems níh destroyer. but the neuter is rare. pi. Stems i n h. pruṣ drip. I n the only L. and saráh bee are obscure in origin. I . upā­náh­i. a. vṛṣ rain . drúh fiend is m. praise (only found in s. 1 1 upā­náh f. blind . dvíṭ. úṣ I. or I. rúh sprout are I. pṛ́kṣ I. dawn .. Seven of these are uncompounded : íṣ I. e. I . but is of course dropped when k precedes . over thirty of them from the last. an­ák eyeless. míh mist. As h represents both the old guttural gn and the old palatal j n it should phonetically become g or ḍ before bh. m. 50. Judging by the inflexion of the word in classical sanskrit the h would become a dental i n the N . There are some eighty stems formed from about a dozen roots. gúh hiding­place. dhṛṣ dare. g. occurring in two stems only. and n. The ṣ becomes ṭ in the N. The rest are compounds of the above or of mis wink. máh great. refreshment (only in s. vi­prúṭ I. ákṣ eye. muṣ steal. and ḍ before bh. that occurs. ríṣ I. pl. ṛ. sáh conqueror is m. vah carry. shoe occurs only in the L. u. 51. sriṣ lean. dvíṣ I. s. A l l the rest are compounds. iḍ­ás).Stems i n Cerebrals. . There are a number of stems from about a dozen roots ending in ṣ preceded by i . I . or k. hatred. īḍ­ā́) and i ḍ I. ukṣ sprinkle. The only cerebral stems that occur end in ḍ and ṣ.. s. satiation . and never in the plural. iḍ­ā́ and G.. The two stems uṣṇíh I. N. injury . more than fifty being formed from the three roots druh hate. dadhṛ́ṣ bold. Of the former there are only two : ī́ḍ I. a metre. ^. refreshment. vi­prúḍ­bhis. tvíṣ I.

sā́h–ā and sā́h­au. ṣaṭ­sú. 3 S2. gír praising.A. ­ruk. n. The stems i n which the r is derivative (and preceded by a). N. I . sah­é.V. sah­ī́. gír praise. and the radical vowel 7 1 anaḍ–váh being a changeable stem w i t h three forms is treated under the irregular changeable stems (96) . or au stems. Stems formed from vah and sah lengthen the radical vowel in the strong cases. svār light. D. o. sah­ā́m.A. There are no stems i n 1 . the phonetic k appears in the six forms ­dhak. m ú r destroyer.V. I. var protector. m. while the five which may be regarded as ending i n the semivowels y or v are treated below (102) as ai. ­dhruk. N. ­spṛk. which has been dissimilated to t. N. I n the N.’ two n. 2 3 4 5 6 7 . sā́h­am. stár star. Stems i n r. are treated below (101) as r stems. sah­í. m. saráṭ. I. and the unphonetic ṭ in the three forms ­vāṭ. the h unphonetically became ṭ. the latter generally. ­dhuk. the former always. A. sáh­as and sah­ás. púr stronghold.. m.. psúr victuals. G. Ab.V. ṣāṭ. sā́n­as. sáh­as. m. ṣā́ṭ. There are over fifty stems in radical r. dhúr burden. I. sah­ás. only two stems containing ā and three a. I. var water. the rest being compounds. when h becomes ṭ the initial s is cerebralized. 1 The forms actually occurring if made from sáh victorious would be : Sing. PI. m. sah­ā́. N. Twelve stems are monosyllabic (seven I. ). D. L.^ A.A.. L. Du. m.G. ṣaḍ­bhyás. m.’ The preceding vowel is nearly always i or u. tár star. uṣṇík. b.81­82] STEMS I N H AND R 57 anaḍút­su (from anaḍ­váh). dvā́r door. I. i n the suffixes ­ar and ­tar. The r remains before the su of the L.’ three m. pi.

b. The radical s stems number about forty. a. nā́s nose .. vás abode. tár occurs i n one (strong) form only. This word w i l l be treated later (96. pur. G. pl. Du. mā́s month. N. W i t h the accent of a disyllabic.v púr­as. five n. a. su­ das giving well. The forms occurring. This word might be a feminine. The as stems consist almost entirely of neuters. and r i n the only other one that occurs : dor­bhyā́ m .is lengthened in the N. pl. jyótīṃṣi. mā́s flesh. N. : kā́s cough. form dúras (also once durás and once dvā́ r as). if made from púr. ­us.’ śā́s ruler . 3) as an irregular changeable stem. I . : ā́s face. cákṣūṃṣi. s. yós 4 welfare. : jñā́s relative. with few exceptions. s.g. g. and before consonant endings. pur­ā́ m . pur­é. a. D. and stár in one (weak) form only. would be : Sing. Like the an stems (90. pur­í.V. 1 2 3 Stems i n s. sur­é‚ G. liberal. 3 5 4 . e. five being m. pl. 2. e. D. A dozen are monosyllabic.A. L. púr­au. S3. púr­ā. Pl. are mostly compounds with these stems as their final member. Before bh the s becomes d i n the two forms I . and are. has the accentuation of weak cases i n mās­ás and jñās­ás. N. 2).G. pūr­bhís. e. dvā́r has the weakened A. The m. tā́ r ­as. ­is. mād­bhís and D. I . pi. L. dós arm. puṃs male.A. two I. mād­bhyás. sū́ r ­as. púr­am. and f. b. pl. n. Ab. light has the two contracted forms D. súar. the only weak case occurring. which 1 W i t h irregular accent. stṛ́ b his. A. svār n. A l l of them lengthen their final vowel in the N. A. The A. púr­as. bhā́s light. pūr­bhyás. I t drops the case­ending in the L. pur­ás. The derivative stems in s are formed with the suffixes ­as. The rest are compounds. pūr–ṣú. I. N. mánāṃsi. neuter substan­ tives.

being either substantives. I. apsarā́ m . ápas­ā. ápas. ná–vedās. du.’ D. ápas­as . m. v. apás­am. and N. apó­bhyas. V. I. ápas–ām .AN. N. apā́s. yaśā́s glorious . ápas­i .A. m. áṅgirās m. f. vedhā́ m ordainer. apás–au.). opus) work and ap­ás m.) in the n. 1 The vowel of this word is optionally lengthened i n the A. án­āgās‚ ná­vedas cognisant. ápas–os. L. : ām ­­–­ asam and as = asas . I. N. ápas­e . ápāṃs­i . The forms actually occurring. pi. thus mahā́m great. ū́rṇa­mradās soft as wool. D.. G. also . if made from áp­as. apás­ām. N. medhā́ m wisdom. There are also a few primary masculines. f. ápas. apás­as. án­āgās‚ su­medhā́ s (?) intelligent. ápas. Similarly N. uṣā́m dawn. Before endings with initial bh the suffix as becomes o (45b).. apó­bhyām. m. N. active would be as follows : 1 Sing. A. yáśas glory. (Lat. apás­e. f. or adjectives (some of which occur also in the I. A. apás­su. ápas­ī . medhā́ s . as mán­as mind. A number of forms have the appearance of being contractions in the A. g. The ending au is here very rare and occurs chiefly i n the later Saṃhitās. s. ápo­bhis . apó–bhis. and one primary I. L. In about a dozen compounds the long vowel appears (owing to the influence of the m. Ab. as ap­ás active . Du. apás­ā. I. á­joṣās insati­ able. uṣā́ s I.. G. N. án­āgām sinless. : uṣā́s–am beside uṣás­am. uṣā́s. ápas­su. áṅgirās. apás­i.STEMS I N AS 83] 59 are accented on the root. lengthens the vowel of the suffix : e. apás­ā.. apsarā́s nymph. ^:c. vayā́m vigour. D. n. apás­as. I .. m. demon. ápo­ bhyas . sa­jóṣās united. ^. PI. e. g. pl. su­rā́ d hās bountiful. jarā́ m old age. which are accented on the suffix. A. as rakṣ­ás m. I. s. but these as final members of adjective compounds may be inflected in all three genders. su­mánās m. as well as n. I . n. s. The N. m. 2 . PI. uṣ­ás dawn.

śocíṣ-ṣu (67). N. śocíṣ-i. a. āśíṣ-am. -śociṣ-as. G. and from -śocis m. A. D. only one single such form. numbering about a dozen. differs from that of the m. śocírbhyas. forms (about half a dozen) occur in the N. s. s. would be : . if made from śocís glow in the n. śocís . three of the latter when.. su. –śociṣ–am. N. du. being derived from ā4-śis (the reduced form of the root śās). The is stems. āś1s. mánus) are substantives accented on the root. g. they are secondarily inflected as m. śocír-bhis. m. aśís f. pl. substantives. occurs as a I. I . The only I. G. Three of the exclusively m. would be: Sing. svá-śocis self-radiant. When they form final members of compounds. A. N. vápus) are also used as m. N. c. śociṣ-as. The inflexion of the n. while two (nánus. The inflexion of the n. : e. cákṣus seeing. if made from cákṣus eye as n.A. The actual forms occurring. consist primarily of neuters only. śocíṣ-ā. and r before bh.). L. cákṣus. except in the A. N. A. . four of these (árus. and A. (when it differs from the n. s. The us stems. The final s becomes ṣ before vowel endings.b. L āśíṣ-ā. du. Ab. The actualformsoccurring.A. is the same as that of the m. I . PI. śócis. śocī́ṃṣ­i. and seeing as m. in the A. V. and N. tápuṣ-ā hot. tápus. D. śocíṣ-ām. is inflected thus: N. The final s becomes ṣ before vowel-endings and the L. m. numbering at least sixteen exclusive of compounds. and r before bh. Eleven of the us stems are n. āśíṣ-as. which is not really an is stem. N. du. Pl. śocíṣ-e. compounded are also inflected as I. pl. śocís . and pl. L.A. comprise several primary masculines as well as neuters . us stems are adjectives accented on the suffix. A. all but one (janús birth) accented on the radical syllable . prayer. adjectives.

­yams (88) have two forms. and n. only. cákṣuṣ­e. cákṣus . Regular changeable stems are found only among derivative nouns formed with suffixes ending in the dentals t. those in n with ­an. only. those in ­an (90—92). 54. if resting on the suffix. stems see 95. and n. I n Latin and Greek the distinction was lost by normalization : G. Nouns with Two Stems. shifts in weak cases to the endings that begin with vowels. cákṣuṣ­ī. On the formation of the f. N. cákṣur­bhyas. cákṣuṣ­ā. and weakest (73). I. future. 3 2 1 Excepting those of the reduplicating verbs and a few others that follow their analogy (85 b). cákṣuṣ­ām. The stems in ­ant (85—86). cákṣuṣ­ā. These participles are inflected in the m. strong. D. 1 55. cákṣuṣ­as. the weak in ­at . B. ­mant. ­vin . and ­in. D. the I. The n.83­85] H C ANGEABLE STEMS 61 Sing. cákṣur­bhyām.^. inflexion differs from the m. cákṣus. edentis. D. ­van. –vāṁs (89). ^t^ro. Those in t are formed with the suffixes ­ant.A. g. A. e. or the palatal c. m. The accent. s. I . m. ad­ánt and ad­at eating from ad eat.A. ­min. PI. du. cákṣur­bhis. I . m. 2 3 . Stems i n ­ant comprise present. G. ­in (87). strong and weak . pl. N. n. cákṣuṣ­am. and ­añc (93) have three. cákṣuṣ­as. ­vant . Ab. and aorist participles (156) active (m. having a special stem in I. in the NN. cákṣūṃṣ­i .A. cákṣuṣ­i. G. middle.). those in c with ­añc (properly a root meaning to bend). Du. those in s with ­yāṃs and ­vaṃs . L. N. ­man. s.’ The strong stem is in ­ant. Changeable Stems.

n.Ab. pṛ́ ṣ ant spotted.b h y ā 1 n . A.MAsCUL1NE. 1 N. N. The analogy of these participles is followed by a few adjectives that have lost their old participial meaning: ṛhánt weak. Lat. 1 n a h á d . fut. mahád­bhis. From the root mah (original1y magh). also the substantive d á n t tooth. adat­í L. bhañj­ánt breaking . Lat. Cp. s­ánt (as be) . rúśant brilliant. bṛhánt great. adat­ás G. L. páśy-ant seeing . ^o^r^) V. adánt­am (Lat. Probably an old participle of ad eat with prehistoric loss of the initial a like s­ánt being from as be. ­au. janáy­ant begetting . adat­é D. mahā́ n t­am. adád­bhyām D. mahā́n . The adj. sī́d­ant (sad sit). edens. adát adánt­i adat­ī́ Other exampIes are: árc­ant singing. Du. ^t^) adánt­ā ­au adánt­as (Gk. ghn­ánt (han slay). also originally a participle. ádantas A. mahā́nt–as. adán (Gk.A. A. ich­ánt wishing . adát­su NEUTER.G. mahánt great. aor.A. N. a. sákṣ­ant (sah overeome). y­ant (i go). 2 3 . mahát. edentem) adánt­ā ­au adat­ás I . jān­ánt knowing . adád­bhyas Ab. D. 1 For original adánt­s‚ cp. mahát­su. N. kariṣy–ánt about to do . ádan ádant­ā ­au. deviates from the participial declension in lengthening the vowel of the suffix in the strong forms : 2 3 Sing. kṛṇv­ánt doing . adat­ā I . PI. yúyuts­ant wishing tofight . I . mag­nu­s. mahat­ás. s1NGULAR. sunv­ánt pressing . mahat–ā́. adád­bhis D. L DUA . mahā́ n t­ā. adat­ós G. I . N. L L P URA . adat­ā́m L. m.

Plur. i. Besides the first three substantives just mentioned there are no feminines except the adjective a-saścát unequalled when used as a I. part. e. sacrificer . dádat-I. again. dádat-ā. dádad-bhis. in other words. 2 3 5 6 7 4 . those of the third class (127. m. is formed with ī from the weak stem : mat-ī. having no equal . of dah burn.m. are inflected exactly alike and differ from the stems in -ant solely in lengthening the vowel of the suffix in the N. Hardly any n. bíbhyat fearing. vāghát m. The analogy of these participles is followed by a few others formed from unreduplicated bases: dā́ś-at worshipping. used chiefly as a substantive meaning the animate world. dádat.A. n. living (from gā go). N. G. Three of these are I. which both mean possessing. G. also dákṣ­at and dhákṣ­at aor. The adjective stems formed with the suffixes -mant and -vant. of the participle sáścat.g. I . śā́s­at instructing. S6. m. : vahát. pursuer. do not distinguish a strong stem. have at throughout. vat-ī (95) . D. s. I . L . 2) and intensives (172). of these stems 1 2 3 4 6 1 Which has been weakened because here the accent is regularly on the reduplicative syllable. dádat-as. stream . barren cow . A. The f. But sráv-antjlowing. dádat-as. ghánighn­at repeatedly killing (√han).’ The v. have come to be used as substantives with a shift of accent to the suffix.85­86] PRESENT PARTICIPLES 63 b. originally participles. Lit. forms occur except from the old reduplicated participle jág-at going. e. But sáśc–at as a participle (from sac accompany). m. dádat-am. the accent never shifting to the endings. dádat-e. vehát I. but á-saścant-ī as the f. A few others. The derivation of this word is uncertain. sravát I. The participles of verbs with a reduplicating present base. The forms occurring if made from dádat giving (√ da) would be: Sing. saścát . and two m. dádat-am. N. But váh-ant carrying as a participle. The infiexien of these reduplicated stems in at is like that of the compounded radical t stems (77).

A. forms are very rare. PI.D. The forms actually occurring. hastí­ṣu. hastín­as. Sing. only .1 2 is regularly formed with mas and vas .. N. N. hastín­e. the vowel of the suffix is lengthened in the N. f. m. substantives . L. hastín­as.L. e. V. m. I . ­min. Adjective stems are formed with the suffixes ­in. There are six vocatives i n mas i n the RV. those in ­vin number nearly twenty. gómānt­i. gómat. which mean possessing. m. i n vas and only three i n the later van (of which there are eight more i n the Av. but the n. n. only.A. gómat­as. N. occurring in the s. The Padapātha reads vanti and manti i n these forms. gómān . gómant–am. From gó­mant possessed of cows would be formed : Sing. 1 There are sixteen i n the RV. if made from nast­ín having hands. e. g.. There are also vocatives i n vas from stems in van and vāṃs (cp. hastí­bhyām. m. L. I. hastín­os. L. m. m. N.). gómant­as . I . g. and the n disappears in that case (in the n. gāth­ín singer. hastí­bhis. G. hastín­ā. They are declined in the m. hastín–as. also) and before consonant endings. hastí­bhyas. and n. n. would be as follows : 4 Sing. ­vin. 3 ^7. hastín­ā. L. stem is formed with ī : aśvín possessing horses . I . Du. PL m. G. V. N. G. bhága­vas from bhága­vant. D. m. s. hastí. I . The f . A. gómas. hastī́. aśvín-ī. G.G. hastín­I. ­au. gómat­su. hástin. N. hastín­ā. the v. As in all derivative stems ending in n. n. and the lengthening of the vowel seems metrieal. The only two forms that occur are ghṛtávānti and paśumā́ n ti. A. háviṣ­mas from havíṣ­mant . Ab. i n yas from stems i n yams). 3 4 . but no example of the form in man. hastín­ām. but there is only one in ­min : ṛg–mín praising. Those in ­in are very common. hastín­am. These stems sometimes come to be used as m. D. m. gó­ mat­i. N.

vant (86). identical with the m. L L P URA . s. N. 1. are found. Comparative stems are formed with the suffix yāṃs. the mant. e.’ No forms of the du.A. Only two stems are formed with yāṃs exclusively : jyā́­yāṃs greater and sán­yāṃs older . A. kánīyas kánīyāṃs­i The I.g. and in the pi. n. Nouns with Three Stems. bhū­yāṃs and bháv­īyāṃs more. Cp. occur. ends in yas. if made from kán¬ īyāṃs younger. e. kánīyān A. kánīyāṃs­am 1. six others are formed with yāṃs as well as ī–yāṃs .88­89] COMPARATIVE STEMS I N YĀMS 65 SS. The stem of the perf. and the vaṃs (89) stems 2 . préyas­ī nearer. N. only. Ab. would be as follows : MAsCUL1NE. active is formed with the suffix vāṃs. and n. S1NGULAR. These stems are declined in the in. kánīyas­ām NEUTER. G^ kánīyas­as L. 3. G.. kánīyas­ā D. This is reduced in the weak cases in two ways : before consonant terminations (by dropping the nasal 1 The f. kánīyas kánīyāṃsas kánīyas­as G. sing. S 9. The V. is formed by adding 1 to the weak stem.g. The strong stem is reduced in the weak cases. kánīyas­i V. part. to yas. only the N.D.. by dropping the nasal and shortening the vowel. G. kánīyas­e Ab.’ The forms actually occurring. also occur. which is nearly always added with the connecting vowel ī to the accented root.

cakrús-1. cakrús­as PLURAL. īy­i­vā́n (i go). the mant. cákṛ–vas NEUTER. vant (86). The V.1 and shortening the vowel) to vas which becomes vat . form occurring is the A. g. cakṛvā́ṃs­am cakṛvā́ ṃ s­ā cakṛvā́ṃs­ā I. yayi­vā́n (yā go). is regularly formed with vas. On the change of m to n see 68. . proṣ–i–vā́n (pra­Fvas dwell). and uṣ. and before vowel terminations (by loss of the nasal accom¬ panied by Samprasāraṇa) to us which becomes us. N. The accent always rests on the suffix in uncompounded forms. Cp. The forms actually occurring. The inflexion is restricted to the m. 4 1 2 3 4 On the change of s to t cp. cakrúṣ­ā D. cakṛvan A. cakrús­ām V. In about a dozen of these participles the suffix vāṃs is preceded by i (either as a reduced form of final radical ā or as a connecting vowel) : jajñi­vā́n (from jñā know). if made from cakṛvā́ṃs having done.A. papi­ vā́n (pā drink). tasthi­vān (sthā stand).G. and n. vat. rari­vā́n (rā give) . and the yāṃs stems (88). SINGULAR. There are thus three stems: vāṃs. viviś-i-vā́n (viś enter) . jagm­i­vā́n (beside jagan­vā́n : gam go). cakṛvā́ṃs–as cakrús–as I . cakrúṣ–e Ab. papt­i­vā́ n (pat fly). s. The only specifically n. N. 66 B 1 b. is formed with ī from the weakest stem : e. s. DUAL. would be as follows : 2 3 MAsCUL1NE. The f. cakrvád­bhis G. cakr­vát a.

tasth­úṣ–a. n. I n the RV. I n the strong cases the a of the suffix is usually lengthened. e. e. jagm­úṣ­e. 1. k á r m a . I n the weak cases the a is often syncopated before vowel endings.g. ádhvā. e. s. do not appear elsewhere in the consonant declension. m. while they are retained in eighteen. s. g. nor with one exception (śata-dā́vni) in the L. g. 2.g. I .. grā́vṇa from grā́van pressing stone (but áś-man-ā stone). and n. e. g. syncopation never takes place in the N.’ besides the 2 3 4 1 W i t h reversion to guttural. the nasal is dropped in the N. g. These stems are almost restricted to m. n.. while before consonant endings the final n disappears. is in the RV. e. i n the Pada text.. That is. s. but some forms of adjective stems serve as I. du. man.A. Nouns i n an. g. and strengthened radical vowel. those in an the least frequent. lack of reduplication. The an stems. and n. in the RV. arya­máṇ­am. Seven of these appear with ā i n the Saṃhitā text. those i n van substitute varī. e. n. like the rest. dropped more often than not . van include a large number of words. As in all other n stems. The ending of the L. The evidence of the Avesta indicates that the ā form of the saṃhitā is the older. kármāṇi. īy­úṣ­as. MAN. which are both m. those in van being by far the commonest. pl.. kárma. both the final n of the stem and the termination i are. but in half a dozen an and man stems it remains unchanged. six or seven adjectival forms are used as f. though never when man and van are preceded by a consonant. w i t h ī added to their weakest form. ádhvan­am . g.STEMS I N AN. I n the N. The stems i n an and man form their f. mūrdhán beside mūrdhán–i on the head. 2 3 4 5 . but with ā. being common to these three groups. e. e. dropped in nineteen stems. e.. and there is one specifically I. rā́ja­bhis. stem yóṣ­an woman. This i is dropped before us . the a represents an original sonant nasal. 90. VAN 89­90] 67 1 ok­i­vā́n (uc be wont). .A. s. But there are two peculiarities of inflexion which. g.

and n. śīrṣ–án n. a man. matarí-śvan m. six stems belong etymologically to this group though seeming to belong to one of the other two. of mātarí-śvan is mā́ t ari­śvas as i f from a stem i n van. śv–án m. though the Av. I . áhān­i.D. would be : s1NGULAR. 91. formed w i t h ī from man stems are found i n the RV. rā́jān­am V. rā́jñ­ām rā́jan­i ­­. rā́ja­bhyām I . the latter verbal abstracts. Ab. ukṣ­án ox and vṛ́ṣ–an bull fluctuate between a and ā. 3. rā́ja­bhyas rā́jñ­as G. 2. a demi-god. pūṣ­án.. dog. g. They are : yú-v-an m. L. 70. D. youth.A. if made from rā́jan king. But the du. rā́ja­bhis rā́jñ­e D. rā́jān­as A. rjí-śvan m. occurs (p. rā́ja­ rā́jan The n. of áhan day is áhan–ī. In the inflexion of these stems (unlike those in man and van) the concurrence of three consonants is not avoided . N. p á r i . L. N. G.A.A. I n the strong forms ṛbhu-kṣán chief of the Ṛbhus. of śīrṣ-án. and yóṣ­an woman retain short a . rā́jan^ N. differs in the N.. ^. e. rā́jān­ā. No example of the s. L L P URA . 1).j m a n going round. The stems in man are about equally divided between m. śīrṣṇ-ā.^ I n see below. ví-bhv–an farreaching. n. pl. a god. 1 1 2 2 3 4 The normal forms. Probably from śūgrow. 4. From bhū be. yóṣan. has five such at the end of compounds. The V. ­au A. About a dozen forms from these stems as final members of compounds are used as feminines. are not numerous. N. is an extended form of śíras head = śir(a)s–án. From gam go. rā́jñ­os G. rā́jñ­ā I. only. No certain examples of I. 1 2 3 4 5 6 . rā́jñ­as I. rājā L DUA . the former being mostly agent nouns.

A. L. seven stems not only syncopate. D. about a dozen forms do not syncopate the a. H ardly a dozen of them make n. kármaṇ­ī. as mahi­mn­ā́ . v áśman. self jé­man victorious retain the short vowel in the suffix. mahi­n­ā́. Plur. but regularly to a collateral suffix vara. a god.STEMS I N MAN 90] 69 the strong forms arya­mán m.’ Ab. drāghm­ā́ . áśman-os. never added to van. e. stone.A. Twenty­five such stems i n varī are found i n the RV. áśma-bhyas. L. áśmān-ā. áśman-e. áśma-bhis. which is. forms. áśman–ām. These cases from kárman act are : Sing. 1 The n. the a is always syncopated in the Saṃhitā text except in the forms dā–ván­e. differs in the N. 2 3 1 when the suffix is preceded by a vowel. also mahi­n­ā́ . t­mán m. g. áśmān-am. 2 3 . if made from áś-man (Gk. kármāṇ­i. but drop either the m or the n as well : prathi­n­ā́ ‚ pre­ṇ­ā́. Cp. N. vari–ṇ–ā́ . 3. ^:c The f. A. bhū­man­ā.V ásmān-as.A. and ṛta­van­i. the a is generally synco¬ pated. áśman-i and áśman. the mant. I . Du. I n the weak forms. when the suffix is preceded by a vowel. but there are four in vas : ṛtā­vas. D. I n the I . vi­bhā­vas. a^u^u) in. only. even when the suffix is preceded by a vowel. vasu­ván–e.V. The stems in van are chiefly verbal adjectives and are almost exclusively declined in the m. áśman-as. N. áśman-as. s. vāṃs stems. would be :— Sing. yāṃs. kárma. raśm-ā́. N. G. áśman-ā. is usually formed in van. vant. I n the weak cases. Du. L. of these stems is otherwise formed with 1. bhū­n­ā́ . eva­yā–vas‚ prātar­it­vas. and only five or six forms are used as I. dā́–man­e. áśma-sn. I . The normal forms. kármā. kárma. G. how­ ever. The V. áśmā. I n the strong cases there is only one example of the a remaining short: anarváṇ­am. PI.

G. grā́vṇ­os. śvā́ (^ou) A. as ákṣi for akṣán eye. Ab. ­au śvā́n­ā. dhánvā. Irregular Stems i n an. N. i n a appears to have been avoided i n an stems. grā́vāṇ­as. grā́vā. ­au PLURAL. does not occur) formed from dhánvan bow are: Sing. I . A. with áh­ar. dhánva. śvā́n­a. A. The n. 2 a). supplements the N. 91. 2. I . grā́van. grā́va­su. I .A.The normal forms occurring.’ which. N. śvá-bhyas G. Greek 2 .V. G. is best treated under the irregular stems in radical ā (97 A. 1. so also i n Greek : ^v^os ^ śún-as. otherwise inflected like rā́jan. grā́vṇ­as. grā́vāṇ­am. 3 Cp. N. forming the strong stem Pánthan. day. śún-as (^vuos) DUAL. only.A. path. differs in the N. dhánvāni. 3. grā́vṇ­as. pressing­stone. grā́ v a­bhis.V. collateral stems always being substituted i n this case. takes Samprasaraṇa in its weakest stem śún. L. grā́ v a­bhyām. śún-ām 1 The normal N. grā́ v a­bhyas. otherwise regular. áh­an n. grā́vṇ­e. grā́vṇ­ām. N. ­au.’ retains the accent : 1 s1NGULAR. PI. śvā́n­as sun­as L śvá-bhis D. would be : Sing. D. śún-ā G. śv–án m. ^c. D. Du. śvā́n­am I . L. Pánth­an m. if made from grā́­van m. G. PI. s. V. These cases (the du. dhánva. grā́ v āṇ­ā. as representing an Originally disyllabic stem. grā́vṇ­ā. dog. grā́ v aṇ­i and grā́van.

yúvan A. yú­v­an. yúva­bhis D. maghávān. mágha­van A. śván. yū́n­as 2 D. The strong stem is 1 Cp. yúvan­as A. Pl. forms its weakest stem. otherwise regular. udder supplements the N. yúvān­ā N. The root han. maghá­van bountiful. The stem retains the accent because i t represents a disyllable . s. youth. The supplementary stem maghá-vant is also used i n the following eases : N .V. yū́n­as I . yúvān–am L L P URA . yúvā V. maghá–vā V.IRREGULAR STEMS I N AN 91­92] 71 4. m. maghón. by Samprasāraṇa and contraction (maghá­un) : s1NGULAR. for the most part. D. maghá­vān­as maghón­as maghón­ām 6. follows. by Samprasāraṇa and contraction (yú­un): 1 s1NGULAR. juven­is and jūn­ior. yúva­bhyas 3 5. an epithet of Indra. DUAL. L DUA . the analogy of derivative stems in an. before consonant endings. which forms the final member of thirty­five compounds in the RV. ū́dhas–su 92. L maghávad-bhis. L. maghón­as maghón­os PLURAL. Lat. 2 3 . L. maghá­vān­am maghá­vān­ā G. yū́ n ­e G. also forms its weakest stem. cp.A. N. N. maghávad-bhyas. yun. maghávat-su. the latter stem also occurs : pl. ūdhan n. with ū́ d har and ū́dhas . N.

form the strong stem in añc. only). are the N.­han (with a long vowel in the N. Thus A. the middle in īc or ūc (according as ac is preceded by y or v). vṛtra­háṇ­as A. s. vṛtra­há­bhis 3. L L P URA . practically acquired the character of a suffix. vṛ́ t ra­han A. which has. pi. The forms actually found. 2 93. would be : 3 4 1 H ere the h reverts to the original guttural aspirate . and n. This is the general rule of the RV. L DUA . however. the suffix of which generally expresses the meaning of ­ward. ­au v. D.. pratīc­ásRV. About fourteen stems have a weakest form in īc. and the weakest ­ghn. vṛtra­háṇ­ā. vṛtra–ghn­ás vṛtra­ghn­ā́ vṛtra­ghn­é vṛtra­ghn­ás vṛtra­ghn­í I . N. vṛtra­háṇam I. which.L. G. the middle is ­há.A. if made from praty­áñc turned towards.A. the n in this combination is never cerebralized. L. instead of i and u.. and in the du. The only cases occurring in the pl. being formed with ī from the weakest stem. Adjectives i n añc. only. The cases that occur would in the compound vṛtra­hán Vṛtra­slaying be : 1 s1NGULAR. These words. and about six in ūc. vṛtra­hā́ N. N. H ere ya and va irregularly contract to ī and ū. shift the accent to the endings. 2 3 4 . if they are the contractions of accented syllables. Properly the root añc bend.pratī́ c ­as AV.A. They are inflected in the m. N. the I. but not of the Av.

pratyáñc­am I. devā́ñc godward. pratīc­ós NEUTER. and the L nīcā́ being used adverbially probably has an adverbial shift of accent. from which the weakest stem tiraśo ( = tirás + ac) is formed. WEAKEsT STEM. Ab. ­au N. pratyák a. 1 The only The stem nīc seems to have retained the accent . ny­áñc downward sam–y–áñe united tir­y­áñe transverse úd­añe upward anv­áñc following víṣv­añc all­pervading ny­ák sam­y­ák tir­y­ák úd­ak anv­ák víṣv–ak nīc sam­īc tiráś-c úd–īc anūc vísūc 2 3 1 4 b. pratīc­ás L.A. devadrī́ c ā. prā́ ñ c forward. L. devadryáñc godward also retains the accent on the suffix : I . M1DDLE STEM.G. by analogy. have no weakest form. Such are ápāñc backward. ī‚ though no y precedes the a of the suffix.ADJECTIVES I N ANC 93] 73 MAsCUL1NE. for the f. Pratīc­ī́ N.A. Other words similarly declined are : STRoNG STEM. pratīe­ā́ pratīc­é pratīc­ás pratīo­í PLURAL. N. s1NGULAR. is nī́c­ī (not nīo­ī́). DUAL. pratyáñc­ā. in which the añc is preceded by a word ending in a. ávāñc downward. 2 3 4 . párāñc turned away. pratyáṅ (61) A. D. pratyáñc­as A. The y is here inserted by analogy. H ere t i r i takes the place of tirás across. arvā́ñc hitherward. N. About a dozen stems.

A. 3. marútvan) .A. anvañei. pratyáṅ. yúv­ā.’ The I. shorten it in the V. A. is formed from the weak stem with ī : prāe­ī. ápāc­ā. prátyaṅ (N. does not differ i n form (though i t does i n accent) from the N . form is N. cákṛvas (N. adán) . One an stem has a V. The points to be noted about changeable stems are : 1. taras­vī́ . Du. L. 2 3 4 . prā́k. The vowel of the suffix is lengthened in the N. praty¬ áñci. are the ant and añc stems : ádan (N. márutvas (N. yúvā) . m. pratyáṅ). n. kánīyān . except in ant and añc stems : gó­mān.A. grā́van (N. ápāc­i. agni­vā́n . which drop it. vī­bhā­vas. are the N. The RV. ápāñc­au. grā́vā). A l l changeable stems that lengthen the vowel in the N. while those that have n (after a) in the N. 95. áśmā). m. forms occur : prāñci. i n vas : ṛtā­vas. retain it in the V. s. N. 5). I . N. has five others. Those that drop the n in the N. i n as : mātari–śv-as (p. ápāñc­as.A. but none i n vas. grā́vā. plur. sing. ṛg-m1. samyáñci. n. and pi.A. cakṛ­vā́ n . The AV. yúvan (N. ends in a nasal in all changeable stems except those in n. eva­yā­vas‚ prātar­ it­vas. kánīyas (N. śatāvan. s. áśmā. The only distinctively n. áśman (N. N. cákṛvān). Four van stems form their V.. but ad­án. and add s : thus rā́jan (N.. The inflexion of these words may be illustrated by ápāñc : Sing. The N. The feminines of nouns with changeable stems are 1 In B. hastī́. 94. ápāc­as. m.. arvāñci. has three vocatives i n van : arvan. ápāñc­am. drop it in the V. 68. kánīyān) . ápāṅ. ápāñc­ā. 2.cases occurring in the du. 2 3 4 a. hastī́) . sadhryañci. śavasāvan. rā́jā). hástin (N. havíṣmān). rā́ j ā. s. Pl. m. háviṣmas (N. The only changeable stems i n which the V. some half­dozen N. (61).

I . The forms occurring are : Sing. from ánas + vah) has three stems: the last syllable is lengthened in the strong stem anaḍ­vā́h. ap­ás. pī́­var­ī (. návīyāṃs) . of the simple future participle is formed like the present participle of the first conjugation : sū́ ­ ṣyant­ī about to bring forth. píprat­ī furthering (m. avitr­ī́ (m. ap­ā́m. 156). maghávan). cart­drawer. N.jagm­i­vā́ ṃ s). uchánt­ī shining. ā́pā. ámavat­ī (m. dhenumát­ī (m.r^a ­= ^áf^a). punat–ī́ (m. kṛṇvat–ī́ (m. adat­i (m. e. g. sam­rā́jñ­ī(m. A. and shortened by Samprasāraṇa in the weakest anaḍ­úh and in the middle anaḍ­úd (dissimulated 1 The weak stem appears once i n siñc­at­ī́ sprinkling beside the regular siñc–ánt­ī. a. pratīc­ī́ (m. ad­bhyás. i n var­ī . I n a compound. e. oodáyant­ī urging . ap­ā́. pī́­van (^i^) fat. kṛṇvánt). yuñjat­ī́ (m.’ PI. that of the second conjugation from the weak stem i n at . D. ad­bhis. ­hán) . návyas­ī (m. and pi. bhávant­ī being. G. 1. 2 . Adjectives i n van form their f. 2. punánt) purity ing. dhenumánt). 1 b. maghón­ī (m. ­ghn­ī (m. ámavant) . ap­ás. san­ iṣyánt­ī going to obtain. arkín) .V. G. jagmúṣ­ī(m. I . The f. of the present participle active of the first conjugation (125) is made from the strong m. avitā́r). e. but ghnat­ī́ (m. píprat). water lengthens its vowel in the strong cases du. L. f. ghnánt) slaying. 4) is yuva­tí. The f. Du. of the irregular yú­v­an young (91. The f. ap I. yuñjánt) yoking. and substitutes t for p before bh. púṣyant­ī obtaining abundantly. Ab. 96. adánt). anaḍ­váh m. pratyáñc) . arkín­ī (m. ap­sú. ox (lit. g. e. ā́p­as. N. Irregular Nouns with Changeable Stems. g. stem i n ant (cp.rā́jan).95­96] FEMININES OF CH ANGEABLE STEMS 75 formed by adding ī to the weak stem (when there are two stems) or the weakest (when there are three) .

­.G. 1. A. N. puṃs–ā́m L. The N.o^ . pú–maṃs m. and syncopated in the weakest to puṃs. anaḍ­van A.) constitute the most important declensions because the former embraces more than one half of all nominal stems. 28 and 16 a. anaḍ­vah­au A. The stems in derivative a (m. in the middle to pum. puṃs­ás L. ­a‚ ­. anaḍ­úh­as L. N . PLURAL.o^. Stems ending i n Vowels. The forms occurring are : s1NGULAR. anad­vā́h­as anaḍ­úh­as anaḍ­úd­bhis anad­út­su 1 3. N.) and ā (f. anad­vā́h­am DUAL. n.^e. man has three forms . . 2 3 4 . anad­vā́h–au G. D.­ . ­um. Lat. púmas A. with the second part of which the Lat. 1 Probably an old compound. A. ­as. ­am = Gk. ­. L. mas ‘ male ' may be allied. its a is lengthened in the strong stem. 1) V. puṃs­í PLURAL. W i t h necessary loss of the s between consonants : cp. puṃ­sú I I . ­a. The forms occurring are : 2 SINGULAR. púmāṃs­as puṃs­ás G. and the latter includes more feminines than any other declension. púmāṃs­am Ab. anad­úh­i N. púmān (89. is irregularly formed as if from a stem in vant.for anaḍ­úḍ). N. 3 4 97. Lat. ­a Gk.

I. (For notes ^ l see next page. m. 3 This form. príyās príyāsas 11 6 priyā́ b hyas 10 priyā́ ­ ṇ­ām priyā́su.g. 9 5 5 priyā́ ­ yās priyā́ ­ yām^ príye G. priyébhyas 7 priyā́­m priyáyā priyā́ priyā́ ­ yai 2 3 FEM. has an ending in the singular. The terminations yai (— yā­e). n. m. G. and in which the Ab. priyā́n I. I.A.STEMS I N A AND Ā 97] 77 1 These two declensions are also the most irregular since the endings diverge from the normal ones here more than elsewhere.Ab. priyā́ t G. would bo : PLURAL. and pi. priyáis priyébhis D. priyā́­ṇ­ām L. ending ā. only. The inflexion of the n. priyé. m. made with the normal I. differs from that of the m. priyéṇa priyā́ D.g. yās (­­– yā–as). I. 100). The final of ena is often lengthened (enā). s. priyáu . ­ This ending is preserved i n the Lat. MASC. is distinguished from the G. N. priyā́s priyā́sas A. priyā́ b hyām.V. du. devyái. príya 2 priyā́ s priyā́ s as priyā́ s priyā́ b his 12 3 2 4 N. n. devyā́ m (cp. The a declension is the only one in which the N. priyéṣu. in the N. príyásya L. is rare.Ab.) 2 5 3 .A. o for od (e. N. 1 Certain adjectives i n ­as ­a ­am follow the pronominal declension (110). V. priyá­m I . príyās 11 13 DuaI.L. y ā m are due to the influence of the feminines i n ī (originally yā). priyā́ y a Ab. MAsC FEM. i f made from priyá dear. S1NGULAR..D. priyé V. These terminations originally came from the pronominal declen­ sion (110).A. devyā́ s . priyá­s priyā́ A. The forms actually occurring. e. 6^naivod i n inscriptions) and i n the Greek (Cre tic) adverb ­^o­^ hence. priyā́ . s.f.n. priyá­y­os.

mā́ measure. Gk. and twenty­four times i n the AV. where they often shorten the final vowel to a. i t is five times as common. I n the Brāhmaṇas and sūtras the D. which form their m pL i n both ā and āni‚ e. 7 3 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 5 1 6 1 7 . being formed from about thirty roots. s. 16 2. the proportion is reversed. g. g. The du.. vrā́ troop. gnā́ divine woman. even before u. There are no distinctively n. The form i n ā is commoner i n the RV. I t is slightly commoner in the RV. and the stem is then inflected according to the derivative declension. cp. khā́ well. Du. Gothic ­ans. : jā́ child. priyé. This ending is preserved i n such Greek datives as i^ro^. but i n the AV..^ 14 a. Radical ā stems. jyā́ bowstring. as the radical vowel i n that gender is always shortened to a. Most of them appear only as the final member of compounds. This form seems to consist of a double ending : as­as. 6 17 The forms occurring in the oblique cases are so The form amba. ámbe as from a stem ámbā mother. nā́mā and nā́mānf. That the ending was originally ­ns is shown by the Sandhi (40. I. ending ai is used instead of the Ab. dā́ giver.a. being probably due to the influence of the many masculines. ­o^s. m. as frequent as that i n asas. priyá­m. i n ā is more than seven times as common as that i n an i n the RV.. ^ This form is due to the influence of the an stems. meaning. I n the AV. may have a V. and TS. jīrṇayai tvacaḥ of dead skin.A. priyā́ and priyā́ ­ ṇ­i. ending as both i n this declension and elsewhere (98. and seven in the I. have the V. than that i n āni i n the proportion of three to two. This form is rare i n the RV.. but four are used as monosyllables in the m. neuter forms are : Sing. Pl. e. These stems become less common i n the later Saṃhitās. : kṣā́ abode. occurring thrice i n the RV. and I. than priyébhis. are common in the RV. o mother l The VS. 2) . jā́ child. The N.G. The n seems to have been due to the influence of the n stems. The form i n as is about twice i n the RV. 3 a) . sthā́ standing . inscr. The u of su is almost invariably to be read w i t h hiatus. I t is almost always used i n the Brāhmaṇas. forms. trā́ protector. and are then inflected like derivative a stems.

­ha slaying is a reduced form of han . N . j­ás. I . Excepting kha n. From the adverb táthā thus is formed the sing. N.’ Plur. in most of the dative infinitives . the G. jā́s. pánthā only : Sing. however. always takes s in the N. 3. Both declensions embrace a large number of nouns of all genders. would be : 1 Sing. V. Stems in i and u (m. I . B. 167). A. uśánā-m. pánthā. : uśánā. pánthās.. PI. numbering about twenty. A.f. I . s. Contrary to the rule generally applicable to monosyllabic stems. uśánā m. has besides the stem pánthān : sing. jā́ and jáu. like a f. jā́. parā-dái to give up.. The Av. s. N. jā́­s. and the G.. and G.L. doubtless owing to the influence of the derivative ā stems. excepting the N. L. N. g. N. jā́m. pánthān­as.A. derivative stems i n ā follow the analogy of the radical ā stems. mánthā­m and mahā́–m. D. jā́­bhyām. n. pánthanam. e. s. prati-mái imitate (cp. but the I. N.. j­é. N.. Ab. m. s. e. a.. jā́­bhis.97­98] RADICAL Ā STEMS 79 rare that some endings. Pl.. such as those of the L. jā­bhyas. also jā́. The strong stem of pathí m. jā́s. Dual. n. the accent remains on the radical syllable throughout. and pl. D. path is in the RV. and. stems. forms are 1 Not. du. mánthā churning stick and mahā́ great form the A. jā́ ­ bhyas. e.). D. 9S. if made from jā́ child m. pl. pánthā­m. consist almost entirely of stems in radical ā that has been shortened to a. aperture they appear as final members of compounds only . uśán­e. pánthā­s. are not represented at all. a seer.V. But the i declension contains comparatively few n. pra-khyái to see. Five anomalously formed m. I. The radical vowel is dropped before the endings e and as of the D. G. . á­tathā­s not say¬ ing ' yes '. often drops it. g. g. Radical a stems. A. ja­s. śatru-há slaying enemies. jā́­su.A. prathama­já first­ born. The m. N .n. A. The forms actually occurring. A. I. has a N .

s. The final vowel of the stem shows Guṇa in three of the weak cases of the s. but that with n ā by thirty i n the RV. s. though the stem vowel in that case does not lose its syllabic value.G. as well as in the V. pi. throw the accent on a following vowel. s. The adjectives śúc-i bright and mádh-u sweet may be used to illustrate the forms actually occurring : S1NGULAR. and L.Ab. and even on the nām of the G. i n the n. I n the u declension the masculines greatly preponderate. is practically the same in all genders except that the N. pl. but the u declension in the G. differ from the m. śúci-s śúci-m śúcy-ā śúcī śúci n. śúci śúci 2 n. I. The inflexion. śúci-s A. the n ā form is used almost exclusively. mádhu-s mádhu mádhu-m mádhu mádhv-ā mádhv-ā mádhu-n–ā mádhu-n-ā 1n. when i and u are changed to y and v. and I. stems taken together. like śúcyā. n.G. is reduced to s.Ab. and I. but twenty-five (under the influence of the n declension) like śúcinā. m. m. but as Udātta. N. is always dropped in the i declension and usually in the u declension. I. but the contracted form i n ī is more than twice as common i n the RV. This is the normal formation. mádhn-s mádhu-m 3 śúci-n-ā Five stems in the RV. by only four stems. i n ā is made i n the m. not as Svarita. śúci-m śúcy-a I . The normal ending as of the Ab. . further shortened to i i n about a dozen words.).A.rare in it. 1 2 3 . while that of the L.. m. and n. s. The inflexion of the n stems has influenced the i declension in the I . also. Oxytone stems. not occurring at all in several cases. and pi. pl. and the N. and the A. being about four times as numerous as the I. only.. form their I. differ from each other. while it is abnormally strengthened in the L. The normally formed I . s.. while the neuters here greatly outnumber the feminines. s. which is closely parallel in both groups. śúci-n-ā 1 I. (D. The latter is i n the RV.

7 This type occurs from over sixty stems. From one stem also mádhv­e. mádhū 3 n. g. D. The RV. The RV. śúcaye 1 7 [śúce-s] mádho-s śúce-s śúcā śúcau śúce [śúci] mádho śúcī śúcī 3 DUAL. Once also mádhv­as. śúce N. e.L. occurring twice.DERIVATIVE STEMS I N I AND U 98] I. mádhav-e mádhav–e mádhu­n­e mádho-s mádho­s mádhu­n­as mádho-s mádho­s mádhu­n­as mádhav­i mádhau mádhau mádhu–n–i mádho mádhu 19 11 śúcā śúcau 5 śúci-bhyām śúcy–os I. devout and ávi m. I. yuvaty­ā́ s . and f. The form in au is more than twice as common as that i n ā i n m. g.f. has seven datives i n ai. is the only L. following the analogy of the ī declension. G. The form védī on the altar.). śúcī 3 n. Seven stems follow this type. while nineteen follow mádhau i n the RV. The vs.A-V. ūtī́ with aid is often used as a D. śúcā śúcau śúce-s V. Also mádhv­as.Ab. is urv–ī́ the two earths. bhrty­áifor sustenance.D. vásv­as. sheep have ary–ás and ávy­as. from an i stem with the normal ending i ( = védi­i). mádhav-e mádho-s mádhv-as mádhav-i mádhau 3 2 4 81 12 9 13 mádhū mádhv-ī mádhv­os mádhv­os mádhu­n­os arí m. the prevailing type m^dho­s by over seventy in the RV. m. the normal formation (mádhv­e) from only three stems i n the RV. Only i n the form sā́ n av­i. e. The derivative 1. ^ The only example i n RV. has six forms according to the ī declension. The only example is jā́ n u­n­0s (Av. śúcay-e m. ^' The normally formed type mádhv­as is followed by six stems. śúce-s L. śúce–s śúce-s 1 G. śúcay-e Ab. u and ī stems are the only ones that do not take ā or au i n the dual. 2 3 4 5 6 9 1 0 11 12 13 4 15 14 15 . has jā́nu­n­ī two knees.

the D. The type without ending is made from twelve stems.G. 40). Twenty­seven i stems i n the RV. ām are much commoner i n the AV.sustenance: D. The secondary type śúcīni occurs about fourteen times. bhṛtíf. du. f. śúoi-bhyas D. I n B. The normal type śúcī ( śúci-i) is of about the same frequency as its shortened form śúci. pl. forms according to the derivative ī declension . śúcī–n śúcī-s śúci-bhis mádhu­bhis I. f. pl.G. ary­ás m. e. 1 4 7 3 2 2 a. L. The original ending ns is i n both śúcīn and mádhūn preserved i n the sandhi forms of ṃs or ṃ r (39. have N. m.PLURAL.AN. I. ending ai is here regularly used instead of the Ab G. n. forms i n n ā the RV. both together occurring about fifty times in the RV. Besides the numerous I . There are two examples of the N . śúei­su mádhu­su In. has half a dozen i stems showing the influence of the n declension i n the incipient use of the endings nī i n the N. Such forms i n ai. : e. g. G. as. The secondary type mádhūni is more frequent than mádhu. f. earth: Ab. has only three forms following the analogy of the derivative i declension : íṣu f.g. íṣv­ai. without Guṇa : mádhv-as and śatá–kratv-as having a hundred powers. the form w i t h shortened vowel being nearly twice as common as that with ū. n. n. pl. I n the u declension the RV. 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 . íṣv­ as. and n i i n the N. pl.Ah. I. s. bhū́ m i f. s. m. n. arrow : D. p i . without Guṇa : mádhv-as itself occurring four times. 97a ^ ) . There are 3 1 The only stem not taking Guṇa is arí devout which has the N . About ten stems i n i i n the RV. I n B.Ab. avánīs streams beside avánayas. There is only one example of the N. ās. ai is regularly used instead of as (cp. s.A. bhrty­ái . bhū́ m y­ās. ^ mádhū śúcī mádhav-as mádhav-as ^ NN. bhū́ m y­ām. mádhu­bhyas śúcī–n–ām G. mádhū­n­ām L. show forms according to the derivative ī declension i n the D.L. śúcay-as śúcay-as^ śúci ^ mádhu śúcī-n–i mádhū-n mádhū-s mádhū–n–i A. I. su­vā́stv–ās of the (river) Suvāstu (all i n late passages).

in this sense is formed with n ā : páti­nā. g. e.­nas . : páty­e. There are about a dozen stems i n which final i seems to be radical in a secondary sense as representing a reduced form of roots ending i n^99] IRREGULAR I STEMS 83 also some forms following the analogy of the u declension : A. raghu­ drú running swiftly . vásu­nas . ā́yu­ni. L. of pitr father. or i n 1. forms. husband is irregular in the D. The I. either as a simple word or as final member of a compound. also . d. páte­s. n. e. and n. 99. and the only one from an u stem is gúggulu (Av. s. sā́nu. pl. G. in this sense has the normal form páty­ā. mádhu­nas. it is regular : D.G. pátay­e. When it means lord. as representing the shortened form of the vowel of three roots i n u . There is no example of a v.. thin (Lat. there are many alternative n. dā́ru­ṇas. b. ni­dhf treasury. The inflexion of these radical i and u stems is exactly the same as that of the derivative i and u stems given above. prajā́­ pate­s. This seems to indicate that the v. compounds formed with ­dhi . A. otherwise they form the f. páti (Gk. drú­ṇas. e. s. singulars m. bṛ́ h as­pátinā. tenu­is) . g. e. du. kaśípn­ne . while the I . L. 7ro^t­^) m. c. dā́ru­ ṇ i . following the n declension : D. páty­au. s. bṛ́ h as­pátay­e. mádhu­nas. sā́ n u­ni .. besides some twelve stems i n which u is radical i n a secondary sense. parl­bhú surrounding (from bhu be). They are mostly m.G. and N .). as t a n ú m. G. tanū́ f. dā́ r ū–ṇi.L. oā́ru­ṇas. is pátnī (Gk. in the remaining cases of the s.. Irregularities. G. 1 7roruta) wife and lady. á-bhīrvam from á–bhīru fearless and N. 1. A. while the I . i n u. all of which except dyú day are final members of compounds . and pi. as u r ú m„ urv­ī́ f. g. i n the names of relationship (101) i n ṛ like pitúr. Adjectives in u often use this stem for the f. There are also about eight stems formed from roots in u. Besides the numerous T. su­pú clarifying well (from pu purify). oā́ru dear . from an i stem. páty­ur. Ab. mádhu. 1 The anomalous ending appears to be due to the influence of the Ab. . i n these stems was identical w i t h the N. wide. gó­patau . pl. N.g. i n yuv-a and yuv-as from several stems derived with the suffix yu.

s. G.). I n the RV. beside the regular arí­s of the RV. 1 2. f. sákhāy­am. ávi sheep (Lat. sákhī–n–ām. sákh­i 1n. 5. but changes it to div before vowels : 1 2 Influenced. : jány­ur. I. 3. 1 2 a.. I ..). but sákthy­os (VS.a. 102.N. : ávy­as. s.). sákthi thigh. weak grade of dyo. I. sákhi occurs as the final member of eight compounds i n which i t is inflected i n the same way and is also used as a f. sakthā́ n ­i. s. ásthi bone. asthá­bhis.). ary­ám (beside arí­m) m. jánī like the derivative ī declension. dádhi eurds. m. besides having irregularities like páti in the weak eases of the s. ary­ás m. sákthi­bhyām. 3) retains this stem before consonant terminations (taking Vṛddhi in the N. L sákhi­bhis. e. Du. dadhn­ás. sáknāy­as. D. having the Maruts as friends.A. Formed regularly like śúce from śúci. A. D. has a strong stem formed with Vṛddhi : N. N . AV. (originally diu. asthn­ás. .. bird has i n the RV. vé­s beside ví­s. ovi­s) also takes the normal ending as i n the G. N. ary­ás m. I . dyú m. akṣṇ­ós. akṣṇ­ás. Ab. sákhy­ur. akṣá­bhis. A. ví m. has also the N . sákhy­e. . sákhā. sákhi­bhyas. Du. s. sakthn­ā́ . dadhn­ā́ . I n the pl. pl. the an stems are used in the N. I . AV. The Vs. Pl. I t has the further anomaly of forming its N. asthā́n­i (beside ásthī­ni. the N. arí devout is irregular in forming several cases like the radical ī stems (except in accentuation): sing. Thef. friend. V. . a. D. form their weakest cases from stems in án . like pátyur.). e. A. sákhī­n. also : akṣā́ṇ­i (beside ákṣī–ṇi. G. sákhāy­ā and sákhāy­au . marút­sakhā N .jáni wiīe takes the anomalous ending ur i n the G. g. by the names of relationship i n ṛ (101). 4. ary­ás m. arī́­s.I. ákṣi­ṇī (AV. sákhe.G. I . G. g. A. The neuters ákṣi eye. sákhy­ā.V. asthá­bhyas.

e. as a­dhíam (but su­dhī́ follows the general rule. and N. Stems in ī and ú are mostly I. div­ā́. even when they are final members of compounds. pl. as su­dhíy­as). pl. as well as I. div­í (^t/^). preserves the normal ending am in one single form only (dhiy­ā́m). are for the sake of clearness best treated as a division of the radical group. A. always adds s. however. The N . The normal endings as they appear in the inflexion of consonant stems are taken throughout this declension..G. 2 1 3 1OO.STEMS I N I AND U 99­100] 85 1 Sing. The analogy of the primary radical group (1) is closely followed both in inflexion and accentuation by a secondary group (2) of about eighty polysyllabic stems which. but in roots as final members of 4 1 The stem dív. These two forms. Accentuation on the final syllable of the stem is characteristic of this declension. always mean days. div­é. s. dív­as. A. Before vowel endings the ī is split to i y in monosyllabic nouns. has made its way into the strong cases. The ī stems are very differently inflected according as they are radical (a) or derivative (b). N. Ab. m. i. The s of the N . which occur only i n the RV. but a great many as final members of compounds are adjectives used in the m. dyú­bhis. nām being otherwise always added. A. as A. V. dív­am. Except accented –dhī́. pl„ owing to the very frequent weak cases div­ás. I . N. ^:c‚ which taken together occur more than 350 times in the RV. is retained i n this form.3 I. dív­as. dhíy­am. I . or passages borrowed from it. I . except in monosyllabic stems. div­ás (Atfo^. nā́ n a­dhiy­as having diverse intentions. D. dyun. a. the Samprasāraṇa form of dyáv. 2 3 4 . s.N. and. when substan­ tives. dyáu­s (^v^ = Aj^). the acute remains on that syllable throughout. PI. díau­s to be pronounced as a disyllable. The G. C. dyáu­s (Z^v). though formed with derivative ī. L.

and I. nī lead. vī́ receiver (occurring only once in the N. g. 2 . or i n which. as śác­ī might. 22. stems of an independent character having no corresponding m. having been reduced. śrī́ glory. vī move. notes 1 and 5). and the compounds formed from the roots krī buy. f. words. and the m. are both m. Again the resolved vowel is given as I (not 1) because long vowels are regularly shortened in pronunciation before vowels (p. asiknī́ a river. p. g. The monosyllabic stems belonging to the radical class are the feminines dhī́ thought. and not normally accenting the suffix. I t also includes a large number of miscellaneous I. as proper names. nearly all I. e. b. s. but is invariably to be pronounced as i . rathī́ charioteer. I t includes seven m. being mostly accusative Tatpuruṣas (187). Excepting about half a dozen they are substantives. e.). The masculines are ahī́ serpent. five of 2 3 1 I n the secondary radical group (a 2. śī lie. bhī́ fear. but ásiknī black. 3 The exceptions are mostly stems i n which the preceding syllable.. The resolved forms given below are spelt with i (not i y as they may have been pronounced) so as to avoid confusion with the written forms of the saṃhitā text that are spelt with iy. The declension in derivative ī embraces a large number of stems formed by means of the suffix ī (originally yā) largely to supply a I. 87) the 1 is split only i n samudrī́ and partly i n cakrī́. stems. as yajña­ príy­am sacrifice­loving. throws the accent forward. The secondary group consists of more than eighty poly¬ syllabic stems accented on the final syllable and probably for this reason following the analogy of the radical com­ pounds. the accent has shifted to indicate a change of meaning. urv–ī́‚ wide . Otherwise ī is always written as y. urú. prī love. to m. but yajña­nyām (— yajña­níam) leading the sacrifice. śrī mix. and about eight compounds. mī diminish.1 compounds only when two consonants precede. The compounds of the first three. being mostly Bahuvrīhis (189). as nady­ám pro­ nounced nadíam stream.

du. .A.L. ­au rathí­ā L dhī­bhyā́ m G.l00] RADICAL AND DERIVATIVE I STEMS 87 which are proper names: Tiraścī́. thought. dévi DUAL. Mā́talī. (2) the endings diverge considerably from the normal ones. devī́ I. goddess. devy­ā́s L. pl. I. s .A. . dhíy–ā. besides rā́ṣṭrī ruler. the s. in the G. while borrowing from the latter the N. dhī́­s dhíy­am dhiy­ā́ dhiy­é dhiy­ás V. b. as. the D. Pṛ́thī. pl. rathī́­s rathí­am rathí–ā rathí­e rathí­as ráthi devī́ devī­m devy­ā devy­ái Ab. ai. A. N. N. 1. S1NGULAR. D. DER1VAT1VE STEMs.. or I.G. du.V. the L. forms. dhiy­ós rathī́ ­ bhyām rathí­os 1 N. RADICAL STEMS. (3) stems accented on the final vowel shift the acute to the ending in the weak cases of the s. the Ab. rathī́ m. the pl. ām. devī́ V. N. Sóbharī. AN. G. m. devī́ ­ bhyām devy­ós I n the later language the derivative group (b) absorbs the second¬ ary radical group (a 2). Námī.G. and the N. dhī́ I.. 1 a. charioteer. taking m. sirī́ weaver. dévī D. devy­ā́m V. The inflexion of these stems differs from that of the radical ī stems in three respects :—(1) no s is added in the N. I. and in the G. s.V.L.Ab. 2. A.A.

a. dhíy­as I . originally a disyllable. dévī­s a. : jū́ speeding. is much more homogeneous than the ī declension. tandrī́ s ). The inflexion of these two classes corresponds exactly to that of the two divisions of the radical ī declension. A. I n the radical class there are seven monosyllabic stems. but retains traces of its derivative origin in the s. substantives and one adjective : juhū́. dhī­n­ā́ m L. g. dhíy­as A.). lakṣmī́ mark (N. and pl. almost exclusively formed from about eleven roots. one 1n. g. brū́. nadíam). striyai payaḥ woman's milk. tandrī́ weariness (N. strī́ woman. striy­ái (Av.L : stríy­am . I n B. e. which comprises both radical and derivative stems. the latter being the only example of the normal ending. D. and I. rathī́ ­ bhyas G. rathī́ ­ n­ām L. rathī́ ­ ṣu devī́­s devī­s devī́­bhis devī́ ­ bhyas devī́­n­ām devī­ṣu V. N. striy­ā́ m (Av. is inflected as a radical monosyllabic stem i n the sing. : sū́ begetter and mother . five of which are I. lakṣmī́s. The ú declension. Finally. tongue. There are further two reduplicated I. siṃhíam). stríy­as. e. dhī–bhís G. N. 2 . syū́ thread. : dū́ gift. juhū́ sacrificial spoon. kumāríam). one m. dhī­ṣú 1 rathí­as rathí­as rathī́ ­ bhis D. Other words belonging to the secondary radical class (a 2) are : kumārī́ girl (A. there are about sixty compounds. N. striy­ā́ s ‚ L . G. lakṣmíam). dūtī́ mes­ senger (N. strī́ (no s). A. jógū singing aloud. strī­bhís (accent) . steed. A. siṃhī́s. this form is used for the G.). 1 dhī–n–ā́m occurs seven times i n the Rv„ dhiy­ā́ m only once. bhū́ earth. srū́ stream . pari­bhū́ surrounding. nadī́ stream (A. siṃhī́ lioness (N. Practically all the stems in this declension are oxytones (including both the compound radical and the derivative stems). . 2 I I .A. dutī́ s ). brow.PLURAL.

the other and more numerous division consists of oxytone I. cp. V. bhuvā́ m and jóguvām. babhrú (m.100] RADICAL AND DERIVATIVE Ü STEMS 89 b. the VS. Thus A. but vi­bhú­am eminent. or n. split i n the derivative stems a­grū́‚ k a d r ū ́ Soma vessel.g. s. dnenvái rétaḥ the seed of the cow. bhuv­í 1 D. p. bhúv­am I . and i n bībnatsū́ loathing. e. ending ai is used for ās . note 1). has only one such form : śvaśruā́ m . s. g. tanv­ái‚ G. pi. L. H ence i n such forms i t is given below as u (short because a vowel is shortened before another i n pronunciation . tánu The derivative stems show an incipient tendency to be influenced by the inflexion of the derivative ī declension. DER1v AT1vE . tanv­ā́ s . tanú­am. takes the normal am i n uncompounded radical stems only. The RV. e. has at least ten such . The N. Before vowel endings the ū is split into uv i n monosyllabic nouns and generally i n compounds with roots as final member (even when pre­ ceded by a single consonant). but n ā m i n all others.G. substantives.) and i n all derivative stems. I t is. 22. á­gru) maid . g. Ab. i n adjectives when u is preceded by y.G. D. the D. tanū́­s tanú­am tanú­ā tanú­e tanú­as tanú­i tanu. e. a­gru (m. bnúv­am. N. ā–bhúv–am present. oxytones. RAD1CAL. 1 2 3 4 The forms occurring i f made from bhū earth and tanū́ body would be the following : S1NGULAR. The G. bhu­s A. bhuv­ā́ Ab. The normal endings as they appear i n the inflexion of consonant stems are taken throughout this declension (radical and derivative). bhuv­ás L. adjectives corresponding to m.. The derivative class comprises two divisions : the one consists of about eighteen oxytone I. I n B . the AV. I n the minority of such compounds (some nine i n the RV. it is written as v‚ but pronounced as u . several of which correspond to m. puṃścalū́ ­ m courtesan. has A. Judging by the only two forms that occur. a. however. however. 2 3 4 . f. stems in u accented on the first syllable. always adds s. babhrú) brown.

which in origin are consonant stems in derivative ar or tar. I. They resemble the vowel declension in adding the ending n in the A. The stems in ar are: m. or ār. nṛ́ man. pl. m. closely resemble an stems (90) in their declension. and in inserting n before the am of the G. I. I. The former is a small group of only eight stems. Except nár­as and usr­ás. D. n.. bhúv­as G. bhúv­as A. nánāndṛ husband's sister.DUAL.. bhúv­ā I . They have the peculiar ending ur in the G. I n this word the ṛ is probably radical : svá­sar. udh­ar udder. bhuv­ā́m N. D. Both groups further agree in dropping the final of the stem in the N. pl. which case always ends in ā. Except svásr­ām and nár­ām. the other with tar.A. svásṛ^ sister. I. bhuv­ós N.A. s. tanū́ ­ bhyām L.^ 1 2 1. áh­ar day. us­ṛ́ dawn. which in the weak forms is reduced to r before vowels and ṛ before consonants.). Stems in ṛ (m. The strong stem ends in ar . bhū­bhyā́ m L. Derivative stems in ṛ consist of two groups. and s in the A. vádh­ar weapon. and I. N. N. tanú­ā D. G. tanú­as tanú­as tanū́ ­ bhis tanū́ ­ bhyas tanū́ ­ n­ām 1O1. Both groups agree in distinguishing strong and weak cases. which 4 1 2 3 4 5 Except usr­ás. . pl. the one formed with the original suffix ar. s. A. m. dev­ṛ́ husband's brother. This word is probably derived with the suffix ar. the latter a very large one of more than 150. tanú­os PLURAL.

Pl. G. nṛ́–ṣu. bhrā–tar 2 4 brother. svásār­as. Lat. nṛ́ ­ bhyas. and the weakest. d. G. the one forming its strong stem in tar.A. agent nouns the Vṛddhi form of the 5 1 áh­ar and ū́ d h­ar form their other cases from the an stems áh­an and ū́dh–an. e. nár­ā. nar­ā́m and nṛ­ṇ­ā́ m . nár­i (Ep. compounds formed from them. nṛ́–bhis. A. Du. ­rnp. nár­e. The second division consists of more than 150 stems (including compounds) which are either agent nouns accented chiefly on the suffix. svásṛ­bhis. L.101] STEMS I N Ṛ AND TṚ 91 1 occur in the N. ­tor). PI. 91.V nár­as (Ep. I . duh­i­tár daughter and mā­tár mother. and only four are n. devár­as. N. N. nánāndari. Sing. 2. Cp. The names of rela¬ tionship take the Guṇa form. nár­ā and nár­au. I n the t ṛ declension three stems are to be distinguished : the strong. L. tr. svásr­os. Gk á­u^p­t). L. Ab. svásr–ā. and two I. Du. nr­n. ­au.. tar or tār . svásr­e. svásṝ­s. nsr­í and usr­ā́m. A. svásār–ā. nár­as. I . nápāt taking its place. svásār­am.. D. svásr­ām and svásṝ­ṇ­ām. úṣar. Sing. Often to be pronounced nṝṇā́ m . Sing. The forms that occur of the first five stems are : a. PI. Gk á­u^p­^).A. ­r^op. G. D. Following the analogy of the derivative ī declension. L. Sing. Sing. together with the m. tṛ .’ V. A. 6. devṛ́–ṣu. usr­ás. s. N. N. the middle. D. only. A. N. These stems are never I. L. A. PI. G. I . G. G.. usr­ás. L. nánāndur. pi­tár father. nár­am (á­u^p­a). devár­am. V. or participles accented chiefly on the root.. náp­tar grandson. svás­ur. e. and I. svásā. This group includes two subdivisions. svásr­am and nar–ā́m are the only two forms of the ṛ declension in which ām is added direct to the stem. A. The strong stem náp­tar does not occur i n the RV. The former consists of a small class of five names of relationship : three m.A. the other in tār (Gk. b. 2 3 4 5 .

m. pá–ter). i n ar . the V. D. dātṛ́ ­ bhyam pitṛ́ ­ bhyām mātṛ́ ­ bhyām G. V. and f. dātr­ós pitr­ós mātr­ós PLURAL. mā­ter) is as follows : S1NGULAR. dātā́ r ­ā. giver (t^o­r^p. only. dātr­ā́ dātr­é dātúr dātár­i dā́ t ar (^:or^p) pitā́ pitár­am pitr­ā́ pitr­é pitúr pitár­i (rrar^p­t) pítar (Ju­piter) mātā́ mātár­am mātr­ā́ mātr­é mātúr mātár­i mā́tar (^r^p) DUAL. differs i n the A. the pl. L. f. mother (ṭ^ṃrṃ). the L. is formed i n ur. dātā́ A. dātrn pitṛn mātr­s pitṛ́ ­ bhis pitṛ́ ­ bhyas mātṛ́ ­ bhis mātṛ́ ­ bhyas pitṝ­n­ā́ m mātr­ṇ­ām I . father (^rá­r^p.L. –au pitár­ā.D. i n tṝṇām. pl. The sing.G. G. dātr­ṣu V. A .A. The inflexion of the three stems dā­tṛ́ m. ­au I. The inflexion of the m.strong stem. tṝs. N. ­au mātár­ā. dātā́ r ­am I. dā́ t ār­as pitṛ́–ṣu pítar­as mātṛ́ ­ ṣu mā́tar–as . N. G. Ab. i n ari. dātṛ́ ­ bhyas G. dātṝ­ṇ­ā́ m L. mā­tṛ́ I. pi­tṛ m. da­tor). dātṛ́ ­ bhis D. i n tṝn. dātā́ r ­as pitár­as mātár­as A. N.Ab.

I . and of these Only about half a dozen forms occur. sky. vi­dhar­tṛ́ meting out. gó m. s. once rā́–s (SV. lump. s. They form a transition from the consonant to the vowel declension . 2 3 . The only n. c. nápat­as.—Du. gáu­s (^ov­^.’ The forms occurring are: Sing. 1.G. As regards accentuation this word is not treated as a monosyllabic stem. nápat. g. N. au.G. D. rāy­ā́. and (rarely) I. they add s in the N. m. gáv­ā. ga­s. rāy­é (Lat. gó­ṣu. dhmā­tṛ́ smithy. Stems in ai. re–m). I n B. and pi. I. bull. dhmātári. sthā–tṛ́ stationary. G. never shifting the accent to the endings. the N. go has as its strong form gau which appears as g ā in the A. A. náptr­a. A. A. náptṛ­bhis. ­au. The Ab. ga­m (^­u). G. I . This form. N.— PI.101­­102] STEMS I N DIPHTHONGS 93 a. gā́v­as. A. occurs náptār­am (like svásār­am among the r stems). I. A. e. N. N. occurs at the end of a Pāda only. D. gā́v­as. rāy­ás. re­ī). I t is supplemented i n the strong forms by nápāt (Lat.. and have a vowel before the endings with initial consonant. L.A. gáv­ām and gó­n­ām. rāy­ás. s. sthātur and the L. I. I . The N. nápāt­am. Ab.— Pl. rāy­ā́ m . nápt­ur. jánitr–ī mother (inflected like devī́). for while they take the normal endings like the ordinary consonant declension. rái appears as rāy before vowels and rā before con­ sonants. b. o. ship. rā́y­as. janayitṛ́ creative. I . Ab. The only stems in diphthongs are: rái m. náptr­e. D.v. 2. gó­s. 1O2. The forms occurring are : Sing. náp­tṛ i n the RV. glán m. gáv-I. gó­bhyas. stems occurring are dhar­tṛ́ prop. nápāt–ā. The f.A. I . náu I. v.v. G. N.— Du. D. wealth. There are no neuter forms. but sthātár represents the normal form. dyó m. The only oblique cases met with are the G. E. which follows the vowel declension and is much less common than gáv­ām.A.). gáv­e. rā­m (LaI. L. eow. occurs i n the weak stem only : sing. are irregular in adding s only instead of as. of agent nouns i n t r is formed with ī from the weak stem of the m. form i n ṛ begins to be used i n an adjectival sense : bhartṛ́ supporting. I n the TS. nepot­): sing. N. owing to its rarity seems never to have acquired fixity i n the Veda. I. gó­bhis. 1 3 1 Rarely rā́y–as . Pl. gā́v­ā.—Pl. G.

1. tavás­tara 4 stronger. surabhí­n­tara more fragrant . dyó–s. The final n of the stem is retained before these suffixes . N. That is. śaśvat-tamá most constant . bhágavat­tara more bounteous . nav­as (u^f­a^). dyā́m (Lat. e.G. accent. sky (cp. priyá­tara dearer. e. nāv­ás (u^f–ôs). diem). of dyu (99. N. dyā́v­ā. náu is inflected quite regularly as far as can be judged by the few forms occurring : Sing. ^ A. nāv­í 1 2 (u^f­t). 5). 2 3 4 . ­r^po) and the superlative tama (Lat.—Pl. I. dyáv­i. nāv–es). pl. dyó m. The N . An n is some¬ times even inserted . I . I . g. The secondary suffixes of the comparative tara (Gk. glāv­as also occurs i n the A B . gláu occurs in two forms only: Sing. I . díau­s with the proper V.3. 5) is declined like gó. L. rayín­tama very rich. náu­s (uav­^). but with anomalous retention of the N. a. g. dyáu­s and dyäu­s (^v).V. nā́v­as (u^J­^.— Du.^v^). These secondary comparatives and superlatives are commoner than the primary i n the proportion of three to two. generally to the weak or middle stem . L. nā́v­am (^fa). V. substantives as well as adjectives. s. vápuṣ­ṭara more wonderful. madín­tara more gladdening. ­timo) are regularly added to nominal stems (both simple and com­ pound).—PI. The forms occurring are : Sing. N. 99. glau­bhís. 5. gláu­s and Pl. rathī́ ­ tama best charioteer. 1 The same as the N . 3 Degrees of Comparison. N. dyáu­s (. 4. bhūri­dā́ v at­tara giving more abundantly . vṛṣán­tama most manly. g. náu­bhis (uav­^t). 103. nāv­ā́. ratna¬ dha-tama best bestower of treasure . A.A. N. vṛtra­tára a worse Vṛtra . dyā́v­as. Ab. e. N. híraṇya–vāśī–mat-tama best wielder of the golden axe . G.N.

mīḷhúṣ­ ṭama most gracious. 107). jáv­īyāṃs quieker. áṇ­iṣṭha smallest beside áṇ­u minute . 1 w i t h the accent of the ordinal suffix tamá. 1 2 2. jáv­iṣṭha quickest (jū be swift) . 2 3 . Examples are : téj­īyāṃs sharper. śréṣṭha­tama most beautiful. i n accented ī (cp. 1ágh­īyāṃs lighter beside lagh­ú light . mātṛ́ ­ tamā most motherly. áṇ­īyāṃs smaller. e. vrā́ d han­tama being most mighty. d. In many instances these superlatives attach themselves in mean¬ ing to derivative adjectives. They also form a comparative and superlative from the preposi­ tion ú d up : út­tara higher. g. e. vár–iṣṭha most excellent beside vár­a choice . ­t^rro) are added directly to the root. yáj­īyāṃs sacrificing better. being formed from the root which the latter contain . i n ā . téj­iṣṭha very sharp (tij be sharp) . ­^ou. sā́ d h­iṣṭha straightest beside sādh­ú. ­ior) and that of the superlative iṣṭha (Gk. These suffixes form their f. Except jyeṣṭná meaning eldest and kaniṣṭhá meaning youngest. however. e. bárh­iṣṭha very lofty beside bṛh–ánt gre^t. 3 a. These secondary suffixes are occasionally found added to the primary comparatives and superlatives. e. g. g. The primary suffix of the comparative īyāṃs (Gk. 6ṣ–iṣṭha very quick beside óṣ­am quickly . Lat. máṃh­iṣṭha most liberal (mah bestow abundantly) . but leaves a unchanged apart from nasalization in a few instances. which is. drā́ g h­ iṣṭha longest beside dīrgh­á long . Final radical ā combines with the initial of the suffix to e.g. e. yáv­iṣṭha youngest beside yúv­an youth . sáhan­tama most victorious . when used as an ordinal suffix tama forms its f. vár–īyāṃs wider. c. and the weakest stem of a perfect participle : vidúṣ­ṭara wiser . jyéṣṭha greatest and jyeṣthá eldest (jyā overcome). dáv­īyāṃs farther beside dū­rá far . which is regularly accented and gunates ī and ū̆. usually to be read as two syllables. śáś-īyāṃs more fre¬ quent beside śáś-vant constant . straight. vár­iṣṭha widest beside ur­ú wide . yáj­iṣṭha sacrificing best. drā́ g h­īyāṃs longer. ut­tamá highest. I n a few instances the strong stem of a present participle is used .103] COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE 95 b.

sthé­yāṃs most steadfast (sthi­rá firm). Cp. pāpá bad. greater. nazd­ iṣta) nearest (antiká near). sen­ior) older (sána old). śré-ṣṭha best (śrī be bright). Beside the usual forms in īyāṃs there occur about half a dozen alternative comparatives made with the shorter form of the suffix. yāṃs : táv­yāṃs (táv­īyāṃs) stronger . This is also the case i n the corresponding superlative bhu­y­iṣṭha. nazd­yah) nearer. e. náv–iṣṭha newest beside náva new . svā́d­iṣṭha (^­^ro­^) beside svād–ú (. Gk. vás­yāṃs better. tī́ k ṣṇ­īyaṃs sharper beside tīkṣṇá sharp (from t i j be sharp) . sáh­yāṃs (sáh­īyāṃs) stronger. ^a^­s ( = 1^o­s). varṣ­mán m. várṣ­iṣṭha highest (vṛddhá grown up). rábh­yāṃs (rábh­īyāṃs) more violent. néd­iṣṭha (Av. younger.. suāv­ior) sweeter. Cp. bhū́ ­ yāṃs 2 (bháv­īyāṃs) beeoming more.^­1^. suāv­i­s) sweet (from svad be sweet). 1 a. śré-yāṃs (^p^t^u) better. várṣ­īyāṃs higher. b. Some comparatives and superlatives belong to their positives in sense only.theradical element of which is uncertain. height. H ere the vowel remains unchanged. older.^.g. kán­īyāṃs^ lesser. kán­iṣṭha smallest and kan–iṣṭhá youngest (álpa small) . svā́d­īyāṃs (^i^. pán­yāṃs (pán­īyāṃs) more wonderful. thus ā́ś-iṣṭha (^­^o^ro­^) beside ā́ś-u (^-11–s) swiīt (from aś reach). Appears i n this sense i n the TS. kan­yā̀ girl (^­ kaníā). sán­yāṃs (Lat. 5 1 From the adj. is formed direct the comparative pā́ p ­īyāṃs i n the TS. náv­yāṃs (náv­īyāṃ­s) newer . 2 3 4 3 . 4 néd­īyāṃs (Av. I n a few examples the suffix is added to the derivative form of the root which appears in the adjective . which moreover adds the suffix w i t h an intervening y. pré­yāṃs dearer. Some half­dozen more have no alternative form beside them: jyā́­yāṃs greater. várṣ­man n. vás­iṣṭha best (vásu good) . pré­ṣṭha dearest (priyá dear) . náv­īyaṃs newer.

triṃ-śát. á r b u d a n . páñca (7r^r^). Here ékā stands for éka under the influence of dvā́ ­ daśa. 10. 80. Gothic ahtau). 11. octo. This and the remaining cardinals are substantives. aśī. like viṃśatí and triṃśát. 2). náva (Lat. śatám (^aro^.104] CARDINALS 97 NUMERALS. 18. Cardinals. 10. 5.’ 50. catúr (Lat. Here the N.000. is the N . 9. 69 c. dvá (^vo. 100. Lat.’ dva-daśa (^–^a). duo). 14. pl.000. Sixty to ninety are abstract f. 2 3 4 3 6 7 3 9 10 11 . catúr as first member of a compound is regularly accented oátur-. pra­yútan. ^ c ) or derivatives formed w i t h -th catvārim for catvāri. sahásran. 1O4. 100. 1. éka-daśa. 4. pl. nouns derived from the simple cardinals (except aśī–tí) meaning hexad of tens. tráyo-daśa. quatuor).000. LaI. ni­yútan.’ 19. ^c. ṣaṣ-ṭí. Those from twenty to ninety are either old compounds (adj. t r i (rpi.’ 90. Lat. 15. 1. 3. and substantive : two decades. 1 2 4 6 aṣṭā́­daśa. (105). 3 19 1 aṣṭā́ is an old dual form. aśī-tí.000. 1 é­ka. a­yúta n.000.000. catvāriṃ-śát. nyārhuda n. ṣó-ḍaśa.-u– rṃ^oura). ṣáṣ ( ^ . 1. 70. 20. v i ṃ ś a t í (Lat. For ṣaṣ-daśa through ṣaz-daśa (cp. 40. 10. Lat. tráyo. aṣṭā́ (o^r^. 100. du. 2. viginti). 6. 17. 30. for tráyas (45. 8. náva-daśa. sapta-tí. nava-tí. 7. dáśa (^a).000. 12. saptá (^7rrá). sex). 16.'^ cátur-daśa.000. is retained instead of the stem form dva. 13. tri). novem).is radically cognate to aṣ-ṭā. The cardinals between 10 and 20 are Dvandva compounds formed by prefixing the accented unit to daśa ten.000. pañcā­śát (7r. páñca-daśa. note 3). (105). 60. n. Lat.’ saptá-daśa. centum).

Otherwise the multiplier prefixed to the larger number forms with it a possessive (adjective) compound accented on the last syllable . triṃśác-chatam 130. or pl. Only the first four cardinals.. aṣṭā́­viṃśati 28 . e. b. navatī́ r náva nine nineties ­­­­­ 810 . There are two ways of forming multiples. náva ca navatíṃ ea ninety and nine. trī́ṇi śatā́ trī́ sahásrāṇi triṃśáe ca náva oa 3. Declension of Cardinals. 105. ékān nā́ ś iti 79 . forms a pl. navatiṃ náva ninety-nine. dvé śaté 200 . éka is declined like the pronominal adjectives víśva 1 i A N . 1. saṣṭíṃ sahásra 60. éka-śatam 101. thus ékān n á viṃśatí twenty less one = 19 . e. ṣáṇ­ṇavati 96. g. tri­ṇavá 27.333. may be multiplied by the smaller used as an adjective . ^. dvá two is of course inflected in the dual only. cátuḥ-śatam 104. du. tri­saptá 21. distinguish the genders.000 . g. also in the sense of some . ékān ná ṣaṣṭí 59 .a. while inflected chiefly in the s. tráyas-triṃśat 33 . ^. Multiples of numbers below 100 are sometimes formed i n these two ways . náva-catvāriṃśat 49 . aṣṭā́­navati 98 .339. f. návāśīti 89 . Intermediate numbers may also be expressed by adding together unit and decade with or without ca . náva-ṣaṣṭi 69 .g. éka one.g. g. like other adjectives. . ékān n á śatám 99. éka-triṃśat 31 . e. I n the TS. The numbers intermediate between the decades 20—100 are Dvandva compounds formed by prefixing the accented unit to the decade . páñca­navati 95. form of éka in the sense of a certain appears i n éko yuvatī́ (AV. e. the number preceding a decade is also expressed by ékān n á by one not ----.minus one . tráyastriṃśat tri-śatā́ ḥ ṣaṭ­sahasrā́ ḥ 6. ékān n á catvāriṃśát 39 . e. a. The larger number in the du.) a certain pair of maidens.

A. dvé. The forms occurring in the Saṃhitās are : m. dvé. I. tisrbhis. dvā́ b hyām. s. dvā́ b hyām. G. N. trí three is declined in the m. has the strong stem catvā́r (cp. I n the G. ékās. I . though the ṛ is actually long metrically. ékena. quite regularly. occurring. and in derivation.’ the inflexion of which differs in the N. G.. n. A. pi. ékasya. The forms occurring are : m. dváyos. 4 n. tráyas. 1 c).) . 1. used in the same way. tríbhyás. G. I . I . trīṇā́ m . 2 3 4 5 . dvá two is declined quite regularly as a dual. L. from other ṛ stems by adding the normal ending as to the unmodified stem. G. quatuor). dváyos. ékām. éke. N. ékam. Lat. stem is tisṛ́.A. Pl. L. I. D. ékayā. The forms occurring are : m. N. s. N. dvā́ . tisrás. though the stem ends in 1 The only form of the Ab. N. like priyá (97 A. ^c. ékān ná trim¬ sát 29. N. N. Once written tisṛṇā́ m . PI. A. ékam. ékasmin. L. Probably for tri­sr‚ formed like svá­sṛ (10I. 2. n. N. Except nar­ás (10I. I . tisrás. I . ^c. 4. as dvf­dhā in two ways. L. (Ts. as dvi­pád bi^ed. The I. The dual form is retained in the numeral compound dvā́ ­ daśa 12. PI.A. n. ékas. D. tisṛ́ b hyas. I . eatúr four in the m. trī́n. trī́ ṇ i. N. it is used in forming compound numerals. ékāt. pas¬ sage of the TS. ékasyās. éka. N. ékebhyas. Otherwise dvi is used as the stem in compounds. ékasmāt. PI. dváu. 1). occurs in a B. s. éka. tribhís. pl. trī́. G. s. n. I.105] 99 CARDINALS 1 and sárva (120 b). triṣú. note 5). N. dváyos. A. follows the nominal declension . D. 2 3. like śúei (98 B).

A. The forms occurring are : N.A. pañ¬ cānā́m. The forms of ṣáṣ six occurring in the Saṃhitās are : N. catur­ṇā́m. pañcá­bhis. D. aṣṭā­bhís. catúr­bhis. but aṣṭa begins to be used in the AV. páñca. n is inserted before the case­ending. though used adjectivally.A. which. 3 4 a. catasṛ́­bhyas. N. G. does not seem to occur i n any of the Saṃhitās. páñca five as well as saptá seven and the cardinals from nine to nineteen are declined like neuters in an (90.. cátasr­as. n. of páñca. which is inflected exactly like tisṛ́ and shifts its accent like páñca. 3 c.’ aṣṭáu. aṣṭā́. 2 4 6 . aṣṭā is the stem used as the first member of compounds in the RV. catvā́ r ­i. aṣṭā­sú. N. eatasṛ́­bhis. aṣṭā­bhyás. pañcá­bhyas. dual forms. 2) except in the G. L. of ṣáṣ. D. catvā́r­as.A. I. which accents the terminations. D. which follows priyá (97). Except aṣṭā́. W i t h accent on the final syllable like the G. I . The forms that occur are : N. A. ṣaḍ­bhís. G. D. 106. D. They also have in common the peculiarity of accenting a before the consonant terminations and the final syllable in the G. I . The forms occurring are : m. pañcá­su.a consonant. '^ Except aṣṭā́ and aṣṭáu which are N . I .’ I. however. The cardinals from five to nineteen. ^c. L. catúr­ bhyas. The forms of aṣṭā́ eight indicate that it was an old dual. catasṛṇā́m. A. ^ Meaning probably the two tetrads (perhaps w i t h reference to the fingers of the two hands). G.. catúr­as. do not distinguish gender and take no ending in the N. ṣaṭ­sú. 1 Like ṣaṇ–ṇā́m‚ the G. N. L. A. b.A. ṣaḍ­bhyás. stem is cátasṛ. ṣáṭ (27). I .’ The I.

pañcadaśábhyas. D. N. triṃśát-am. N. is formed with ī (declined like devī́) except in the first four. trayodaśá-bhyas. The cardinals for the decades from twenty to ninety with their compounds are I. daśá-bhis. viṃ¬ śaty–ā́. saptá­bhyas. and n. N. L navadaśá-bhis. saptadaśá­bhyas. daśá-bhyas. śatá hundred and sahásra thousand are neuters. I . I. nearly always inflected in the sing. ékān ná viṃ¬ śatyái (TS. a. saptānā́ m . tha. saptádaśa. N. The ordinals. A. viṃśatí-s. A. I f the sense requires it these numerals may be used in the pi. G.A. náva navatī́s nine nineties . N.Ab. aṣṭā́daśa. D. dvā́daśa. I n the group jive to nineteen the bare stem may be used i n the oblique cases agreeing with substantives.A.A. D. páñcadaśa. náva. D. dvé śaté two hundred . g. d. which take ā. D. návadaśa. saptá­bhis. final . e. D. I. triṃśát-a. ṣoḍaśá-bhyas. N. triṃśát­i. D. The I. g. navá­bhyas. e. ma. trayodaśá-bhis. The ordinals from first to tenth are formed with various suffixes. saptá śatā́ni seven hundred . I . D. . e. 1O7. D. N. I. 194 B a). N. dáśa. aṣṭadaśá-bhyas. substantives. dvā¬ daśá-bhyas. ekādaśá­bhyas. like priyá.A. triṃśát. navānā́ ṃ navatīnā́ m of nine nineties. viz. ORDINALS 101 N. trī́ sahásrāṇi three thousand. ékādaśa. The formation . D. ṣóḍaśa. viṃśatí-m. L. I . D. L. navanā́m. saptá. g. N. G.). G.106­107] SYNTAX OF CARDINALS. are declined in the 1n. daśānā́m.g. Ordinals. e. tráyodaśa. daśá-su. which may be declined in all numbers . and according to the declension of the ste1^. N. N. (t)1ya. thama. being all adjectives ending in a. saptá h5tṛbhiḥ with seven priests (cp. N. navá­bhis.

6th ṣaṣ­ṭhá (LaI. N. 2nd dvi­t­ī́ y a. Probably for pra­tamá foremost. 7 tur­ī́ y a. Only about three examples of this formation have been noted in the saṃhitās. ekādaśá-m. the t h being due to the infiuence of catur­thá. Pl. ā (Lat. I. I. The ordinals from twentieth to ninetieth (including their compounds). catvāriṃśá fortieth. The ordinals for hundredth and thousandth are formed with the superlative suffix tama accented on the final syllable : śata-tamá. Sahasra­tamá has been noted i n B. septi­ mu­s). only. From an older tr­tá third. tṛ́ t īya one­third. Both prathamā́ and trtī́ y ā have one case­form each according to the pronominal declension in the AV. 1 2 1st pra­thamá. 3rd tṛt­ī́ y a. cáturtha one­fourth. The stems of the ordinals from eleventh to nineteenth differ from those of the corresponding cardinals only in being accented on the final syllable .) . 10th daśa-má (LaI. I. quartu­s). L ekādaśáis. Thus ekādaśá eleventh forms the cases : m. ā.of the first four is somewhat irregular. deci­ mu­s). 7th sapta­má (Lat. e. ekā¬ daśā́n. saptá­tha. tṛtī́¬ yasyām. 1 5th pañca­má. prathamásyas and L. 2 3 4 5 6 7 . I. sex­tu­s). A. seem to be abbreviated forms of the corresponding cardinals . g. When used i n the fractional sense of one­fourth accented on the first syllable : túrîya (AV. A. similarly i n B . which also end in accented á. ekādaśā́sas. Lat. From an older dvi­tá second. s. and four i n the Brāhmaṇas. ī́. tert­ 3 4 5 6 iu­s). : G. ī́ (r^rap­ To-^. sahasra­tamá. I. ā (for catur­ ī́ya through k­tur­ 4th ī́ya). 9th nava–má. ^c. I. their inflexion differs from that of the latter in following priyá. catur­thá. 8th aṣṭa­má. ā́.

1OS. of kṛ́tu) which is used as a separate word except in aṣṭa­kṛ́tvas (AV. M uItipIicative adverbs : sa–kṛ́t onee (lit. dví­s twice (Gk. pl. nava­dhā́ . one making) . cátur-vaya fourfold. catvāriṃśá. chiefly adverbs. A number of derivatives. catur­ dhā́. dáśa-taya tenfold . and they have several distinct peculiarities of inflexion. sapta­dhā́ . Lat. sahasra­dhā. dáśa kṛ́ t vas (AV.) ten times. eka-viṃśá. pañca­dhā́ . are formed from the cardinals. aṣṭā-eatvāriṃśá. These peculiarities have in varying degrees been extended to several groups of adjectives. A few muItipIicative adjectives derived with the suffixes a. ṣo­ḍhā́. . bi­s) . bhuri kṛ́ t vas many times. b.). catus-triṃśá (B. eka-ṣaṣ-ṭá (B. e. śata-tamá. dvay­á twofold . Lat.).). NumeraI Derivatives. trí­s thr ice (Gk. sahasra­tamá (B. Others are expressed by the cardinal and the form kṛ́tv–as times (probably makings A.) eight times . g. taya. a. They are derived from a small class of roots with a demonstrative sense. PRONOUNS 1O9. catús four times (for catúr­s). tri­s) . NUMERAL DERIVATIVES ekā-daśá. Adverbs of manner formed with the suffix dhā : dví­dhā in tu^o ways or parts. trí­dhā and tre­dhā́ . aṣṭa­dhā́. 52nd 61st 100th 1000th 103 dvā­pañcāśá (B. e. Pronouns differ from nouns both in origin and declension. r ṃ­^.107-109] 1 1th 21st 34th 40th 48th ORDINALS. vaya meaning ­fold : tray­á threefold.).


PersonaI Pronouns.

This class displays the greatest number of peculiarities :
they are for each person derived from several roots or
combinations of roots; they are specially irregular in
inflexion ; they do not distinguish gender, nor to some
extent even number. Some resemble neuters in form ;
a few have no apparent case­ending ; in two of them the
A. pl. m. does duty as I. also.


N. ah­ám L
A. mā́m me
I . má­y­ā by me

tv­ám thou
vay­ám we
tv­ā́m thee
asmā́n us
by theeasmā́­bhis by
for us
mádfrom me
tvádfrom thee asmád from
má­ma of me
táva of thee
asmā́ k a­m
of us
má­y­i in me
in thee asmā́­su in







yu­y­ám ye
yuṣmā́n you

for you
yusmád jrom
yṇṣmā́ k a­m
of you
yuṣmé in you



Cp. Lat. mihi and tibi.
Only this, the normal form ( = tvá­i), is found i n the RV. The
irregular tváyi appears i n the later saṃhitās.
asmā́n and yuṣmā́ n are new formations according to the nominal
declension. The stems are compounds of the pronominal elements
a+sma and yu+sma. The Vs. twice has the distinctly f. new forma¬
tion yuṣmā́s.
asmā́kam and yusmā́kam are properly the A. n. s. of the posses¬
sives asmā́ka our, yuṣmā́ka your.
asmā́ s u is a new formation following the analogy of asmā́ b his.
asmé is also used as D.
Changed from original yūṣ­ám by the influence of vay­ám.










I)ual. N. vā́m and avám (ŚB.) we tu^o. A. avā́m (ŚB.) us
two. Ab. āvā-bhyam (K.) and avád (TS.) from us two.
G. aváy-os (ŚB.) of us two.
N. yuvám ye two. A. yuvā́m you two. I . yuvá­bhyam
and yuvā́ ­ bhyām by you two. Ab. yuvád from you
two. G. yuv­ós and yuváy­os of you two.



a. The following unaccented forms, inadmissible at the beginning
of a sentence, are also used : sing. A. mā, tvā. D.G. me (Gk. ^ ) , te
(Gk. ro.), Du. A.D.G. nau (Gk. ^ ) , vām. PL A.D.G. nas (Lat. nos),
vas (Lat. vos).
b. The usual stems of these pronouns used i n derivation or as first
member of compounds are : ma, asma ; tva, yuva, yuṣma ; thtrs
asma­drúh hating us ; tvá­yata presented by thee ; yuva­yú desiring you
two ; yusma­yánt desiring you. But the forms mad, asmad, tvad occur
a few times as first member of compounds ; thus mát­kṛta done by me ;
asmát­sakhi having us as companions ; tvád­yoni derived from thee.



Demonstrative Pronouns.

110. The inflexion of these pronouns, as compared with
the nominal a declension, has the following peculiarities .
1. in the sing. d is added instead of m in the N.A. n. ;
the element sma appears between the root and the ending
in the D.Ab.L. m. n., and sya in the D.Ab.G.L. I. ; i n
(instead of i) is the ending in the L. m. n. 2. in the pl.
the N. m. ends in e instead of as ; the G. has s instead of n
before the ending am.
The stem tá that (also he, she, it) may be taken as the type
for the inflexion of adjectival pronouns :


vā́m (probably abbreviated for āvā́ m ), occurring once i n the RV.,
seems to be the only N . du. form found i n the saṃhitās.
The N . āvám (ŚB.) and A. āvā́m (K. ŚB.) seem to have been the
normal forms judging by yuvám and yuvā́ m .
yuv­ós occurs i n the RV., yuváy­os i n the Ts.
me and te‚ originally L., have come to be used as D. and G.



N. s á ­ s


té (roi) tā
té–bhis, táis tā–bhis


A. t á ­ m















tā́ ­ bhyas




N.A. m. tā́, táu, I. té, n. té. I.Ab. m. I. tā́ ­ bhyām.
m. n. táy­os.


The stem tá is frequently used i n derivation, especially that of
adverbs, as tá–thā thus ; the n. form tád often appears as first member
of a compound ; e. g. tád­apas accustomed to that work.

a. There are three other demonstratives derived from tá :
1. e­tá this here is inflected exactly like tá. The forms
that occur are :


On the Sandhi of sás cp. 48 ; sá, sā́, tá–d = Gk. o, ro ; Gothic sa,
so, that­a (Eng. that, Lat. is­tud),
tá­m, tā́­m, tá–d = Gk. ^ro­^, r^, ro.
sometimes ténā.
These forms have the normal ending e : = tásma­e, tásyā­e. I n
B. tásyai is substituted for the G. tásyās.
The Chāndogya Upaniṣad once has sasmād.
H omeric Gk. roîo (for tosio),
sásmin occurs nine times i n the RV., tásmin twenty­two times.
'^ Cp. Lat. is­torum.
Gk. ^ra^ (for rao^), cp. Lat. is­tārum.
The stem used in derivation and composition is eta ; e.g. etā́ ­ vant
so great, etā­dṛ́ ś such. I n B. etad is sometimes thus used : otad­dā́
giving this, etan­máya consisting of this.











m. Sing. N. eṣá­s (67, 48). A. etám. I. eténa. D. etá¬
smai. Ab. etásmad. G. etásya.—Du. N. etā́, etáu.—
Pl. N. eté. A. etā́n. I . etébhis, etáis. D. etébhyas.
I. Sing. N. eṣā́. A. etā́m. I . etáyā. L. etásyām.—Du. N.
eté. Pl. otā́s. A. etā́s. I . etā́ b his. L. etā́su.
n. Sing. N. etád.

Pl. N. etā́, etā́ni.

2. tyá is derived from tá with the suffix ya and means
that. I t is common in the RV., but rare in the later
Saṃhitās. Unlike tá it is used adjectivally only, hardly
ever occurring without its substantive. I t never begins
a sentence except when followed by the particles u, cid,
nú, or sú.

The forms occurring are :
m. Sing. N. syá.’ A. tyám. G. tyásya.— Du. N. tyā́.—
Pl. N. tyé. A. tyā́ n . I . tyébhis.
I. Sing. N. syā́. A. tyā́m. I . tyā́. G. tyásyas.—Du. N.
tyé. –­Pl. N. tyā́s. A. tyā́s.
n. Sing. tyád. Pl. tyā́, tyā́ n i.
3. A very rare derivative is ta­ká this little, which occurs
only twice in the RV. in the two A. sing. forms m. taká­m,
n. taká­d.

simá seems to have the sense of an emphatic demonstrative. The
forms occurring are^ sing. N . simás. V. síma. D. simásmai (n.).
Ab. simásmād. Pl. simé.

I l l . In the inflexion of the demonstrative which in the
N. s. in. appears as ayám this here the two pronominal

1 I t is also found a few times i n B.
see 48, note 3.
I t is generally given the meaning of every, all, but the above is the
more probable sense.



roots i (which nearly always has a double ending) and a
are employed, the former in the N. (except the m. s.) and A.,
the latter in all the other cases. The A. s. m. I. starts from
i­m (the A. of i), which appears in the du. and pi. also, so
that all these cases have the appearance of being formed
from a stem imá.

N. a­y­ám
A. im­ám




a­smā́d ­











N.A. m. im­ā́, ­áu. I. im­é.
m. G.L. a­y­ós.

n. im­é.

m. D.Ab. ā­bhyā́m.

These two roots are frequently used i n derivation ; e. g. á­tra here,
á­tha then ; i–dā́ now, i­há here, í­tara other.
From this stem is formed the adverb imá–thā thus.
3 Here i ­ m is the A. of i , from which is also formed the A .f.ī–m
and the n . i ­ d , both used as particles.
Also twice ena. enā́ and the remaining oblique cases, when used
as nouns and unemphatic, may lose their accent.
The Ab., according to the nominal declension, ā́d is used as a
­ Both asya and asmai may be accented ásya and ásmai when
emphatic at the beginning of a Pāda. The form imásya occurs once
in the RV. instead of asyá ; and imasmai i n the AA. for asmai.
Instead of ayā́ the form anáyā occurs twice i n the RV. : i t is the
only form from ana found i n the Saṃhitās.







112. The demonstrative corresponding to ayám employed
to express remoteness in the sense of that there, you, and
having in the N. s. the curious forms m. I. a­s­áu, n. a­d­ás,
uses throughout its inflexion the root a, but always in an
extended form. The fundamental stem used in every case
(except the N. s.) is a­m A. m. of a. This is extended by
the addition of the particle u to amu, which appears
throughout the sing. (with ū in A. I.) except the N. I n the
ph amu is the I. and amī́ the in. stem (except the A.).
The forms occurring are :

m. Sing. N. a­sáu.’ A. a­m–ú­m. L amú–n–a. D. amú­
ṣmai. Ab. amú­ṣmād. G. amú­ṣya.’ L. amú­ṣmin.—
Pl. amī́. A. amū́n. D. amī́­bhyas. G. amī́­ṣām.
I. Sing. N. a­sáu.’ A. a­m­u­m. I . amu­y–ā́. D. amú­
ṣyai. G. amú–ṣyās.—Du. N. amu.—PI. N. amū́­s.
A. amu­s.
n. Sing. N. a­d­ás.^ PI. N. amu.

a. The unaccented defective pronoun of the third person
e­na (he, she, it) is declined in the A. of all numbers,
besides the I . s. and the G. du.
A. sing. m. ena–m, I. ena­m, n. ena­d.—Du. m. enau,
I. ene.—Pl. m. enān, I. enā­s.
I . sing. enena. G. du. en­os (RV.), enay­os (AV.).

^. Another unaccented demonstrative pronoun restricted to the RV.
(excepting one form i n the Av. and the TS.) is tva meaning one, many


This stem is used i n derivation ; e.g. amú­tas thence, amú­tra there,
amú–thā thus (B.).
H ere the pronominal root a seems to be compounded with sa
extended by the particle u : a­sá­u and a­sā́­u.
This is the only example of sya being added to any but an a stem.
Used adverbially, with shifted accent.
H ere the neuter a­d of the pronominal root a is extended with
the suffix as.
H ere we have the same e (L. of a) as i n é­ka one, e­vá thus.





a one, generally repeated i n the sense of one another. The n. tvad
meaning partly is also found i n B. The forms occurring are ..
sing. N. m. tvas, f. tvā‚ n. tvad. A. m. tvam. L m. tvena.
D. m. tvasmai, f. tvasyai.—Pl. m. tve.
^. The pronoun avá this occurs only i n the G. du. form avós i n
combination with vām meaning of you two being such (used like sa i n
sá tvám thou as such).
The pronoun á m a this occurs only once i n the AV. (also i n
the AB.) i n the formula ámo ’hám asmi this am 1.

C. Interrogative Pronoun.
113. The interrogative ká who? which? what? used as

both substantive and adjective, is inflected exactly like tá,
excepting the alternative neuter form kí­m.’ which instead
of the pronominal d has the nominal m (never elsewhere
attached to a stem in i). The forms occurring are :
m. Sing. ká­s. A. ká­m. I . kéna. D. ká­smai. Ab.
ká­smad. G. ká­sya. L. ká­smin.—Du. N. káu.—
Pl. ké. I . ké­bhis. L. ké–ṣu.
f. Sing. N. kā́. A. kā́­m. I . ká­y­ā. G. ká­syās.—PI. N.
kā́­s. A. kā́­s. L. kā́­su.
n. Sing. N.A. ká­d and kí­m. —PI. N. kā́ and kā́ni.

a. I n derivation the stems k i and k u as well as ka are used ; e. g.
kí–y–ant how great ? kú­ha where ? ká­ti how many ?
As first member of a compound kad occurs twice : kat­payá greatly
swelling, kád­artha having what purpose ? k i m is similarly used a few
times i n the later Saṃhitās and the Brāhmaṇas; e.g. kiṃ­kará
b. ká­ya, an extended form of ká, occurring i n the G. only, is found
i n combination w i t h cid : káyasya cid of whomsoever.

From this pronoun are derived the I. and Ab. adverbs (with
shifted accent) amā́ at home and amā́dfrom near.
The N.s.m. is preserved as a petrified form i n ná­ki­s and mā́–ki­s
no one, nothing.
relative frequency of ká­d and kí­m is i n the RV. as two to


D. Relative Pronoun.

114. The relative pronoun yá who, which, what is declined
exactly like tá. The forms occurring are :
m. Sing. N. yá­s. A. yá­m. I . yénā and yéna. D. yá­
smai. Ab. yá­smād. G. yá­sya. L. yá–smin.
Du. N. yā́, yáu. D. yā́­bhyam. G. yá­y­os. L. yá­y­os
and y­ós.’
PI. N. yé. A. yā́n. I . yé­bhis and yáis. D. yé­bhyas.
G. yé­ṣ­ām. L. yé­ṣu.
I. Sing. N. yā́.
A. yā́­m.
I . yá­y­a.
G. yá­syas.
L. yá­syām.
Du. N. yé. G.L. yá­y­os.


PI. N. yā́­s. A. yā́­s. I . yā́­bhis. D. yā́ ­ bhyas.
s­ām. L. yā́­su.
n. N.A. Sing. yá­d. Du. yé. PI. yā́, yā́ni.

G. yā́–

a. The stem of yá is used to form derivatives ; e. g. yá–thā as. I t
also appears as first member of a compound i n yā­dṛ́ ś which like. The
neuter yád is also once used thus i n the RV. : yát-kāma desiring what ;
and a few times later, as yad-devatyā having what deity (K.), yat-kārín
doing what (ŚB.).
b. A form of the relative extended w i t h the diminutive suffix ka‚
ya­ká who, occurs only i n the sing. N. m. ya­ká­s, f . ya­kā́‚ and the p l .
N. m. ya­ké.


Reflexive Pronouns.

115. a. The reflexive indeclinable substantive sva­y­ám
self is properly ^used as a N. referring to all three persons.
Sometimes, however, its N. nature being forgotten, it is

yénā is twice as common i n the RV. as yéna, but the Pada text
always reads yéna.
The Ab., formed according to the nominal declension, yā́d is used
as a conjunction.
y­o's for yá­y­0s like yuv­6s for yuvá­y­0s (p. 105, note 3).
Derived from svá with suffix am and interposed y (like a­y­ám
from a).



used as an A. ; e. g. áyuji svayáṃ dhurí I have yoked myself
to the pole ; or as agreeing in sense with another case. I t
occasionally means spontaneously.
b. tanū́ body is used in the RV. to express self in other
cases than the N. and in all numbers. The reflexive
pronoun svá and a possessive G. may be added ; e. g.
yájasva tanvám worship thyself and yájasva tanvāṃ táva
svām worship thine own self. The reflexive sense of tanú
has disappeared in B.
^t. There are one or two instances i n the RV. of the incipient use of
ātmán soul i n a reflexive sense ; e. g. bálaṃ dádhāna ātmáni putting
force into himself. The A. ātmā́ n am is frequently thus used i n the later
Saṃhitās (though never i n the RV.) and in B.

c. svá own is a reflexive adjective referring to all three
persons and numbers. I t is inflected like an ordinary
adjective (priyá) in the RV. (except the two isolated
pronominal forms svásmin and svásyās), The forms
occurring are :
m. Sing. N. svás (Lat. suus). A. svám. I . svéna and
svénā. D. svā́ya. Ab. svā́d. G. svásya. L. své
and svásmin (Rv),
PI. N. svā́s. A. svā́n. I . svébhis and sváis. D. své­
bhyas. G. svā́nām. L. svéṣu.
I. Sing. N. svā́ (Lat. sua). A. svā́m. I . sváyā. D.
svā́yai. Ab. svā́yās. G. svásyās (Rv). L. svā́yām.
PI. N. svā́s. A. svā́s. I . svā́bhis. L. svā́su.
n. Sing. N.A. svám (Lat. suum). Pl. A. svā́ (Lat. sua).
^. As first member of compounds svá several times appears i n the
substantive (as well as the adj.) sense ; e. g. svá­yukta self­yoked.
svayám is similarly used in the Saṃhitās ; e.g. svayaṃ­jā́ self­born.

F. Possessive Pronouns.
110. Possessive pronouns are rare because the G. of the
personal pronoun is generally used to express the sense
which they convey.





a. The possessives of the first person are máma­ka and
mama­ká my and asmā́­ka our. The forms occurring are :
Sing. D. mámakāya. G. mámakasya.
Sing. N. in. māmaká­s. n. māmaká­m. PI. G. m
Sing. N.A. n. asmā́ka­m.’
I . asmā́kena.
PI. N. m.
asmā́ k āsas. I . asmā́ k e­bhis.

The n. s. asmā́ k am, by far the commonest of these forms, is used as
the G. pi. of the personal pronoun = of us (109).

b. The possessives of the second person are tāva­ká thy
(only D. pi. tāvakébhyas), tvá thy (only I. pl. I. tvā́­bhis),
and yuṣmā́–ka your. Of the latter, three forms occur:
I . s. m. yuṣmā́kena, pl. I. yuṣmā́ k ā­bhis, and the N.A. n.
yuṣmā́kam used as the G. pi. of the second personal
pronoun — of you.
c. Besides being used reflexively svá is fairly often
employed as a simple possessive, generally of the third
person (like Lat. suus), his, her, their, but also of the second,
thy, your, and of the first, my, our. The inflexion (115 c) is
the same in both senses.
G. Pronominal Compounds and Derivatives.
117. With -dṛś in the RV. and other Saṃhitās, and
with ­dṛkṣa in the VS. are formed the following pronominal
compounds : ī­dṛ́ ś , ta­dṛ́ś, etā–dṛ́ś such, kī­dṛ́ ś what like ?
yā­dṛ́ ś what like ; ī–dṛ́kṣa, etā­dṛ́ k ṣa such.




Both formed from the G. of the personal pronoun máma. There
also occurs once i n the RV. the derivative mā́ ­ k­īna my.
The VS. has once the N. s. āsmāká­s our formed like māmaká beside
Formed from the G. táva.
I n the Brāhmaṇas (ŚB.) -dṛśa begins to appear : ī–dṛ́śa, tā–dṛ́ ś a,
yā­dṛ́ ś a.
N. s. m. kī­dṛ́ ṅ .
w i t h the very anomalous L. s. yādṛ́ ś min.




and asáu: ta­ká that little (110. kíyate. s. With t i derivatives with a numerical sense are formed from ká. I. mā́ ­ vant like me. íyānti. No inflected forms of these words occur. D. samas­ mai. pi. N. kī́vatas). b. G. 3). ī́vatas . and yá : ká­ti how many ^ (Lat. yá­ka who. Ab. toti­dem) . . n. only. ī́­vant so great (s. PI. tá­ti so many (Lat. f. Indefinite Pronouns. ka­tará which of two^ ya­tará who or which of two . kíyat . sa­kā́). f. N. every. W i t h the suffix ­ka. The only simple pronoun which has an un­ doubtedly indefinite sense is sama (unaccented) any. N. sá. IIS. very rarely used derivatives are formed from the pronouns tá. s. íyatyai. samasmin. L. samasmād. N.). yá. a. yuvā́ v ate) . I. They appear in the sense of the N. etā́­vant and tā́­vant so great . 119. attached to . yuṣmā́ v atsu) .a. D. a. pi. kíyatī. e. D. ká. thus tvā́ ­ vant like thee. pl. íyat. s. ī́vat. kíyāti (for kíyati). yuvā́ ­ vant devoted to you two (only D. m. that little (Vs. yá­ti as many. s. n. guot) . D. With yant expressing the quantitative meaning of much derivatives are formed from i and k i : í­yant so much : n. L.A. yuṣmā́ ­ vant belonging to you (only L. kī́­vant how far? (G. 120) : í­tara other. ī́vate. sa­ká (only N . pi. and w i t h the superlative suffix ­tama from the latter two (cp. and from others in the quantitative sense of great. A. With the comparative suffix ­tara derivatives are formed from i . A. The six forms that occur are : m. With vant are formed derivatives from personal pro­ nouns with the sense of like. samasya. samam. m. s. ya­vant as great. asakáu N. kí­yant how much ? : sing. same. which (114 b). conveying a diminutive or contemptuous meaning. s. ka­tamá who or which of many ^ ya­tamá who or which of many. G. b. m. n. yá. ī́vatas) . tá.

D. anyé–ṣu. L. once each. katamá­syās. n. anyā́n. I . anyá­ smai. anyé. Sing. D.—PI. I . anyā́­s. N. anyá­smin. anyá­sya.). anyá­syām. n. m. any one . L. víśvasmai. víśva all.—Du. some . The specifically pronominal cases of the latter that have been met with are : Sing. The adjectives that strictly adhere to the pronominal type of inflexion are anyá other and the derivatives formed with tara and tama from ká and yá. anyá­y­ā. L. L. yatamá­d.119-1^0] PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES 115 b. anyā́. every . N. anyā́ ­ bhis. anyá­d. The forms of anyá that occur are : m. I. katamá­smai. Ah. káś cid any. PI. G.’ L. anyā́­su. . víśvāt. A. N. víśvasmin. anyā́m. yatamé. N. any one. N. víśvasmād. thus káś ca any. I . káś caná any one soever. Pronominal Adjectives. N. cana. Sing. yatamá­syām. anyā́­s. anyé­ṣām. víśve. N. anyéna. anyé­bhis and anyáis. katará­d. víśvāya. I . yataré (K. pl. sárva whole. Several adjectives derived from or allied in mean­ ing to pronouns. G.— Du. anyé­bhyas. yatará­d. s. From ítara occur in the Kāṭhaka Saṃhitā m. G. D. A. anyá­syai. katamé. 1 1 The RV. Sing.—PI. I. Thus : Sing. I. éka one are partially pronominal. 12O. G. b. n. follow the pronominal declension (110) altogether or in part. A. D. D. L. L. G. 1 . anyā́ ­ bhyām. or cid with the interrogative ká . some one. has the nominal forms D. Ab. N. anyé. s. anyá­m. itarasmai and N. katamá­d. anyā́. differing only in taking m instead of d in the N. anyá­syās.A.—PI. D. I . anyā́­sām. a. Compound indefinite pronouns are formed by combining the particles ca. N. itare. anyá­s. A.

I. m. pū́rva prior: sing.). s. occasionally have pronominal case­forms (but always m instead of d in the N. Ab. víśvam. párasmād. . pū́ r vasmin (K. D. G. pū́rveṣam. n. I. ávare. upamásyām. úttare¬ ápa­ra. I. G. G. ávarāsas. ṣam (K. para¬ másyam. N. PI. N. G. but sing. L. m. sárve. úpa­ra lower: sing. I. G. L.). Five other adjectives with a comparative or pronominal sense : para ulterior : sing. c. I. s. N. G. m. upa­má highest : L. Ab. sárvasmad. Pl. víśvāsām. D. N. víśve. m. Sing. sárvasyai. pū́ r vasmai. paramé (K. ékam. N. éke . ápare. aparasmin (K. m. m. n. úttare. 1 The AV. ava­má lowest : L. víśveṣām. L. páre beside párasas.PI. s. úpare beside áparāsas. m. úttarasmād and úttarasmin beside úttarād L. páreṣām. but sing. having pronominal affinities in form or meaning. m. m. úttarasyām. áva­ra. m. sárvasām . PI. madhyamásyām. L. N. Ab. pū́ r vāsām. pū́ r vasmād. paramásyās. PI. More than a dozen other adjectives. later : and úttare. m. L. G. I. párasmin beside páre.) : 1. G.’ PI. n. sárveṣam. Pl. and the superlative suffix ­ma : út­tara higher.A. avamásyām. ékasmin. I. pū́ r vasyām. Sing. m. N. madhya­má middlemost : sing.). úparāsas and úparās. Sing. sárvasmai. Eight adjectives formed with the comparative suffixes ­tara and ­ra. párasyās. PI. pū́ r ve (very common) beside pū́ r vāsas (very rare). m. m. N. 2. I. I. Ab. N.). f. once has éke as L . L. N. L. n. ékasyās. para­má farthest: sing. N. párasmai. I. I. sárvam. but sing. sing. D.

némasmin. The Vedic verb has in each tense and mood three numbers. Dual. G. all in regular use. has once sing. svásyas and once L. prathamásyās . common has once sing. m. note 4. L. samānásmād beside samānā́ d . néme. which has a special passive stem inflected with the middle endings. nemā¬ nām (unaccented). and Plural. e. partly in the other . m. I. n. Ab.N. kévale. except in the present system. others in one voice only. ás­ti is . a. úbhayeṣām and N. Cp. g. 1 Perhaps from ná­+ima not this. The middle forms may be employed in a passive sense. Vedic verbs are inflected in two voices. but G. G. 3. kṛṇó­ti and kṛṇu­té makes . svá own (116c). n. Four adjectives. numerical in form or meaning. m. L. g. ubhá both is declined i n the Du. 2 2 3 CHAPTER IV CONJUGATION 121. m. 107. ubhā́ . only : N. úbhaya of both kinds has pl. I. svásmin. e. samāná similar. Pl.néma i other : sing. tṛtī́ y a third has sing. I. G. kévala exclusive has once pl. ubháyos. f. have occasional pronominal endings : prathamá first has the sing. ubhé. G. but perfect va­várt­a has turned.A. 2 3 . tṛtī́ y asyām . úbhaye beside úbhayāsas and úbhayās . others partly in one. várta­te turns. Singular. active and middle. otherwise following the nominal declension. f. N. uhnā́ b hyām. Some verbs are conjugated in both active and middle. e. g. m.

the latter. adds yā or ī. occurs far oftener than the former i n the Brāhmaṇas. and mid. 3. all of which are formed from the stems of the present. very common i n the RV. thus the pr. is identical i n form with an unaugmented past tense (impf. . pl. of yuj join ynnáj­a. mumug­dhí release.. that is. Both form stems with a special modal affix. active and middle. ^/ The i n j .. future. (ending i n tam. the optative. aorist. act. yuñj­ī. and the future. stems in a take ī throughout . the aorist.ya i n the act. has no modal affix. but of bhu be bhávā. c^. others take ī i n the mid. the present. except when used with the prohibi­ tive particle mā́. duh–yā́. Participles. aor. g. of duh and yuj. stem of bhu is bháve ( = bháva–ī) . and 2. the subjunctive. yuñj­yā́ . The opt. aor. Besides the indicative there are four moods. The terms imperfect. which when strong and weak stems are dis¬ tinguished are attached to the latter. duh­ī. the perfect. 2. I t is very common i n the R v „ but has almost disappeared from the Brāhmaṇas. No Vedic tense has an imperfect meaning. and the aorist. aorist are here used in a purely formal sense. e. The suoj. pr. subj. I n the 2. pf. and the AV. mid. opt. are formed from the tense stem of the present. stem of duh milk is dóh­a. and perfect. āthām. Thus the pr. The subjunctive. the injunctive.).. śru-dhí hear. The imp v. while i t coalesces to ā with the final of a stems. t ā m . while the perfect sense is generally expressed by the aorist. 122. b.. plnp. du. the a is attached to the former. The imperfect has no moods . and the only modal form occurring in the future is the unique subjunctive kariṣyā́ s from k ṛ make. vid­dhí know. the perfect. ā t ā m . the imperfect. a. act. dhvam) i t is identical with the inj. There are five tenses in ordinary use. There . adds a to the indicative stem : when the latter distin­ guishes a strong and a weak stem.with three persons in each (except the imperative in which the first persons are wanting). ta . perfect. as corresponding in formation to the Greek tenses bearing those names. comparatively rare i n the saṃhitās. adding its endings direct to the tense stem . s. is three or four times as frequent as the optative . and the imperative.

In the first. fourth. d. aorist. the present stem ends in a and remains unchanged throughout (like the a declension). denominatives) as well as the future follow this conjugation in their inflexion. and the imperfect) forms a special stem. perfect. e. g. ídh­am to kindle . While the perfect. The Eight Classes. e. . The Present System. which is made in eight different ways by primary verbs. g. gatvī́ and gatvā́ya having gone. in which the terminations are added directly to the final of the root or to the (graded) suffixes no or nā. and the stem is changeable. The second or graded conjugation is characterized by shift of accent between stem and ending. and sixth classes. the present with its moods and participles. There are about a dozen differently formed types of infinitives. These eight classes are divided into two conjuga¬ tions. 123. causatives. gán­tavái to go. intensives. the present group (that is. accompanied by vowel gradation. the first being formed from the passive stem in ya‚ the other two from the root. There are also gerunds. The secondary conjugations in a (desideratives. present. and hardly ever connected with a tense stem . I t comprises the remain­ ing five classes. which are cases of verbal nouns made directly or with a suffix from the root. 124.122­124] H T E PRESENT SYSTEM 119 are also passive participles. and future tenses add the endings directly (or after inserting a sibilant) to the root. which are stereotyped cases (chiefly instrumentais) of verbal nouns and having the value of indeclinable active participles with a prevailingly past sense . e. and future . being either strong or weak. which comprises the first.

A. 133 B 1). The fourth or Div class adds ya to the last letter of the root. 125. I n the ninth class the accented form of the affix is nā́. a. which being accented takes Guṇa of a final vowel (short or long) and of a short medial vowel followed by one consonant . The first or Bhū class adds a to the last letter of the root. 126. The singular present and imperfect active . 127. The strong forms are : 1. e. The radical vowel in the strong forms is accented and takes Guṇa if possible (125. the unac­ cented nī or n . is strengthened . which being unaccented has no Guṇa. 3. 2 1 The weak form i n some instances assumed by the root points to the ya having originally been accented (cp. Second Conjugation. being accented. The second or root class adds the terminations directly to the root (in the subjunctive and optative with the intervening modal suffix). g. i n the seventh they are respective1y ná and n. 2. Except i n the augmented (128 c) imperfect singular because the augment is invariably accented. The whole subjunctive . First Conjugation. 15. budh awake: bódh­a. 1 c). In these forms the vowel of the root or of the affix. Before this a final ṝ is changed to ir. 2 . nah bind : náh­ya . 1) . 3. The third person singular imperative active. 1. which is accented . 1. 1 B. j i conquer : jáy­a : bhū be : bháv­a . The sixth or Tud class adds an accented á to the root. while in the weak forms it is reduced because the terminations are accented. g. e. div play : dī́v­ya (cp. 2.

which in the strong forms takes Guṇa i f possible. The third or reduplicating class adds the terminations directly to the reduplicated root. The seventh or infixing nasal class adds the termina­ tions directly to the final consonant. g. pi. e. 1. 5. e. the accent is not. pi. gṛbh­ ṇ–ánti. l. dvék­ṣi‚ dvéṣ­ṭi. bíbbr­ate. I n the tenth Maṇḍala of the RV. pl. ju­hó­mi. yuj join : yu­ná–j­mi‚ yuṇj­más. act. Thus hu sacrifice: Sing. é­ti .). bhṛ bear: Sing. bí­bhr­ati. gṛbh­ṇī–mási and gṛbh­ṇī­más. before which ná is inserted in the strong and n in the weak forms . 1 I t is doubtless as a result of this accentuation that these verbs lose the n of the endings i n these two forms : bíbhr­ati. hí­bhar­mi. 4. Contrary to analogy. 2. 3. the anomalous weak stem kur­u appears three times (beside the normal kṛ­ṇu) and the strong stem karo i n the AV. 1 2 3 a. The ninth or nā class adds to the root in the strong forms the accented syllable nā́. act. bibhṛ–más. Thus grabh seize : gṛbh­ṇā́­mi. in the majority of verbs belonging to this class. ind. 1. 1. thus from tan stretch ta­nn (for tn­nu). from i go : sing. The intensives conjugated i n the active (172) follow this class. 3. g. é­ṣi. The u is dropped before the m of the I. 1. kṛṇ–más. but this is probably due to the an of the root being reduced to the sonant nasal . pl. dviṣ hate : dvéṣ­mi. 2 3 . which in the weak forms is reduced to nu . pi. The fifth or nu class adds in the strong forms the accented syllable nó.ju­hu­más. 1. and mid. é­mi. k ṛ make : kṛ­ṇó­mi. Four roots ending i n n have the appearance of being formed with a suffix u. These stems gave rise to the eighth or u class of Sanskrit grammar. on the root in the strong forms. and mid. g. which in the weak forms is reduced to nī before consonants and n before vowels. 3. The root shows a tendency to be weakened. but on the reduplicative syllable (which is also accented in the 3.127] FORMATION OF PRESENT STEM 121 e.

and the intensive. and conditional generally prefix to the stem the accented syllable a which gives to those forms the sense of past time. I n the R v the unaugmented forms of past tenses are much more than half as numerous as the augmented ones. áichat impI. nearly all the unaugmented forms are injunctives. of ṛ go. s. Each of these has certain peculiarities. 170. About one­third of the injunctives in the RV. of is wish . ā́­riṇak and aor. b. ā́­naṭ (naś attain) . the perfect (with the pluperfect). impf. which must be treated separately under the special rules of reduplication (130. of which four­fifths are used with mā́. the desiderative. ä r . This augment sometimes appears lengthened before the n. of ud wet . Five verbal formations take reduplication : the present stem of the third conjugational class. one kind of aorist. Reduplication. p^). The augment contracts with the initial vowels i . impf ā́­vṛṇi (vṛ choose). u. pluperfect. I n sense the forms that drop the augment are either indicative or injunctive. 173). áunat impf. 135. c. ā́–yukta. r. g. ā́­vidhyat (vyadh wound). au. ā́­yukṣātām (yuj join) . v of seven or eight roots : aor. ā́­raik (ric leave) . ā́­yunak. The augment is very often dropped : this is doubtless a survival from the time when it was an independent particle that could be dispensed with if the past sense was clear from the context. aorist. y. I n the AV. mid. 12S. ā́­vṛṇak (vṛj turn). aor. impf. ā́­var (vṛ cover) . a. ā́r­ta (Gk.The Augment. aor. 129. impf. Common to all are the following : . are used with the prohibitive particle mā́ (Gk. impI. ṛ to the Vṛddhi vowels ai. e. aor. The imperfect. 149. these being about equal in number in the RV. ^p–7^o) 3.

pṝ fill: pí-par-ti. while nine do so with a. nor for the most part to the reduplicated aorist (149. g. g. have permanently gone over to the a conjugation. sthā stand : ta–sthā . g. it is shortened in the reduplicative syllable. the latter is reduplicated . the first only is reduplicated . pā drink. 1.REDUPLICATION 129—l30] 123 General Rules of Reduplication. han slay. Three of these. I f the root begins with more than one consonant. g. and i n the reduplicated perfect it is subject to numerous exceptions (139. h hy j . 1 2 2 3 Special Rule of Reduplication for the Third Class. 2 3 4 . Aspirated letters are represented by the corresponding unaspirated . Thirteen roots also reduplicate a with i . e. 9). while ghrā smell is beginning to do so. whether final or medial. e. But svaj embrace : sa-svaj (v is soft) . 2). e. budh perceive : bu-budh. 6. 3. khan dig : ca-khan . 5. dhā put : da-dhā. skand leap : ca-skand. I f a root begins with a sibilant followed by a hard consonant. that portion of it which ends with a vowel) is reduplicated . is long. stha stand. kram stride : ca-kram. e. smi smile : si-ṣmi (m is soft). I f the radical vowel.g. 2. This rule does not apply to intensives (173). There are some exceptions to this rule in the reduplication of intensives (173. The first syllable of a root (i. han smite: ja-ghan. ṛ and ṝ are represented in reduplication by i . e. 4. 3). e. e. bhṛ bear: hí-bhar-ti. bhī fear : hi-bhī . g. Gutturals are represented by the corresponding palatals. gam go : ja-gam . 1 This is not always the case i n the reduplication of intensives (173 b). rādh succeed : ra-rādh. 13O. The root vṛt turn is the only exception : va-vart(t)-i. dā give: da-dā . 4 a. e.g.

and in the middle the primary endings. On the other hand. 9 . with the benedictive and the conditional. I n the first or a conjugation (as in the a declension) the accent is never on the terminations. which are on the whole the same for all verbs. t i . The following table gives the terminations. 131. but always on the same syllable of the stem (the root in the first and fourth. si. I n the 1 2 second conjugation therefore the endings are accented except i n the strong forms (126). and yā́ and ī in the second conjugation. e. while the perfect has in the active (with many variations) the secondary. the affix in the sixth class). bbáv­o bháva­ī. the modal affix shows vowel gradation (5 b). 1 That is. The following distinctions between the two conjugations should be noted. and (with some modifications) the imperative have the secondary terminations (m. The present indicative has the primary (mi. which is reduced in the weak forms by the shifting of the accent to the endings. The chief difference is in the optative which is characterized by e in the first. t. take the secondary termina­ tions. and the imperfect. s. ī coalescing with the final a of the stem . g. ^:c). which therefore remains unchanged. Of the other tenses the future takes the primary. of the present system.Terminations. in the second conjugation (as in the declension of changeable stems) the accent falls on the strong stem. and the pluperfect and the aorist. the optative. while the subjunctive fluctuates between the two. That is. The same applies to the unaugmented imperfect (128). ^:c).

There are no examples of this ending i n the a conjugation. t ā t are added to the weak stem. ad­dhí. punī-hi . masi. a-s —-‚ tat dhi. the n is dropped i n the 3. Reduplicated verbs and others treated as such drop the n i n the 3. I n the whole second conj. oPTAT1vE. I n the graded conjugation dhi. 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 9 19 4 19 . and impv. vas 2. but i n the AV. impv. The only example of the ending thana i n the a conjugation is váda­ thana. but they not infrequently add tāt. pl. PREsENT. The ending ur is taken by nearly all the verbs of the redupli­ cating class and by several of the root class. a-t tu yā́t yā́Va yā́tam yā́tām ā-va a–thas a-tas tam tām a-ma a-tha a-n ta. These endings coalesce with the final a of the stem to eyam.1n^ īyam īs s 3. ind. act. sUBJ. śṛṇu-hi. tana (a)-n. mas is rather commoner than masi. ā a-si. 1st 1. impv. vit-tāt. Only two examples occur i n the a conjugation : bhája-tana and náhya-tana. also. et.. thana 3. ^c. pr. hi a-ti. which occurs i n B. mid. s. mi 2. kṛṇu–tāt. yā́ma yā́ta yúr 9 The final a of the stem i n the first conjugation is lengthened before m or v : bhávā­mi‚ bhávā­vas. pres. si 1 (a). (a)-nti C0nj. I n the RV. thas 3.mas 2. tas va tam tām 4 1 1 3 īva ītam ītām 1 ma ta. ur 7 6 īma īta īyur 1MPv. Verbs of the a conjugation have normally no ending i n the 2. masi is more than five times as common as mas. es. h i . śṛṇu– dhi . yā́m yā́s āni. IMPERFECT. 2nd conj. tha. aś-āna . tana (a)-ntu īt 1 1. g. and āna i n some verbs of the ninth class : e. m i n the first (á­bhava­m). am i n the second (á­dves­am). . impf.l3l] CONJUGATIONAL ENDINGS 125 ACT1vE. ti t 1 1. pi.

2 4 1 3 a-se.. the AV. only. e. bhava­nta. 1MPF. The form i n a­nta i n the a conjugation. where i t is very common. te 1. has a­se only. The RV. and the only one later. mahe 1 6 5 IMPERATIVE^ 7 3 dhvam ntām (1) atām (2) The final a of the first conjugation is lengthened before m and v. se 3.. dhve dhvam ī–dhvam a-dhvai 3.MlDDLE. 3 SUBJUNCT1VE. e i 2. The form a­te is almost exclusively used i n the RV„ while a­tai is the prevailing one in the AV. This i combines with the final a of the first conjugation to e : bháve. ata (2) ī-r-an a-ntai a-nta ^ 1 sva tām ām etham (1) āthām (2^ etām (1) ātām (2) ā́te (2) 1. vahe 1 2. I n these forms e takes the place of the final a of the a conjugation. a-sai 3 3 mahi 2. athām (2) ī-y-āthām aithe etām (1). nte(l).g. 1. PRESENT. The ending a­ntai occurs i n B. ethe (l). kṛṇvata). a–tai ī-vahi ā-vahai ethām (1). ā́the (2) 3. but i n the graded conjugation a subj. áte (2) nta (1). ^:c. etc (1). is an injunctive . e. kṛṇav­a­nta (inj. g. and the Brāhmaṇas a­sai only. This modal ī combines with the final a of the first conjugation to e : bháveya. ai thās īya ī-thās ta ī-ta a-te. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 . ātām (2) 3 ī-y-ātām aite 1 ī-mahi ā-mahai ā-mahe vahi 3 OPTATIVE.

one paradigm will suffice for all of them.132] CONJUGATIONAL ENDINGS 127 Paradigms. the passive (154). . 132. Forms of which no examples are found in the Saṃhitās are added in square brackets. Since the three classes of the first conjugation. the a (141 a). are similarly inflected. are inflected exactly alike. as well as all the secondary verbs the stems of which end in a. The injunctive is not given here because its forms are identical with the unaugmented imperfect. and the reduplicated (149) aor. 1 1 A l l other conjugation^ stems ending i n a. the s future (151). the sa (147).

bhávā-ṃasi bhávā-mas bháva-tha bháva-nti Imperfect. bháv-et [bháv-eva] I bháv-etam] bháv-etam bháv-ema [bháv-eta] bháv-eyúr . bháva bháva-tāt 3. 1. 1. ACTIVE. bhávā-vas bháva-thas bháva-tas PLURAL. á-bhava-t [á-bhavā-va] á-bhava-tam á-bhava-tām á-bhavā–ma á-bhava-ta á-bhava–n Imperative. á-bhava-m 2. bháva-ti DUAL. bháv-eyam 2. 1. 2. á-bhava-s 3. bháva-si 3. bháva-ti bháva-t bháva-va bháva-ma bháva-thas bhávā-tas bháva-tha bháva-n optative. bhávā-mi 2. F i r s t C l a s s : bhū be : Present. s1NGULAR.FIRST CONJUGATION. bháv-es 3. bháva-tu bháva-tam bháva-tām bháva-ta bháva-ntu subjunctive. 1. bhávā-ni bháva 2. bháva-si bháva-s 3.

bháv-eya [bháv-ethās] bháv–eta hháv-evahi bháv-eyathām] bháv-eyātam] bháv-emahi hháv-edhvam] bháv-erān] . á-bhav-e á-bhava-thās á-bhava-ta [á-bhavā-vahi] á-bhav-ethām á-bhav-etām bháva-sva bháva-tām bháv-ethām bháv-etām á-bhavā-mahi] á–bhava-dhvam] á–bhava–nta Imperative.) bhávā-te bhávā-tai bhávā-vahai bhávā-mahai bháv-aithe [bháva-dhve] bháv-aite [bháva-nte] optative. Present. Present stem bháv-a. M1DDLE. bháv-ai bháva-se bháva-sai (AV. PLURAL. bháv-e bháva-se bháva-te DUAL. bhávā-vahe bhávā-mahe [bháv-ethe] bháv-ete bháva-dhve bháva-nte Imperfect.P I R ^ OoN^U^A^oN. bháva-dhvam bháva-ntām subjunctive. s1NGULAR.

i go : Present stem é. i­mási i­más i­thá i­thána y­ánti Imperfect. 1. 2. i­tā́t 3. s1NGULAR. é­ṣi i­thás 3. 2. 3. i­yā́­t i­yā́­va i–yā́­tam i­yā́­tām i­yā́­ma i­yā́­ta i–yúr . DUAL. i­hí. AGT1VE. i­yā́­s 3. Second C l a s s ^. é­tu i­tám i­tā́m i­tá i­tána y­ántu Subjunctive. é­ti i­tás PLURAL. é­mi [i­vás] 2. Present. 1. 1. I. i­yam 2.SECOND CONJUGATION. ái­s 3. 1. áy­āni áy­ā áy­a­si áy­a­s áy­a­ti áy­a­t áy­ā­va áy­ā­ma áy­a­thas áy–a­tha áy­a­tas áy­a­n optative. ái­t [ái­va] ái­tam ái­tām ái­ma ái­ta ái­tana ā́y­an Imperative. ā́y­am 2.

bruv­āṇá. bráv­ai bráv­ā­vahai bráv­a–se bráv­aithe bráv­a­te bráv­aite bráv­a­mahai [bráv­a­dhve] bráv­a­nta optative. [á–bruv­i] á­brū­thās á–brū­ta á­brū­vahi] á–bruv–āthām] | á­bruv­ātām] [á­brú­mahi] á­brū­dhvam á­bruv­ata Imperative. hrū. s1NGULAR. bruv­ī­yá [bruv­ī­thā́ s ] bruv­ī­tá [bruv­ī­váhi] [bruv­ī­yā́ t hām] [bruv­ī­yā́ t ām] Participle. Present. DUAL. brū­svá [bruv­ā́ t hām] brū­dhvám brū­tā́ m [bruv­ā́ t ām] bruv­átām subjunctive.SECOND CONJUGATION . ā́ bruv­ī­máhi [bruv­ī­dhvám] [bruv­ī­rán] . bruv­é [brū­váhe] brū­máhe brū­ṣé bruv­ā́ t he brū­dhvé brū­té bruv­é bruv­ā́ t e bruv­áte Imperfect. I. M1DDLE. PLURAL. bru speak : Present stem bráv.

bíbhar­a­t [bíbhar­ā­va] bíbhar–a–thas [bíbhar­a­tas] 1. bíbhar­ṣi 3. á­bibhar (28) á­bibhṛ­tām á­bibhṛ­ma á­bibhṛ­ta á–bibhṛ–tana á­bibhr­an á­bibhar­ur Imperative. hibhṛ­yā́­s 3. Participle.T h i r d C l a s s ^ bhṛ bear : ACTIVE. Present. bíbhar­a–s 3. I. bíbhar­āṇi 2. hibhṛ­yā́­t [bibhṛ­yā́­va] [bibhṛ­yā́ ­ tam] bibhṛ­yā́ ­ tām bíbhar–ā–ma [bíbhar­a­tha] bíbhar­a­n optative. 1. DUAL. á­bibhar­am 2. hibhṛ­yā́m 2. bíbhar­tu bibhṛ­tā́m bibhṛ­tá hibhṛ­ṭána bíbhr­atu Subjunctive. bíbhar­ti bibhṛ­thás hibhṛ­tás PLURAL. 1. bibhṛ­hí bibhr­tā́ t bibhṛ­tám 3. híbhr­at­ī hibhṛ­yā́­ma [bibhṛ­yā́ ­ ta] bibhṛ­yūr . 1. bíbhr­at. á­bibhar (28) [á­hibhṛ­va] á­bibhṛ­tam 3. bíbhar­mi [bibhṛ­vás] 2. s1NGULAR. 2. bibhṛ­mási bibhṛ­más bibhṛ­thá bíbhr­ati Imperfect.

bibhr­āṇa. M1DDLE. [á–bibhr–i] á­bibhṛ­thās á­bibhr­ta á­bibhṛ­vahi] [á­bibhr­āthām] á­bibhṛ­mahi] á­bibhṛ­dhvam] [á­bibhr­ātām] á­bibhr­ata Imperative.Present stem bíbhar. Present. bíbhr­īya [bibhr­ī­thās] bíbhr­ī­ta [bíbhr­ī­vahi] [bíbhr­ī­yāthām] [bíbhr­ī­yātām] Participle. s1NGULAR. DUAL. bíbhar­ai] bibhar­a­se bíbhar­a­te bíbhar­ā­vahai [bíbhar­aithe] [bíbhar­aite] bibhar­ā­mahai [bíbhar­a­dhve] bíbhar­a­nta optative. bíbhr­e bibhṛ­váhe híbhṛ­máhe bibhr–ṣé bibhr­té bibhr­āthe bíbhr­āte bibhṛ­dhvé bíbhr­ate Imperfect. bibhṛ. ā bíbhr­ī­mahi [bíbhr­ī­dhvam] bíbhr­ī­ran . f. PLURAL. bibhṛ­ṣvá bíbhr­ātham bibhr­tā́ m [bíbhr­ātām] bibhr­dhvám bíbhr­atām Subjunctive.

­yā́m 2. sINGULAR. [kṛṇó­tu] kṛṇu­tám kṛṇu­tā́ m kṛṇu­tá kṛṇó­ta kṛṇó­tana kṛṇv­ántu Subjunctive. á­kṛṇo­t [á­kṛṇ­va] á–kṛṇu–tam á­kṛṇu­tām [á­kṛṇ­ma] á­kṛṇu–ta á­kṛṇv­an Imperative. Present. kṛ­ṇó­mi 2. á–kṛṇo–s 3. kṛṇu­yā́ ­ t [kṛṇu­yā́ ­ va] [kṛṇu­yā́ ­ tam] [kṛṇu­yā́ ­ tām] Participle. 1. ^ kṛṇáv­ā kṛṇáv­āni 2. f. kṛṇu. kṛṇu­hí 2. kṛṇú kṛṇn­tā́ t 3. á–kṛṇav­am 2. kṛṇáv­a­s 3. kṛṇv­ánt. kṛ­ṇó­ṣi 3. krnáv­a­t kṛṇáv­ā­va kṛṇáv­ā­ma kṛṇáv­a­thas] krnáv–a­tas ] kṛṇáv­a­tha krnáv­a­n optative. [kṛṇu­yā́ ­ s] 3.F i f t h C l a s s : kṛ make : AcT1VE. 1. kṛ­ṇó­ti DUAL. [kṛṇ­vás] kṛṇu­thás kṛṇu­tás PLURAL. 1. 1. kṛṇv–at–ī́ kṛṇu­yā́ ­ ma [kṛṇu­yā́ ­ ta] [kṛṇu­yúr] . kṛṇ­mási kṛṇ­más kṛṇu­thá kṛṇv­ánti Imperfect.

DUAL. kṛṇv­āná. [kṛṇv­īyá] [kṛṇv–ī–thā́s] kṛṇv­ī­tá [kṛṇv–ī–váhi] [kṛṇv­ī­yā́ t hām] [kṛṇv­ī­yā́ t ām] Participle. kṛṇu­ṣvá kṛṇv­ā́ t hām kṛṇu­dhvám kṛṇu­tā́ m [kṛṇv­ā́ t ām ] kṛṇv­átām Subjunctive. Present. kṛṇáv­ai kṛṇáv­ā­vahai kṛṇáv­a­se kṛṇáv­a­te kṛnáv­aithe kṛṇáv­aite kṛṇáv­ā­mahai [kṛṇáv­a­dhve] kṛṇáv­a­nta optative. PLURAL. I. kṛ–ṇu. [á­kṛṇv­i] á­kṛṇu­thās á–kṛṇu–ta á­kṛṇ­vahi] á­kṛṇv­āthām] á­kṛṇv­ātām] [á–kṛṇ­mahi] á­kṛṇu­dhvam á­kṛṇv­ata Imperative. M1DDLE. s1NGULAR.11­­] H FIFT CL ASS 135 Present stem kṛ­ṇó. ā́ [kṛṇv­ī­máhi] [kṛṇv­ī­dhvám] [kṛnv­ī–rán] . kṛṇv­é [kṛṇ­váhe] kṛṇ–máhe kṛṇu–ṣé (kṛṇu­té (kṛṇv­é kṛṇv­ā́ t he [kṛṇv­ā́ t e] [kṛṇu­dhvé] kṛṇv­áte Imperfect.

61) 3. yuṅ­dhí (10 a) 3. 2. yuñj­yā́­t [yuñj­yā́ ­ va] [yuñj­yā́–tam] [yuñj­yā́ ­ tām] [yuñj–ya­ma] [yuñj­yā́ ­ ta] [yuñj­yúr] . –tana yuñj­ántu yuṅ­tā́m Subjunctive. yu­na­j­mi 2. yunáj­a­t yunaj­ā­va [yunáj­a­thas] yunáj­a­tas yunaj­ā­ma [yunáj­a­tha] yunáj­a­n optative. yu–ná­k­ṣi (63. yunáj­a­s 3. [yuñj­yā́­s] 3. 1. á­yunak (63. Present. 67) 3. sINGULAR. yunák­tu yuṅ­tám (10 a) yuṅ­tá yunák­ta. 61) [á­yuñj­va] á­yuṅk­tam [á­yuṅk­tām] [á­yuñj­ma] [á–yuṅk­ta] á­yuñj–an Imperative. 1. á­yunak (63. 1.Seventh Class: yujjoin: ACTIVE. [yuñj­yā́m] 2. yuñj–más [yuṅk­thá] yuñj­ánti Imperfect. [yunáj­āni] 2. 1. [á­yunaj­am] 2. DUAL. yu­ná­k­ti (63) yuñj­vás] yuṅk­thás] yuṅk­tás] PLURAL.

s1NGULAR. 67) yuñj­ā́ t hām yuṅg­dhvám yuṅ­tā́m yuñj­átām [yuñj­ā́ t ām] Subjunctive. Present. [yunáj­ai] [yunáj–a–se] yunáj­a­te [yunáj–ā–vahai] [yunáj­aithe] [yunáj­aite] yunáj­ā­mahai [yunáj­a­dhve] [yunáj­a­nta] optative. M1DDLE. yuṅk­ṣvá (63. [yuñj­máhe] yuṅg­dhvé yuñj­áte Imperfect. yuñj­é yuṅk­ṣé yuṅk­té DUAL. [yuñj­īyá] [yuñj­ī­thā́s] yuñj­ī­tá [yuñj–ī–váhi] [yuñj­ī­yā́ t hām] [yuñj­ī­yā́ t ām] [yuñj­ī­máhi] [yuñj­ī­dhvám] [yuñj­ī­rán] .Present stem : yu­ná­j. yu­ñ­j. á­yuñj­i] á­yuṅk­thās] á­yuṅk­ta] á­yuñj­vahi] [á­yuñj­āthām] [á­yuñj­ātām] [á­yuñj­mahi] [á–yuṅg­dhvam] á­yuñj­ata Imperative. [yuñj­váhe] yuñj­ā́ t he yuñj­ā́te PLURAL.

gṛbh­ṇā́­s 3. 2. Present. gṛbh­ṇā́­ti gṛbh­ṇī­tás PLURAL. gṛbh­ṇī­hí gṛbh­ṇī­tā́t gṛbh­āṇá 3. gṛbh­ṇā́­t gṛbh­ṇā́­ti [gṛbh­ṇā́­va] [gṛbh–ṇā́–thas] [gṛbh­ṇā́­tas] gṛbh­ṇā́­ma gṛbh­ṇā́­tha gṛbh­ṇā́­n optative. 1. 2. gṛbh–ṇā́–si gṛbh­ṇī­thás 3. gṛbh­ṇī­ya­t [gṛbh–ṇī–yā́–va] [ gṛbh­ṇī­yā́­tam] [ gṛbh­ṇī­yā́­tām] [gṛbh­ṇī­yā́­ma] [gṛbh­ṇī­ya­ta] [gṛbh­ṇī­yúr] Participle. 3. gṛbh­ṇa­mi [gṛbh­ṇī­vás] 2. . gṛbh­ṇā­tu gṛbh­ṇī­tám gṛbh­ṇī­tá gṛbh­ṇī­tána gṛbh­ṇī­tā́m gṛbh­ṇ­ántu Subjunctive. gṛbh­ṇ­ánt. gṛbh­ṇī­yā́­s 3. gṛbh­ṇī­mási gṛbh­ṇī­más gṛbh­ṇī­thá gṛbh­ṇī­thána gṛbh­ṇ­ánti Imperfect. I. 1. 1.N i n t h C l a s s : g r a b h seize : ACTIVE. DUAL. á­gṛbh­ṇā­m á­gṛbh­ṇā­s á­gṛbh­ṇā­t [á­gṛbh­ṇī­va] á­gṛbh­ṇī­tam [á­gṛbh–ṇī–tām] [á­gṛbh­ṇī­ma] á­gṛbh­ṇī­ta á­gṛbh­ṇ­an Imperative. gṛbh­ṇ­at­ī́. 1. grbh­n­ā́ n i 2. s1NGULAR. gṛbh­ṇī­yam 2.

gṛbh­ṇī­máhe [gṛbh­ṇī­dhvé] gṛbh­ṇ­áte Imperfect. ā́ . gṛbh­ṇ­é [gṛbh–ṇī–váhe] gṛbh­ṇī­ṣé [gṛbh­ṇ­ā́the] gṛbh­ṇī­té [gṛbh­ṇ­ā́te] PLURAL. Present. gṛbh­ṇī­ṣvá [gṛbh­ṇ­ā́ t hām] gṛbh­ṇī­dhvám gṛbh­ṇī­tā́m [gṛbh­ṇ­ā́tām] gṛbh­ṇ­átām Subjunctive.Present stem gṛbh­ṇā́. á­gṛbh­ṇ­i [á­gṛbh–ṇī–thās] á­gṛbh­ṇī­ta á–gṛbh–ṇī–vahi] ^á­gṛbh­ṇ­ātham] ^á–gṛbh–ṇ–ātām] á­gṛbh­ṇī­mahi [á­gṛbh­ṇī­dhvam | á­gṛbh­ṇ­ata Imperative. f. DUAL. gṛbh­ṇī‚ gṛbh–ṇ. gṛbh­ṇ­āná. s1NGULAR. Participle. M1DDLE. [gṛbh­ṇ­ái] [gṛbh­ṇā́­se] [gṛbh­ṇā́­te] gṛbh­ṇā́–vahai [gṛbh­ṇ­áithe] [gṛbh­ṇ­áite] [gṛbh–ṇ–īyá^ [gṛbh­ṇ­īthas] gṛbh­ṇ­ītá [gṛbh­ṇ­ī­váhi] [gṛbh­ṇ­ī­máhi] [gṛbh­ṇ­ī­yā́ t hām] [gṛbh­ṇ­ī­dhvám] gṛbh­ṇ­ī­yā́ t ām] [gṛbh­ṇ­ī­rán] gṛbh­ṇā́­mahai [gṛbh­ṇā́­dhve] [gṛbh­ṇā́­nta] optative.

LaI. only) : guha. sáśca (for sá­s(a)c­a) . The four roots pā drink. 1). Only one example occurs. impv. inj. 2 3 4 . Four stems are transfers from the fifth or nu class. sthā stand. sisto). a.rṃ^t. s. A reminiscence of the reduplicative origin of this stem is the loss of the nasal in the 3. ūh consider takes Guṇa : óh–a . pl. in this class. krā́ m a­ti (but mid. Lat. The radical vowel is lengthened in guh hide and in kram stride (in the act. 2. doubtless originally pí­nu (√pī̆). b. mid. sáj-a. sīdo). sac aceompany. yá­eha. by twelve verbs) is exceptionally used for the 3. 133. 1. Against 125. sáśc-ati and 3. A. But uh remov e remains unchanged (125. and one of dhva (for dhvam) in the 2. pí­nv­a fatten. 1. act. pl. kráma­te) . l. pl. jí­nv­a­ti (from j i quieken) beside ji­nó­ṣi . yam restrain. o^): gá­cha (Gk. of the 2. mid. ending tana: bhája¬ tana . kṛp lament does not take Guṇa : kṛ́ p ­a. First Conjugation. saśc-ata. bibo) . s. 3. hí–nv­a­ti (from hi impel) beside hi­nó­ti . yú­cha. gam go. 4. The ending tat (besides being regularly used in the 2. : yája-dhva. pi. sad sit form present stems that originally belonged to the reduplicating class : píba (Lat. sī́da (for sí­s(a)d­a . yu separate form their present stems with cha (Gk. impv. First or Bhū Class. daṃś bite and sanj hang lose their nasal : dáś-a. 1 2 3 4 1 Instead of taking Guṇa. in gácha–tāt and smára-tāt.^á­o^o).Irregularities of the Present Stem. being either used beside or having entirely superseded the simpler original stems : í­nv­a­ti (from i send) beside i­nó­ti . tíṣṭha (to. pres. 5.

B. The root is irregularly strengthened in the following verbs : a. ā is shortened in dhā suck : dhá–ya . and vṛ́ k ­a wolf. nu and stu praise take Vṛddhi instead of Guṇa in the strong forms before terminations with samprasāraṇa and loss of ś. in B. in mṛḍá-tāt. C. prec-or and po(rc)-sco. tir-á (beside tár-a). gṝ swallow. piś adorn : piṃś-á . kṝ scatter. Sixth Class. in viśá-tāt. 1. 2. and Old German frag-en . The radical vowel is nasalized in eight verbs : kṛt cut : kṛnt–á . 1 2 ^. s. Three roots in ṝ. A 2) : is wish : i-chá . Beside the normal use of the imperative suffix t ā t for the 2. past participle vṛk­ṇá cut. Vyā envelope : vyá­ya . mā́d­ya. vid find: vind­á . I 3 4 . hvā call : hvá­ya. vṛhá–tāt‚ suvá­tāt. i t also appears for the 3. s. 3. Four roots form their present stem with the suffix cha (cp. lup br eak : lump­á . The root vraśc cut. śubh shine have occasional nasalized forms. 1. which seems to be formed with c. pṝ fill becomes pū́ r ­ya only (because of its initial labial). –vras-ka cutting. t ṝ cross. ṛ go : ṛ-chá . Lat. lip smear : limp­á . Cp. 2. form the present stems kir-á. vyadh pierce takes Samprasāraṇa : vídh­ya . Three other roots. 3. I . tṛp be pleased : tṛmp­á . Fourth or v a Class. mā exchange : má­ya . ask ' and for-scon (forschen). t ṝ cross : tū́ r ­ya and tī́r­ya . viśá­tāt. tam faint and mad be exhilarated do the same : tā́m­ya. Final ṝ sometimes becomes both īr and ūr : j ṝ waste away : jū́r­ya and jī́ r ­ya (AY) . śram be weary lengthens its vowel: śrā́m­ya . Cp. dṛh make fir m. takes Samprasāraṇa : vṛśc-á. tud thr ust. praś ask : pṛ-chá . Second or Root Class. vā weave : Vá­ya . A. mue r elease : muñc­á . yu unite. kṣṇu whet. vas shine : u-chá. The radical syllable is reduced in seven verbs : spaś see loses its initial : páś-ya . 1 2 . gir-á. sic spr inkle : siñc­á.

váś-mi. vaś desire takes Sa1nprasāraṇa in the weak forms : L pi. á­stau­t. i go. I n the impf it inserts ī before the endings of the 2. śé-r–atām. impf. but á­stav­am. 3. du. s.. but 1. pi. śī lie mid. i I n B. sunt) they are . Av. impv. snu distil have the same peculiarity : rau­ti‚ sau­ti. han slay in weak forms loses its n before terminations beginning with consonants (except m. zdī). hán­tana. śé-ṣe (^ī–^rat).. e. preserves the vowel (in an altered form) in e­dhí (for az­dhí. b. ábravī­ta and ábravī­tana. á­ghn­an . g. g. and part. su impel. s. skau­ti. stáu­mi. śáy-e. s­yā́t would be . pr. s­tám. s. uś-mási. act. . 2. impv. with palatalized initial instead of gha­hí. impf.. pi. 3. but hán­ti. s­ánti (Lat. The 2. and impv. s. ghn­ántu. pi. takes Guṇa and accents the radical syllable throughout its weak forms : e. uś-āná. The root is irregularly weakened in the following verbs : a. 2. s­tá. e. the a is syncopated and h reverts to the original guttural gh: ghn­ánti. I t has the additional irregularity of inserting r before the endings in the 3. impv.st6­ta. : ā́s­ī­s. pk impf. ā́s­ī­t (beside ā́s = ā́s­t). e. as ha­thá. e. y. I n the 3. b. ghn­ánt. stu praise. mā́ r ṣ­ṭi. is ja­hí (for jha­hí). s. bru speak. impv. impv. v). part. snau­tr. have the alternative forms é-ta and é­tana‚brávī­tana. opt. 3. han slay before the ending of the 2.. 1.1 beginning with consonants . 2. but mṛj­más. g. s­más we are. mṛj wipe takes Vṛddhi in the strong forms : mā́rj–mi. sku tear. 2. á-śe-r-an. .. r u cry. pr.. B r u has the same irregularity in the 2. as be drops its initial a in the optative and all the weak forms of the pr. mṛj­ánti. The 2. s­ántu. pi. : śé-r-ate. impv. pr.

hán­ā­tha. pi. except in the 2. impv. 3. The roots īḍ praise and īś rule add i in some forms of the 2. . rud weep. b. opt. e. as also rih­até they lick. īśi-dhve. duh milk. śā́s­at. vam vomit. mid. Roots ending in ā take ur instead of an in the 3. I n the AV. s. á-brav–ī–t. mid. With regard to the endings : a. : śās-ate. subj. pl. 3. pl. am-ī-ṣva. : ī́ś-e. This irregularity occurs i n B. s. bruv­é. mid. act. s. b. I n B. act. dúgh­āna. duh­ā́ m . the 3. 1 2 ^. forms with ā instead of a are not un­ common . stan-i-hi thunder. ás­a­t. śnath-i–hi pierce. and pi.. impI. ind. and eit observe. duh­ī­yán (for duh­yúr). e. The root śās order loses the n in the 3. śī lie frequently. e. s.) with connecting i from other roots also occur: jan-i-ṣva be born. and B. ī́ś-i–ṣe (beside ī́k­ṣe). part. impf. duh-é‚ vid-é. s. where they insert ī . oit­é. g. śvas-i-ti. án­i­ti. Occasional forms (2. e. s. duh­īyát (for duh­yā́ t ). duh­rā́ m and duh­rátām . ád­ā­n. pi.: ī́ḍ­i­ṣva.). 3. impI. e. g. pr. 3. is similarly formed i n śáy-ām. bráv­ā­thas. á­duh­a­t beside á­dhok. s. forms with primary endings are very rare. The irregular forms are the following: act. and in the part. 3 4 1 2 3 4 But with irregular accent. ^. take e instead of t o i n the 3. The roots an breathe. śvas blow. tviṣ be stirred : á­tviṣ­ur.. The verbs īś rule. also. svap sleep insert i before all terminations beginning with a consonant. ā́n–ī–t . vas-i-ṣva elothe. 3. pāprotect : á­p–ur. e.g. g. pr. 3. subj. impv. 3. 3. Mid. The root b r ū speak inserts ī in the strong forms before terminations beginning with consonants : bráv-ī-mi. pi. thus am-ī-ti. I n the AV. . duh­ré and duh­rate beside the regular duh­até . and mid. a­vam­ī­t . ām-ī-t (TS. pl. áy–ā–s. s. A vowel or semivowel is irregularly inserted in the following verbs : a. vid ^nd. bru speak rarely. impv. A few roots ending in consonants show the same irregularity . śáy­e . The root duh milk is very anomalous in its endings. 4.3. am injure inserts ī before consonants. á­duh­ran beside á­duh­an and duh­úr. śas-atu.

pí­par­tana. śiśī-mási . ind. pl. has laugh syncopate the radical vowel in weak forms . 3. śi-śā–dhí (beside śi-śī-hí). r ā give. ind. while ghrā smell. rarā-sva (AV. part. dá­dhā­ta and dá­dhā­ tana. impv. and dhe­hí (for dhaz­dhí) beside dhat­tā́ t . śā sharpen. use dad and dadh as their stems in all weak forms : dád­mahe. ha go away is in weak forms usually changed to ī before con¬ sonants (cp. pl.). y u separate. rára. yu-yo-dhí. .. á­jahā­tana. act. b. When the aspiration of dadh is lost before t. sac accompany. h ā leave. tíṣṭha. 3 a) . mā measure : 1. pr. dhā put. Roots ending in ā drop the radical vowel before terminations beginning with vowels . á­dadhā­ta. dhat­thá. : á­da­ dā­ta. yu­yó­tam (beside yu­yu­ tám). is de­hí (for daz­dhí) beside dad­dhí and dat­tā́ t . dhat­svá. já-kṣ–at (for ja-gh(a)s-at) pr. sthā stand. The 2. śā sharpen. act.B. dā. 3. th‚ s it is thrown back on the initial : dhat­té. s. 2. hu sacrifice have several forms with a strong vowel i n the 2. There are numerous transfers from this to other classes. a. píba. hápsa.g. pr. rarī­thā́s . the two commonest verbs in this class. du.). í­y­ar­ta. dhā place. du. The roots da give and dhā put also make some forms from their weak stems according to the 1 But 2. 2. pi. ^. act. (but ba­bhas­a­t 3. pr. e. bhas chew. míma. s. bhas chew. jíghna (cp. s. sac accompany occasionally use the a stems jíghra. s. dadh­mási. dnā. da give. impv. dā give. hvar be crooked makes some forms with Samprasāraṇa and then reduplicates with u : e. impv. 5 e) : mímī­te . ^. subj. e. mím-e. ju­hūr­thās. 1 3. 1. dá­da­ta and dá­dā­tana. han stride form such stems according to the a conjugation exclusively. sá-śc-ata 3. have similar strong forms i n the 2. g. rā give. mā bellow. jíhī­te. pi. mid. s. sá-śc–ati 3. pl. vivik­tás . inj. yu­yé­ta and yu­yó­tana‚ ju­hó­ta and ju­hó­tana. sáśca. thus bá­ps­ati 3 pl. s. . inj. The ā of mā measure. Third or Reduplicating Class. The roots ṛ go. impf. The root vyac takes Samprasāraṇa. g. mā bellow. pṛ cross. The roots pā drink. mím-ate. 133 A.

as kṛṇ­más‚ kṛṇ­máhe. pi. karó. 3. act. ind. impv. which are the only stems used in B . 2. mid.. dádh­a­ntu. which has the further anomaly of Guṇa in the root. man think. pr. ninv-i–ré. ṛṇv­i­ré‚ pinv­i­ré.a conjugation. s. as those from kar6. and mid. I n the 3. as 3. dad. dat­tá given. pi. The four roots ending i n n. e. pl. hínv­a. thus i t forms the past part. But the a of these present stems i n reality probably represents the sonant nasal. has even an incipient tendency to become a root . pr. p i . C 4). have come to be used frequently as secondary roots forming present stems according to the a conjugation : ínv­a‚ ṛ́ṇv–a. pínv­a. s. The strong form of this stem. Fifth or Nu Class. pr. pass. Twice in the 2. the late and anomalous present stem of kr make (cp. kuru and once in the I. Beside the regular and very frequent present stem kṛ–ṇu (from kṛ make) there begins to appear in the tenth Maṇḍala of the R v the very anomalous kuru. mid. The former. first appears in the A v . ṛ­ṇu‚ j i ­ n u . 4. These (with three later roots) form a separate (eighth) class according to the H indu grammarians. as tan­u. sunv–i-ré. C. . But the forms made from kṛṇu are still six times as common in the AV. kuru. pr. The u of the suffix is dropped before the m of the 1. = t^­nu. Five stems of this class. kur-mas. 3. ind. pl. ^. dád­a­te. pi­nu. aś-nuv-ánti (but su-nv-ánti). 1. tan stretch. śru hear forms (by dissimilation) the stem śṛ­ṇu. act. 4 1 After the preposition pari around this stem prefixes an unoriginal s : pari–ṣ-kṛṇv–ánti they adorn. ­v. hi­nu. 3. i–nu. and vṛ cover (with interchange of vowel and semivowel) ūr–ṇu beside the regular vṛ­ṇu. 2 3 . pl. have the appearance of forming their stem with the suffix u.Like duh-re i n the root class. san gain. dádh­a­nti. 1 2 3 a. g. jínv­a. When nu is preceded by a consonant its u becomes u V before vowel endings . śrṇv-i-ré. This group was joined by kur­u. 3. impv. van win. six verbs of this class take the ending re with connecting vowel i : inv­i­ré.

pṛṇá and mṛṇá. 1. hi­ná­s­ti. the subjunctive. añj anoint. 2. p i . 1. besides an indicative. i t occurs only about one-sixth as often as the latter . gṛh­ṇā́–mi (AV. manth shake. the transfer stems. stabh­nā́ ­ ti. The three roots jī overpower. 4. 135. śrṇó-ta and śṛṇé­tana. I n the impv. ju–nā́–si. and imperative moods. This tense is formed by reduplication. Like the present. 3. I n the 2. according to the a conjugation. stabh­āná. . s. optative. t ṛ h crush infixes né in the strong forms . i n the AV. jú hasten. kṛṇó-ta and kṛṇó-tana. skabh­nā́ ­ ti. du. grabh seize and its later form grah take Samprasāraṇa : gṛbh­ṇā́­mi. beside the regular stems pṛṇā́ and mṛṇā́. Ninth or Ná Class. hinu-tat. : aś-āná. and an augmented form. the pluperfect. hin5­ta and hinó­tana . g. as well as participles. Infixing Nasal Class. skambh make firm. pū purify shorten their vowel before the affix : ji–nā́­mi. as śṛṇu­hí‚ three times as often in the RV. I t is very common. drop their nasal : jā­nā́ ­ ti. act.). act. jñā know and the four roots which in forms outside the present system appear with a nasal. bha­ná­k­ti. are found the strong forms krṇo-tam. as the form without ending. The Perfect Tense. grah seize. badh­nā́ ­ ti. D. pu­nā́ ­ ti. hin0-tam . have the peculiar ending ana in the 2. Four roots ending in consonants. The ending tat occurs i n kṛṇu-tāt. i n B. from which several forms occur. tanó­t^ and karó­ta. I n the RV. stambh prop. hiṃs­ injure drop their nasal before inserting na : as a­ná­k­ti. sunó­ta and sunó­tana. tṛ­ṇé­ḍhi (69 e). as śṛṇu . injunctive. kuru-tāt. being formed by nearly 300 verbs in the Saṃhitās. has the ending h i . the ending dhi also occurs i n śṛṇudhí. bhañj break. the 2. pṛ jill and m ṛ crush make. E. it has. bandh bind. math­nā́ ­ ti. s. impv. aś eat. 2. and in the 2. gṛh­āṇá. badh­āná. e. stambh prop.^. bandh bind. it has almost disappeared.

s. e. the root being accented . tha 3.) reduplicate with i and u respectively. 139. i go : 2. vad speak. and impf. 1. a 2. má á úr s1NG. syand move on: ti­tyaj. Vi­vyac. īṣ­é . i­y­é­tha : uc be pleased : 2. e. sING. act. vas wear have the full reduplication ya or Va throughout : ya­yam. and five with va: vac 1 speak. su­ṣvap. ūc–i­ṣé. 4. s. but 3. The long vowels ī and ū remain unchanged ( = i­ī and u­ú) . āp obtain : āp. u­vah. On the other hand the three roots yam stretch. mid. t ṝ cross : ta­tṛ . act. ūh consider: 3. u–vad.). act. 136. 9) . u­vap. Initial a or ā becomes a . pass. van win. 2. vah carry. va­van.g. ṛ go: ar (— a­ar).THE PERFECT 135­136] 147 Special Rules of Reduplication. a 1 DUAL [vá] áthur átur PLUR.. where the reduplicative syllable is separated from the strong radical syllable by its own semivowel : e. s. act. é sé é DUAL PLUR. . g. k ṛ do : ca­kṛ . s. va­vā́ c ­a and 2. There are four such with ya : tyaj forsake. ṛ and ṝ ( = ar) and ḷ ( = al) always reduplicate with a (cp. vap strew. yaj sacrifice. svap sleep: u­vac. [váhe] ā́the ā́te máhe dhvé ré vac has two forms with the f u l l reduplication : 3. s. pr. M1DDLE. va­vak­ṣé. va­vas. i­yaj. kḷp be adapted: cā­kḷp . The singular perfect active is strong (like the sing. īṣ move: 1. e. The endings are the following : ACTIVE. s. 3. g. 1. the remaining forms are weak. mid. Roots beginning with i and u contract i + i to ī and u + u to ū except in the sing. si­ṣyand. vyac extend. u–v–óc–a. Roots containing ya or va and liable to Samprasāraṇa in other forms (such as the past part. S. an breathe : ān . the terminations being accented. g. ūh­é.

Before terminations beginning with vowels (op. t ṝ eross : titir-úr . se. p. if preceded by more than one. kṛ make : cakr-é. if the final syllable of the stem is prosodically short. cakṛ­ṣé. īj­i­ré. 1 Roots in ṛ always add re with connecting i . kṛ make : cakár–tha. ī̆ preceded by one consonant become y. g. yu join : yuyuv­é . vivit–sé . diś point : di-déś-a . tatán­tha . se. but jinv quicken : ji­jinv­áthur. ma. g. e. e. but cakr­i­ré. bhī fear : bibhy­átur . iy . ma. tatas­ré‚ yuyuj­ré. g. sū bring forth: sa­sū́ v ­a. bhū be: babhū́ v ­a. from dhā put. But h ū call: j u h v ­ é . re are nearly always added direct to stems ending in vowels . b. The final radical vowel ā in weak forms is reduced to i . hü call : juhū­ré .CONJUGATION 148 [136 a. mahe is invariably so added. 1. This is due to the rhythmic rule that the stem may not have two prosodically short vowels in successive syllables. e. vivid­ré . papt­i­má . 2 3 4 . śú swell : śūśuv-é. but with connecting i if it is long . 1 a) 1 . cā­kḷp­ré. yuyuj­má . 2. Terminations beginning with initial consonants are as a rule added directly to the stem . śru hear : śuśruv-é . su press : suṣu­má . cakr-á . re are added directly to roots ending in consonants. cakṛ­má. The same endings tha. 1 2 3 4 The Strong Stem. Cp. g. g. jagan­má. stṝ strew : tistir–é. e. note 2. ūc­i­má. thus from da give : dada­tha . śri resort : śiśriy-é. e. e. uc be wont : uv-óc-a . 3. ṝ becomes ir . This reduced vowel in the very common verbs dā and dhā was probably the starting­point for the use of i as a con­ necting vowel in other verbs. ū̆ ordinarily become uv . jagṛbh­rná. 137. ṛ becomes r. j i conquer : ji­gé­tha . dadhi­dhve. but uvóc­i­tha. k ṛ t eut : ca­kárt–a . nī lead : niné­tha . 155. Short vowels followed by a single consonant take Guṇa throughout the singular active . The endings tha. g.

ṛ the radical syllable remains unchanged except by Sandhi . s. a. but takṣ fashion ta­takṣ­a. The only exception is the root prā fill. k ṛ make : ca­kṛ­má. g. fec-i). yuj join : yu­yuj­má . k ṛ make : ca­kā́r­a. pat) and which reduplicate the initial consonant unchanged (this excludes roots beginning with aspirates. ū̆. e. sing. śri resort : śi–śriy-é . This vowel spread from contracted forms like sa-zd (Av. and Av. if by more than one. s. Medial a followed by a single consonant takes vṛddhi in the 3. 3. . I n an Upaniṣad and a s ū t r a cakāra occurs as 1. fac-io.THE STRONG STEM 136­137] 149 1 2. t ṝ cross : ti-tir-úr . yu join : yu-yuv-é . e. . 2 . About a dozen roots in which a is preceded and followed by a single consonant (e. Before terminations beginning with vowels. g. śū swell : śū-śuv-é . dhā put : da­dháu. 1. hazd) weak perfect stem of sad sit (az becoming e . g. ī̆ and ṛ. s. 2. g. g. stṝ strew : ti–stir-é. śru hear : śu-śruv-é . a. k ṛ make : cakr­úr . act. Lat. 2 b and 133 A 1). and for the most part v) contract the two syllables to one containing the diphthong e (cp. . j i conquer : ji–gy–úr . bhī fear : hi­bhy­úr . g. pa­prā́ beside the regular pa­práu. 4. while ū̆ and ṝ regularly become uv and i r . never takes vṛddhi i n the RV.’ They are the following : 1 The I. vid find : vi­vid–é . e. I n roots containing a medial a or final ā the radical syllable is weakened. e. which once forms the 3. śru hear : śu-śrā́v­a . i f preceded by one consonant become y and r. and 3. 137. sing. e. Final vowels take vṛddhi in the 3. gutturals. cp. i y and ar . han strike : ja–ghā́n–a. I n roots containing the vowels ī̆. 134. 1 The Weak Stem. nī lead : ni­nā́y­a . and i n a sūtra jigāya (√ji) also. s. Roots ending in ā take the anomalous ending au in the I.

Six other roots. b. pat jly both contracts and syncopates in the RV.ya-it. sac follow : sa–śc. svap sleep. Thus yaj : 1j (— i-ij) . man think : ma­mn . Eight roots containing the syllables ya. : pet and pa-pt. Four roots with medial a but initial guttural. e. dadh-úr. nam bend. e. The two roots tan str etch and sac follow join this class in the AV. ja–gṛbh and ja-gṛh. A few roots with medial a and penultimate nasal. vap strew. d. Roots ending in ā reduce it to i before consonants and drop it before vowels . as they reduplicate with i or u. dabh harm. rabh grasp. syncopate their vowel : khan dig : ca­khn .tap heat. syncopate the a instead of contracting : jan beget : ja–jñ . su-ṣup. From yaj occurs one form according to the contracting class (2 a) : yej-é. van win : va­vn . g. vas dwell. yat stretch. 2 . skambh prop: ca-skabh ( A Y ) . y em ---. 1 I n the wk.ya-im. ra take 2 Samprasāraṇa : yaj sacrifice. the result is a contraction to ī and ú. 1 1 śap curse. pat fly. dhā place : dadhi-má . drop the latter: krand cry out: ca-krad. yam extend. gam go : ja­gm . c. vac : ūc (— u-uc). ^. grabh and grah seize . I n the first six. taṃs shake: ta-tas . śak be able. g. labh take. vac and vad speak. vah carry. pan admir e : pa­pn . ghas eat : ja­kṣ . va. śak : śek-úr. though conforming to the conditions described above (2 a). Examples are : pat : pet-átur . han smite : ja­ghn. stambh prop: ta-stabh. pac cook. tan str etch : ta­tn . sap serve. perfect of yat and yam the contraction is based on the combination or the full reduplicative syllable and the radical syllable with Samprasāraṇa : yet ----. e.

ACTlvE. cakr. tu­tud­ī. 13S. oa­kr­é [ca­kṛ­yáhe] ca–kr–ā́the ca­kr­ā́ t e ca­kṛ­máhe ca­kṛ­dhvé ca­kr­i­ré 3. [da­dháu] da­dhā́ ­ tha 3. k ṛ do: strong stem ca­kár. da–dh­é 2. ACTIVE. da­dhi. weak cakṛ. 1. 1. AcnvE. tu­tud­má tu­tud­á tu­tud­úr MIDDLE. weak tu­tud. weak da­dh. 1 1. tu­tud­é [tu­tud­váhe] tu­tud­ā́ t he tu­tud­ā́ t e tu­tud­máhe [tu–tud–dhvé] tu­tud­ré 2 2. 2. DUAL. 1. da­dh­é [da­dhi­váhe] da­dh­ā́ t he da­dh­ā́ t e da­dhi­má da–dh­á da­dh­úr M1DDLE. 2. tu­tód­a 1. 1. dha place: strong stem da­dha . ca–kā́r . tu–tud–é 2. ea­kár­tha 3. da­dhi­máhe da­dhi­dhvé da­dhi­ré ^‘ The only example of this form is dadhi­dhvé.138] PARADIGMS OF TH E PERFECT 151 Paradigms of the Reduplicated Perfect. s1NGULAR. [tu­tud­vá] tu­tud­áthur tu­tud­átur PLURAL. tud strike : strong stem tu­tód . 2. ca­kr­é cá­kṛ­ṣé 3. ca­kā́r­a [ca­kṛ­vá] ea–kr–áthur ca­kr­átur ca­kṛ­má ca–kr–á ca­kr­úr M1DDLE. . ca­kár­a 2. da–dhi–sé 3. tu­tut­sé 3.a­dh­átur 1. da­dháu [da­dhi–vá] da­dh­áthur c. 1 Lat. tu–tód–a tu­tód­i­tha 3.

ni­nī­má ni­ny­á ni­ny­úr M1DDLE. tep­é 2. [ni­nī­vá] ni­ny­áthur ni­ny­átur PLURAL. weak ni­nī. stu praise : strong stem tu–ṣṭó. 1. 1. ta­táp­tha 3. tu­ṣṭó­tha 3. tap heat : strong stem ta­táp. nī lead : strong stem ni­né. 1. tu­ṣṭáu . tu­stuv­é [tu­ṣṭu­váhe] tu­ṣṭuv­ā́ t he tu­ṣṭuv­ā́ t e tu­ṣṭu­máhe tu­ṣṭu­dhvé tu–stuv–i–ré 6. ACT1vE. tep­i­ṣé 3. tu­ṣṭā́v­a [tu­ṣṭu­vá] tu­ṣṭuv­áthur tu­ṣṭuv­átur tu­ṣṭu­má tu­ṣṭuv­á tu­ṣṭuv­úr MIDDLE.4. weak tu­ṣṭu. ACTIVE. tep–é [tep­i­váhe] tep­ā́ t he tep–ā́te [tep­i–máhe] [tep­i­dhvé] tep–i–ré . ACTIVE. ni­ny­é [ni­nī­váhe] ni­ny­ā́ t he ni­ny­ā́ t e ni­nī­máhe ni­nī­dhvé ni­nī­ré 5. tu­ṣṭáv­a 2. tu–ṣṭuv­é 2. tu­ṣṭu­ṣé 3. ta­tā́ p ­a [tep­i­vá] tep­áthur tep­átur tep­i­má tep­á tep­úr MIDDLE. ta­tap . 1. ni­né­tha 3. ni­ny­é 2. 1. ni­nā́y­a DUAL. weak tep. s1NGULAR. ni­nái . ta­táp­a 2. ni­nī­ṣé 3. 1. m­nay­a 2.

s1NGULAR. 1. I 3 9 . 4) . ūc­é 2. 1. yam takes Samprasāraṇa of the radical syllable: ya­yā́ m a: yem­é ( = ya­im­e) . [ūc­i–váhe] ūc­ā́the [ūc­ā́te] [ūc­i­máhe^ [ūc­i­dhvé^ ūc­i­ré Irregu1arities. vas retains its radical syllable un weakened throughout: vā­vas­e (cp. van win. u­vák­tha 3. gam go : strong stem ja­gám.). weak ūc. ba­bhaj­a : bhej­é. 1. bandh bind. va­vn­é . ja­gám­a 2. ja­gm–é [ja­gan­yáhe] ja­gm­ā́ t he ja­gm­ā́ t e ja–gan­máhe ja­gm­i­dhvé ja­gm­i­ré 8. 1. 2. van syn­ copates its a : va–vā́n­a. after dropping its nasal. ja­gan­má ja­gm­á ja­gm­úr MIDDLE. ūc­é [ūc­i­vá] ūc­áthur ūc­átur ūc­i­má ūc­á ūc­úr M1DDLE. e. bhaj share. ja­gā́ma DUAL.138-l39] PARADIGMS OF TH E PERFECT 153 7. g. yam guide. u­vā́c . ja­gam . g. ūc­i­ṣé 3. follows the analogy of the contracting perfects with e (137. vas wear have the full reduplica¬ tion throughout (135. ja­gm–i­ṣé 3. ACT1vE. u­vā́c­a 1. 139. 2 a) . e. ba­bándh­a : bedh­úr (Av. though beginning with an aspirate. vac speak : strong stem u­vác. u­vác–a 2. ACT1VE. ja­gán­tha 3. [ja­gan­vá] ja­gm­áthur ja­gm­átur PLURAL. does the same . . weak ja­gm. ja­gm­é 2. 9).

bhṛ bcar almost invariably reduplicates with j in the RV : ja­bhár­tha. ā́t­tha. ān­ṛh­úr .­^a . ci­kā́y­a. 3. pl. ja­bhr­é. ān-aś-á. ja­bhā́ r a. ān­aj­é. ba­bhū­v­i­má. ān­ṛc­úr. s. The two additional forms 2. I. a. 2. ba­bhu–v­úr. 5. ān­ṛdh–é. ja­bhr–úr. skambh­áthur and skambh­úr . arc praise. arh­i­ré. s. vid­úr. 6. ba–bhū–v­á. The initial of ci gather. 2. ardh thrive. ci observe. nind­i­má . bhú be has the double irregularity of reduplicating with a and retaining its ú throughout (cp. s. vid–á. cit perceive. ān-aś-a–dhve. weiss­t). j i conquer. ba–bhū­v­áthur. pl. ān–ás–má. Here the radical nasal is repeated with the initial vowel : s. ān­ṛdh­úr. and pl. ba­bhū́ ­ v­a (Gk. 1. mid. 1. s. . 3. 3. 1. 1 7. 1. s. 3. 3. ān-aś-úr . ān-aś-é . 3. cet­átur . but only once with b : ba­bhr­é. 7r^v­ao^) : sing. 7r^­^v­^a).3. ṃ^^-a) . 3. āh­átur occur in the Brāhmaṇas. 2. weiss) . 2. ji­gā́y­a‚ ja­ghā́n–a. 3. ān­ṛc­é. The analogy spread from these to the roots which have no nasal : pi. hau kill reverts to the original guttural in the radical syllable : 3. I n a Sūtra occurs the 2. ba­bhū́­v­a. véd­a (o^ . Only the first two make several forms. 3. Gk. vid­má (to^u. ja­bhr­i­ṣé‚ ja–bhr–i–ré . act. forming only the 3. vid know forms an unreduplicated perfect with present meaning: 1. mid. A few isolated unreduplicated forms from about six other roots occur: takṣ­áthur. mid. 3. ān–áñja. 3. ān­aj­ré. mid. ba­bhū́ t ha and ba­bhū́ ­ v­i­tha. ha­bhū­v­átur. arh deserve. Five roots beginning with a prosodically long a re­ duplicate with ān : aṃś attain. Du. pi. vét­tha (olo. s. ci–két–a. añj anoint. wissen). : āh­a and āh­úr. du. 2. pf. German weiss). véd­a I know (o7^a. PI. yam­ átur and yam­úr . 3. 2. s. ah say is defective. 4. 3. ān–áṃś–a (Gk.

I4O. of a fem. 8. Here the radical vowel itself is shortened. and they become more frequent i n the regular Brāhmaṇas.) he caused to go (lit. cyu stir reduplicates ci-cyu (beside cu-cyu) and dyut shine similarly di-dyut. śū swell: śū-śu. t u be strong: t ū . b h ū . su. of which only seven or 3 The root śī lie also reduplicates with a i n the part. kḷp be adapted: cā-kḷp . This was due to the vocalic pronunciation of the y : ciu. I n the Mantra portion of the Saṃhitās there once occurs a peri­ phrastic perfect form with the reduplicated perfect of kṛ make govern¬ ing the acc. e. I n about a dozen forms the weak stem is used. kan be pleased : cā-kan . dhī think: dī-dhī . diut. substantive in ā derived from a secondary (causative) verbal stem. I n the Brāhmaṇa parts of the later saṃhitās (TS. act. The reduplicative vowel is lengthened in more than thirty perfect stems . the accentuation of the reduplicating class i n the present system. Hence sah reduplicates either as sā-sah or sa-sāh (in a weak form). Modal forms of the perfect are of rare occurrence in the Sanihitās except the RV. śa–śay–āná. 1 9 3 . gṛ wake : jā-gṛ. s.t u .. Cp.’ a.). The subjunctive is normally formed by adding a to the strong perfect stem accented on the radical syllable. when the primary endings are used the reduplicative syllable is in several forms accented.139-140] IRREGULARITIES OF TH E PERFECT 155 1 sū bring forth has the same peculiarities in sa-sú-v-a.) such periphrastic forms are occasionally met with. Middle forms. This form is gamayā́ ṃ cakāra (AV. g. 1. are the only roots with an i or u vowel that reduplicate with a. 9. These three. In the active the secondary endings are the more usual . the only perfect form of this root occurring. The quantitative form of the stem is subject to the rule that i t may not contain two prosodi¬ cally short vowels (except i n the I. made a causing to go). MS„ K. śī. Moods of the Perfect.

6). vi-vid-a-t (vidfind). 3. pi. 1. PI. ja­gam­ yúr. 139. jú­jos­ a­si (jus enjoy) . 3. The optative is formed by adding the accented modal suffix combined with the endings to the weak perfect stem. 3. s. va­vṛt­yā́s. . va­vṛt­yā́t. ja­ gam­yā́t. 1.g. ta­tán­a­s (tan stretch). pi­práy–a–t. The active forms are much commoner than the middle.. 3 1 a. Du. va–vṛt–yúr. the rest in the 3. 1. 3. Examples are : Act. 2. Pl. 1 I n these three forms the ā of the reduplicative syllable ān is shortened as i f the indicative contained an augment. act. 2. mu-muc-a-t. pi. an­aj­yā́t. 1. 1. 2. ān-aś–yā́m. ta–tán–a-nta (cp. precative form sā­sah–ī–s­ṭhā́s (sah overcome). ja­ghán­a­t (han smite). From aṃś attain. bú-bodh-a-ti.eight occur. Examples are : 1 1 2 Act. I. Du. s. 3. 3. 2. bu­bódh­a­s (budh wake). su-sro-t (sruflow) . va­vṛt­īyá. ja­gam­yā́ m . The injunctive occurs in hardly a dozen forms. jú-joṣ-a-thas. 2. mid. ta-táp-a-te. ju-joṣ-a-tha. mu­muc­a­s (muc release). 2. are almost restricted to the 3. va­vṛt­ī­tá. ja­gam­yā́ t am. mid. Mid. śa-śās (=śa-śās-s: śās order). 2. 2 3 . pi­práy­a­s (prī please) . 1. 6). ci-ket-a-thas. Identical i n form with the unaugmented pluperfect (140. an-ás-āmahai. ci­ket­a­t. ta-tán-ā-ma. dí-deś-a-ti (diś point). 140. ba­bhū­yā́ I . dū-dho–t (dhū shake). ri­ric­yā́ m . a few in the sing. Cp. va­ vṛt­yā́m. jú-joṣ-a-te. s. s. 3. va­vṛt­yā́­ma. 3. s. sing. ta­tán­a­t. Pl. vā­vṛdh­ī­thā́ s . tu­ṣṭáv­a­t (√stu praise). 2. an­aj­ā (añj anoint) . Mid. 6. with the long reduplicative vowel retained. va­vṛt­ī­máhi. e. ba­bhu–yā́s. mú-moc-a–ti . ci­kit­a­s (cit observe). Pl. ta-tán-a-n. There also occurs one mid. 3.

act. dāś-vā́ ṃ s (dāś worship). Mid. the radical syllable being weak except in the 3. which number about twenty. . s. 2. 1^-1^-^. va­vṛd­dhvám. ja­gṛbh­vā́ ṃ s (√grabh). the suffix is nearly always added with the connecting vowel i . s. 3 1 2 3 3 Cp. but vid­vā́ ṃ s (Gk. Gk. ta­sthi­vā́ ṃ s (√sthā). su­ṣup­ vā́ṃs ( √ svap) . ūṣ­i­vā́ ṃ s (vas dwell). are active. with the accent on the suffix. 5. 2. ^–1^-r^ (1^ śru hear).’ mu­mók­tu. in the active form. śa-śā-dhi (√śās). Pl. 3. tepāná (√tap). ba–bhū–vā́ṃs (Gk. mumug–dhí (√muc). Examples are : Act. ji­gī­vā́ ṃ s ( √ji). bhej-āná (√bhaj). as eakṛ­vā́ ṃ s. I t is formed from the weak perfect stem. ri­rik­vā́ ṃ s (√ric). di-diḍ-ḍhí (√diś). papt­i–vā́ ṃ s (Gk. PI.. 7). Mid. The imperative perfect is formed like that of the present reduplicating class. Both active and middle forms of the perfect participle are common. 2. e.l40] PERFECT OP TATIvE 157 4. sāh­vā́ ṃ s (√ sah). 2. jū­ju­vā́ ṃ s3 (√jū). 7r^7rr­a^). the stem is reduced to a monosyllable. vā­vṛdh­vā́ ṃ s. 2. pa-spaś-āná (√spaś). di–diṣ–ṭana (√ diś). īj-āná (√ yaj). ān­aj­aná ( √añj). Examples are : Act. with ū unchanged as i n strong forms elsewhere (139. 2. īy­i­vā́ ṃ s (√i). va­vṛk­tam (vṛj twist). 1 Participle. cakr­āṇá. If. va­vṛt­tana. ja-gm-āná (√gam). ba­bhū́ ­ tu. va­vṛt­ vā́ṃs. W i t h long reduplicative vowel. pl. ja­gan­vā́ ṃ s (√gam). ci-kid-dhí (√cit). ān-aś-āná (√ aṃś). but not when the stem is unreduplicated . mu­muk­tam. ^ ­ ^ ) . 7r^v­á^). g. Du. ti-stir-āṇá (√stṝ). sā­sah­vā́ ṃ s. va­vṛt­svá. where it is strong. ūc-āná (√vac). s. Nearly all the forms occurring.

si-ṣmiy–āṇá (√smi). á-viveś-ī-s (√ viś). mu-muk-tam. Pluperfect. 2. tastambh-a-t. PI. The secondary endings only are used . á–tuṣṭav-am. with reversion of the palatal to original guttural. á-jagrabh-ī–t . and 3. didiṣ-ṭa(√diś). á-mu-muk-tam . I t is an 1 Two forms take ran only instead of iran. ciket-am (√cit). s. á-cikit-a-t and á-ciket-a-t . g. There are also several forms made with thematic a in this tense. are in some forms preserved by an interposed ī. 1. 2. I. e. á-cucyav-ī-tana. and ending ram for ran. s. Mid. 2 Aorist. dá-dhṛṣ-a-nta. 3. na-nam-a–s . cakṛp-á-nta. 3. Examples are : Act. á-śuśrav-i. The strong stem is used in the singular active. vā-vṛdh-āná. The augment is often dropped. seh-āná (√sah). 2. ā–jagan ( = á-jagam-s) . á-cakr– iran. á-sasṛg-ram (√sṛj). 141. á-jagan (=á-jagam-t). 2 . the weak elsewhere. This tense is of very common occurrence in the Vedas.yem-aná (√yam). su-ṣup-āṇá (√svap). 3. śa-śay-āná (√śī). p l ur always appears in the active and iran in the middle. There are also several transfer forms as from a stems . á-cacakṣ-am. as in other past tenses. a-ciket ( √ cit) . Du. á-jagm-iran. á-cucyav-ur. á-vāvaś-ī1 tām (vaś desire). śi-śriyāṇá (√śri). á-vavṛt-ran. The total number of pluperfect forms occurring is about sixty. á-pec-iran. á–titviṣ–a-nta. á-jagan-ta . s. 3. cakar-am. 3. á-jagrabh-am. being formed from more that 450 roots. 6. The s and t of the 2. rā-ran ( = rāran-t : ran rejoice) . There are also several transfer forms in anta. in the 3. Pl. Corresponding to the imperfect there is an augmented form of the perfect called the pluperfect.

with or without an added a. and in the mid. diś point. budh wake. 1 2 yaj sacrifice. Upwards of 50 roots take more than one form. ^-^t^. I t is distinguished from the imperfect by having no corresponding present and by difference of meaning. ṣ. is sometimes dropped. pis crush. druh be hostile. a. between the root and the endings. I t is taken by over 250 roots. The augment. The stem of the first form is made by adding to the augmented root the suffix sa. First Aorist. l i h lick. One verb. the sá being accented in unaugmented forms. ruh ascend. and three of the second. I t is taken by more than 200 roots. The stem of this aorist therefore always ends i n kṣa. mṛś and spṛś touch . only the 3. There are two types of aorist. with altogether fewer than a dozen forms. m i h mingere. and i n s. viś enter. ś. dṛś see. There are four forms of the first Aorist. taking the secondary endings and forming moods and participles. vṛj twist . are met with. u. duh milk. I t is taken in the Saṃhitās by only ten roots containing one of the vowels i . has forms from five varieties of this tense. as in other past tenses. The only moods occurring are the injunctive and the imperative. vṛh tear . or h. Lat. and en ding •in one of the consonants j . guh hide. I t isinflectedlike an imperfect of the sixth or á class of the first conjugation. This form of the aorist corresponds to the Greek First Aorist (e. ṛ. I n the indicative no dual forms are found . and pi. 1 2 . The second aorist adds the endings to the simple or the reduplicated root either directly or with tile connecting vowel a. dih smear.AORIST 141] 159 augmented tense. The first or sigmatic aorist is formed by inserting s. kruś cry out. I n B. nine additional roots take the sa aorist : kṛṣ drag. s. all of which phonetically become k before s. g. dviṣ hate . dixi-t). These roots are : mṛj wipe.

ádukṣat and ádhuk¬ ṣat. In the injunctive only the following forms occur : Act. In addition to the indicative it forms all the moods and a participle. taken together. 1. árukṣāma. ámṛkṣat (√mṛś). dvikṣáta. 2.). 3. is. dhukṣásva. . PI. mṛkṣás (√mṛś). excepting final ī̆ and u (which take Guṇa) the radical vowel remains un­ 1 On these forms without initial aspiration cp. s. s­iṣ respectively. being formed from nearly 300 roots in V. Act. ámṛkṣanta (√ mṛj). PI. dukṣáta and dhukṣáta. The other three forms of the First Aorist are made by adding to the augmented root the suffixes s. dukṣás. Pl. s.Indicative. 3. The other two are very common. dhukṣánta. 3. 143. ádrukṣas (B. s. mṛkṣata ( √ mṛś). and B. In the imperative only three forms occur : Act. Pl. I n the middle. The sis form is used in the act. 142. 2. s. 1. s. only (excepting three optative forms) and is taken by not more than six roots. 2. 62a. ádhukṣata . ávṛkṣam. 3. ádhukṣan. Mid. yakṣátām. 3. ághukṣat. mṛkṣátam (√mṛj). Mid. ámṛkṣā¬ ma (√mṛj). ádhukṣas. du. 1 1 1 1 1 Second or s form. árukṣat. Indicative. dukṣan and dhukṣan. 3. dukṣata and dhukṣata. They are inflected like imperfects of the second or graded conjugation. 2. 1. dvikṣát. áspṛkṣat. This form of the aorist is taken by at least 135 roots in V. 3. ákrukṣat. 2. 3. and B. Mid. The radical vowel as a rule takes Vṛddhi (a being lengthened) in the active.

á-sto-ṣ-mahi. á-sto–ṣ-ṭhās. invariably ends in ur. á-sto-ḍhvam (66 B 2 b). s1NGULAR. e. a-sto-ṣ-I. á-naik-ṣ-ī-t (nij wash). is inflected as follows : Sing.g. The A v . act. disappear and the tense sign also. [á-sto-ṣ-āthām]. á-bud-dha (62 b) á-bhut-s-ātām PLURAL. The only point in which the inflexion differs from that of the imperfect of the graded conjugation is that the 3. as exemplified by a root ending in u. Du. however. DUAL. á-har — á-har-s-t. and from budh wake in the middle. stu praise. 2. and K. [á-bhārṣ-va] á-bhārṣ-ṭam á–bhārs–tām PLURAL. have no forms with the inserted ī . 1.143] FIRST AORIST 161 changed. á-bhār-ṣ-am 2. 2.. if made from bhṛ bear in the active. thus preserving both the latter and the s of the tense stem . g. insert a connecting ī before these endings. á-bhār 3. 1. 1. unless the root ends in a vowel . also bhais (√bhī) = bhais­s. the chief forms without i t are adrāk (dṛś see) and ayāṭ (yaj sacrifice) . the endings s and t of the 2. pl. á-bud-dhas (62 b) á-bhut-s-athām 3. The forms of the indicative actually occurring would. 3. 2. 3. e. while i n B. 3. á-bhut-s-mahi á-bhud-dhvam (62 a) á-bhut-s-ata The middle voice. be as follows : 1 ACTIVE. I n the active. [á-sto-ṣ-vahi]. á-bhārṣ-ma á-bhārṣ-ṭa á-bhār-ṣ-ur M1DDLE. á-sto-ṣ-ātām. á–sto– ṣ-ata. but á-hā-s = á–hā–s–t. s1NGULAR. á–bhār DUAL. and TS. 1. less often than not. s. which while losing the s ending pre­ serves the appearance of a 2. 1. 1 The RV. 3. Pl. á–bhut-s-i (62 a) [á-bhut–s–vahi] 2. sing. . á–sto-ṣ–ṭa.

or lengthen the radical vowel. The subjunctive is common in the RV. 1. stó­ṣ­a­t. act. stó­ṣ­a­tas. Mid. The root regularly takes Guṇa throughout (active and middle). 1. as ye­ṣ­am (yā go). stó–ṣ–a–nte. Iṇjunctive forms are fairly common. dar­ṣ­ī­ṣ­ṭa (dṛ tear). ge­ṣ­am (gā go). 3. Anusvāra for n (66 A 2). stó­ṣ­a­s. 2. 2. Du. 3. 3. s. 2 4 5 . 3. The optative occurs in the middle only. 5c. 3. sāk­ṣ­īyá (Av). stó­ṣ­āṇi. The forms occurring. always having the precative s (with one exception). similarly dhi­ṣ­īya ( √ d h ā ) in B. But the sing. 3. as yū­ṣ­am (yu separate) . 2. stó­ṣ­āthe (for stó­ṣ­aithe). sing. in active forms. as sto­ṣ­am. stó­ṣ­a­te. 2. Du. mṛk­ṣ­ī­ṣ­ṭa (mṛc injure). 3. PI. 4. stó­ṣ­ai.1 2. 2. but not in the middle. muk­ṣ­īyá (muc release). or substitute e for ā in roots ending in ā. The primary endings are frequent. sthe­ṣ­am (sthā stand). maṃ­s­ī­ṣ­ṭa. 1. 3 W i t h an reduced to a ( sonant nasal). stó­ ṣ–a–ti. beside the normal yau­ṣ­ma (yu separate). PI. except yakṣ­a­t ( √ yaj) and vakṣ­a­t (√vah). 2. When normal they are of course identical with the unaugmented indicative. 1. ma­s­īyá (man think). 3. rā­s­īyá (rā give). From sah overcome. 1. 2. stó­ṣ–ā–ma. The forms actually occurring are : Sing. di­ṣ­1yá (dā cut). stó­ṣ­a­se. The latter irregularity also appears in pl. stṛ­ṣ­īyá (stṝ strew). 2 3 4 3 1 subjunctives of this aor. bhak­ṣ­īyá (bhaj divide). with radical vowel lengthened. stó­ṣ­a­tnas. maṃ­ s­ī­ṣ­ṭhā́s^ (man think). i f made from stu praise. de­ṣ­ma (dā give). bhak­ṣ­ īta (SY). ^ Without the precative s. would be : Act. W i t h radical ā reduced to i : cp. Du. 1 : je­ṣ­ma‚ ge­ṣ­ma. stó­ṣ­a­n. the 2. je­ṣ­am (√ji). stó­ṣ­a­si. is irregular in never taking Vṛddhi : all the forms of it that occur either have Guṇa. are very rare i n B. stó­ṣ­a­tha. sing.

vaṃ­s­ī–máhi (√van). 2. maṃ­ s–īrata. The AV. du. 6. sā́k­ṣva (√sah). Mid. 1. á­yā­s (— a­yaj­s­s) beside the phonetically regular form of the 3. á­yāṭ ( = á–yaj–s–t). the aor. yam­a­s­āná being driven. I n an Upaniṣad the 2. Only six imperative forms occur. and four of these are transfers (with thematic a). Only two or three forms of the active participle occur : dák­ṣ­at and dhák­ṣ­at (dah burn). irregularly formed by adding s to the root with an intermediate a and taking the regular ending āna. see 66 B 1. The RV. e. ne­ṣ­a (nī lead) and par­ṣ­a (pṛ take across). 1 2 2 4 5 . sak­ṣ­ī­ máhi (sac follow). mand­a­s­āná rejoicing. srā­s (=sraj­s­s: √sṛj). (a) final radical n (as well as m) becomes Anusvāra (66 A 2). Before the Suffix s. rā­s­a­ntām. 62 a and 156 a. They are: Act.) thou hast dwelt and á­vāt (— á­vas­s­t) has shone ( A v ) . vaṃ­s­ī­máhi and va­s­ī­máhi (van win). PI. 3. s.MOODS OF TH E S AORIST 143­144] 163 1 trā́ ­ s­ī­thām (tra protect). s. bhak­ṣ­ī­máhi. as á­maṃ­s­ata (√ man). W i t h Anusvāra for n (66 A 2). Without initial aspiration : cp. rā­s­a­tām. s. 3. s. Du. About a dozen stems. suffix s having been lost without affecting the radical s. 2. 5. has three or four examples of this : s. 144. appears as á-vās–tam. 2. rā­s­āthām. 2 3 4 Irregularities of the s form. W i t h an reduced to a ( = sonant nasal). in 2. s. 3. 3. 2. á-śrai-t (— á-śrai-s-t : For trā-s-īyāthām. PI. maṃ­s­ī­ máhi. 2. sák­ṣ­at (√sah). may be accounted middle s aorist participles . 1. 3. has one example of an incipient tendency to preserve the s and t of the 2. dhuk­ṣ­ī­máhi (duh milk). (b) s becomes t in the verb vas dwell and possibly also in vas shine: á­vāt­s­ī­s^ (AV. g.

2 1 1 But the t may i n this instance represent the changed final radical s : 144. After a consonant other than n. There are a few additional examples in B. 1 (b). ind. 3. g. á–tān (tan stretch). The later Saṃhitās here frequently preserve these endings by inserting ī before them: s. The ending dhvam (before which the s of the aor. á­svār (svar sound). sāk­ṣ­īya. á–hār (hṛ take). (b) both the tense­sign s and the ending t are lost : á–krān (krand cry out). á-śvait (śvit be bright). man. ā́­raik (ric leave). bhai­ṣ­ī­t (√bhī). á­yān (yam guide). hvār–ṣ­ī­t (√hvar). á­bhār (bhṛ).: s. ma­s­īyá. 2. r the tense sign s is dropped before t. á­naik­ṣ­ī­t (√nij). á­hai­t (=á­hai­s­t: √hi). m. á­srāk. sāk­ṣ­i . á­kṣār (kṣar flow). acait (√ci). tāp–s–ī­t (√tap). a. : ajait (beside ajais an^ajaiṣīt : √ji) . act. and dh . á­syān (syand move on). The roots dā give and dā cut reduce the radical vowel to i in á­di­ṣ­i. sāk­ṣ­ ā m a . á­cait (cit perceive). 4. di­ṣ–īyá . 2. 2. And even the final consonant of the root when there are two (28). á­bhak­ta (beside á­bhak­ṣ­i) . á­vāt (vas shine). á­raut (rudh obstruct). nait (√nī). á–hā­s . á­dyaut (dyut shine). The roots sṛj emit and pṛc mix take metathesis in the act. á­tsār (tsar approach stealthily). á–tāṃ–s–ī­t (√tan). hā­s­ī­t. á­dhāk (dah burn). á­srāṣ­ṭam.1 √śri). va­s–ī­máhi (beside vaṃ­s­ī­máhi) . á­rāt­s­ī­s (√rādh). á­vā­t (— a­vas­s­t: vas shine). á­prā­s. gam. 6. á–vāt­s­ī­s (vas dwell). 2 . á­srāk (sṛj emit). 5. á^yāṭ (yaj sacrifice). sā́k­ṣva. van lose their nasal in á­ga­smahi. á­prāṭ (prach ask). e. á­prāk (pṛc mix). á–muk–thās (beside á­muk­ṣ­i). th. in which (a) the ending t is lost: á–jai­s (√ji). vāk­ṣ­ī­t (√vah). á–vāṭ (vah convey). Du. s. The following are the forms occurring in the 3. 3. is lost) becomes ḍnvam when the s would have been cerebralized (66^B 2) : á­sto­ ḍhvam ( = á­sto­z­ḍhvam) is the only example. á–prāk. 3. á­chān (chand seem). while sah lengthens its vowel in á–sāk–ṣ–i. srā­s ( = srāk).

3. á–kram–iṣ–am. 3. I t differs from the s aorist merely in adding the s with the connecting vowel i . Middle forms are not common and very few occur except in the 2. á­kram­iṣ­i. 3. sing. They occur most frequently in the 2. Pl. yā́ c ­iṣ­ā­mahe. s. 2. Injunctive are commoner than subjunctive forms. á­kram­iṣ­ṭam. 1. 3. á­kram­ iṣ­ṭa. 3. 3. á­kram­iṣ­ata. sing. Mid. 145. The radical vowel as a rule takes Guṇa throughout . end in is ( = iṣ­s) and i t (— is­t). but in the active a final vowel takes vṛddhi and a medial vowel is sometimes lengthened. śáṃs-iṣ-am (śaṃs praise). Examples are : Act. 3. 1. sán­iṣ­a­nta. sing. Pl. dáv­iṣ­āṇi. Du. s. 3. rā́ d h­iṣ­i (rādh succeed). Pl. About 145 roots take this aorist in v and B. márṣ­iṣ­thas . áv­is (av favour). 3. 1. vádh­iṣ­ṭa and vádh­iṣ­ṭana. 3. á­kram­iṣ­ātām. márdh­ iṣ–ṭam (mṛdh neglect). á­kram­iṣ­ma. sán­iṣ­a­n. s. if made from kram stride. śrám­iṣ­ma. Pl. Mid. 3. sing. sing. sā́v­is (sū generate). Mid. 2. 2. act. Subjunctive forms are rare except in the 2. and plur. Examples are : Act. which changes it to ṣ (67). 1. Indicative. 1. tā́riṣ­ṭam. 3. 2. Du. 1. 1. 2. áś-it (aś eat). á­kram­it. 2. á­kram­ iṣ­ur. The endings are the same as those of the s aorist except that the 2. 3. Du. but no participle. áv­iṣ­a­s. 3. 2. pl. tā́r­is (tṝ cross). á­kram­iṣ­ṭhās.145] IS AORIST Third or i ṣ form. á­kram­is. 3. kā́r­ iṣ–a–t. The normal forms occurring. jār–iṣ­ur (jṝ waste away). 2. sing. 1. 1. 3. tā́ r ­it. would be: Act. kā́n­iṣ­a­s. yódh–is (yudh fight). bódh­iṣ­a­t. This aorist has all the moods.

stan thunder. 4. of gam and ruc shine : gm­iṣ­īyá and ruc­is­īyá. 2. gā́­siṣ­a­t. van win. or m. hvā call. īt. ran rejoice. 3. Du. á­yā­siṣ­ur. svan sound. tār­iṣ­ ī­máhi. 2. c. while the radical syllable appears i n a reduced or unstrengthened form in the opt. gā sing. 3. sah prevail. PI. Subjunctive. Pl. doubtless owing to the analogy of the 2. 1. Optative forms arc rare. av­iṣ­ṭu. take this aorist. and vadh-īm. car move. vyáth­iṣ­ mahi (vyath waver). Sing. The total number of forms occurring is under twenty . av­iṣ­ṭám. Du. also occurs dhyā think. 1. 3. in īs. mod­iṣ–ī–ṣ­thā́s (mud rejoice). I n B. das waste. the ending im appears instead of iṣ­am in the three forms á­kram­īm. ind. Examples are : Sing. PI. Sing. 5. 3. á­yā­siṣ­am. á–gā­siṣ­ur. hā leave. jñā know. edh­iṣ­īyá (edh thrive). san gain. take the precative s. á­yā­siṣ­ ṭām. The radical medial a is lengthened in kan enjoy. 1. s. and middle forms are found in the optative only. 1. The root grabh seize takes the connecting vowel ī (as i t does i n other verbal forms) instead of i . 3. 1. The forms occurring are : 1. is also found a­grah–aiṣ­am (√grah). s. yā́­sīṣ­a­t. av­iḍ­ḍhí. 3. á­yā­siṣ­ṭa. PI. . b. I46. mad exhilarate. Du. Only seven verbs 1 ending in a‚ n. sah­iṣ­ī­váhi. occurring in the active only. s. Imperative forms are rare. jan­iṣ–ī–ṣ–ṭá. 1 I n B. pyā fill up. 2. besides forms in s­īt from drā sleep. 2. Indicative. á–grabh­īm. 1. 3. 2. mid. This form differs from the preceding one simply in prefixing an additional s to the suffix. The 2. occurring in the middle only.166 CONJUGATION [145—146 (mṛṣ not heed). 3. av­ iṣ­ṭā́m. Sing. páv­iṣ­ṭa (pú purify). a. ram rejoice. I n s. av­iṣ­ṭána. 2. vā blow. and optionally i n vad speak. 3. act. as á­grabh–īṣ­ma. yā go. Fourth or siṣ form.

Pl. 4. Mid.. ávidāma.­am. 1. yā­siṣ­ṭám. 1 . The first form is like an imperfect of the accented á class (125. ávidanta. 2. 2. vidā́s. the terminations being added with or without the connecting vowel a. Mid. 3. vidā́ t has. vidā́t. 3. if made from vid find. 2. W i t h 1 for i . ávidāvahi. 3. hā­siṣ­ṭām. show forms with Guṇa (147 a 2 and c). vidā́ t i. 3. The optative is rare in V. 2. 3. 3. 1. 1. 3. Pl. This aorist resembles an imperfect formed directly from the root. yā­sīṣ­ṭá. Optative. but not infrequent in B. 1. ávidetām. in v. 2). 2. Du. Pl. vidā́te. the stem being formed by adding a to the un­ modified root. ávidata. however. The subjunctive forms from the same root would be : Act. Du. 2. vidám. Pl. 3. ávidāmahI. 2 . vidā́ m ahi. 2. vidā́si. 1. together. vidā́va. vidáta. 1.^ I t corresponds to the second aorist of the first conjugation in Greek. ávidathās. 1. Injunctive. 3. Indicative. 3 Three roots with ṛ. 1. 1. 2. sing. raṃ­siṣ. Mid. 2. Pl. and B. pyā–siṣ–ī–mahi. Du. 1. 3. chiefly with a medial vowel. 147. Sing. sing. vid– ā́tha. hā­siṣ­ṭa. vidā́ma. vidát. Du. 1. 3. 5. ávidan.­ Second Aorist. sing. ávidas. 3. sing. Pl. vidā́ t hana. yā­siṣ­ī­ṣ­ṭhā́ s . 2. 4. ávidam. 2. 3. 1. vidán. I t is taken. ávidata. 2. sing. 2. 1 W i t h precative s. Du. 1. vaṃ­siṣ­īyá. vidánta. 3. āvidāva. Pl. Sing. ávidat. 3. vidás. hā­siṣ­ur. The forms actually occurring would. Pl. ávide. The injunctive forms from vid would be : Act. 1. vidā́tas. by nearly eighty roots. hā­siṣ­ṭam. be as follows : ^ Act. Pl. Middle forms are rare. sing.l46—147] SIS FORM OF TH E FIRST AORIST 167 1 3. Imperative. vidā́ m ahe.

This form of the simple aorist is taken by about 100 roots in v. 1. There also occurs one precative form. taṃs shake. radham . the commonest being those with medial a (about 30). 3. á–gam–a–n. opt. sadadhvam.). á­hva­t. e. 1. 1. Those made by sad sit are : Sing. bhraṃś fall. sing. g. The root takes Gnṇa in ṛ go. śiṣánt. taking active and middle together. 1. Second Form. vidéya.). inj. tṛp-ánt. sing. 1. vyā envelope. kradas . 2. vidémahi. 2. 3. occur : e. p l . vidés.g. dā give. 1. sadátana. Irregularities. dṛśéyam. vidét. subj. The root is reduced by the loss of its nasal i n krand cry out. s. sṛjlow . Mid. g. 3. inj. 2. e. dṛśéma). khyā see. dṛś see.) and dha­t. 5. dhāput. 3. vidéma. pi. 2. c. pi. á­vya­t. dhvaṃs scatter. retaining the strong radical vowel : á-kar-a-t. Du. chiefly by reducing the radical syllable. s. but pi. pl. dárś-am (s. I t corresponds to . 2. 14S. in the forms ā́­da­t . Rather more than a dozen examples of the participle. and about 25 others in B. Pl. vidéṣṭa (AV. 3. k ṛ make and gam go form a few transfers from the root class i n the Av. Mid. śucámāna. e. sadántu. á­dha­t (Sv.I t is almost restricted to the active. á-gam-a-t. a.. Imperative forms are rare and almost restricted to the active. 1. s. dhvasán . PI.) . 3. hvā call shorten their ā to a : á­khya­t. sadáta. sadátam. pari. śās order shortens ā to i . ind. bhraśat. 3. 3. dṛśán. g.. radhāma . 1. mid. PI. s. sadátu. stha stand occasionally do the same. sadátām. śueánt . pl. 2. 2. 6. 1. ā́­stha­t (Av. Several roots form transfer stems according to this instead of the root form.. Root Aorist. 3. sadantām. randh make subject. átasat. sing.. 3. sárat (unaugmented 3.). The forms from vid would be : Act. b. inj. sing. guhámāna. sraṃsfall. i n j . sadá. vidéyam. ár-anta (unaug¬ mented 3. śíṣat.

. á-kṛdhvam. 2. in which l W i t h split ū . á-sthā-ma (^rṃp^u). á–sthā–ta. Du. ram as well as ran is taken by three roots. 1. á-sthā-tam. 1. 1. á-kṛ-vahi. á-kar-am. Du. Roots in ṛ take Guṇa throughout the ind. pl. 3. Du. act. c. but weak elsewhere. 2. sing. á-kar. pl. 3. á-bhū-ta and á–bhū-tana. Pl. 3. however. 3. would be : Act. á–kar-ta. 3. á-sthi–mahi. act. 2. á-sthā-tām. á–kar–tam. á-kr-ata. I n the 3. 2. if made from sthā. I t is inflected in both active and middle.’ 2. 2. á-bhuv-am. except in 3. Indicative. bhū be retains its ū throughout (as in the perfect). á-sthi-ta. á-bhu-v-an. 3. 1. 3. á-sthi-thās (^rá-0^). 1. á-sthi-ran. a. á-kr-i. á–bhū–tām. 3. act. Mid. á-kar. 1. the ending ran is more than twice as common as ata . 3. PI. 2. á–bhū–s. 2. Du. i n the later language a-bhūv-am. sing. á-kar-tām. d. á-kṛ-thās. 1. á-kṛ-mahi. b. Mid. The root is strong in the sing. The forms occurring from roots ending in a. Those ending in ā regularly retain that vowel throughout the ind. 2. 3. sing. 2. 2. s. 3. á-sth-ur. 3. mid. Roots ending in vowels. sing. 1. act. interposing v between it and a following a : Act. except the 3. á-kṛ-ta. 3. á-bhū-tam. á-kar-ma. á-sthā-t (^-o^). 3. 1. which is always the ending in these verbs. Pl. á-bhū-ma (^v-^u). á–kr–an. á–kṛ–tām. Pl. á-sthā-s. Pl. 3. 2. pl. 1.148] ROOT AORIST 169 the second aorist of the second conjugation in Greek. tend to retain the strong vowel throughout the active except the 3. pl. á-sthā-m (^-o. The forms from kṛ would be : Act.. 1. where it is dropped before ur. The following are forms of the 2.rṃ^). á-bhū-t (^-^v).

but in the 2. á­budh­ram. f Final ā is in the mid. s. ā́­var (vṛ cover). á­gan. s. 3. ind. á­ghas. and before m also to ī . á-pad-ran. I n the 3. roots with medial a are syncopated : á­kṣ­an (=á­ghas­an). á­dar (dṛ pierce). á-viś-ran. g. mid. 1. á­tan. 3. á­vart (vṛt turn). pl.^ á-sthi-ran. á­dhi­mahi (TS. The forms taking ran in 3. 3.). h.^ á­ghas. For ā́­naś-t. For ā́­vas–s. e. pi.) and á­dī­mahi (VS. á-dṛś-ran. á–spṛdh-ran . du. á­sṛg–ram. á-vas-ran (vas shine). 3 For á­kram­t. á­ga­ta. ā́­var (vṛ eover). á­dhī­mahi. á-yuj-ran. 3. á­jus­ran. act. 2. with ram : á–dṛś-ram. á­gm­an (=á­gam­an). pl. without augment : vark (vṛj twist). 1 2 4 7 5 6 . á­ma­ta (but 1. pl. and mid. ā́r­ata. á–spar (spṛ win) . For skand-t. á­bhrāṭ (bhrāj shine). á­kar. á­gan ( = á­gam­s). e. are : á­kṛp­ran. skan (skand leap). á­di­thās. and loss of aspiration. á­kar‚ á­kran (kram stride). I n the 3. ā́­vas (vas shine). á­gan­mahi). á-sṛg-ran. with lengthened augment : ā́­naṭ (naś attain). mid. the phonetic result of which should have been ā́­nak (63b). while ṛ go takes Guṇa: ár­ta (unaugmented) and ār­ta (^p­ro). ind.the endings s and t are lost : 2. á­gṛbh­ran. á­dhi­ta ( ^ ­ r o ) . á-budh-ran. loss of s between consonants (66 B 2 a) gh-ta. á-vṛt-ran. á­sthi­thās. By syncopation gh-s-ta .^ 1 2 3 4 3 9 For ā́­naś-s. ā­vas­t. á­gam­t. reduced to i . These forms have by an oversight been omitted i n ^ 499 of my Vedic arammar. á­cet (cit observe). á­var (vṛ cover). with lengthened augment: ā́­naṭ. g. gan­vahi. For varj-t. á­mok (1nuc release). á­star . ā́­vas^ (vas shine) . á­myak (myakṣ be situated). á­gm­ata ( = á­gam­ata). which is thrown forward on the t and renders i t sonant (62 b). they lose their nasal: á­ga­thas. 3 W i t h reversion to the original guttural. á­tn­ata ( = á­tan­ata) . Pl. ghas is reduced to g : gdha (=ghas­ta)^. á­bhet (bhid pierce).

3. 1.148] MOODS OF TH E ROOT AORIST 171 2. rok (ruj break). bhū-ma . dagh-ma. vik-ta (vij tremble). nearly sixty forms of it being met with. kar­am. Mid. 1. vṛj­yā́m. W i t h strong radical vowel. sing. sing. sing. je–s. 1 2 3 4 5 6 . kár­a­ti and kár­a­t. form ṛdh–āthe. 3. ṛdh­yā́ m a. however. ched-ma. nearly 100 forms being met with. kár­a­tas. nak and naṭ (naś attain). 2. dhī–mahi (dhā put). ṛdh­yā́ s . mṛ­thā́s (mṛ die). ar­ta (ṛ go). 6 The root is weak i n the isolated forms ṛ́dh–a­t. kárā and kár­āṇi. aś-ī-máhi. aś-īyá. 3. kár­a­mahe and kár–ā–mahai. 3. bhé-s (bhī fear). 3. bhū­yā́ m a. kár­anti. aś-yā́s. 3. darś-am. 147 c. PL 1. jñe­yā́ s . 3. 1. s. rik­ thās (ric leave). has no forms of the 3. sthe­yā́ m a. 2. 1. Du. mṛṣ–ṭhās (mṛṣ neglect). 1. PI. dhe-yúr. More than forty optative forms are met with. ar-ī-tá (ṛ go). 2. kár­a­se. Mid. sing. kár­a­n. bhūv-an. sing. bhuv­a­t. sing. The subjunctive is common. 3. bhet (bhid split). śrúv-a-t. 1. kár­ā­ma. aś-yúr (aś attain). 3. gam­yā́s. The forms occurring. 3. PI. The weak root appears once i n the form idh-a-té. 1 2 3 4 5 9 3. be an irregular a aorist : cp. For dagh-s. if made from kṛ‚ would be : Act. 3. ho-ma (hū call). idh-ī-máhi (idh kindle). śre-t (√śri). dhak (dagh reach). 1. I . 4. du. Pl. aś-yā́ma. PI. bhū­yā́ t (AV. naṃś-i (naṃś = naś attain). aṣ­ṭa (aś attain). 1. The injunctive is fairly frequent. bhuv–am. 2. kár­anta. vr-an (vṛ cover) . The weak root also appears once i n the 2.). bhū­yā́ s . Examples are : Act. bhoj-am. kri­yā́ m a. kár­a­te. PI. aś-yām (aś obtain). vṛ-ta (vṛ choose). bhū-s. bhū-t. The RV. kram­ur‚ dur (dā give). de­yā́m (da give). 1. 2. kár­a­si and kár­a­s. Mid. nut–thās (nud push). but only precatives i n vas ( = yās-t). naś-ī-máhi (naś reach). in yāt. dh­úr (dhā put). kár­a­thas. 2. This may. Examples are : Act.

kár-tana. yán­ta. Pl. which is then usually accented. ṛdh­ánt. bhu­yā́stam. śró–tu. 3. vo-ḷhám (vah carry). kṛ-tám and kar-tam (Av). 2. bo­dhí. Pl. bhū­yā́ s am. pe­yā́s (pā drink). gán­tu (gam go). pā­tam. yó­dhi (yudh fight). Over ninety forms of the imperative occur. Du. dṛ́ ś -āna and dṛś-aná. 1. bhū­yā́s. 2. kr­ánt. aś–yā́s ( = aś-yā́s­t). ar­āṇá. dhāntu. dhā́ ­ tu‚ bhu. kri­yā́ s ma. dhak-tam (dagh reach). yák­ṣva (yaj sacrifice). 5. gm­ánt. but nearly forty in the middle.a. sthā́ n t. persons act. kṛ­dhvam‚ vo­ḍhvam. vo­ḷhā́m. s. 1 2 1 Formed from both bhu be (for bhu­dhí) and budh awake (for bód­dhi instead of bud­dhí). 3. ma­hi (mā measure). 2. Mid. 2. 2 . bhū­tá. gán-tana. PI. śubh-āná and śum-bhāná‚ suv­āná (always to be pronounced svāná) and sv–āná (SV). yuk­ṣvá (yuj join) . dā-tam. gan­tām. Du. Examples are : Act. rā́­sva‚ váṃ­sva (van win). kṛ–ṣvá‚ dhi­ṣvá (dhā put). budh-āná. bhū-tám. 3. śruv-antu. 2. sák­ṣva (sac follow). all but about twelve being active. ga-tám and gan-tám. Mid. 2. śru-ta and śró-ta . sā–hi (sā bind). kṛ­dhí‚ ga­dhí (gam). Examples are : Act. gam­ yā́s. 2. bhiy-āná. kṛ­ta and kár–ta. For ynd­dhf (through y5d­dhi). 3. Examples are : Act. śag-dhí (śak be able) . ga­ta and gán­ta. dhā–tana. var-tam (vṛ cover). Mid. bhū­yā́sta. 1. all of which except two are active. bhū-tana. accented on the root : mát­sva. vr-āṇá (vṛ cover). sing. pad­ī­ṣ­ṭa. idh­āná. 6. gám-antu. muc­ī­ṣ­ṭa. pūr­dhí (pṝfill). s. s. 3. dagh­yā́ s . have a strong root.­tu. There are also about thirty precative forms (made from about twenty roots in the Saṃhitās). kr­āṇá. śru–tám. Of the participle only seven or eight examples occur in the active. Several forms in the 2. ga­hí (gam go).

The vowel of the reduplicative syllable. 3. randh subject. ájījanāma. is lengthened. if the radical vowel is (or is made) prosodically short. 2. in krand cry out. syand flow. by dropping the nasal. sādh succeed. 2). The character¬ istic feature of this aorist is the almost invariable quantitative sequence of a long reduplicative and a short radical vowel (— . ájījanata. ájījananta. A medial radical vowel remains unchanged or is weakened. 2. A l l the moods occur. 1. ájījanat. unless already long by position. be as follows : Act. ájījanan. it has come to be connected with the causative in sense. ájījanata. With this view the radical vowel is shortened in vāś bellow. ḷ are represented in the reduplicative syllable by i . 3. s. Mid. 149. b. a. s. ū̆. 3. the reduplicative vowel (unless it becomes long by position) is lengthened. I n order to bring about this rhythm. Special Rules of Reduplication. 2. 1. i . sraṃs fall. . if made from jan beget. Du. 3. having a causative meaning when the corresponding verb in aya has that meaning. But about a dozen roots ending in vowels (ā. hīḍ be hostile and. ájījanam. ájījanadhvam. ṛ) and svap sleep make occasional forms from stems without thematic a. PI.^). The stem of the great majority of forms is made with a thematic a. Though (with a few slight exceptions) unconnected in form with the causative. but no participle. 2.149] REDUPLICATED FORM 173 Third or Reduplicated Form. the inflexion then being like that of an imperfect of the reduplicating class (127. jambh crush. This aorist is formed from nearly ninety verbs in the Saṃhitās and from nearly thirty more in the Brahmaṇas. ájījanas. ájījanatam. but a final vowel takes Guṇa. PI. 1. The vowels ā́‚ ṛ. The forms of the indicative actually occurring would.

ácucyavat (K. pispṛśas. cīkḷpāti. s. The subjunctive is rare. 1. rīramāma. the rest from cyu stir and r i ṣ hurt. ábībhajur (B. 3. tītapāsi. 3. rāradhā. vocét. 3. bībhayat. rīradhas. ácīkḷpat. PI. Du. ávīvṛdhadhvam. sīṣapanta (sap serve). mīmayat (mā bellow). 1 i Without thematic a. ásisrasan (√sraṃs). 1. dīdharat. without thematic a: á-jīgar (gṛ swallow and gṛ waken) . 2. siṣvadat (svad sweeten). ápīparam (pṛ pass). The optative forms number hardly a dozen. L vocéya. 3. eikṣipas. ánīnaśam (naś be lost). rīriṣes. s. 2. ádidyutat. 4. 2. siṣvapas. ábūbhuvas. ájīhiḍat (√hīḍ). but only five in the middle. cucyavat. 3. 1. 3. cukrudham. sīṣadhas. s.). Pl. 2. more than fifty occurring in the active. cucyav–ī–rata. śuśucan (śuc shine). śiśnathat (śnath pierce).’ There is also the 3. Pl.The following are examples : Act. 3. mostly from vac speak. Mid. ávī-vṛdhat. Examples are : Act. ábūbudhat. vocéma. 3. vocétam. sīṣadhāti (√ sādh). PI. 3. áci-krad-as. rīradhata. ápiplavam (B. 3. siṣvap. 2. all active except one. 2. 3. dīdharam (dhṛ hold). only about a dozen forms occurring. ávīvarata (vṛ eover). ávīvaśat (√vāś). 1. ásiṣyadanta. 3. 1. precative form rīriṣ-ī-ṣ-ṭa. s. vocéyam. Mid. s. Pl. vocéyur. without thematic a: á–śiśre–t (√śri). Examples are : Act. . rīraman.). á-siśnat. cucyuv-ī-mahi.). They are : Act. Du. sīṣadhāma. pispṛśati. being made from only three roots. 2. 2. I. vocés. s. Pl. 1. ávīvaśan (√vāś). ásīṣadan (√sad) . 2. jihvaratam. ábībhayanta. ácīkṛṣam (kṛṣ drag). ásiṣyadat ( √ syand) . s. Injunctive forms are fairly common. mid. ávīvaśanta (√vāś). i vocémahi.

The radical syllable suffers contraction or syncopation (as i n the weak forms of the perfect) i n the three verbs naś be lost.). all of them active. a. 8. á–ti­ṣṭhip–at . The initial of the suffix is retained from the causative stems jnā­paya. 1 1 1 1 Irregularities. śiśrathantu. jā­paya (√ji). suṣūdáta (AV. and pat fall. and 1 Without thematic a. The reduplicative syllable of dyut shine has i : á­didyutat . the perfect reduplication of roots with a + nasal (139. didhṛtám. 2 4 5 . didhṛtá. jigṛ-tá. paptata. H aving all had the reduplicative vowel of the perfect (while the regular aorist reduplicative ī appears i n the alternative forms á-nīnaś-at and á­pīpat–at). bī­bhiṣ­as. its perfect reduplication : 139. and paptata).149-l50] MOODS OF THE REDUPLICATED AORIST 175 5. á-voc-at (---. is formed. 2. 3. ar­paya. vocatam. bī–bhiṣ– athās . I n the RV. 2. This is a form of the optative which adds an s after the modal suffix and which is made almost exclusively from aorist stems. it occurs in the 1. thus á-nes-at (-–-– á-nanaś-at). Gk. didīpas for d ī d i p a s (dip shine). Cp. and i n the isolated i n j . vocata. ^' Cp. 2. 3. 6). jī­hip­as . while the redupli¬ cative vowel comes after instead of before the radical vowel in the fifth : thus á­ji–jñip­at . H ardly more than a dozen imperative forms occur. didhṛtám. 3. The radical vowel is reduced to i in the first four. they were probably pluperfects i n origin. hā­paya. 2. ^-^7r-o-^) and á–papt–at. ^c. I n B. Pl. jigṛtá (beside á­jīgar). that of am injure repeats the whole root : ā́m­am­at (— á­am­am­at) .. s. while i t is left short i n jigrtám. But they have come to be aorists as is shown by their meaning and by the occurrence of modal forms (as vocatu. vocatāt. I. á­jī­jap­a­ta (VS. The causative of j i conquer from which this aor. vocatu. jigṛtám (gṛ waken). didhṛtá (beside á­dīdharat). arp­ip­am . 3. pūpurantu (pṛ fill). would normally have been jáy­aya. 15O. H ere the p of the suffix is not only retained. These are : Sing. Du. sthā­paya.á-va-uc-at : cp. vac speak. but reduplicated.). bhī­ṣaya. 2 3 4 5 Benedictive or Precative. also occurs the form á­jī­jip­ata.

final a and medial a remaining unchanged . have one precative form each in the 3. bandh bind : bhant­syá . j i conquer : je­ṣyá . The Stem is formed by adding the suffix syá or (rather less frequently with connecting i) i­ṣyá to the root. taken together over one hundred form the future in sya and over eighty that in iṣya. (see 143. 1. g. 4 and 149. being formed from only sixteen roots. forms it from over sixty roots. and B. dah burn : dhak­ṣyá . yā­s ( = yās­s) . 3. The a aorist and the reduplicated aor. s. s. du. 4). s.. 3. mid. Mid. 3. s. and the TS. whereas those ending in other vowels generally take sya. and 3. s. s. ī­ṣ­ṭhās. two in the RV. active. pl. v ṛ t turn : vart­ iṣyá. b. while the A v makes it from about thirty­two others. and in the 2. mid. 3. (see 148. 1. The endings together with the modal suffix are : Act. s. a. 3. yuj join : yok­ṣyá . e. 4 a). a. 1. The only perfect precative occurring is the 2. the future tense is not common in the R v . sṛ flow : sar­iṣyá .1. yā­s­ma. 2. d ā give : d a ­ s y á . : sā­sah­ī­ṣ­ṭhā́ s . ī–ṣ–ṭa. of which four stems appear. pl. 1. 4). In V. k ṛ t cut : k a r t ­ s y á . I n the s aorist four precative forms occur in the 2. 2. . mid. Simple Future. As the future sense is often expressed by the subjunctive and sometimes also by the indicative. mid. The only derivative verbs that form the future (always with iṣya) are causatives. Final vowels and prosodically short medial vowels take Guṇa. s.. . Of the root aorist nearly thirty precatives are met with in the Saṃhitās. and two in the A v Roots ending in ṛ always take isya. m i h shed water : mek­ṣyá . pl. n ī lead : ne­ṣyá . (147. yā­s­am. mid. 151. 2. They occur in the act. b h ú be : bhav­iṣyá .

Mid. I 5 2 . du. are the agent nouns i n tṛ which. kar­iṣyáse. VS. of which only four are mid. generally accented on the root. du. c. kar­iṣyā́s‚ has been met with in V. persons. kar­iṣyā́ m i. The forms met with. of an agent noun i n t ṛ (180). s. 2. kar–iṣyáti. vāray­iṣyá (vṛ cover). which always take iṣya. 1. kar­iṣyáte.. dā́tā y é vánitā maghám (iii. retain the present stem. while i n the 3. kar­iṣyási. thus dhāray­iṣyá (dhṛ support). 3. The use of this tense­form is 1 The forerunners i n V. mid. dūṣ–ay­iṣyá (dus spoil) . the N. if made from k ṛ do. But such a phrase as anv­āgantā́ yajñápatir vo átra (TS. s. of this new tense­formation i n B. vāsay­iṣyá (vas wear) . Irregularities. I n su bring forth the future stem is formed w i t h unchanged final vowel. 13^) who gives and wins bounty. e. 2.’ I n B. 2. b. while the medial a of sah is lengthened : sāk­ṣyá. and one other. 1. and pi. 1. Du. kar­iṣyánti. Examples are : Act. act. the 2. s. 3. and may be employed predicatively with or without the copula . appear. s. kar­iṣyé.. would be : Act. ­masi. 2. to which the present of the verb as be is added i n the 1. kar­iṣyáthas.151­152] SIMPLE FUTURE 177 a. Middle forms occur in the sing. 3. Causatives. g. 3. dropping only the final a . mid. 2. 2. . only. Periphrastic Future. Only one subjunctive. this future is taken by nearly thirty roots. yak­ṣyá­ māṇa (√yaj). not­syāva­ hai (nud push) in B. kar–iṣyā́– mas. I t is made by using the N . I. More than twenty participles occur. 1. The inflexion of the future is like that of the present of the first conjugation (bhávāmi). staviṣyá­māṇa (√stu). and pi. kar­iṣy­ánt. which is moreover accented : sū́­ṣya . There is no certain example of this form of the future in the Saṃhitās. dhak­ṣy­ánt (√dah) . persons du. kar­iṣyátha. PI. kar­iṣyátas.) the sacrificer is following after you here may be an example of its incipient use. are used participially governing an acc..

4. The passive of pṝfll does not occur i n the Saṃhitās. 154. 2. g. Final ṝ becomes īr . sing. 3. 30 ) was going to bear off. e. i f made from bhū be. but it also remains . 1. 2. Pf. The stem is formed by adding accented yá to the root. 1. e. also. Roots ending in a consonant preceded by a nasal. bhavitā́ r as. From the middle of verbs of the fourth class it differs in accent only : náh­ya­te binds : nah­yá­te is bound. e. bhavitā́ s mahe. I. dā give : dī­yá . j i conquer: jī­yá­te . e. e. which takes the terminations of the middle. g. lose the nasal. but in B. śru hear: śrū-yá-te.yá-te and smar-yá-te. would be : Act. 1 2 1 The only two roots i n which r is preceded by two consonants and which form a passive are str strew and smr remember. śaṃs praise : śas-yá-te. vañc move crookedly : vacya-te . This is a past tense of the future meaning would have. I. 2 Passive. ii. differs from the latter only in the forms made from the present stem and in the 3. sing. bhañj break : bhaj-yá-te . 5. Forms occurring. Final ā mostly becomes ī .almost limited to the active. Final i and u are lengthened . but i n B. This form is very rare ṃ B. I. which appears in its weak form. jñā know : jñā­yá. bhavitā́ s mas . Their passives do not occur in the Saṃhitās. 3. 3. g. Final ṛ becomes r i .g. bandh bind: badhyá-te . bhavitā́ . except in the ŚB. Pf. i t is pur-yá-te (the ṝ being preceded by a labial). Mid. 2 . bhavitā́ s mi . s. g. e. śṝ crush: śīr-yá-te. Conditional. k ṛ make : kri-yá-te. añj anoint: aj-yá-te. bhavitā́ s e. aor.g. 153. Only one example occurs in the Saṃhitās : á­bhar¬ isya­t (RV. are found str1. The passive. only a few isolated examples being found i n the middle. where it is found more than fifty times.

. which. grah seize : gṛh­yá­te. hū­ ya­māna being called. 2.PASSIVE 154­155] 179 6. e. sū­ya­ta : sú bring forth) occur. 1. hū­yá­tām. I n B. This is a peculiar middle form (made from about forty­five roots in 1 2 But they are met with in the Brāhmaṇas. aor. 3. s. 1. 3. 2. occurring only in the 3. hū–yé–te. PI. hū­yā́ ­ mahe. and pi. Of the participle over forty examples occur . Only one such stem has been noted in the saṃbitās : bhāj–yá–te is caused to share (from bhaj­áya causative of bhaj share). 2 d. bhri­yā́–te) and one injunctive (s. hū­yá­dhvam. No optative forms occur in the R v or Av. There are. sing. illustrated by hú call. are intransitive i n sense. 155. e. g. Of the imperfect only about eight forms have been noted. would be : Sing. 3. c. 3. As regards the moods only two certain subjunctive forms (s. vad speak : ud­yá­te . Du. are : s. The forms of the present indicative passive occurring. i n form belongs to the radically accented fourth class. however. a. nearly thirty imperative forms occurring in the 2. 2. vac speak : uc­yá­te . hū­yé. vah carry : uh­yá­te . 3. a. hū­yá­sva. s. khā­yá­te is formed from khan dig. hū­yá­nte. hū­yá­ntām. if made from hū eall. : á­hū­ya­ta and á­hū­yanta. mri­yá­te dies ( √ mr) and dhri­yá­to (√dhṛ) is steadfast. 1 Irregularities. pl. uh­yā́ ­ te. b. hū­yá­se. tan stretch forms its passive from t ā : t ā ­ y á ­ t e . g. PI. Similarly jan beget becomes jā́ ­ ya­te is born. however. 3. 3. while passive i n form. These forms. hū–yá­te. Roots liable to Samprasāraṇa (17 note 1) take it . Derivative verbs i n aya (causatives) drop the suffix while retain­ ing the strong radical vowel. Outside the present system the passive has no special finite form except in the 3. 3. Aorist Passive.

in which the augmented root takes the ending i . 2 . ṛ take Vṛddhi. 95 a. PARTICIPLES. a. The characteristic feature of this form is the strengthening of the root as compared with other middle forms . e. Prosodically short medial i . á-kār-i beside á-kr-i (1. ṛ take Guṇa. á–stāv–i (stu praise). On the declension of participles i n ant see 85 . and the aorist active participle is formed with the suffix ant. and medial a is normally lengthened . kṣip­ ánt. while final ā interposes a y before the ending. s. Active Participles.1 the Saṃhitās) which is used with a predominantly passive meaning. mid. From the denominative stem jārayaplay the lover the unique form jārayā́–y–i let him be embraced is formed. g. á-dhā-y-i (dhā put).). that sense remains unchanged (as in the past passive participle). . I t is a 3. e. AND I N F I N I T I V E .’ The strong stem may be obtained by dropping the i of the 3. g. á-vāc-i (vac speak). prī­ṇánt. the future. When it is formed from verbs with a neuter sense. The medial a is not lengthened in á­jan­i. s. final i . Irregularities. śrā́v–i let be heard. 1 About a dozen more are found i n B. stems. á-bodh-i (budh wake). duh­ánt. ind. á-kār-i (kṛ do). á-srāy-i (śri resort). bhind­ánt. kṛṇv­ánt. I. u. The accent of unaug¬ mented forms is always on the root. the unaugmented ján­i (beside jā́n–i). bháv­ant. en the formation of their fem. and á­vah­i. ind. Examples are : á-ved-i (vid find). like gam go. ás–yant. e. GERUNDS. 156. act. pi. I . g. More than twenty unaugmented forms are also used injunctively . 2. á–darś–i (dṛś see). The stem of the present (except the reduplicating class). u.

e. Some half­dozen of these participles are formed by adding the suffix with connecting i to the reduplicated stem contracted to a single syllable : ī­y­i­vā́ṃs (i go) . 1 157. from the unaugmented tense stem in the latter two . : bhaviṣyánt. The strong stem of the future participle may similarly be obtained by dropping the i of the 3. jagan­ vā́ṃs (gam go). g. a. júhv­at (3. Whether i t was also lost i n sákṣ–at‚ the part. ghn­ ánti). of dah burn : dáks­at and dhákṣ­at. Examples are: cakṛ­vā́ṃs. vidá–nt. part. ghn­ánt (3. sasa­vā́ṃs (san gain). pā́nt (pa drink). pi. kr­ánt (kṛ make). papt­i­vā́ ṃ s (pat fall) . kariṣyánt. The reduplicated perfect participIe is formed from the weak (but uncontracted or unsyncopated) stem to which the suffix vāṃs is directly added. e. saśc-i-vā́ṃs (sac follow) . śā́s–ati). the a aorist. and the s aorist. of the same aor. sák­ṣ­ant (sah prevail) . There are more than fifty such stems. pi. pl. g. tasthi­vā́ ṃ s (sthā stand). — I n the pres. sánti). The n is also lost in the s aor. and from the weakened or unmodified root in the former . 1 2 . act. and not the reduplicating class. júhv­ati). is uncertain because i t is only met with i n a weak ease. Irregularities. tastabh­vāṃs (stambh prop). in the later Saṃhitās also 2 Both dāś and śās belong to the root. part. W i t h strong radical vowel and reversion to the original guttural. pl. a. the initial a of as be and the medial a of han slay are lost : sánt (3. The active participle is formed by the root aorist. from sah prevail. while the n of the suffix is lost in dā́ ś -at worshipping and śā́s­at (3. suṣup­vā́ ṃ s (svap sleep). dad­vā́ṃs (dā give).g. pi. ṛdh­ánt.1^6­157] PARTICIPLES 181 Stems of the reduplicating class do not distinguish strong forms because they drop the n : e. ba­bhū­vā́ ṃ s. gm­ánt (gam go). dadṛś-vā́ ṃ s. vavṛt­vā́ ṃ s. ok­i–vā́ṃs (uc be pleased) . ūṣ­i­vā́ṃs (vas dwell) .

I5S. II. adding the suffix with connecting i to the fully reduplicated stem is viviś-i-vā́ṃs (TS. There are several irregularities i n the formation of the middle participles of the root class.i vā́ṃs (√uc). Irregularities. The root as sit optionally takes the anomalous suffix īna : ā́s–īna beside ās­āná. Middle and Passive Participles. pass. pres.g. bruv­āṇá (√hrū). are also found dadṛś-i-vāṃs and cichid-i-vāṃs. yakṣyá­māṇa (√yaj). pun­āná (√pū). Three un¬ reduplicated roots take connecting i in the later Saṃhitās : dāś-i-vā́ṃs (SV. 2 4 .) entering. mid. 3 Occurring only i n the voc. vid­vāṃs knowing.) wor shipping. varj­i­vā́ ṃ s 4 (AV.’ b. sāh–vā́ṃs . mid. though the root does not occur in independent use. I n B. ririk­vā́ ṃ s (√ric). a. varju^1. 0 k . kriyá­māṇa (√kṛ). of the present passive. . viś-i-vā́ṃs (AV. e. while the reduplieative vowel is long in sāsah­ vā́ṃs and śuśu-vā́ ṃ s (√śū). rundh­āná (√rudh). Presupposed by the fem. júhv­ana (√hu).1 jakṣ­i­vā́ ṃ s (ghas eat). Verbs of the second conjugation add the suffix āna to the weak stem in the pres. The final of the root 1 jakṣ syncopated for jagh(a)s. e.g.­—In seven stems the palatal reverts to the original guttural : cikit­vā́ ṃ s (√cit). The only certain example of a perf. kṛṇv­āná (√kṛ). A few perfect participles are formed by attaching vāṃs to the unreduplicated stem : dāś-vā́ṃs worshipping. 2. part. The radical vowel is strong i n dadā­vā́ ṃ s (AV. khidvas. and perhaps khid­vāṃs^ oppressing. śuśuk-vā́ ṃ s (√śuc). and the present middle of the a conjugation are formed by adding the suffix māna to the stem (which always ends in a). vivik­vā́ ṃ s (√vic). The participles of the future middle. mid.). ruruk­vā́ ṃ s (√ruc).) having twisted. yája­māna. a.). I. pres. fut. ok­i– vā́ṃs. jigī­vā́ ṃ s (√ji). sān­vā́ṃs prevailing. Similarly formed is mīḍh­vā́ṃs bountiful. a.

Irregularities. siṣmiy-āṇá(√smi). The Perfect Middle Participle isformedby adding the suffix ­āná to the weak form of the stem as it appears before the ending of the 3. tasth-āná (√sthā). 1 b. e. 159. The root sah prevail adds the suffix to a reduplicated as well as to a contracted stem : sāsah-āná and seh-āná. Though the redupli­ cative vowel of śā́ ś ad-āna may be that of either perfect or intensive. the suffix tá (with or without connecting i) or. yem-āná (√ yam). I t is common. 4. paspaś-āná (√spaś). perf. This participle of śī lie has the double anomaly of reduplicating with a and of strengthening the radical syllable : śaśay-āná. śuśuj–āna. a similar irregularity of śī i n 134. A few roots take Guṇa : oh-aná (√ūh). stav­āná (√stu). śáy-āna (√śī). in the great majority of instances. form śāśadūr beside i t favours the view that i t is a perf. yodh-āná (√yudh). participle. the suffix ná (directly) to the root. a. víd­ana beside vid­aná. tep-āná (√tap). and śā́ ś ad-āna (śad prevail). mid. 1 2 4 . accented tūtuj­āná. Four of these participles have the intensive accent on the reduplicative syllable: tutuj-āna-. 1ebh-āná (√labh). 1). ^^a^­^^o­^. The first three cannot be accounted intensives because they have not the intensive reduplicative vowel (173. Also normally. g. The follow­ ing are some of them : anaj­āná (√añj). pl. 2. part. — 1 . siśriy-āṇá (√śri). Cp. mid. several of these participles optionally accent the radical syllable instead of the final vowel of the suffix . far less commonly. vāvas-āná (vas wear and dwell). ūc-āná (√vac). śuśuv-āna (√śū). cakr-āṇá (√kṛ). but less frequently. rire). re (ire. The Perfect Passive Participle isformedby adding. The radical vowel of kam love and śam labour is not syncopated : cakam-aná and śaśam-āná. more than eighty examples occurring. 4. the Gk. 3. 1 3 4 160. ār-āṇá (√ṛ). the occurrence of the perf. tistir-āṇá (√stṛ). 3 Cp. īj–āná (√yaj). 3. jagm-āná (√gam). cikit-āná (√cit). bhej-āná (√bhaj). suṣup–āṇá (√svap). pap-āná (pā drink). ānaś–āná (√ aṃś).PERFECT PARTICIPLES 158-160] 183 duh milk optionally reverts to the original guttural : dúgh-āna beside the regular dúh-ana.

Before this suffix. which is taken by primary verbs only. gṝ swallow : gīr-ṇá . Excepting the occurrence of the normal form ­data in the com¬ pound tvā́­dāta given by thee. Examples are : yā­tá. vin-ná and vit-tá (vid jind) . a medial or final nasal is lost . mṛ erush : mūr-ṇá . W i t h the same changes as in guḍhá after vah­tá has been reduced by Samprasāraṇa to uh­. dū burn : dū–ná . 160. 1 2 a.tá. vī–tá (√vyā). Several roots take alternative forms i n ta : nun-ná and nut-tá (√nud) . ak­tá (√añj). sthi–tá (√sthā). e and j revert to the original guttural. Thus lī cling : lī-ná . sṛṣ­ṭá (√sṛj) . which ends in a long vowel or one of the consonants d and (rarely) c or j . pṛṣ­ṭá (√prach) . 3 1 W i t h cerebralization and aspiration of the suffix. ta–tá (√tan). iṣ­ṭá (√yaj). hā leave : hī–ná . yā some­ times to ī. 3 ^ ^ ^7^ 7 2 . sup­tá (√svap). ā remains or is reduced to ī or i . b. d is assimilated to n . yuk­tá (√yuj). pṝ jill : pūr-ṇá and pur–tá . śī-ná and śī-tá (śyā coagulate) . The final palatal of pre muc. bhid split : bhin–ná .184 CONJUGATIONS [160 1. The root dhā put is doubly weakened i n hi­tá beside ­dhi­ta. 2. Syncopation and loss of s appear i n -g-dha eaten (√ghas). vid­dhá (√vyadh). san-ná. dā give regularly uses the weak pres. j ṝ waste away : jūr-ṇá . dug­dhá (√duh). i and u remain unchanged . uk­tá (√vac). a. When tá is added direct the root tends to appear in its weak form : verbs liable to Samprasāraṇa take it . dā divide : di-ná . pī­tá (pa drink). vraśc eut up : vṛk-ṇá . ruj break : rug-ṇá. naṣ–ṭá (√naś be lost). is attached to the (unweakened) root. and sat-tá (sad sit) . śṝ crush : śīr–ṇá and śur-tá . bhī­tá‚ stu­tá. ji­tá. drā sleep : drā-ṇá . b. pṛc mur : -prg-ṇa and prk–tá. gú­ḍhá (√guh). ga­tá (√gam). kṛ­tá. ṝ becomes īr or (generally when a labial precedes) ú r . loss of the radical final and lengthening of the radical vowel (cp. vraśc cut up and ruj break reverts to the guttural (cp. 62. ā is often reduced to ī or i . ná. 69 c). skand leap : skan-ná . 1). hu–tá. Medial ā is reduced to i in śis-ṭá (śās order). ū­ḍhá (√vah). sik­tá (√sic).

without con­ necting i : jñap­tá. especially sibilants. śram be weary : śrān-tá . causative of jñā know. pat-itá. dham blow has tile irregular dhmā-tá and dham-i-tá. but also in simple consonants. 1 2 3 4 5 6 . I 6 I . cod-itá (cod-áya 2 3 4 set in nation). arp-itá (arp-áya cause to go). and one from a denominative : bhām­itá enraged. muṣ-itá .roots i n an have ā : khan dig : kbā-tá . párī­tta given away. d. I n B. śam be quiet : śān-tá .160­161] PERFECT PASSIVE PARTICIPLE 185 stem dad i n forming its past passive participle : dat­tá. forms its part. and when com­ bined w i t h certain prepositions : vy­ā́–tta opened. 1 3. vad speak : ud-itá . grath-itá. prátī­tta given back. Only one perfect participle passive has been noted from a desidera¬ tive : mīmāṃ­s­itá called in question. stabh-itá . Examples are : nind-itá. śrath slacken : śṛth-itá. rakṣ-itá . a perfect passive participle extended with the possessive suffix vant. i-ta is taken by a considerable number of roots ending not only in conjunct consonants or in single consonants difficult to combine with t. Secondary verbs (almost without exception causa¬ tives) take ita exclusively (after dropping aya). The same syncopation appears i n the compound participle of dā divide : áva­tta cut otf: c. The roots taking Samprasāraṇa are: grabh and grah seize: gṛbh-ī-táand gṛh-ī-tá(Av). san gain : sā–tá. There is once found in the AV. pan-itá . The root is not weakened (excepting four instances of Sampra¬ sāraṇa). Usually (and abnormally) accented árp­ita. which present no such difficulty. This type of participle hardly occurs even i n the Brāhmaṇas. īḷ–itá. The latter is further reduced to ­tta i n deva­ttá given by the gods. van win : -vā-ta . a. One root i n an and three or four in am retain the nasal and lengthen the vowel : dhvan sound : dhvan­tá . which gives it the sense of a perfect participle active : aśitā-vant having eaten.^ vakṣ increase: ukṣ-itá. kup-itá. jīv-itá . A few. jñapaya.’ Representing the long sonant nasal. With ī for i as in some other forms from this root. jan be born : ja-tá . kram stride : krān­tá . car-itá.

being accented. I t is sometimes attached to secondary stems . to an intensive : vi­tan­ tas­ā́ y ya to be hastened. ṛ regularly take Guṇa or Vṛddhi. Final ī. The Future Passive Participle is in the R v formed with four suffixes : one with the primary suffix ya. a t being then interposed : í­t­ya to be gone . as before a vowel . I n the RV. g. each of which occurs about a dozen times. mrj : márj­ya to be purified . vid­ā́yya to be found . between which and the following a a phonetic y is interposed : da give : déya ( ^ dā́ ­ i­y­a) to be given. pan­ā́ y ya to be admired . the final element of which always appears as y. but also gúh­ya to be concealed . yudh : yódh­ya to be subdued . spṛhay­ā́yya desirable. . ­sád­ya to be seated. e. The suffix is nearly always to be read as ia. a. hu call : háv­ya . The suffix ā́yya. śrav-ā́yya glorious. carkṛ́­t­ya to be praised. A final short vowel sometimes remains unchanged. g. śrú­t­ya to be heard . there begin to be used two other gerundives. b. r. dviṣ : dvés­ya hateful . nu praise : náv­ya . appears in a strong form excepting a few examples which have the short radical vowel i . A l l these participles correspond in sense to the Lat. r. 2. d. ­kṛ­t­ya to be made . the rest with the secondary suffixes āy­ya. v. bhu be : bháv­ya and bhāv­yá future . vac : vā́c­ya to be said . énya (generally to be read énia) is attached to the root. to a desiderative : di­ dhi­ṣ­ā́yya to be eoneiliated (√ dhā) . . and tv­a. formed with tavyā and anīya. or ṛ. Final ā coalesces with the initial of ia to o. and about twenty more in the A v . c. e. each occurring twice. én­ya. gerundive in ­ndus. e. vṛ choose : vā́r­ya. is almost restricted to the RV. 3. which is common. i f followed by a single consonant. Medial i . g. The root. lī cling : ­lā́y­ya . 1.162. nearly always to be read ā́yia. u. ü. may take Guṇa and a may be lengtl^ened . –dhrṣ–ya to be assailed . u. about forty examples of the gerundive in ya occur. rdh : árdh­ya to be accomplished . I n the A v . to a causative : panay­ā́ y ya admirable. which accounts for the treatment before it of final radical vowels.

nearly a dozen examples have been met with. tvā́. and AV. yudh-énya to be combatted. I t expresses an action which accompanies or more often precedes that of the finite verb. but from secondary stems. which is accented. tvā́ya (all old cases of stems 1 A few examples occur i n the Brahmaṇas : jé­tva ( j i conquer). are jan­i­tavyā to be born and hiṃs­i– tavyā to be injured. hé­tva to be driven on (√hi). desideratives : didṛkṣ-éṇya worthy to be seen. 4. W i t h ī instead of 1. śuśrúṣ­éṇya deserving to be heard. with connecting i : sán­i­tva to be won . (both occurring in AV. 6. vavṛdh– énya to be glorified . tv­a. I 6 3 .’ III. It is once added to an aor. More than 120 examples of the gerund occur in the RV. denominatives : sapar­éṇya to be adored. which in both cases is added with connecting i . 2 3 4 . The only two examples in V. The only examples of the gerundive in anīya (both appearing in the Av) are upa­jīv­anī́ya to be subsisted on 2 3 and ā­mantr­aṇī́ y a worthy to be addressed. snā́ ­ tva (snā bathe). Thus kár­tva to be made. intensives: marmṛj­énya to be glorified.) of the gerundive in tavyá. with connecting ī : bháv­ī­tva future. but vár-eṇya choiceworthy (vṛ choose).. is added to the strong form of the root. só­tva to be pressed (√ su).GERUNDIVE 162-163] 187 which remains unaltered except when it ends in a vowel: thus dviṣ-éṇya malignant. vák­tva to be said. Gerund or Indeclinable Participle. This gerundive has become not Uncommon i n B. I t is formed with the three suffixes tvī́. I n B. 5.’ and generally to be read tua. where i t is formed not only from the root. Secondary verbs also take this suffix . hán­tva (han slay). stem : yaṃ-s-énya to be guided ( √ yam). dṛśénya worthy to be seen . almost restricted to the RV.

pass. Examples are : kṛ­tvī́ having made. The forms occurring in the RV. mi–tvā́ having formed (√mā).. bhit­tvā́ having shattered. t u which is also used to form infinitives) attached to the simple root. hā­tvā́ having slain. is the commonest of the three in that Saṃhitā. pass. vṛk­tvī having overthrown (√vṛj). 3. ga­tvī́ having 1 gone. e. sing. tīr­tvā́ having crossed (√tṝ). where fifteen examples occur. but i t has not entirely disappeared i n the Brahmanas. . which has the same form as in the perf. hi–tvā́ having abandoned. The suffix tv­ā́ (an old inst. There are two forms in which the suffix is added with the connecting vowel i : jan­i­tvī́ having produced and skabh–i–tvī having propped. bhū–tvī́ having become. of a verbal noun in tu) is taken by nine roots in the R v and about thirty more in the A v . Some of the forms from the AV. yuk­tvā́ having yoked. kalpay­i–tvā́ having arranged. three take the connecting vowel i : cāy–i­tvā́ noting (√cāy). gu­ḍhvī́ having hidden. hi­tvī́ having abandoned (√hā). dat­tvā́ having given (√ dā). The rarest gerund is that in tvā́ya. bad­dhvā́ having bound (√bandh). I t is as a rule added directly to the root. bhak­tvā́ having divided (√bhaj). pak–tvā́ having cooked (√pac). The root has the same form as before the ta of the perf. hiṃs–i­tvā́ having injured. which is almost restricted to the RV. which is formed 1 This gerundive is not found i n the AV. The form in tvī́. sru­tvā́ having heard. sup­tvā́ having slept ( √ svap) .. g. participle in ta. Vṛ–tvā having covered. vṛṣ­ṭvā́ having cut up (√vraśc). a few also are formed from secondary stems in aya (which is retained) . jag­dhvā́ having devoured (√jakṣ). participle. are : iṣ–ṭvā́ having sacrificed (√yaj). are : pī–tvā́ (pa drink). tṛ­ḍhvā́ having shattered (√ tṛh). bhū­tvā́ having become. rū­ḍhvā́ having ascended (√ruh). gṛh­ī­tvā́ having seized . 2. I t probably represents an old locative of stems in t u .

abhi­gur–yā graciously accepting (gṛ sing). saṃ­gī́r­ya swallowing up (√gṝ). 1. which has the same form as before tvā. The root is always accented. a. hi­tvā́ y a having aban­ doned . are: ud­úh­ya having carried up (√vah). pada­grh­ya grasping by the foot. from a causative stem : vi­bhaj­ya having apportioned (√bhaj). mitha­spṛ́dh­ya vying together. compounded with adverbs or substantives : punar­dā́ – ya giving back. Nearly forty roots in the R v and about thirty more in the AV. except that final ā and am remain unchanged. ni­ṣád–yā́ having sat down . saṃ­bhu–ya combining. yuk­tvā́ y a having yoked. having stretehed. ā–dā́­ya taking. ati­dī́v­ya playing higher. ta­tvā́ y a having covered. saṃ–sī́v­ya having sewed. abhi–krám­ya approaching. ni­cā́ y ­yā fearing. vi­tur­ya driving forth (√ tṝ). 1 jag­dhvā́ya having devoured. karṇa­gṛ́ h ­ya seizing bythce^r.163­164] GERUND 189 from only eight roots in the RV. 1 This gerund occurs twice i n the AV. I t is once formed from a causative stem i n the ŚB. abhy­ úp­ya having enveloped (√vap). dṛṣ­ ṭvā́ya having seen. form these compound gerunds. and about half a dozen times in B. ha­tvā́ y a having slain. : ga­tvā́ya having gone. a nu­dṛ́ ś -ya looking along. from a causative stem : prā́ r p­ya setting in motion (prá­arpaya). ut­tha­ya arising (√sthā). Examples from the RV. are : ā́c­yā bending ( = ā́­ac­). yā́ is added (but never with i) to the root. hasta­ gṛh­ya grasping bythehand. a­rábh­ya grasping. saṃ­gṛ́bh­yā gathering. When the verb is compounded the suffix is regularly either ya or tyā́. upa–dád­ya putting in (√dā). three more of these gerunds appear in the Yajurveda : kṛ–tvā́ya having done. vṛ­tvā́ y a I 6 4 . bhak­tvā́ y a having attained. Examples from the AV. . dat­tvā́ y a having given. Three roots are found i n the RV. I n at least two­thirds of such forms the vowel of the suffix is long in the RV. : spāś-ay–i– tvā́ya (√spaś).

in the proportion of 12 to 1 in the RV. namas­kṛ́­tya (AV..-gen. Before the suffix. 1 2 Sometimes not original but reduced from a long vowel. which in the R v is more than seven times as common as all the rest put together.) is added instead of yā́ to compound verbs ending in a short vowel . abhi­jí­tya having 1 conquered. with adverbial or nominal prefix: araṃ–kṛ́–tyā having made ready. dat. e. The infinitive. and dat.. Iv. é­tyā having come (ā́­i). e. s. g. which drop the nasal as i n the perf. acc. I t is a remarkable fact that the infinitive in tum. I ^ 7 . mahānāgám abhi­saṃ­sā́r­am running together around a great snake (ŚB. though not yet construed like a gerund in the Saṃhitās. while the dative infinitive.) paying homage. upa-śrú­tya having overheard . all the forms of which are old cases of verbal nouns. The analogy of these verbs is followed by some roots ending in n or m preceded by a. apa­mí­tya­ having borrowed. Infinitive. the root (which is almost always com­ pounded) appears in the form it assumes before the i of the 3. (155) .).) lifting up (√yam). H ere m i is reduced from ma measure. tyā́ (nearly always with long vowel in the RV. occurring about 700 times in the RV. has already for the most part disappeared in the Brāhmaṇas.). . śākhāṃ sam-ā-lámbh-am taking hold of a branch (ŚB. ud­yá­tya (AV. but the datives outnumber the acc. : vi­há­tyā having driven away (√han). occurs not more than five times in the R v .165. 166. part. is very frequent. a. forms are common. abl. Only the acc.. or loc. The accusative in am of certain verbal nouns. ā­dṛ́ ­ tyā regarding.. pass. akhkhalī­kṛ́ ­ tya shouting. and 3 to 1 in the AV. g. aor. ā­gá–tyā having come (√gam). pass. the only form surviving in Sanskrit. 2. is not infrequently so construed in the Brāhmaṇas and Sūtras.

inf. ­vā́c­e to speak. 1. and one i n dhyai. The forms i n dhyai. some infinitives. The forms i n dhyai and tavái are at once recognizable as infinitives by their abnormal enḍings . e. inf. ­vídh­e 1 3 4 3 3 to pierce. Except śrad-dhé to trust and pra-mé to form. not infrequently connected with a present stem .’ I t is formed from : a. sā́ ­ ḍhyai to conquer ( √ sah) have been noted i n B. e. ­pṛ́ch­e to ask. ­núd­e to thrust. that i n sáni. pra­hyé to send (√hi) . ­ídh­e to kindle. This infinitive ends in e. ­bhv­é and bhuv­é to be . I n B.INFINITIVE 167] 191 a. by its isolated stem­formation. and is also i n several instances taken by causative stems. however. About a dozen are uncompounded. The acc. About a dozen are formed from roots ending in long vowels and from one in i . however. ­tír­e to cross. inf. bhṇj–é to enjoy.^ 1 The only daf. though i t has an ordinary case­ending. Dative Infinitive. Loc infinitives have disappeared. cannot be distinguished from ordinary cases of verbal nouns : they are not to be regarded as genuine infinitives unless they are isolated case forms or have a verbal construction. The infinitive is as a rule formed from the root. áse and sáni are. ­syád­e to flow. two i n tave. not being connected with any tense stems or ever showing the distinctions of voice. which with the final ā of a root or stem combines to ai. ­grábh­e to seize. which drop the ā. that i n dhyai is once formed from a perfect stem. W i t h lengthened vowel. The rest are from roots ending in consonants. dṛś-é to see. roots. parā–dái to give up. gen. mih­é to shed water. as mah­é to be glad. all of them (except an alternative form of bhū) being com­ pounded with prefixes . But the compounded forms are commoner . is that in tavái. –míy–e to diminish (√mī). in tum and am and the abl. i n ordinary use in B. W i t h loss of nasal (√syand). áv­i­tave and stár­ tave. show their infinitive character by their power of combining with prepositions and their verbal construction. about sixty forms occurring. Otherwise only five or six i n e (see note 6) . g. ^ With Samprasāraṇa. have been noted half a dozen infinitives i n e from roots 2 3 4 5 6 . g.

pā́­tav­e to drink. mán­tavái to think. vī–táy–e to enjoy.. More than thirty are datives of stems in t u (added to the gunated root. śriy-ás-e to be resplendent. 2 4. yudh­áy-e to fight. Some twenty-five are datives of stems in as . é­tav-e to go.). tuj-áye to breed. cákṣ-as-e to see. dṛś-áy-e to see. pā́­tavái to drink. gṛh­aye to seize (K. but about half a dozen examples accent the root. vó–ḷhav-e to convey (√vah) . Which is generally accented.). all but one being compounded : dṛś-é (TS.) to see. sár­tavái to flow . These in the aggregate are more numerous. vák­tav-e to speak. gán­tavái to go. e. puṣy-ás-e 1 to thrive. Five or six datives of stems in i are found in the RV. sráv­i­tav-e to flow (√sru). stár­ī­tav-e (AV. sáv­i­tav-e to bring forth (√sū). ati­sṛ́p­e to glide over (MS.). bhiy-ás-e to fear. é­tavái to go. háv­i­tav-e to eall (√hū). ear–ás–e to fare. 1. yám–i–tavái to guide. át­tav­e to eat. sometimes with connecting i) . and one or two in other Saṃhitās . prati­dhṛ́ ṣ ­e to withstand (TS. ó­tav­e to weave ( √ ū = vā).). e. ā-rábh-e to take hold (ŚB. The only examples of this infinitive noted in B. bhár­ tav­e to bear away. 3. ā­sád­e to sit upon (AB. g. áy-as-e to go. g. e. cár­i­tav-e to fi^re. sráv­i­tavái to flow. mah­áy-e to rejoiee.b.). gán­tav-e to go.). áv­i­tav-e to refresh. Four or five are datives of stems in t i : iṣ­ṭáy-e to refresh.). ending i n consonants. 5. pī­táy-e to drink. sa­táy-e to win.) to lay lolv (√stṝ). kár­tav-e to make. are ávitave and stártave. More than a dozen are datives of stems in tava (which is added like tu to the gunated root) and have the peculiarity of being douhiy accented . 1 2 . yáṣ–ṭav–e to sacrifice. g. jīv­ā́­tav–e to live. pra­mrad–é to cr ush (ŚB. ó­tavái to weave. Vás­tav-e to shine. A n these except pra­mrad­é occur i n the RV. 2. verbal nouns derived with nine different suffixes. cit­áye to understand (vS. san­áy­e to win .

ā́­netavái to bring. vāvṛdhá-dhyai to strengthen . kártavái to do. 6. iyá­dhyai to go (√i). 4 2. nír­astavái to throw out. 1 2 3 3 a. dā–ván–e (Gk. pibá-dhyai to drink (√ pā). huvá-dhyai to call (√hū) . There is only one certain example of a dative infinitive from a stem in tyā : i­tyái to go. Five are datives of stems in man : trā́­maṇ­e to protect. stártavái to lay low. where the following examples have been noted : étavái and yā́ t avái to go. I n the TS. áti­caritavái to transgress. 2. besides several others in the A v . From the causative stem. cará­dhyai to fare. pári­starītavái to strew around. from which about ten such infinitives are formed. which is added to verbal stems ending in a (generally accented) . drégdhavái to plot. More than thirty­five are datives (almost restricted to the R v ) of stems in dhyā. 2 3 4 . This infinitive is still i n regular use i n B. ^op^u­at). 8. mántavái to think. 171. W i t h interchange of vowel and semivowel : ū r ­– vṛ. dédīyitavái to fly away. śayá-dhyai to lie (√śī). 7. which nearly 1 The last three are made from regular present stems. Three are datives of stems in van : tur–váṇ­e to over¬ come (√tṛ). dhū́r­ vaṇ­e to injure. One of them (of which more than a dozen examples occur in the RV. pṛṇá-dhyai to fill (√ pṝ). This infinitive is formed in two ways. a. From the reduplicated perfect stem. ) is made with am added to the weak form of the root. gáma­dhyai to go. e. stavá-dhyai to praise (√stu). nāśayá­dhyai to cause to disappear. mánthi¬ tavái to rule. Only one of these infinitives has been noted i n B. 9. occurs one example ending i n o instead of ai : gamá­dhyo to go. vartayá­dhyai to cause to turn. vid–mán–e (Gk. dhár­maṇ–e to support. : sā́ ḍ hyai to conquer (√sah). Accusative Infinitive. sáṃ­ hvayitavái to call together. bhár­maṇ­e to preserve. ^­p^u­at) to know. ^ovuat = ^of^uat) to give..DATIVE INFINITIVE 167] 193 a. g. dā́­man­e to give (Gk. Cp.

só­tos pressing. The as form has the abl. i n B. : át­tum to eat. Only five examples occur in the RV. ava­pád­as falling down. This infinitive is rare.194 CONJUGATION [167 always ends in a consonant (except dhā. has become as common as the dat. and about as many others in the A v .it in the RV. sam­ídh­am to kindle. a­rúh­am to mount. śúbh–am to shine . K. g. abhi-śríṣ-as binding. There are six examples of . fewer than twenty examples occur­ ring in the Saṃhitās. The ace inf. and the gen. b. sense : é-tos and gán-tos going. the cases can only be distinguished syntactically. pra­míy­am to neglect (√mī). The abl. da­tum). : khán­i­tum to dig. a. a. Three examples in the gen. VS. I t thus ends either in as or tos . prati­dhā́ ­ m to place upon. gen. There seems to be one certain example of the gen. AV. ati-ṣkád-as leaping across. The second form which is made from stems in tu ( = Lat. sam­pṛ́ch­am to ask. e. mī. práṣ­ṭum to ask. ján-i-tos being born. supine) is much less common than the datives from the same stems. : ni-míṣ-as to wink. śár–ī­tos being shattered. Ablative­ Genitive Infinitive. : ó­tum to weave. The form i n am is not unusual. hán­tos being struck. anu­prá­voḷhum to advance ... and as each of these endings represents both the abl. dā́– tum to give (Lat. Like the ace infinitive it is formed in two ways : from a radical (consonant) stem and from a verbal noun in tu. has six examples in the abl. a. kár­tum to make. ā­rábh­am to reach. has become nearly twice as frequent as the dat. sam­pṛ́c–as coming in con­ tact. dráṣ­ṭum to see. tṝ) . 3. . yā́ c ­i­tum to ask. sense almost exclusively. spárdh­i­tum to contend with . Of the tos form the RV. i n B. while that in tum is quite common. pra­tír­am to prolong (√tṝ). sense are : kár­tos doing. dā́­tos giving. yó­tos warding off. prá­bhar­tum to present. I t is rather of the nature of a verbal noun than a genuine infinitive. ní-dha-tos putting down. RV. : ā­tṛ́d­as being pierced. abhi-śvás-as blowing. b. inf.

Causatives. a.. have nothing distinctive of the infinitive and govern the genitive only. doubtful whether theseformsare genuine infinitives. stṛ-ṇī-ṣáṇ-i to spread. with connecting ī : tar-ī-ṣáṇ-i. The whole formation may indeed originally have had an iterative meaning. as pat-áya-ti flies about and pāt-áya–ti causes to fly beside the simple verb páta-ti flies. saṃ–cákṣ-i on beholding. however. the reduplicated aorist. they are rather to be regarded as ordinary locatives of verbal nouns. Of about 150 causative stems in the RV. being formed from more than two hundred roots in the Saṃhitās and from about a hundred additional ones in the Brāhmaṇas. This form of the infinitive is rare. Locative Infinitive. however. The RV. From a stem in tar are formed dhar-tár-i to support and vi-dhartár-i to bestow . Five or six are locatives of radical stems : vy-úṣ-i at the dawning. . however. As these forms. I . at least one-third have not a causative. e. śu–ṣáṇ-i to swell.167-168] LOCATIVE INFINITIVE 195 4. but an iterative sense. sak-ṣáṇ-i to abide (√sac). with a genuine infinitive sense: ne-ṣáṇ-i to lead. This is by far the commonest of the secondary conjugations. abhi-bhū-ṣáṇ-i to aid. The same root occasionally forms both the iterative and the causative. it is. I 6 S . specially attached itself to the causative. from present stems : gṛ–ṇī–ṣáṇi to sing. DERIVATIVE VERBS. b. This perhaps explains how an iterative formation. has eight locatives from stems in san. par–ṣáṇ-i to pass. hardly more than a dozen examples occur even if several doubtful forms are included. budh-í at the waking. dṛś-í and saṃ­dṛ́ś-i on seeing.

a. Initial or medial i . g. e. g. ghṛ drip : ghār­ áya cause to drip . Roots ending in a add páya . I n the following roots the a optionally remains short in the causative : gam go. once ca^se to jly. ḷ (if not long by position) take Guṇa . Its inflexion is identical with that of the primary verbs of the first conju­ 1 The only example of a causative from a root in final i (except the irregular jāpáya from j i conquer and śrāpáya from śri resort). a.The causative is formed by adding the suffix áya to the root. ram rest . śru hear. e. dṛ pierce has Guṇa only : dar­áya shatter. id. das waste away. bhū be : bhāv–áya eause to become . e. g. 2. the causative meaning being mostly absent . . u. and sṛ flow have Guṇa as well as Vṛddhi: śrav-áya and śrāv-áya cause to hear . j ṝ waste away. am be injurious: ām-áya suffer injury . dhā put : dhā­páya 2 cause to put. 2 . e. jan beget : jan­áya id. kip be adapted : kalp-áya arrange. 1. As to other roots taking paya see 'Irregularities'. The causative retains the suffix throughout the conju­ gation even outside the present system. Initial or medial a (if not long by position) is lengthened in about thirty roots. naś be lost : nāś-áya destroy. mostly lacking the causative meaning. tṛp be pleased : tarp-áya delight .): ard-áya destroy . thus pat jly : pat­áya jly about. vid know : ved-áya causc to know . g. ṛ take Guṇa or Vṛddhi . Several roots. b. leave the radical vowel unchanged . e. ṛd dissolve (intr. e. e. g. cyu waver : cyāv­áya shake . dam control : dam­áya id. rue shine : ruc-áya. ṛ. sar­áya and sār­áya cause to flow . ^. pat jly‚ mad be exhilarated. Final i . d. (but roc-áya illumine). krudh be angry: krodh-áya enrage. k ṣ i possess : 1 kṣay­áya cause to dwell securely .g. I n about twenty­five roots the a always remains short. ū̆. dhvan disappear. e. and pat­ áya cause to jly. jar­áya and jār–áya wear out. which is usually strengthened.

&c. pl. vāsay­iṣyáse thou wilt adorn thyself. such forms are still uncommon except in the ŚB. take paya. ailay­īt from il­áya guiet down . (p. and present participle forms are common . that is. dhvanay­īt from dhvan­áya envelope.CAUSATIVE 168] 1 197 2 gation (132). vāray­iṣyáte will shield. I n B. a few perf. dhāray­iṣyáti will support. Three causatives i n the AV. Irregularities. mádáyaite . shorten the ā before paya : jña­páya cause to know. . I n B. 3). is mādayādhvai. desideratives are formed from about a dozen causative stems . 2) : trayay­ā́ y ya to be 3 4 guarded. There are also three is aorists formed from the causative stem: vyathay–īs from vyath­áya disturb .). f Of nominal derivatives the following are examples : a pres. Subjunctive. but the optative is very rare in the active and does not occur at all in the middle. In the perfect only one periphrastic form (139. i n ṛ o r i . 2 3 4 . a. Four roots i n vowels other than a. 9 a) occurs : gamayā́ṃ cakā́ r a (AV. imperfect. mid. cod­i­tá impelled. form in ai (except 1. where they are numerous. four gerunds in the A v : arpay­i­tvā́ having delivered up. Reduplicated aorist forms are connected with only six causative stems (p. and from vṛ cover occurs the unique 2.) i n the RV. parti¬ ciples : ghār­i–tá smeared. pass. a few gerundives in āyya (162. form occurring is 3. pass. śra-páya cook. 1. : dūṣay­iṣyāmi I shall spoil. 175. sāday­i­tvā́ having set down.. part. and B. kalpay­i–tvā having arranged. spṛhay­ā́yya desirable. du. sna-páya bathe beside snā-páya (RV. The 2. varaya-dhvāt i n K. 2. Only four future forms occur in the R v and the A v .g.). e. injunctive. r go : ar-páya cause to go . imperative. k ṣ i dwell : kṣe-páya cause to dwell (beside 1 The only du. sraṃsay–i­tvā́ letting fall. i n t ā t occurs i n both v. bhāj­yá­māna . s. ten infinitives in dhyai : nāśayá­dhyai to destroy. 193. and the only mid. panay­ā́ y ya admirable. veś-i-tá caused to enter. di-drāpay-iṣa desire to cause to run. 7) .

d a give : dí-da-sa desire to give . with the single exception of pí-pat-i–ṣa. This s a is never added with a connecting i in the R v . takes paya after dropping its h : ro-paya raise (beside roh.. in the Av. j i conquer and śri resort substitute ā for i : já-páya cause to conquer. j i conquer: jí–gī-ṣa. 1 II. The accent being on the reduplicative syllable. jí-jīv-i-ṣa i n the VS. while that of dus spoil is lengthened : duṣ-áya. even though ending in a consonant. 169. 5. e. owing to its initial labial.g u k . bhú be : bú-bhu-ṣa .kṣay-áya) . about a dozen other roots form their desiderative stem thus . Desideratives. 3 The root bhī fear forms the quite anomalous causative stem bhī-ṣ-áya frighten . ci-kram-1. guh hide : j ú . 2 . The root pṝ fill.ṣ a (62 a. final a is i n three roots reduced (cp. is formed from the root with an accented reduplicative syllable and the suffix sa. the root as a rule remains unchanged . nī lead : ní-nī–ṣa . forms its causative with medial u for ā : pūr-áya fulfil. 171. and ṛ becomes īr . id. 2. bhid cleave : bí-bhit-sa . The vowel of grabh grasp is weakened by samprasāraṇa : gṛbh-áya grasp .’ The desiderative is formed from fewer than sixty roots in the Saṃhitās and from more than thirty additional ones in B. The desiderative. k ṛ make: cí– kīr-ṣa. g. 69 a) . 4. which is the least common of the secondary conjugations. I n B. But 1. final i and u are lengthened. g. vi-vid-i-ṣa (vid know). and jí-gam-i-ṣa in the TS. the root ruh rise. I t is inflected like verbs of the first conjugation (132). nor. śrā-páya raise. ^e.. This is probably to be explained by the assumption that the original form of these roots was p ai and pyai. g. The roots p ā drink and pyā swell add aya with interposed y : pay-áya cause to drink and pyāy-áya fill up. 3) to ī and in 1 I n B. dṛś see : dídṛk-ṣa. śru hear: śú-śrū-ṣa . e.áya). ji-grah–ī–ṣa.

Special Rule of Reduplication. e. 170. note 4. which appears in all stems except those formed from roots contain­ ing ū̆ (which reduplicate with u) . are similarly formed dhīkṣa (dah burn). 1 Also dhīpsa in B. l í p . sah prevail lose their initial radical consonant and their vowel : dí-p-sa ( = d í [ d a ] b h sa). H aifa dozen roots containing ā or a shorten the radical syllable by a kind of syncopation : dā give and dhā put lose their vowel : dí­t­sa ( = dí­d[a]­sa) beside dí­da­sa . Five roots w i t h medial a followed by m or n lengthen the vowel : gam go : jí­gāṃ–sa . 2. p. 1 2 3 a. I n B. pitsa (pad go). dha put : dí­dhi­ṣa (beside dhít­sa). śak be able. bhū be : bú­bhū­ṣa. The characteristic reduplicative vowel is i . hā go forth : jí­hī­ṣa . Irregularities.lí[la]bh-sa). the radical initial reverts to the original guttural : cí­kī­sa. prī love: pí­prī­ṣa. dabh harm. 171.) . j i conquer. but guh hide: jú­guk­ṣa. ripsa (rabh grasp). āp obtain and ^dh thrive (treated as ardh) contract the redupli­ cated i with the radical initial to ī : ī́p–sa ( = í­āp­sa) and rrt­sa ( ­­­­­ í­ardh­sa). Cp. pa drink: pí­pī­ṣa (beside pí­pa­sa) .DESIDERATIVES 169­17l] 199 one to i : g ā go: jí­gī­ṣa (SV. labh take. van win and san gain drop the nasal : ví­vā­sa and sí­sā­sa. sī́k­ṣa‚ with lengthened reduplicative vowel (­­­ sí[sa]k­sa).s a (--. Also līpsa in B. cí­kit­sa‚ jf­gī­ṣa. vṛt turn: ví­vṛt­sa . dbí­t­sa ( = dí–dh[ā]–sa) beside dí­dhi­ṣa . śík-ṣa ( = śí[śa]k–ṣa). 3. 193. dhvṛ injure. han smite : jí­ghāṃ­sa (66 A 2) . cit perceive. man think lengthens the reduplicative vowel also : mī́–māṃ–sa (66 A 2) . han slay. 2 3 . mis mix: mí­mik–ṣa. jyā oveṛpower : jí-jya­sa. 4. 1. I n ci note. jí­ ghāṃ­sa. after interchange of semivowel and vowel to ur‚ lengthens its u : dú­dhur­ṣa. g.

1. Inj. 3. sing. The two roots w i t h initial vowel aś eat and edh increase form their desiderative stem with the reduplicative vowel in the second syllable : aś-iś-i-ṣa (B. vívāset. Three roots reduplicate with a long vowel: tur cross ( = tṝ) : tu-tur-ṣa . I n one form from āp obtain the reduplication is dropped altogether : ap-santa. 3. act. On the other hand the reduplicative syllable is reduced i n the desiderative f yaj saeri/ice and naś attain by loss of the initial consonant : í-yak-ṣa (for yí–yak-ṣa) and í-nak-sa (for ní-nak–ṣa). 2. 3. 3. 3. vívāsāmi. 6. 1. vívāsa and vívāsatāt. ávivāsat. Subj. sing. sing. 3. ávivāsan. act. act. act. act. PI. vívāsate. 3. With lengthening of the radical vowel. vívāsata. 2. vívasamāna. Pl. vívāsatam. Mid. ávivāsas. bādh oppress : bī-bhat–sa . vívāsatu. I n the inflexion of the desiderative all the moods of the present system. The forms occurring. besides the imperfect. 3. 1. vívāsāni. Impv. sing. act. vívāseyam.) and ed-idh-i-ṣa (vs.) be hungry. sing. vívāse¬ ma. are represented. vívasant. ghas eat changes its final s to t (66 B 1) : jí-ghāt-sa (Av. vívāsān. 3. 1. vívāsante. vívāsasi. if made from ví-vā-sa desire to win. I. 2. vívasantu. Du. vívāsāmas. 3. 2. vívāsanti.5. 3. vívāse. and of present participles more than twenty-five examples are met with. 2. vívāsanta. though not fully . Opt. 3. would be : Present ind. vívāsati. Mid. 1. 3. PI. 1. act. 1 2 a. M id.). Pl. vivāsathas. vívāsase. 2. sing. . Part. PI. 1. vívāsatas. Pl. vívāseya. vívāsaI. Du. sing. Impf. pl. M id. vívāsāmahe. vívāsāt. vívāsatām. 1 2 With shortening of the radical vowel. 2. sing. man think : mī-māṃ-sa. 3. 3.

né­nek­ti. dhīkṣ-i-tá (dah burn). Intensives (Frequentatives). a­mīmāṃs­iṣ­ṭhās. I I I . is aorists from half a dozen desiderative stems occur . 1 I n B. The formation is restricted to roots with initial consonants.DESIDERATIvES 171­172] 201 1 a. The primary type. didnyās-i-tavyā (dhyá think). being formed from over ninety roots in the Saṃhitās. which is rare. g. nij wash : 3. I t is inflected. These verbs are meant to convey intensification or frequent repetition of the action expressed by the simple root. 12 e). two i ṣ aorists i n the AV. has two forms. pass. also jijyuṣ–i–tá (jīv live). adds the personal endings imme­ diately to the reduplicated stem (accented on the first syllable in strong forms : App. like a verb of the third or reduplicated class (132) . g. jijnās–yā (jnā know). and about twenty­five others in the Brahmaṇas. Outside the present system only two desiderative verbal forms have been met with. governing a case. adds accented yá in the same way as the passive (154) to the reduplicated stem. 172. of which a peculiar form of strong reduplication is characteristic. They are common. The secondary form.­ Three participial forms have also been noted : the perf. The stem. e. I n B. : á­cikits­īs and ī́rts­īs. a­jighāṃs­īs.. They have the value of a pres. part. One or two simple and periphrastic futures also occur i n B„ as titikṣ­iṣyate (tij be sharp). over a dozen verbal adjectives formed with u from the desiderative stem occur i n the RV. mīmāṃs­i­tá3 and the gerundives didrkṣ­éṇya worthy to be seen and śuśrūṣ­éṇya worthy to be heard. g. part. 4 III. śuśruṣ-i-tá (śrū hear). in both active and middle. also līps–i-tavya (labh take). I n B. iyakṣ­ú wishing to sacrifice. e. like the passive . vij tremble : ve­vij­yá­te trembles violently. Finally. ^ 2 3 4 . nor is it ever applied to derivative verbs. aips­īt‚ aips­iṣ­ma. g. e. periphrastic perfect forms from five or six desiderative stems have been noted. I n B. which is by far the commonest. didṛkṣ­i­tā́ r as (dṛś see). I t is conjugated in the middle only. e. sing.

3. 2. e. More than a dozen roots with medial a (ending in mutes or sibilants. b. ṛ or ú. jambh chew up : jañ­jabh . gam go : gan-i-gam (but gan-i-gm-at) . . e. 2. dhṛ hold : da­dhṛ . s. hṛṣ be excited : jar­hṛṣ . nī lead : ne-nī . 173. bhū be : ho-bhū. dyut shine : dav-i-dyut. g. . gam go : jan­gam (beside ja­gam). 3. jóhav-ī-tn . han slay : ghan-ī–ghan . and one in m) as well as three with final r. e. A l l ether roots containing ṛ (dṛ and dhṛ also alter­ natively) and those with medial a followed by r. car move : car­car . an or am . al. 1. I. diś point : de-diś . cā́ k aś-ī-ti . and the 2. kṛ com¬ memorate : car­kṛ and car­kir . krand cry out : kan-i-krand and kan-i-krad . This ī is found in the 1. skand leap : kan-i-ṣkand and can-i-ṣkad . gṛ wake : jā­gṛ . interpose an ī (or i if the vowel would be long by position) between the reduplicative syllable and the root . and impI. g. or a nasal. pat fall : pā-pat .a. ind. impI. phar scatter : par­phar . Radical a and ṛ are reduplicated in two ways : a. 3. dhú shake : dav-i-dhv . Special Rules of Reduplication. 3. daṃś bite : dan-daś . g. impv. á­johav­ī­t. reduplicate with ar. dṛ split : dar­dṛ and dar­dir (beside dā–dṛ) . Over twenty roots with final or penultimate nasal. cā́kaś-ī-mi. The primary intensive optionally inserts ī between the root and terminations beginning with consonants. s. dhṛ hold : dar­dnṛ (beside dā–dhṛ) . reduplicate with a : kāś shine : cā-kaś . 3. d ṛ split : da–dṛ . nu praise : no-nu . e. ind. tan thunder : taṃ–stan (66 A 2). cakaśī-hI. Radical ī̆ and ū̆ are reduplicated with the respective Guṇa vowels e and o . cal stir : cal­cal (beside cā­cal) . also cal stir : cā–cal. act. impv. kṛṣ drag : car­kṛṣ . act. g. gam go : ja–gam . vṛt turn : var-ī-vṛt . nu praise : nav–ī-nu . śuc shine : śo-śuc . bhṛ bear : bhar– ī-bhṛ .

3. 2. nénij­a­n. nénij­ati. vāś bellow : vā-vaś. car move : car­cur beside car­car . ind. nénij­aite. sing. act. 1. bādh oppress : bā-badh . k ṛ make has both kar­i­kr and car­i­kṛ . 3 6 1 I n B. nénij­a­nta. sing. The intensive of this root occurs only i n the participle karikr­át and carikr­át. Pres. a. nenij­mási. 2. Mid. thus gr swallow : jar­gur and jal­gul . gāh plunge. 2. 9 3 4 5 6 . ne– nik­tás. PI. The only form occurring in this person has the interposed i and strong radical syllable : tar­tar­ī­thas. I n a few roots containing ṛ or r the radical syllable varies . with a nasal: j a ñ ­ g a h . nének­ti‚ nénej­ī­ti. 1. Du. 3. Subj. act. sing. This root shows the same peculiarity in the perfect (139. bhṛ bear and bhur quiver. bādh oppress. 1 2 3 4 4 A. nénij­ate. w i t h its final m u t e : bad­badh (beside bā­badh) . jar­gur. 1. Roots with initial guttural. né­ nek­ṣi. 3. also jañ–jap–yá–te (jap mutter). thus krand cry out : kan­i­krand . nénij­ā­ma. 3. bhur and gur greet reduplicate u with a : jar­bhur. nenik­thás. 1. skand leap has both kan­i­skand and can­i­ṣkad. han (for ghan) slay : ghan­ī­ghan .INTENSIVES 174] 203 1. nenij­más. The only form actually occurring in this person is jaṅghán­āni (accented like the subj. 1. nénej­mi. nénij­ a–I. PI. Pl. 3. nenij­é. i f interposing ī̆ before the root. nénij­āni. with a palatal : jar­bhr. du. 4). Du. would be the following : 1. Mid. jar­bhur . nénij–āte. The forms of the primary type that occur. reduplicate with the same guttural . 3. 2. Du. The root ṛ go reduplicates with al : al­ar (dissimilation) . t ṝ cross : tar­ tur beside tar­tar. 3. nenik­té. H ere also vah carry re­ duplicates with n (together with interposed ī) though there is no trace of a nasal i n the root : van­ī­vān­yáte. if made from nij wash. The radical vowel is shortened i n roots with medial ā : kāś shine : cā-kaś . 174. PI. 3. of the reduplicating present). nénij­a­s.rre^ularitie^. b. nénej­ī­mi. nénij­ā­va. 3. 1. 3. This is the only example of such reduplication. gam go : gan–ī–gam .

). There are four act. 4 1 I n B. 3. yóyuv-āna (yu join). has no impv. A causa­ tive intensive appears once in the participial form var­ī­varj–áyant­ī twisting about. MS. There is besides the perf. 3.. 3.. part. From nam bend. mid. ja­gṛ­yāma (vS. jā́ g r­at. The RV. also. as cākaś-ī-hi‚ johav-ī-tu. 1. Of the participle over forty stems occur. 4. járbhur­āṇa. á-cākaś-am. á­ dardir­ur.). marmṛj­má.. 6.). The 3. Made from jāgṛ these would be : sing. Mid. Opt. jāgṛ­tá. s. jāgar­ī­hi. jāgṛ­tā́ m . náv­ī­no­t. á­nonav­ur. only three of them being middle. PI. Examples are: act. jāgṛ­tā́ t . jāgri­yāma (TS. sársr-āṇa. mármṛj­ata. Outside the present system few intensive forms occur. mid. jā́ g ar­tu. 1. Du. á–nan–na–ta. 2. yoyāv­a (yu separate : MS. dáv­i­dyot. perfect intensives with present sense : sing. s. Pl. for á-nannan-ta. s. Du. á­johav­ī­t. 3. A few examples occur i n B. also occur the causative stems from intensives jāgar–áya and dādhār-áya (dhṛ hold). á–dardar. TS. dándaś-āna. and Vs. sing. jáṅghan­at. have a few i n the 2. about two­thirds of them being active. occurs the 2. á­dediṣ­ṭa.’ 5. á­carkṛṣ­ur. nenij­īta occurs in K. form nenik–ṣva ( √ nij). pl. 3. cékit­at. Fewer than thirty forms of this tense occur. róruv– at . 3.). 2 3 4 . 2. 3. No certain forms occur in the R v and only two active forms in other Saṃhitās: sing. I n B. 3.. 2. 1. About twenty active (but no middle) forms occur. veviṣ­yāt (Av. jāgṛ­ tám. dárdr­at. lelā́ y ­a (lī be unsteady.3. also dodrāv­a (dru run : Ts.). jāgara. Examples of the persons occurring are : Act. Impf. sing. davidhāv­a (dhū shake). with loss of nasal (a = sonant nasal). forms with interposed î. jāgṛ–hi. 2. but the AV. 3. MS. nónav­a (nu praise). 1. 1 3 a. PI. kánikrad­at. jā́ g ar­ī­tu. á­jāgar. Impv. á­dardṛ­tam. á­var­ī­var. jāgā́ r ­a (^7^vo^). 2. nā́ n ad­at.). jagṛ­vā́ ṃ s. mid.

rerih-yá-te. These verbs. I n the Pada text the 1 is usually. inflected like those of the a conjugation (132). final i and u are lengthened . desire. the ū is always. . or ' use as '. 3. 175. ind. and about fifty in the Av. vevī-yáte (vī enjoy). g. They are : Pres. final a usually remains unchanged. be hostile. Pl. thus forming a connecting link between the regular denominatives and the causatives. and 3. be hostile beside arātī­yá‚ and jani­yá seek a wife beside janī­yá . 3. e. marmṛjyánte. besides a few participles. . but is often length­ ened . s. has hardly twenty. tartūr-yánte (√tṛ). thus the A B . 3. The forms of the secondary type. śatrū-yá play the 2 3 enemy (śátru). written short. number only about a dozen. co­ṣkū­yá­se (sku tear). sing.. vevij-yáte. and the ŚB. marmṛj-yá–te. kavī–yá be wise (kavi). ' wishfor’. They occur only in the 2.’ The suffix is normally accented. have the causative accent. ṛjū-yá be straight (ṛjú) . nenī-yá-māna. Before the suffix ya : 1. almost exclusively with the suffix ya. A. are derived. which is indis­ tinguishable from a passive in form. ne–nī–yá-te. Except arāti­yá act like an enemy. 1 Denominatives are less common i n B. 2 3 . to which they express some such relation as ' be or act like '. 2. gātu­yá set in motion (gātú). vasū-yá desire wealth (vásu) .174­175] INTENSIVES 205 B. ' turn into '. carcūr-yá-māṇa (√car). about a dozen. pres. Denominatives. ind. from nouns. I v . ‘ treat as ’. rayī-yá desire wealth (rayí) . More than a hundred denominative stems occur in the RV. 2. pi. it is sometimes changed to ī . Part. such as mantrá-ya utter a prayer. and even dropped . dediśyá-te. marmṛjyá-māna. but a certain number of undoubted denominatives. arthá-ya make an objeet of.

taruṣ­yá engage in fight (tárus). jara-yá treat like a lover. taviṣ­yá be mighty (taviṣá : beside taviṣī­yá). namasyā́­masi. Consonant stems. g. and the forms taruṣe­ma. direct from nominal stems. 3. act. g. 2. and participles of the present system are represented. bhiṣaj­yá play the 2 3 physician. Inflexion. namasyáti. nearly always remain unchanged . has putri­yá. A few denominative forms are made without a suffix. a. yajñā­yá sacrifice . yánti. 3. gopā­yá aet as herdsman. vadhar­yá hurl a bolt (vádhar) . 2 adhvarī­yá perform the sacrifice (adhvará). putrī­yá desire a son (putrá). 1. e. in the only example occurring. taruṣa­nte. The ā may also be dropped : pṛtan­yá fight against. becomes av : gav­yá desire cows. taruṣa­nta (from táruṣa conqueror) beside tarns ­yá. namasyátha. ṛtā­yá observe sacred order (beside ṛtá­ya). e. 2. heal . deva-yá serve the gods. Final o. 1. e. moods. but nearly always beside regular denominatives i n yá . namasyáte. proteet. namas¬ Mid. Du. ­mas. namasyáse. g. 2 3 Even . Pres. 1 W i t h causative accent. the commonest being those in as. 2. ukṣaṇ­yá act like a bull (ukṣán) . g. ind. 2. the saṃhitā text of the AV. sing. namasyā́ m i. 1.1 e. aśvā-yá desire horses. 3. I f made from namas­yá pay homage the forms occurring would be : 1. bhisák­ti from bhiṣáj act as physician beside bhisaj­yá . final a remains unchanged . 3. adhvar­yá perform sacrifice (beside adhvarī­yá). PI. A l l the tenses. namasyé. rathī­yá drive in a car (rátha) . sing. ṛtá–ya act according to sacred order. namasyási. The Pada text i n this and nearly every example has I­yá. pṛtana­yá fight. 3. su­manas­yá be gracious (su­mánas) . 4. namasyáthas. namasyátas. B.

ásūyīt has murmured. 3.) from ūnaya leave unfulfilled (ūna) . 3. opt. ánamasyat. meghāy­iṣyánt about to be cloudy. namasyā́s. kaṇḍúyitá. Du. I n B. 3. 6. 2. 2. Du. 3. á­vṛṣāy­iṣ­ata (VS. namasyés. 2. Mid.) from papaya lead into evil (papa) . PI. pass. śīkay-iṣyánt about to drip. sing. 3. 2. 3. ánamasyata. Mid. Pl. participles and a few gerunds. act. probably = á­sapary­īt) . 3. namasyét. 3. sing. The only finite forms occurring outside the present system are four aorists.) they have accepted. I n j . 5. Mid. ásaparyait (AV. sing. meghitá. namasyántam. 3. namasyā́ s e. 2. act. sing. 1. 2. 3. also occurs the future gopāy-iṣyati. namasyā́.DENOMINATIVES 175] 207 Du. Du. Subj. PI. namasyánte. 2. with the corresponding perf. 3. The TS. s. namasyátam. 2. pā́pay–iṣ–ṭa (TS. a. Part. PI. 3. PI. na¬ masyā́t.) has worshipped (an irregular form. 3. ánamasyan. I n B. namasyá. also occurs the is aor. namasyā́n. 2. 2. namasyádhvam. PI. na¬ masyántu. sing. namasyéta. 2. ūnay­īs (RV. has also the three fut. namasyátām. Mid. namasyásva. Pl. namasyéthe. 3. sing. Impv. namasyā́¬ mahe. participles 1 kaṇḍúy­iṣyánt about to scratch. 4. namasyánt. 3. part. Two are injunctives : s. pl. sing. act. ánamasyethām. 3. there are also a few other past pass. namasyā́tas. ImpI. namasyéte. 7. namasyás. Mid. 2 3 1 I n B. act. PI. 2. 1. 2 3 . Du. 1. śīkitá. and two indicatives : 3. 2. namasyámana. namasyán. namasyátu. namasyā́ t e. namasyáta. ánamasyanta. act. 3. 2. ánamasyas. namasyéma. 3. pl. act. Sing. sing. namasyátam. 3. 3.

Adverbial Prepositions. práti (Gk. came to be connected inde¬ pendently with the cases governed by the verbs thus modified. 7r^pi) around takes the acc. their case. They show no signs of derivation from inflexional forms or (except tirás and purás) forms made with adverbial suffixes. and abl. only. define the local meaning of cases. As a rule these prepositions follow. ánu after. I 7 6 . The accusative is exclusively taken by ácha towards. but secondarily and more frequently the abl. loc. a. in the sense of from (around). The second class has been called adnominal prepositions because they are not compounded with verbs. .. primarily used to modify the meaning of verbs. The first comprises the genuine or adverbial prepositions. trans). 7rpori) against. 1. áti beyond. is only secondary. but also often precede. LaI.. pári (Gk. These are words with a local sense which.CHAPTER V INDECLINABLE WORDS Prepositions. There are fourteen or (if sám is included) fifteen genuine prepositions which. I. the genuine prepositions appear to have been originally connected with the acc. abhí towards. and loc. As their connexion with the abl. They are almost entirely restricted to employment with the acc. primarily. when used independently of verbs. but govern cases of nouns only. They almost invariably end in case terminations or adverbial suffixes. and tirás across (cp. Two classes of prepositions have to be distinguished.

and ace.). i n this sense. or gen.). These prepositions. to. govern oblique cases (except the dat. with acc. and gen. upon. at.). ^7ri) upon and primarily by ádhi upon. parás beyond (also with abl. ā́ on. sākám with.).) independently.). b. more often inst. 2. AbI.PREPOSITIONS 176­177] 209 b.. inter) between. Adnominal Prepositions. and less frequently the loc. between. antár (Lat. Instr. i f preceding. purás before. i t means both from and up to. several adverbial instrumentais expressing situation or direction govern the acc. 3. parás outside (also acc. means to. Several of them govern the genitive and the instrumental. a with ace. up to. at. 2 3 . With the abl. Acc. : sahá with. I n the following list these prepositions are grouped under the cases which they accompany : 1. abhí­tas around. : ántareṇa between.. expressing the goal with verbs of motion..). upári above. úpa to (with verbs of motion) takes the acc. This is almost the only use of ā́ i n B. primarily. antarā́ between. . The ablative seems to he used once or twice indepen¬ dently with áva in the sense of down from. The locative is exclusively taken by ápi (Gk. 177. avás down from 1 I t sometimes also precedes the abl. 3 sanitúr apart from. i t means from (on) . antár with abl. cases that are practically never connected with the genuine prepositions in the SaṃhitāS. úttareṇa to the north of. i f following. in. 2. smád with . ádhi takes the abl. i n C. means from (within) . I n B. secondarily and less commonly i n the sense of from (upon). : adnás below (also with abl. and abl. purás does so without change of meaning. dákṣiṇena to the south of. The last three secondarily take both abl. being adverbs in origin. avás below (also abl. . 2. beyond. sumád with. parí­tas around (AV. a. páreṇa beyond . ávareṇa below. in the sense of beside. : adhás below (also acc. 1 2 3.

There are also some acc. a.). saṃvatsarasya paras tāt after a year. Examples of all the eases appear with adverbial function. návyas­a anew. and pronouns. as adás there. in. 1.(also instr. e. far . Nom. : sácā (in assoeiation) with. adjectives. as āra–m sufficiently. 3. sanutár far from. and comparatives in taram added to verbal prefixes. at. nityám constantly. enā́ in this way . of distance and time . ágram (i) (go) to the front of. nā́ma by name.). Instr. nū­nám now . also not l I n B.). of direction . others from pronominal stems. Loc. bahir­dhā from out. sūktasya purastāt before the hymn . as sáhas­ā forcibly. (e) the acc. e. . 2. e. g. pū́ r vam formerly. dvitī́ya­m secondly. now. náktam by night. rté without. 179. g.) are formed from substantives. the gen. g. sāyám in the evening. is governed by this adverb as well as by paras­tād after. āré far from (also gen. ástam (gam) (go) home . as vi­tarám (kram) (stride) more widely. i­dám here. e. Many ease­forms of nominal and pronominal stems. (d) the acc. Acc. purā́ before. satyám truly . are employed as adverbs. g. . Adverbial Case­forms. 1 5. : these adverbs find their explanation in various meanings of the case. parás apart from (also acc. e. adverbs derived from obsolete nominal stems. often not otherwise in use. Such adverbs were originally used in apposition to the verbal action. (b) the appositional ace . rūpám in form. Gen. g. : prathamá­m firstly. They represent (a) the cognate acc. beside. : adverbs with the ending of this case (sometimes pl. kí­m why yád when. 4. dūrám a long way off. and inst. bhuyas more. before. : purás­tād in front of. They usually express manner or accompanying circumstances.

:theseadverbs are seldom formed from substan­ tives. várāya according to wish (vára choice). 6. uccā́ and uccáis on high. ayā́ thus. duré afar . 5. naktayā́ by night. āsā́t from near. but they are fairly often formed from adjectives. The substantive instrumentais are chiefly formed from feminines in ā not otherwise used. sādhu­y­ā́ straight. The pronominal instrumentais are formed from stems i n a and one i n u . or from pronouns. 4.. tá­tha thus. The adjective instrumentais are formed from stems i n a and a few i n c . urviy­ā́ f ar. cases. . g. viśvá-tha in every way . and loc. 179. anā́ thus. yá–thā in which manner. e. ṛté without. sakṣā́t visibly. amā́ at home. 7. prāc–ā́ forwards. a. paścā́t from behind. There are also several anomalous feminines from steṃs i n u and one or two i n ī . paścā́ behind. Gen. āké near. : the adverbial use of the dat. amā́t from near. ka–thā́ how ?. tā́t thus. as uttarā́ t from the north. e. vástos in the morning.178­­179] ADVERBS 211 infrequently extension of space or time. : thā forms adverbs of manner especially from pronominal stems : á­thā and more commonly (with short­ ened vowel) á­tha then. śánais slowly .. āśu-y-ā́ swiftly. Adverbs formed with Suffixes. The suffixes more or less commonly used in the formation of adverbs may be grouped under the senses expressed by the instr. Loc. g. āré afur. abl. kayā́ how ubhayā́ in both ways . dūrā́ t from afar. raghu­y­ā́ rapidly. A b l . anyá­tha otherwise. ā́t then. as ṛtayā́ in the right way. 1. as arā́t from a distance. astam–īké at home. b. aparī́ ṣ u in future. sanát from of old. as ágreṇa in front. Dat. c. imá­tha in this manner. is rare : aparā́ y a for the future (from ápara later). aktú­bhis by night. yā́t as far as . Instr. i­t­thā́ thus. amu–y­ā́ in that way. e. madnyā́ in the midst. ūrdhvá-thā upwards. : ágre in front. : such adverbs are very rare : aktós by night. g. drv­a by day.

a. dakṣiṇa-tás from the right. I t also appears in a few other adverbs : adhá-s below. i-tás from here. The same suffix. abhí-tas around. vat forms adverbs meaning like from substantives and adjectives . vam appears in e­vám thus. dyú-s (from dyu day) in anyedyú-s next day and ubhaya–dyú–s on both days. a­d­dhā́ (thus =) truly. evá–thā just as. nāmá­thā by name .pūrvá­thā formerly. dví­dhā in two ways. hṛt–tás from the heart . Abl. manu­vát like Manu . trí-s thriee. The suffix ha probably also represents original dhā i n i­há here (Prakrit i­dha). puru­dhā́ variously. śaśva-dhā́ again and again. which appears as the first member of several compounds. va. s forms two or three multiplicative adverbs : dví-s twice. adverbs. g. nouns. mitra­dhā́ in a friendly way . bahu­dhā́ and viśvá-dhā in many ways. ^. śas forms adverbs of manner with a distributive sense : śata-śás by hundreds. pūr¬ va­vát. as. kati­dhā́ how many times. and pronouns : priya­ dhā́ kindly. avá-s downwards. expressing similarity of manner. á­dhā then. and as an independent word assumes the form of sahá with. sama­ha in some way or other. kú­ha where ? viśvá-ha and viśvá­hā always. ṛtu-śás season by season. purāṇa­vát. e. tham is similarly used in it­thám thus and ka­thám how dhā forms adverbs of manner from numerals or cognate words : eka–dhā́ singly. sahasra-śás by thousands. : tas forms adverbs in the ablative sense from pronouns. pratna­vát as of old. with its vowel shortened. ṛtn­thā́ regularly. I t also forms adverbs from a few nouns. bahir­dhā́ outward . the later form of evá. and e­vá (often e­vā́) thus. 2. forms the two adverbs i­va like. amú-tas thenee. á-tas hence. parí-tas . pratná–thā as of old . g. śreṇi–śás in rows . forms sa­dha (in one way =) together. mat-tás from me . e. manma-śás each as he is minded. deva-śás to each of the gods. and prepositions . parva-śás joint by joint.

else . kím aṅgá how else. asma­trā́ among us. viśva-dā́ ­ nīm always. only. There are also various miscellaneous adverbs. sense (sometimes merging into the loc. purás­tāt in or from the front . viśvá­tra everywhere. dam occurs beside dā in sá­dam always . ISO. ka­dā́ when ? ta­dā́ then. pur­ás before . ya­da at what time. g. hásta ā́ dakṣiṇatrā́ in the right hand. and dā­nīm‚ an extended form of da. prā́ k –tāt from the front. anyá-tra elsewhere. g. — just. g. just because . e. sa­trā́ in one place. adhás­tāt below . pur­ā́ before. formed w i t h other suffixes of rare occurrence . yó angá just he who . i n i­dā́–nīm now. : as forms adverbs chiefly of a local or temporal sense : tir­ás aeross. e. e. These adverbs are sometimes equivalent to ablatives . also mith-ás wrongly. aṅgá emphasizes a preceding word (sometimes separated from it by short particles like hí and īm) in such a way as to express that the action especially or exclusively applies to that word. hy-ás yesterday .179­180] ADvERBS 213 round about. why else ? . These adverbs are sometimes used as equivalents of locatives. ārā́ t ­tāt from afar . e. śv-ás to-morrow. g. deva­trā́ among the gods. g. mostly of obscure origin. Conjunctive and Adverbial Particles. ta­dā́ ­ nīm then. a. sa­dív­as and sa­dy­ás to–day. sá­dā and sarva­da always. áto bhū́ y as more than that. of ta that) forms adverbs with an abl. puru­trā́ in many places. dā forms adverbs of time almost exclusively from pro­ nominal roots : i­dā́ now. Loc. trā or tra forms adverbs with a local sense. tāt (an old abl. e. paśeā́ ­ tāt from behind . dakṣiṇa­trā́ on the right. ^. par­ás beyond. ^. śayu-trā́ on a couch. 3. bahu­trā́ amongst many . martya­ trā́ among mortals. yád aṅgá just when. míth­u wrongly. tvám aṅgá thou only .) . mostly from pronominal or cognate stems : á-tra here.

With very few exceptions átha begins the sentence or clause.ástam ví páretana having wished her luck. as. átha vaṃ vakṣyami make my husband young again. e. From B. neśan. átha kás tvám i t i I am called the slayer in danger. aháṃ durgé hántā^ity. none incur fracture in a pit. átha mā́ ( = mā ā́) gatam I call you. yádéd ádevīr ásahisṭa mayā́. aṅgá never has this meaning . (and) so . 547). imé sómāso ádhi turváśe. sakhyáṃ te astu. átha i n the sense of also connects substantives. Examples are : marúdbhir. g. Connecting sentences and clauses it expresses a temporal or logical sequence. b. but come back with them uninjured (vI. so come to me (viii. e. 10 ) . This use is common i n B. átha is also occasionally used after gerunds (which are equivalent to an antecedent clause) : sáubhāgyam asyai dattvaya^. Soma became exclusively his (vii. O Indra. mā́ k ir mákīṃ riṣan. then go home (x. I t often corresponds to a yádā when or hí since. in the antecedent clause.a. huvé vām.). a. átha.. mā́kīṃ sáṃ śāri kévaṭe.) . átra sometimes occurs as the correlative to yád when . 98^) . let none suffer harm. áthemā́ víśvāḥ pṛ́ t anā jayāsi befriends with the Maruts. 96 ) . then thou shalt win all these battles 7 (viii.).g. occurs chiefly in the more recent hymns of the RV. I t may generally be translated by (and) then. and entirely supplants the older doublet in the later Vedas. especially after a negative. then I shall tell you (ŚB.. . 85 3). but it sometimes there begins a sentence with an adhortative sense. athā́ b havat kévalaḥ sómo asya when he had overcome the 5 godless wiles. a collateral form of ádha. prá vo ­tra sum¬ nám aśyām when all the gods shall rejoice in it. but this use 3 represents an abridged sentence . áthā́riṣṭā¬ bhir ā́ gahi let none be lost. where i t also occurs after present participles and locatives absolute. then may I obtain your favours. I n B. but who are you ? (TS. víśve yád asyāṃ raṇáyanta devā́ḥ. when there is a contrast. : pátiṃ nú me púnaryuvāṇaṃ kurutam. it is equivalent to but. indra. accentuating the verb : aṅgá no yajñáṃ vyācákṣva pray explain the sacrifice to us (MS.átha^.

Like the latter it means then. From B. I n B. Some¬ times used like an adjective. O mighty one. from afar (ill. átha also connects the verbs of a compound relative clause : yásya pitā́ pitāmaháḥ púṇyaḥ syā́d. .). prepare (anything) . ádha. then the grandson (ŚB. beside Yadu. and almost exclusively. From B. and also. átha tán n á prāpnuyā́ t whose father and grandfather are pious. c. : sám inddha ā́ nakhébhyo 'tho lómabhyaḥ he kindles himself completely up to his nails and also his hair (^B. in the earlier hymns. moreover: arvaváto na ā́ gahy átho. as compared with átha.). 14 átho ( = átha u) generally means and also. : idáṃ hí pitā́ ^ evá^. e..ágré 'tha putré 'tha páutraḥ for here first comes the father. ápi meaning also. him too I call (x. and . and even . : tád dhaitád ápy ávidvāṃsa āhuḥ even those who do not know say this (śB .). ádha occurs in the RV. . it is construed with the dative . ádha nú just now . e. śakra. but who cannot attain to this (TS. but. sā́ s mai^áram it is ready for him. according to (your) mind for you two (i. 2 In combination with k ṛ it means serve. ádha dvitā́ and that particularly . áram mánase yuvᬠbhyām such let this Soma be (for you) to drink. when there is a contrast. áthc sometimes has the sense of but also.) . expressing both a temporal and a logical sequence .yádau. 437). parāvátaḥ come to us from 11 near.. From B. adyā́ p i even to­day (AB. .). 37 ). I n B. imé káṇveṣu vām átha these Somas are beside Turvaśa. átho ápi trī́ ṇ i syuḥ there are two of them. áram is an adverb meaning suitably. 4 púnar yán táruṇīr ápi Agni tires not of chewing plants. now at last . 19 ) .ádha both. in readiness. but there may also be three (sB. a. ádha sma especially then. then the son. tā́van ayáṃ pā́tave sómo astu. only. even generally precedes the word it emphasizes: yó gopā́ ápi táṃ huve he who is the herdsman. (they are) also beside the Kaṇvas for you (viii.). 9 ). óṣadhīr bápsad agnír ná vāyati. 108 ) . té vái dvé bhavataḥ . Unlike átha it is never used with u. g.. g. returning even to the young ones (viii.

e.g. just as a lover a sleeping 3 maiden (I. or is indicated by the particles átha. serve. kó vo várṣiṣtha ā́. u‚ or t ú . áha in the RV. 37 ).) áha is thus used with the first of two vā's . this use of áha is still found. 142^) . turned hither it advances men (ŚB. the verb of the first being then nearly always accented. trír ā́ diváḥ three times each day (I. with gam. indeed. of the pronoun a— from or after that) is used as an adverb expressing sequence of time ^ thereupon. g. naraḥ who is the very mightiest of you. or sometimes even ordinary adjectives and substantives . g. with bhū. words expressive of number or degree. heroes? (i. accrue (to any one) suitably or sufficiently. nā́ha not at all (i. I n B. I t also appears after other emphasizing particles such as íd. ā́ (otherwise a preposition) appears in V. yásyā́ha śakráḥ sávan¬ 2 3 eṣu ráṇyati in the pressings of whomsoever the mighty one rejoices (x. álam. while the antithesis i n the second sentence is either not expressed at all. e. substantive. is there often similarly used .). often as a correlative to yád. a. sometimes to the relative when equivalent to those conjunctions : yadéd áyukta harítaḥ sadhásthad ā́d rā́trī . utó. Sometimes ( i n MS. and Ts. Its sense may generally be expressed by surely. always taking the dative.for. certainly. adverb. But here i t generally occurs i n the first of two slightly antithetical sentences.). 5l ) .. sā́ nā́lam ā́hutyā āsa nā́laṃ bhakṣā́ya it was not jit for offering. and AV. emphasizes a preceding word whether it he verb. īm. adjective. then. 134 ). ā́d (originally an abl. párācy áha devébhyo yajñáṃ váhaty arvā́ c ī manuṣyan avati turned away it takes the sacrifice to the gods . Examples of its use are: kvā́ha where pray? (x. g.). in the sense of completeness. e. or preposition. nor fit for consuming (ŚB. or merely by stress. prá b o d h a y ā púraṃdhiṃ jará ā́ 6 sasatī́m iva awake the wise man. 147 ) . kásya vā́ h edáṃ śvé bhavitā́ kásya vā this will to­morrow belong either to the one or the other (MS. fairly often emphasizing. e. 43^). yada or yádi when. the form i n which the preceding word appears i n B. ghéd. just. pronoun.

indra. c. I n B. ā́d is often followed by íd‚ when i t means just then. w i t h which i t is employed. 33 ).vāsas tanute as soon as he has yoked his steeds from their stall. The particle generally concludes the Speech and is followed by the verb : yá índrāya sunávāma^íti^ā́ h a who says ' we will press Soma for Indra ’ (iv. 25 ) . b. moreover : asáu ca yā́ na urvárā^‚ā́ d imā́ ṃ tanvāṃ máma that jield of ours and this my body (viii. are more numerous : t á t h ā ^ i t i devā́ abruvan 'yes'. the verbs of saying and thinking. O Indra. 100^). néndro asti^íti néma u tva aha ' Indra does not exist ’ one and another says (viii. then more than ever. I t sometimes connects words and clauses in the sense of and.). ' who are the strong ones? ’ (viii. a. when i t means then. . 4 5 1 1 1. k á ugrā́ ḥ he asked his mother. then the charioteer overspread the two worlds with light (ii. Very rarely both í t i and the verb precede the speech: ví pṛchad íti mātáraṃ. pray : k í m ā́d ámatraṃ sakhyám how mighty then is the friendship ^ (iv. 17­). Less commonly the verb precedes : jyeṣṭhá āha camasā́ dvā́ k a r a ^ í t i the eldest said ' I will make two cups ' (iv. áhan prathamajā́ m áhīnām. The verb is occasionally omitted : tváṣṭā duhitré vahatúṃ kṛṇoti^íti^idáṃ víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ sám eti 'Tvaṣṭṛ prepares a wedding for his daughter’ (thinking) thus this whole world comes together (x. too. d. said the gods (ŚB. yád. only that íti regularly follows and seems seldom to be omitted . Unless used with interrogatives. then at once. 115 ). the use of íti is much the same. 17 ). I t is sometimes used with interrogatives. which have sometimes to be supplied. ā́d almost invariably begins the Pada. ā́d ródasī jyótiṣā váhnir ā́tanot 4 now (who =) when he surpassed all beings. 9 l ) . ádhā yó viśvā bhúvanābhy ávardhata. 23 ). ā́n māyínām ámināḥ prétá māyā́ ḥ when. 77 ). Thus a principal sentence as direct speech is used with íti where in other languages a subordinate sentence would be employed. 32 ). then night spreads her garment (i. thou didst slay the firstborn of the serpents and then didst bring to nought the wiles of the wily (I. 6 4 6 íti thus is used with verbs of speaking and thinking.

then so. i­d) is a very common particle in the R v .ágre kṛṣati^átha^íti^. s a d ṛ ́ ś ī r adyá s a d ṛ ́ ś ī r íd u śváḥ alike to-day.íti (ŚB. itthā́ primarily means so : gántā nūnáṃ . d. 123^). ‘the divine Ādityas' (^B. 104^) . c. b.) he swore (that) ‘ 1 will dwell with all equally ’ ( that he would). átha iti^átha^íti^átha^. Very often the quotation is only an appellative that may be expressed by inverted commas : yā́ṃs tv ^tád devā́ ādityā́ íti^. stem i . . sometimes by even . g. Lat.) so he first draws the furrow. so come ye now (i. is much less frequent in the AV.). Sometimes i t i is used at the end of an enumeration to express that i t forms a well­known aggregate : etad vai śiraḥ samṛddhaṃ yasmin prāṇo vāk cakṣuḥ śrotram i t i th^t is a complete head in which are breath. 397) . alike even to-morrow (i. Secondarily i t comes to mean (just so as it should be=) truly : kṛṇóti^asmai várivo yá itthā́ ^ índrāya sómam usaté sunóti he (Indra) gives ease to him that truly presses Soma for Indra who desires it (iv.a­cáksate whom they call thus . including the finite verb (which it accents). then so (-^ as you see). then so. and is comparatively rare in B. then so. this by day (i. O Bounteous One (i. . speech. ear (KB. 24 ^) . sometimes a conjunction is introduced before the quotation that ends with íti. and may usually be rendered by just or stress only. yáthā purā́ ^ itthā́ as before. The particle is also often used i n a special sense with reference to a ritual act to indicate how i t is done : íti^.. 32 ). also some additional uses : a. 16 íd (n. When the verb is 1 6 1 I n classical Sanskrit i d survives only i n the compound particle ced if = ca-id. of the pren. t á d í n n á k t a ṃ t á d íd dívā máhyam āhuḥ this is what they tell me by night. eye.). syā́ma i d índrasya śármaṇi may we be in Indra's care (i. 4 ) . ádha smā no maghavañ carkṛtā́ d ít then especially think of us.. I n this sense the word is sometimes used like an adjective : ittha sákhi¬ bhyah for (those who are truly =) true friends (iii. but without changing the construction : sá rtám abravīd yáthā sárvāsv evá samā́ v ad vásāni^íti (Ms.’ I t emphasizes preceding words of all kinds. satyám itthā́ truly so (vlii. 24^).2. e. There are i n B. 33^).

I t means as if.. I n B . 28 ). 1037) . O Indra. This use of iva is rare in V. sá naḥ pitā́ ^ iva sūnáve ágne sūpāyanó bhava as such be accessible to us. but com­ paratively rare in B. dvíṣo no áti nāvā́ ^ iva pāraya take us across our foes as [across the ocean] in a ship (i. O Indra. : tásmāt sá babhruká iva hence he (is as 3 . mortar (i. indra. The comparison is usually complete.ín nunáṃ tád ās a now thus it came to pass (ŚB. yā́ p rá^. iva is an enclitic particle with two uses : 1.). O Agni. This employment of iva is very common in V. lei ). tád. tátha^. 22^ ) . 97 ) .iva vīryáṃ cakartha that heroic deed.) . but not infrequently it is only partially expressed. adverbs. 947) . indra. I ) . I t follows the word with which comparison is made . Examples are : ihá^iva śṛṇve I hear close at hand as it were (i. as the sea the earth (AB. the particle regularly follows the preposition. never introducing a clause like yáthā. the drops shed by the 1 a.compound. 2. t á t padáṃ paśyanti divtva cákṣur ā́tatam they see that step like an eye fixed in 9 heaven (I.). 146 ) . prepositions or verbs. not the verb itself: ulū́ k hala­sutānām áva^íd v. 37 ) . Examples of this use are: duré cit sán taḷíd ivā́ti rocase even though far away. like in abbreviated similes in appo­ sition. i f the comparison consists of several words. jalgulaḥ gulp eagerly down. meaning as it were.iva náśyasi who (as it were — ) almost losest thyself (i. as a father to his son 9 (I.. the particle is similarly used : n á tā́ í t sadyô ­nyásmai áti diśet he should not assign (just those -^) the same (cows) to another on the same day (ŚB. yádi tán ná^iva háryatha if ye are not ^uite pleased with that 3 1 (i. I t modifies a statement not intended to be understood in its strict sense. tābhī rājānaṃ parigṛhya tiṣṭhati samudra iva bhúmim with these he ke^s 7 embracing the king. thou didst perform (as it were— ) ^uite pre­eminently (I. I t chiefly follows adjectives. less commonly the second. prá^. as. thou shinest brightly as if near at hand (i. but very common in B. From B. the particle generally follows the first.

e. or optative used in an impv. a. With verbs it expresses the immediate commencement of an action : with a present — now. 47) . ā́^īm āśúm āśáve bhara bring him. I t either takes the place of a noun. or is accompanied by other pronouns (tám. the swift. 32 ) . enam. with kíṃ caná (nothing at all) . 56 ). I t is employed deictically with verbs and pronouns. upári^iva vái tád yád ūrdhváṃ nā́ b heḥ above may be called what is higher than the navel (ŚB. ú ṣú being = instantly. only. of the pron. with a past tense = just . sense — at once . are the radiant men ? (vii. g. her.) . sing. injunctive. before a single consonant. enān) . especially in the second syllable of a Pāda. or prepares for a following noun. with interrogatives (who. yám. root i) occurs in v . sú is here very often added. 103 ) 5 3 when it has rained upon them that longed (for rain). : 1. to the 11 swift (i. with an imperative. du. 144 ) . and is almost restricted to the were—) may be called brown (^B. I t is generally employed as an acc. yá īṃ bhávanti 17 ājáyaḥ whatever conflicts take place (vii. g. tán na sárva iva^abhiprá padyeta not exactly every one should have access to that (ŚB. 24) with a preceding a or ā (mostly the final of particles or prepositions. already . the particle regularly follows the . pray ?). pray. also of the pron. I t often appears contracted to o (cp. yád īm enān uśató abhy ávarṣīt (vii. or pi. sometimes even as an acc. īm (an old enclitic acc.) . eṣā́. īm also appears as a generalizing particle with relatives (whoever). it.) . 1 u is an enclitic particle. rebhati^iva he seems to chatter (AB. ā́ gachanti^īm ávasā they come to him with aid (I. tám īṃ hinvanti dhītáyaḥ him devotions impel (i. e. 85 ) . When the verb is accom­ panied by a preposition. ká īṃ vyàktā náraḥ who. often written ú where the metre requires or favours a long syllable. sometimes of verbal forms). with yád (whenever). of all genders = him. 2.). I t has two main uses in the RV. 1.

18 ). yám u dviṣmás tám u prāṇó jahātu may he who hates us fall downward. would he ojrer if he were not to milk out the sacrifice like a cow ^ (MS. but simply adding some similar quality or activity with reference to the same thing = and also. The u sometimes appears in both sentences. ^. i^ they conquer us (Ts. embraces all this universe (ii. 34 ) . b. ká u śravat who. tváṃ trātā́ tvám u no vṛdhé bhūḥ thou be 2 5 our protector. whom also we hate. will hear ? (iv. 11 . by day (i. Lord of Prayer. e. O Agni. 178 ). vayáṃ náktaṃ havāmahe we call thee by day to the pressed Soma. and interrogative pronouns. 43 ). be for our increase (i. idám u no bnaviṣyati yádi no jeṣyánti this at least will remain to us. our neighbouring foes (iii. 1 a. and he. 46 ) . in the sense of also . too. vásiṣṭho dvā́rāv ṛtásya subhage vy ā̀vaḥ this Vasiṣṭha has opened 6 for thee. the god. I t is sometimes used without referring back definitely. but not infrequent with interrogatives . 53 ). g. this use is very rare with deictic pronouns. aśvinā. ) . when a word (usually the first) is repeated in the second. 2. t r í r u. Examples of its use are : úd u tyáṃ jatávedasaṃ deváṃ vahanti ketávaḥ his beams now bear aloft the god that knows all creatures (i. kím u sá yajñéna yajeta yó gam iva yajñáṃ ná duhītá what sort of sacrifice. when it may be translated by pray . we also by night (viii. ábhūd u bhā́ḥ the light has just 1 19 arisen (i. ayám u te. e. 24 ). dívā thrice by night ye come. pray. thou. I t emphasizes deictic pronouns. g. O bountiful Sarasvatī. sarasvati. g.latter. e. has extended himself widely to the gods. the two doors of sacrifice (vii. pray. sá devó devā́n práti paprathe pṛthú.). The repeated word need not always have the same form : yó no dvéṣṭy ádharaḥ sás padīṣṭa. 50 ) . O Aśvins. sometimes in the first only: vayám u tvā dívā suté. g. and . 64^). víśvéd u tā́ paribhū́r bráh¬ maṇas pátiḥ he. trír náktaṃ yāthás. 95 ) . tápa^u ṣv āgne ántarān amítrān burn 2 instantly. The particle u is used anaphorically to connect sen­ tences. This use of u with verbal forms does not seem to be found i n B. I n B. 21 him too let his breath forsake (iii. which may then be rendered by stress. thrice also. e. a.

and Varuṇa (il. he becomes a worshipper of the ^īanes.). 34 ). this is the sum of what is divided into five parts (ŚB. utá (like u) follows the repeated word : tríḥ sau¬ bhagatváṃ trír utá śrávāṃsi naḥ thrice (grant) us prosperity and thrice fume (I. pṛthivī́ m u t á dyā́m éko dādhā́ r a who alone has supported heaven and earth (i. yády v aśnā́ t i de van áty aśnāti if he does not eat. ^. Mitra. . A slight contrast is expressed by u i n the second sentence : yádi naśnā́ t i pitṛdevatyô bhavati. but if he does eat. similarly used are the phrases t á d u ha smāha with reference to this he used to say. pā́ ṅ ktaḥ paśúḥ. in return bring hither with devotions (i.). u t á comes after the last . 77 ). the sacri/ice isfive/old. e. them on the contrary they speak of to me (as) men (i. When there is an enumeration of more than two objects. tásmād vā́ índro 'bibhet. with the demonstrative t á corresponding to the relative y á — again.cattle are fivefold the seasons of the year are five . v á r u ṇ a ^ u t á O Aditi.). . tásmād u tváṣṭābibhet of that Indra was afraid. g. e. Used i n combination with kím. expresses a contrast — on the contrary. or.g. connecting two or more words or sentences. 16 2 a.. e. the anaphoric use is common. ofthat also Tvaṣṭṛ was afraid (MS. tád u t á t h ā n á k u r y ā t that one should not do thus. g. tád u hovāca with reference to this he said . pañcartávaḥ saṃvatsarásya : eṣā́^u pañcāvattásya sampát : but it is also divided into ^tive parts . yó adhvaréṣu hótā . g. I t also. more frequently. 4 14 5 . prevailing chiefly i n the ŚB. 164 ) . 27 ). When a word is repeated from the beginning of a clause. 154 ).. . mítra. ádite. stríyaḥ satī́s tā́n u me puṃsá ā h u ḥ those who are women.). in return . means and. The demonstrative here often refers back w i t h u to previous statements : uto pañcāvattám evá bhavati : pā́ ṅ kt0 yajñáḥ. in the same sentence. u t á i n the RV. tám u námobhir ā́ kṛṇudhvam him who is priest at sacrifices. how much more the gods whose is a new dwelling (TS. he eats before the gods (ŚB. a. I n B. u expresses a climax i n the second clause ­­­­­ how much more : manuṣya ín nvā́ úpastīrṇam ichánti. kím n devā́ yéṣāṃ návāvasānam even men wish for something spread out.b. ^. The particle commonly couples two words . y á h . e. a.

i t is placed at the beginning : eténāgne bráhmaṇā vāvṛdhas¬ va . evā́ g nir gótamebhir astoṣṭa thus Agni has been praised by the Gotamas (i. . even. ya ā́po divyā́ u t á va srávanti khanítṛmaḥ either the waters that are celestial or that flow in channels (i...). b.) means both. 4 6 2 a. evā t á m āhur : indra éko vibhaktā́ thus they speak of him : ‘ Indra is the one dispenser ’ (vii. utá.. u t á vā or. but they also cook it on the oārhapatya (ŚB. Even when preceding a substantive u t á seems to refer to the whole statement : utá mátsya evá mátsyaṃ gilati it is also the case that one jish devours another (ŚB. u t á va. 47 ) . 41 ) . strengthen thyself. but also. 5 4 .utá vā either. utá is regularly the first word i n the sentence except that kím or forms of tá or yá precede i t : tásmād u t á bahur apaśúr bhavati therefore e^en though rich he becomes cattleless (ŚB.g. u t ô gā́ r hapatya evá śrapayanti they should cook the oblation on the Āhavan^ya jire. g. utá means both.. 49 ). utó ( = u t á u) in the RV.. 13l ). e. A t the beginning of sentences or clauses i t means thus. . e. . ^.). 3 l ^ . . 1 c. utá^idā́ n īm bhágavantaḥ syama^utá prapitvá u t á mádhye áhnām both now may we be fortunate and at eventide and at midday (i. emphasizing the assertion generally and not (like ápi) a single notion i nthesentence : utá yácīi^itā́ s ur bhávati jī́ v aty evá even when his breath is gone. and the AV. utá does not mean and.and: u t á ṛtáva utá paśáva íti bruyāt he should say ‘ both the seasons and the animals' (ŚB. . and lead us onward to greater fortune (I. O Agni. means and also: u t ó no asyā́ uṣáso juṣéta h í and may he also be pleased with us this morning (i. 26 ). . he still liv^s (Ts..). utá prá neṣy abhí vásyo asmā́n with this prayer.or. samudrā́ d u t á va divás pári from the ocean or from heaven (I. (as well as i n V. a.. 6 evá has two uses i n the RV. : 1. W i t h the optative u t á expresses that an action might after all take place : u t á ^ e v á ṃ cid devā́n abhí bhavema after all we might thus overcome the gods (ŚB.). u t é has the sense of but also or also : āhavanī́ y e havī́ ṃ si śrapayeyuḥ . referring either to what precedes or follows . When u t á connects a sentence with a preceding one. I n B.. and. I n B.utá i n B.).b. . 77 ) . utá.).

With the impv.I t often appears as the correlative of yátha as : yáthā ná purvam áparo jáhāty. evá may follow either the first or the second . g. while the second is extremely common. so. evám is very common. having two uses : 1.). arrange their 5 lives (x. perished .. jātá evá scarcely born. 2. svayám evá ^uite spontaneously. té devā́ abhy āsṛjyanta yáthā víttiṃ vetsyámānā evám the gods rushed up like those wishing to obtain property (ŚB. especially in the very frequent phrase yá eváṃ véda he who possesses such knowledge . &c.). Vac ours (ŚB. imā́m ásurāḥ (ŚB. tám evá him only . I t accompanies verbs as an adverb. then : evā́ vandasva váruṇaṃ bṛhántam (viii. (as correlative to yátha as) and in the A v . vā́g evasmā́ k am (let) soma (be) yours. g. not at all with yáthā. átraivá just here . e. evám thus occurs only once in the RV. u t á ^ eváṃ cin nā́ labheran atter all they will thus not touch it (ŚB. this is especially the case when a word is repeated . ná^evá not at all. amu. I n B. I t is correlative to yáthā as. As an emphasizing particle following the word on which stress is laid. g.g. sá p r á ^ e v á ^ a d h a n v a t the Agni whom they first chose for the priesthood. a. evá may be variously rendered just. alone. y á t h ā vái parjányaḥ súvṛṣṭiṃ vársaty. The particle follows all kinds of words requiring emphasis for any reason . e. evá — so. eváṃ yajñó yájamānāya varṣati as Parjanya rains heavily. .. e.). éka evá ^uite alone . when two notions are connected by way of contrast or other¬ wise. 42­) then praise the lofty Varuṇa (who has done these great deeds). evā́. I n B.). being often accompanied by a form of the same verb as the latter . Creator. yáṃ dvitī́ y aṃ prā́ v ṛṇata. g. yám ágre •gnfṃ hotrā́ y a prā́ v ṛṇata. ā́yūṃṣi kalpayaiṣam as the later abandons not the earlier.) the gods inherited that world (heaven). w h e n the second verb is omitted. sómo yuṣmā́ k aṃ. e. 2. he whom they chose the second time. sá prā́ d hanvad. but only as an adverb with the verb vid know : yá eváṃ vidyā́t he who may possess such knowledge. . ^uite. or by stress . likewise perished (ŚB. the first of the above uses has entirely disappeared (evám here taking the place of evá). the Asuras this one (the earth) . dhātar.m evá devā́ upā́ y an. yáthā. 18 ).). so the sacrifice rains for the sacrificer (Ts. e.evám is equivalent to iva .

: kásmai kám agnihotráṃ hūyata íti for whose benefit is the Agnihotra offered? (MS. 53 ).. nú kam appears with the inj. kím (n. bounteous god... 2.g. The former use is found in both V. or subj.. it also occurs in a negative form : á­kaṃ bhavati he fares not well (TS. sú. subj. b. with the full meaning well (equivalent to the Vedic sám) appears in B. hí. 57 ) with 3 the same hue they adorn themselves in order to shine (well).) . téjase káṃ pūrṇámā ijyate for the sake of splendour the full moon sacrifice is offered (MS. commodi) or of abstract nouns (final dative) . gladly. e. g. : rā́jā hí kaṃ bhúvananām abhiśrī́ ḥ for he indeed is the king 1 ^vho r ules over beings (I.kam appears both as an accented and an unaccented particle. 182^) . (occasionally omitted). but the sense is generally so attenu­ ated as to be untranslatable. g. sometimes with impv.. sú kam appears with the imperative only : tíṣṭhā sú kaṃ. only . kím u śréṣṭhaḥ kíṃ yáviṣṭho na ā́jagan . mā́ párā gāḥ pray stand still. go not 2 further (ill.). 1.). áso nú kam ajáro várdhāś ea be unaging and grow (x. the latter in the R v only. and B. yuvám etáṃ cakrathuḥ síndhuṣu plaváṃ taugryā́ y a kám ye two hare placed that ship in the waters for the benefit of the son of Tugra (i. The unaccented kam occurs in the RV. I t means willingly. a. From B. of kí = ká) has two uses. e. kám has the same meaning attenuated after datives (generally at the end of a Pāda) either of persons = for the benefit of (dat. 98 ). 50^). 106^) .). magha– van. samānám añjy āñjate śubhé kám (vii. indeed. also in relative clauses . only excepting one independent passage of the A v I t always appears as an enclitic following the particles nú. ind. kám as an adv. e. I n the first place it means why ^ e. impv. g. kám me 'sat may it be well with me (ŚB. hí kam generally appears with the ind. tvā́ṃ devā́so amṛ́tāya káṃ papuḥ thee the gods hare drunk for the love of immortality (ix.

86 ) . why has the youngest come to us ^ (i. free from anger. kím utá tvareran why.g. e. 161 ). are treated as dependent. I t is also a simple interrogative particle (equivalent to a mark of interrogation) .) quickly. a pronominal interrogative particle. spread (the barhis). tava ha vāva kila bhagava idam Sir. a. since the verb (except twice in the RV. mádam ā́ gahi kuvín nv āsya tṛpṇávaḥ come.) . With following u i t here adds a climax i n a second sentence — how much more (see u) . kuvít sómasya ápām íti have I . indeed.). certainly.). kím is similarly used. e.). 1 4 a. kuvín me putrám ávadhīt has he actually killed my son^ (ŚB. indeed. an uncommon particle in v .ā́ strṇuta (ŚB. kuvít tūsṇī́ m ā́ste does he indeed sit silent^ (ŚB. kṣipráṃ kíla^. kuvíd. is the course of the sacrifice (ŚB. I n B. kuvíd is similarly used . then. g. e. I n B. though apparently independent. e. after all. drunk 1 Soma (x. indra. I n B. w i t h following utá and the optative i t means why after all . kíṃ me havyám áhṛṇāno juṣeta would he. 119 ) = ( I wonder) whether I have drunk Soma. 47 ) sweet. vái or (ha) vā́vá : eṣá vái kíla havíṣo yā́ m aḥ this. the use is similar. adjective. should they hasten? (ŚB. 32 ). indeed. kíla. e. 11 ). to this carouse (to see) whether you shall enjoy it 2 (iii. kíṃ rájasa enā́ paró anyád ásti is there anything 5 else beyond the welkin ^ (Av. strongly emphasizes (in R v and A v ) the preceding word (noun. and the negative ná) . a. svādúṣ kíla^ayám (vi. pronoun. g. But here kíla usually follows other particles. v. meaning indeed. introduces sentences which. is this (Soma) . tadī́ t nā śátruṃ ná kílā vivitse then thou didst find no foe at all (I. Indra. g. g. this belongs to you only (AB. e.1 why has the best.) is regularly accented. 42 ) .) . enjoy an oblation of mine ? 2 (vil. g. This use seems to have arisen from the particle's having been employed as an elliptical expression of doubt such as might be rendered by ' I wonder (whether) ' . . tám.

átra khálu ramata here. asmākám evá^idáṃ khálu bhúvanam to us alone indeed this world belongs (ŚB. does not occur at all in the A v . remain (ŚB. or merely stress. pray. But khálu vái i n the Ts. or else one should say ‘for Indra' (TS. I n B. or ind. After the particles u or átho and before or after vái‚ i t emphasizes the word preceding the combined particles. indeed. átho khálu aindrám íti brūyāt 'for all gods' one should say. atho khalv āhuḥ : ko 'shati manuṣyaḥ sarvaṃ satyaṃ vaditum i t i an initiated man should speak the truth only . This use occasionally occurs even though the preceding clause does not begin with vái..). subj. but often with other particles.). . where it emphasizes an imperative : mitráṃ kṛṇudhvaṃ kháIu pray. ṛdhnávat khálu sá yó maddevatyām agním ādádhātai he indeed shall prosper who shall establish a fire conse¬ crated to me (TS.) . átho kbálu is used either to express an (usually preferred) alternative = or else. and only once in the RV.). vaiśvadevám íti brūyād. I t appears alone with the impv. prājāpatyó vái púruṣaḥ . so he approaches Prajāpati with the portion (of the sacrifice) belonging to him (TS. or a pronoun (demonstrative or personal).). it is with few exceptions metrically lengthened to gha. conclude friendship (x.kháIu indeed. 161^) . but surely rather . . a. which is nearly always either the negative ná. e. a. gha is an enclitic particle. b. or to introduce an objection . the particle is common. 10^). or rather. the meaning being variously rendered by just. and A B . again Prajāpati knows about him . e. e. or a verbal preposition. almost restricted to the RV. prajā́ p atiḥ khálu vái tásya veda : prajā́ p atim evá svéna bhāgadheyéna upa dhāvati now man comes from Prajapati.g. I t emphasizes a noun only twice and a verb only once in the RV. only. has the special use of introducing a second causal protasis after a first beginning with simple vái. 14 a.) . Generally occupying the second place in the Pāda.. vái khálu can only be distinguished from vái alone as an emphatic váf. 34 ). now they make the objection .. I t is rarely used alone. e. : tṛtī́ y e gha sávane at least at the third Soma libation (I. dīkṣitena satyam eva vaditavyam . ' what man can speak the whole truths' (AB. I t emphasizes the preceding word. g. tád u khálu mahᬠyajñó bhavati thus. in truth. very.). the conclusion then following with evá . g.. the great sacrifice arises (ŚB. g.. uśánti gha té amṛ́tāsa etát those immortals desire this (x.

73 ). g. índraś ca sómaṃ pibataṃ.) . mitráṃ huve váruṇaṃ ca 7 I invoke Mitra and Varuṇa (i. b. the first word of that clause. uṣásā night and 1 6 morning (i. Another peculiar use of ca. e. e. -^ue) and is an enclitic conjunction used to connect both words and sentences. Similarly i n B. a. vā́yav índraś ca . 6 l ) . ā́ yád índraś ca dádvahe when we two. : tā́ bṛ́ h aspátiś ca^anvávaitām they two. O Bṛhaspati. g.. : ubháyaṃ grāmyáṃ ca^āraṇyáṃ ca juhoti he sacritic^s both : what is tame and what is wild (MS. 73^) .. ā́ ca párā ca cárantam moving hither and away ( i .) to another which has to be supplied .ca (Gk. 14 6 1 6 4 31 7 a. is to add one noun (nearly always in the nom. diváś ca gmáś ca of heaven and of earth ( i . similarly i n B. ca connects substantives (including pronouns and numerals) and adverbs . is to add a second vocative in the form of a nominative . Lat. g. 32’ ) . 37 ) . maghávāno vayáṃ ca the patrons and we (I. asmā́ñ ca tā́. and Indra. A peculiar use of ca in the RV. ṣaṣṭíś ca trī́ ṇ i ca śatā́ n i sixty and three hundred . 2 ) . : devā́ ś ca^ásurāś ca gods and Asuras (ŚB.) the ca follows the first word instead of the second : náktā ca . ā́ yātam O Vāyu and Indra. bṛhaspate do ye.. purástāc ca^. tat saṃjñā́ṃ kṛṣṇājinā́ y a ca .) . śatám ékaṃ ea a hundred and one (i. ca. e. 2^). 13 ). both in V.. 1. 34 ^) . followed them (TS. 50 °). and when it adds a clause. and B. ca. ^. From B. 737). drink (iv.mś ca us and them (if. adyā́ nūnáṃ ca to­day and now (i. I n a few passages (but never in B. e. I ) . náva ca navatíṃ ca nine and ninety ( I . (he) and 1 1 Bṛhaspati. . giráyaś ca dyā́vā ca bhū́ m ā the mountains and heaven­and­earth (i.g. (thou). eome (i.upáriṣṭāc ca from before and from are used much i n the same way. receive (viii. .). I t regularly follows an accented word. 117 ^) . T^. 164 ). (I) and sometimes also express a contrast : náktā ca cakrúr uṣásā vírūpe : krṣṇáṃ ca várṇam aruṇáṃ ca sáṃ dhuḥ they have made night and morning of different aspect : they have put together the black colour and the ruddy (f.

). whoever (cp. no calamity will hereafter befall us (ii. ca following the interrogative ká. 14 ) . g. ca also connects both principal sentences and relative clauses : ā́ devébhir yāhi yákṣi ca come with the gods and sacrifice (i. yó ^smā́n dvéṣṭi yáṃ ca vayáṃ dviṣmáḥ who hates us and whom we hate (ŚB. I n connect sentences to express a contrast by means of parallel verbal forms which are either identical or at least appear in the same number and is similar. 113 ) . 2. those that are tame and those that are wild (ŚB. I n B. ca is used to add a single word at the end of a sentence in the sense of and (so did) .). The rule of accentuation applies even when the second verb is omitted : agnáye ca havíḥ paridádāti gúptyā asyái ca pṛthivyái he delivers the oblation for protection to Fire and to this Earth (ŚB. and so did the seers (ŚB. g. This connecting use is particularly common in parallel abridged relative sentences : sárvān paśū́ n ní dadhire yé ca grāmyā́ yé ca^āraṇyā́ ḥ they laid down all animals. in the sense of if with the subjunctive or the indicative: índraś ca mṛḷáyāti no. the use of ca. yā́ vyūṣúr yā́ś ca nūnáṃ vyuchā́ n that 1 10 have shone forth and that shall now shine forth (i. 6 caná.). a. 123 ). ca. a. properly meaning not even. e. 40 ). is most usually employed . 119 b). c. O heroes.). víśvéd vāmā́ vo aśnavat i f ye graciously accept this song. e. or the relative yá and the interrogative ká combined. gives them an indefinite sense: káś ca or yáḥ káś ca any one. 3. a.vadati so he pronounces harmony (between it) and the black antelope skin (ŚB. 41 ).).. vatsáṃ ca^upāvasṛjáty ukhā́ ṃ c a ^ á d h i śrayati he admits the calf and puts the pot on the fire (Ts. ná naḥ paścā́d agháṃ naśat if Indra be gracious to us.. the first verb being then always accented : párā ca yánti púnar ā́ 12 ca^tanti they go away and come again (I..). naro. imā́ṃ ca vā́caṃ 11 pratiháryathā. śrámeṇa ha sma vái tád devā́ jayanti yád esāṃ jáyyam ā́sa^ṛ́sayaś ca by penance the gods were wont to win what was to be won by them. it will obtain all goods from you (i. ca is used a few times in V..

caná gives the interrogative an indefinite sense : káś caná any one. Cid is an enclitic particle very frequently used to emphasize the preceding word. caná alone occasionally does duty for the negative: mahé caná tvā́ṃ párā śulkā́ y a deyam not even for a great reward would I give thee away (viii. váyaś caná patáyantaḥ patatríṇaḥ no one dares approach his third (step). not even the winged birds though they fly (i. however. e. ná hainaṃ sapátnas túṣṭūrṣamāṇaś caná strṇute no enemy fells him even though desiring to fell him (ŚB. e. I n a few passages. g. g. tṛtī́ y am asya nákir ā́ dadharṣati. g. e. As one of the two negatives is superfluous in a single clause sentence. sometimes so attenuated as to be capable of being rendered by stress only . 55 ). From its use in such supplementary clauses. where i t may also be translated by even. ná káś caná no one (cp. expressing that the statement is not to be expected in regard to the word emphasized : even . ā́ dṛḍháṃ cid árujo gávyam úrvám even the firm cowstall thou hast broken through (iii. 267) . 32 ). índraṃ ná mahnā́ pṛthivī́ caná práti even the earth is not equal to Indra in greatness (i. g. means even. I t has two senses: 1.after a negative . 3 ). This sense is. g. 155 ). yásmād ṛté ná sídhyati yajñó vipaścítaś caná without whom the sacrifice does not succeed [not] even of the wise man (i. I ) . e. a. 119 b). caná appears only after a negative i n single clause sentences. I n B. in which ná caná means not even . b. tváṃ cin naḥ śámyai bodhi svadhī́ ḥ be thou attentive to our endeavour (iv. also: aháṃ caná tát sūríbhir ānaśyām I too would ae^uire this with the patrons (vi. caná throwing off its own negative sense. 187) . ^ 5 5 5 5 a. the latter sense comes to be the natural or even necessary one after a negative in a single clause sentence . 81 ).). e. 10 4 . even when there is no accompanying negative. ádhā caná śrád dadhati therefore also they believe (i.

he alone is her husband (Av. tátas occurs in the RV. v. it is found with the ind. and A V . sá hovāca túriyaṃ­turīyaṃ cén mā́m ábībhajaṃś túrīyam evá tárhi vā́ṅ níruktaṃ vadiṣyatī́ t i he said ‘ifthey have given me only one­fourth each time. and with the opt. yác cid if ever . . I t also. I n the RV. thus káś cid any one : śṛṇóti káś cid eṣām any one (= every one) hears them (I. 17^) . if they were to request a cow of him (Av. I n B. táto viṣáṃ p r á vavṛte thence the poison has turned away. aor. and aor. yáthā cid as ever. í t i manvīta yācitáḥ vasāṃ eéd enaṃ yā́ c eyuḥ thus one would think who has been requested. the singers offer prayers to you (vii. e. yáś eid whoever . murdhā te ví patiṣyati if you cannot explain this (riddle) to me. every.) .. . your head will burst (ŚB. his sacrifice does not fail (MS. then Vac will speak distinctly only to the extent of one­fourth ' (ŚB. 37 ^) . brahmá céd dhástam ágrahīt sá evá pátir ekadhā́ if a Brahman has taken her hand. all . the only use that survives is the generalizing sense with interrogative pronouns ---. e. átaś céd evá náiti nā́sya yajñó vyathate if he does not go away from there. uṣā́saḥ. Thus : ví céd uchánty. 0 Aśvins.. asvinā. e. Similarly. y á t te k á ś cid ábravīt what any one said to you (ŚB. but later becomes commoner. xii.any. with relatives — ever . táṃ cén me ná viváksyasi. g. ná or mā́ káś cid (not any =) no one . g. átha káṃ oid ā h a then he says to some one (ŚB. ). 4 4 a. 132 ). etáṃ céd anyásmā anubrūyā́ s táta evá te śíraś chindyām if you were to tell this to another. e. g. g. in the A v i t also occurs once with the opt. 4 ^). some .).. kadā cid ever — at any time or always . pres. eéd is used with the ind.) . pres. p r á vāṃ b r á h m a ṇ i kā́ r avo bharante when the Dawns shine forth. with interrogatives — any. céd ( = ca íd) if occurs only three times in the RV. I would strike off your head (ŚB. all) sin committed (by us). several times adverbially in the local sense of the ablative — thence . 9 1 4 a. generalizing — any. I n B.) . fut. 24 ) remove from us any (every. sun¬ vádbhyo randhayā káṃ cid avratám subject every impious man to those that press Soma (i. k ṛ t á ṃ cid énaḥ prá mumugdhy asmát (i.) .2. 72 ) . but very .

t á t h ā ^ í n nūnáṃ tád āsa so. t á d ít tvā yuktā́ hárayo vahantu thither let the yoked bays waft thee (ill. e.) . b. Occasionally i t has the sense of therefore . t á d vo deva abruvan. g. 89^). táthā occurs in the R v in the sense of so. tátho ( = t á t h ā ^ u ) occurs in B. t á t a ḥ sūryo . of the goal) . táto h a i n ā ṃ n á śekatur nfrhantum it entered in^ the sacrifice itsef. thou didst spread out the earth (viii. t á t h a ṛ t ú ḥ such is the rule (i. I t is also often used in the sense of thither (acc. but so . g. 367). e. I n B. thus. then the sun was born (i. it came to pass (ŚB. e. consequently those two were unable to expel it (ŚB. on the other hand. g. e. yáj jā́ y athā vṛtrahátyāya tát pṛthivī́ m aprathayaḥ when thou wast born for the √rtra­fight. yajñáir átharvā p r a t h a m á ḥ pathás tate. 1 a. kṣipré ha yájamāno ^múṃ lokám iyāt. ś y a v ā ́ ś v a s y a sunvatás t á t h ā ś ṛ ṇ u yáthāśṛṇor á t r e ḥ listen to the sacrificing Syāvāśva as thou didst listen to A tri (viii. e.). sā́ yajñám evá. ā́jani with sacrifices Atharvan first extended the paths. .g. consequently . tád va ā́gamam that the gods said to you. 2. sā́ yád dakṣiṇā́ ­ pravaṇā syā́t. I t also appears as a correlative (though less often than evá) to yátha . H ere i t also often appears at the beginning of a sentence connected with a preceding one i n the sense of therefore.rarely. g.). e. 53 ). . a. I n B. as correlative (though less often than evám) to yáthā : n á vái t á t h ā ^ a b h ū d yáthā^‚ámaṃsi it has not come about as I had thought (ŚB. tátho evóttare n í vapet and in the same way he should assign the last two (TS. yajñapā́ t rāṇi prá viveśa.. but thus (as i t is) the sacrificerlives a long time (ŚB.). e. then . I t frequently means then as correlative to yád when . 83^). the use is similar . g. e. the sacrificer would quickly go to yonder world. e. tád is often used adverbially in the RV. g. 4 3.) . into the sacrificial vessels. the temporal sense of thereupon is extremely common. indeed. g. has the temporal sense of thereupon. 83 ^). g. meaning and in the same way. I t then has three different senses : 1.. t á t h 0 ha yájamāno jyóg jīvati if it (the altar) were sloping to the south.

) . e. then. similarly i n the phrase t á d yát táthá that is to say. and in B. e.). t á d yád esá etát tápati téna eṣá śukráḥ now. 129 ).) . p r á tád víṣṇuḥ stavate vīry^ṇa therefore Yiṣṇu is praised for his heroism (i. and to yátra (where) ­ there . átha^itithī́ ṃ sámāṃ t á d aughá āgantā́ . then . 2. the sacrificer is then also without a place (ŚB.2 therefore I have come to you (i. t á t tád avakḷptám evá yád brāhmaṇò 'rājanyáḥ syā́t so it is quite suitable that a Brahman should be without a king (ŚB. the word appears as correlative to yádā when. as a correlative to y á d (when. t á d āhuḥ as to that they say .) because those who were seized by Varuṇa felt well. 3. now . . they kill him thereby (ŚB. yád.). yád vái tád váruṇagṛhītābhyaḥ kám ábhavat tásmat k ā y á ḥ (MS. tát táṃ ghnanti now when they press the king (soma). tád u tát now as to this (ŚB. g. why it is so (is as follows) the reason for this is as follows (sB. yádi vā́ ṛtvíjo 'Iokā́ bhávanty aloká u t á r h i yájamānaḥ if the priest is without a place. yán nv èvá rā́ j ānam abhisuṇvánti. 2 tárhi at that time. therefore it is called kaya (body).). a. occurs only once in the R v . rakṣāṃsi vā enaṃ tarhy ā 1abhante yarhi na jāyate the Rakṣases then seize him when (the fire) does not arise (AB. g. to yátra. 4. yajñám evá t á d devā́ upā́ y an the gods thus obtained the sacrifice (ŚB. but several times in the AV. yátrānyā́ óṣadhayo mlā́ y anti t á d eté módamānā vardhante where other plants wither. I n the AV. and may be rendered by that is to say. tád has four different adverbial uses : 1. e. then having built a ship you shall turn to me (ŚB.). g. As correlative to yád because it appears once in the A v and is very common in B. but occurs several times as such in the AV. g. thereby.).. before yád with reference to a preceding statement to add an explanation. thus . . constantly w i t h reference to a preceding statement i n the sense of as to that.. yárhi when. yádā. 2 tásmād therefore is not found as an adverb in the RV. g. inasmuch as he burns here. and is constantly so used in B. : ná mṛtyúr āsīd amṛ́taṃ ná tárhi there was not death nor immortality then (x.). e. e. e.) . inasmuch as) = thereby. it (the wheat) grows merrily (ŚB. g. 161 ) . and yádi if. i n the sense of thereupon. I n B. 154 ). t á n m ā nā́ v am upakálpya^upāsāsai now in such and such a year a flood win then come.) . therefore he is bright (ŚB.

where it occurs nearly fifty times. e.). e. ā́ tv éta.. .. in which it occurs.. 12 e.). tád eváṃ véditor ná tv eváṃ kártavái that one should know thus. e. I n the RV. as an adverb correlative to yád because .. tád áha téṣāṃ váco. e. tvā́ v á (compounded of t ú vā́ v á). 'nyā́ tv évā́taḥ sthítiḥ this indeed is what they say.g.. iv. come hither. does not perceptibly differ i n sense from vā́vá ( q . indeed . I t has two uses : 1. e. I t is an emphasizing particle. g. pers. pers. b. There can be no doubt that it is an old instru­ . cakā́ r a bhadrám asmábhyam atmáne tápanaṃ tú sáḥ he has done what is good for us. a. ) .g. 18 ) .g. yád gramyásya n á ^ á ś n ā t i téna grāmyā́ n áva runddhe because he does not eat any tame animal. I t is an adversative particle meaning but. ā́ tú prá yāhi háribhyām even the highest 1 spaces are not far to thee . with thy two bays 2 (iii. 2. 5 ) .g. 30 ). dvitā́. but. sit you down (i. g. never commences a sentence or Pāda. meaning but indeed. then. ná te duré paramā́ cid rájāṃsy. but the established practice is different therefrom (ŚB. sense) ­­­­­­ pray.). téna occurs i n B. impv. is restricted to the RV.). ní ṣīdata pray come. it expresses the sense it is true. though accented. tráyo ha tvā́vá paśávo ’medhyā́ ḥ there are just three kinds of animals unfit for sacrifice (ŚB. or the subj. a particle sometimes occurring in B. but 6 painful to himself (Av. and is its only meaning in B. (rarely the 3. I n about two­thirds of its occurrences t ú emphasizes an exhortation in the 2. tát tv ásya that surely is his work (iii. but not do thus (MS. 30 ). it seems to be restricted to this sense. therefore he gains tame animals for himself (MS. I n several passages tú emphasizes assertions (generally following the demonstrative tá) in the sense of surely. v .tú. then. With áha or nú in the preceding clause. tvái (compounded of t ú vái) is sometimes found i n B. in an impv. a particle occurring about thirty times. This is its sense in the only passage of the Av.

especially with the gerundive. e. e. as in V. even before the relative) or only the assertion of the verb. The employment of this negative ná is much the same in B. I t can only be used in a sentence which contains a finite verb or in which one is to be supplied. meaning and that too doubly or especially. of all tenses.. gavā́m éṣe sakhyā́ kṛṇuta dvitā́ (x. appearing in principal sentences with the ind. it is also employed in relative and conjunctional clauses. the opt. a. I t negatives either the assertion of the whole sentence (when it appears as near the beginning as possible. in V.). (come) to our pressed Soma 32 with his bays (viii. 132 ). more than ever. or figuratively = emphatically. g. The word occurs several times with ádha. but not with the impv. dvitā́ yó vṛtrahántamo vidá índraḥ śatákratuḥ úpa no háribhiḥ sutám may he who above all is known as the best Vṛtra­slayer. g. etymologically meaning doubly. and (do so) particularly (i. As a negative particle meaning not it denies an assertion. the . with the subj. rā́jā devā́ n ām 13 utá mártyānāṃ dvitā́ bhuvad rayipátī rayīṇā́ m as king of 24 gods and mortals may he be doubly lord of riches (ix. the inj.): 1. (but only the first of the two in B. This sense taken either literally = in two ways. There seems to be no undoubted example of its negativing any word (such as a participle or adjective) other than the verb. 93 ) . both the all­milking cow and all­nourishing food (VI. 97 ) . bharádvājaya^áva dhukṣata dvitā́ dhenúṃ ca viśvádohasam íṣaṃ ca viśvábhojasam on Bharadvāja do ye (Maruts) milk down doubly. 48 ) . A verb (such as asti is) has often to be supplied w i t h this negative in simple sentences. especially. seems to suit all the passages in which the word occurs . Indra Satakratu. 48^) in the search for the cows he especially concluded friend­ ship (with me). a. . 3 ná has two senses in V. ví tád vocer ádha dvitā́ explain this..mental. (in the sense of a fut.

pakvā́ a. of interrogative kí (Lat.. sing. This meaning seems to be derived from not as negativing the predicate of a thing to which it properly belongs . or a dative equivalent to an infinitive . 79 ). This ná always follows the word of com¬ parison to which it belongs .. 6 l ) . g. (very commonly in RV. e. e. qui­s) of which the n. Or the verb has to be supplied i n a second sentence from the first . neighs ’ = ' he neighs like a horse '. kí­m is in regular use (cp. e. ná means as it were . 32 ^) .) as a particle of comparison. When the object compared is addressed i n the vec. When the object compared is not expressed. (he does) not (worship) in the morning (TS. the object with which i t is compared is sometimes also put in the voc. śā́khā ná like a branch with ripe fruit (I. (0 sacrificer) bring (I. g. 30 ).. though not a horse. not a horse neighs ’ — ' he. e. ‘ he (neighs). ná hí paśávo ná bhuñjantifor cattle always eat (MS. g. .). or if the simile consists of several words. 57 ) . Two negatives express a strong positive . n á k t a m úpa tisṭhate. 113). g. b. e. ráthaṃ n á táṣṭova tátsináya as a carpenter (fashions) a car for him who desires it ( i . (which is sometimes to be supplied). e. e. b. I t properly 1 N . only. úṣo n á śubhra ā́ bharā like brilliant Dawn. less commonly the second . ná is used in V. comparatively rarely in AV. never coalesces in pronunciation (though it does in the written Sandhi) with a following vowel. g. O ruddy Daum (I. like.). exactly like iva as. but never in B. agreeing with i t by attraction . This ná. arā́n ná nemíḥ pári tā́ babhúva 1 he surrounds them as the felly the spokes (i. g. áśve ná citre. śivā́ b hir ná smáyamānābhir ā́gat he has come with gracious smiling women as it were (i. being almost restricted to the RV. e. 8^). tán ná sū́r¬ kṣyam that (is) not to be troubled about (MS. 5 2. 3 21 2 4 1 n á ­ k i s (not any one) is found in V. aruṣi like a brilliant mare.) . where it frequently occurs. whereas ná not generally does. ná yó várāya who (is) not for hindering = who is irresistible ( i . 143 ).infinitive. being in sense closely connected with the preceding word. the ná generally follows the first word. ná prātáḥ he worships at night. n á sometimes interchanges with iva . g. c. g.

is small (viii. it comes to be used. 267) . nā́ma is Used adverbially in the following two senses : 1.means no one . by name . vii. sense. 49 ). where it sometimes has the sense of fur not . it occurs a few times as an interrogative expecting assent ( = nonne). I n B.). n á hí seems never to occur i n V. though less often. 1 Probably because the N. indeed. mā́ṃ dhur índraṃ nā́ma deváta they 2 have placed me among the gods verily as Indra (x. 17 ). g. yásya śárman nákir devā́ vāráyante ná mártāḥ in whose 19 protection gods never hinder him nor mortals (iv. ájasro gharmó havír asmi nā́ma I am constant heat. 31 ). Probably A. as appears most clearly at the beginning of a hymn . 2 . 1 Losing its N. O Indra. nahí tvā śátruḥ starate for no foe strikes thee down (i. where ná h i alone is found. .. not?. mā́kis. by no means. e. namely. O gods. na-hí. This compounded form never occurs i n B. has no longer an independent existence coupled with the fact that the pronoun kí has gone out of use except in the one form kí­m. g. e.g. g. 2. sá ha śrutá índro nā́ma deváḥ that god famous as Indra by name (if. is superior to thee (iv. nákir indra tvád úttaraḥ no one. 29). Cp. never. e.g. g. 129 ). yátha kṛ́ m īṇāṃ nákir 1 3 ucchiṣyā́tai that none of the worms shall be left ( A v i i . 30 ) . as a strong negative adverb meaning not at all. occurs only in v. never : nakīm índro níkartave Indra ean never be subdued (viii. e. nánu śuśruma have we not heard? (ŚB. 78^). 20^) . verily . never . where it has the sense of a strong negative — by no means. 2 4 1 a. e. dévāsaḥ not one of you. ná­nu occurs only twice in the RV. e. More commonly it emphatically negatives a statement as something well known — certainly not. g. nahí vo ásty arbhakó. of ná­kis with lengthened vowel. ná­kīm occurs only twice in one hymn of the R v in the sense of a strong negative adverb = not at all. n. as the compounded form of ná hí. kó nā́ m a^asi who art thou by name ? (VS. On the other hand. namely the oblation (iii. e. 30 ).

Now actually in affirmative sentences. g. e. 3. 2. atha tvā yajai let him (the victim) first be more than ten days old.). 4. nirdaśo nv abhūd. or ma with the inj. g. next follows the 1 2 Never begins a sentence. still . asmā́ b hir u nú praticákṣyā^abhūt to us she has just now become visible (I.). none to overcome him (vi. Often begins a sentence..1 n ú or nu­ means 1. 93 ). maghavan. g.). daśasyā́ no. sá nv tyate he is now implored (I. The senses of nú found in B. mahā́n índraḥ paráś ca nú great is Indra and still more (i. kvā nu víṣṇur abhūt what.) . O Indra. 52^) . 5. thy two bays (i. indeed the wisest of us^ (ŚB. e. do not strike at me (ŚB. Bountiful one (viii. often correcting a previous statement .. nū́ cid dhí parimamnā́ t he asmā́n for never have ye despised us (vii. now. (b) never . 32 ) . 48 ) Dawn has shone (in the past) and she shall shine now ( = henceforth) . te hárī yoke now (— at once). now. e. g. pray. 6. 46 ) . let us two then try him (ŚB.g. pray with interrogatives : kadā́ nv āntár váruṇe bhuvāni when. 82 ) . pray ( = at last). yajasva mā^. indra.). at all with negatives : ná^asya vartā́ ná tarutā́ nv ásti there is none at all to obstruct. índrasya nú vīryā̀ ṇ i prá vocam I will now proclaim the heroic deeds of Indra (i.). yójā nv. nú may be translated by first : nirdaśo nv astv. ever. 10^) . śraddhā́devo vái mánur : āváṃ nú vedāva Manu is godfearing. nū́ cit favour us still. then. pray. pray. 165 °). 8^).g. . still: páśyema nú sū́ r yam uccárantam we would still see the sun rising (vi. then I will sacrifice him to you (AB. 66^). athottaram this now is the first section . tváṃ nú khálu no bráhmiṣṭho 'si are you. with cid it means (a) even now. after íti followed by átha ne:rt: iti nu pūrvaṃ paṭa1am. e. 113 ). 86­). in exhorta­ tions with the subj. mā́ nu me prá hārṣīḥ pray. the impv. pray. uvā́soṣā́ uchā́c ca nú (i. in questions with or without an interrogative . 145 ) . e. 2. nū́ cid dadhiṣva me gíraḥ even now take to thyself my songs (i. 1 1 1 3 11 1 11 6 a. ever w­|th relatives : yā́ nú kṛṇávai whatever (deeds) I shall accomplish (i. shall I be in (communion with) Varuṇa (vii.anena now he is actually more than ten days old : sacrifice him to me (AB. When átha follows such sentences. 4. 3. has become of Viṣṇu ? (ŚB. are the following : 1. e..

e. néd ( = ná íd and not treated as a compound by the Padapaṭha) has two uses in both v. g. 2. e. 38 ) . néd ánuhūtaṃ prā́śnāmi I certainly do not eat it before it is invoked (ŚB. e. g. 82 ).). assuredly (perhaps once already i n the AV. none of these uses seem to survive. úpa nūnáṃ yuyuje hárī he has just yoked his two bay steeds (viii. I n B . g. With the perfect i t is a few times used in the R v to express that an action has just been completed . ). 3.) has appeared . indeed. tathā́ ín nunáṃ tád āsajust so assuredly it came to pass (ŚB. pres. while the new sense of certainly. : 1. g. when the second is introduced with t ú or kím u . certainly not .). 29 ). 11 kadā́ nūnáṃ te dāśema when. 5. purā́ nūnáṃ ca stutáya ṛ́ṣīṇāṃ paspṛdhrá índre formerly and now the praises of 1 1 seers have striven to Indra (VI. 170 ). e. pray.. or inj. e.second (AB. g. With the subj. : 1. 4 . not thou (vii. may we serve thee? (vii. prá nūnáṃ pūrṇávandhuras 11 3 stutó yāhi praised advanee now with laden ear (i. it expresses that an action is to take place at once . but not to any and every one (ŚB. g.. and B.. opt. 34 ). ná tv évá sárvasmā iva he may indeed tell it to him who is known to him. 4 ). With the ind. anyó nét súrír óhate bhūridā́ v attaraḥ 3 no other patron indeed is accounted more liberal (viii. I t occurs sometimes with interrogatives — pray . it means now as opposed to formerly or in future (an opposition often expressed by purā́ before and aparám after) . 5 ^) . e. e. i n the first of two antithetical clauses. áhaṃ vadāmi nét tvám I am speak¬ ing. impv. e. 2..).g. ná nūnám ásti nó śváḥ there is no now and no to­morrow (i. g. sometimes as an emphatic negative. 124 ) . It is a few times used with the perfect in combination with purā́ to express that an action has taken place in the past and still takes place . 3 a. much more commonly as introducing a final clause in order that not with the subj. nunám now has three uses in the RV. yó nv évá jñātás tásmai bruyād. v i nūnám uehāt she shall now shine forth (I.

e. lest the sun scorch thee (v.) . generally tátra. only once (ŚB. náro yátra devayávo mádanti wher e pious men r ejoice in sacr ifice (vii. g. daughter of the sky. yátra ráthena gáchathaḥ 11 9 1 whither ye go with your car 4 (i. used as an emphatic prohibitive particle with the injunctive.a^rt^). e. In B. : mā́kīm sáṃ śāri kévaṭe let none suffer fr actur e in a pit (vi.u^) regularly used with the injunctive.). yátra is employed in two main senses : 1. and with the subj. mā́ is the prohibitive negative (Gk. more often an emphatic negative — by no means. 97 ) . mā́ no vadnīḥ slay us not (i. . nvái ( nú vái as analysed by the Padapāṭha of the Ts. in the sense of indeed . . 22 ). Cp. the verb may also be in the inj. mā́ hṛṇīthā abhy asmā́n be not enraged against us (viii. 79 ) . is used in pro­ hibitive sentences with the injunetive in two senses : 1. never : mā́kir devā́nām ápa bhūḥ be not at all away from the gods (x. occurring about a dozen times in the R v . 517). vy úchā. e. to which it is restricted. . meaning wher e. íti nvā́ etád brā́ h maṇam udyate such indeed is the Brāh^naṇa that is told (ŚB. g. g. ná­kis. ne) . Gk. occurs only in two passages of the RV. e. 2 ). mā́­kīm.( = Lat. sometimes átra or tád. 104^) . . mā́­kis (not any one. g. : néd idáṃ bahirdhā́ yajñā́d bhávat lest it be outside the sacrifice (ŚB. no one : mā́kis tokásya no riṣat may no one of our offspring be injured (viii. nét tvā tápāti sū́raḥ shine forth. nén mā rudró hinásat lest Rudra injure me (ŚB. g.) . yajñé . 9 a. e. duhitar divo. 11 ).). A n interrogative following mā́ in a few cases receives an indefi­ nite sense in the RV. with the opt. 19 a. .) occurs not infrequently i n B. only in the single form bhujema (RV.). 67 ). usually as a relative adverb. but sometimes whither . I t is never used with the impv. mā́ kásmai dhatam abhy āmitríṇe naḥ deliver us not to any foe (i. 120^). The correlative is . 2.

Occasionally as equivalent to the locative of the relative . Sometimes tátas . . 38­) . sometimes táthā. e. usually evám. 135 ). 5 . and B.ábhavat who could tell us this. g. Occasionally it is used thus even without such verbs : ná pramíye savitúr dáivyasya. not infrequently as a temporal conjunction. rarely the opt. . ádha.). g. . when. yátra prá sudā́sam ā́vatam when ye helped Sudās (vii. intro­ ducing a posterior clause. 10 ^). ádha smā yacha tanvé táne ca ehardíḥ when the heroes strain themselves (in battle) . 2. I n the RV. 397) . havíṣ kṛṇuṣva subhágo yáthā^ásasi prepare the oblation that thou mayest be successful (ii. I n V. a. yátra śurāsas tanvò vitanvaté . in both V. When there is a correlative in the R v . in B. . 26­) . 46 ^). nūnáṃ yáthā purā́ now as before (I. tád is generally the correlative. e. kás tád brūyad anudéyī yátha^. e.. sometimes táthā . táṃ yátra devā ághnaṃs.g. ā́ gba tā́ gacbān úttarā yugā́ n i yátra jāmáyaḥ krṇávann ájāmi those later generations will come in which those who are akin will do what befits not kinsmen (x.) . tád appear as correlatives . yáthā vayám uśmási tát kṛdhi as we wish that do (x.). g. 97–) we crave divine aids that we may appear sinless to the gracious god . g. 83^). (viz. táthaivá hotavyāṃ yáthā^agním vyaveyā́t it must be poured so that it should divide the fire (ŚB. yáthā has two distinct uses in both v. In B. after verbs of knowing or saying yátha introduces an explanation = how . tathā me kuru yathā^aham imāṃ senāṃ jayāni arrange it so for me that I may conquer this army (AB. e. as a conjunction meaning in order that. e. so that. yáthā vái puruṣó jī́ r yaty evám agnir ā́hito jīryati as a man grows old. yáthā bhávema mīḷhúṣe ánāgāḥ (vii. 1 2. it is usually evá. then especially bestow protection on us 1 and our sons (vi. : 1. as a relative adverb meaning as. tán mitrám abruvan when the gods killed him.a. g. and B. so fire when it has been laid grows old (TS. generally with the subj. e. g.) how the gift was^ (x. e. átra. ā́ daívya vṛṇīmahé ^vāṃsi. they said to Mitra (ŚB.).

yád occurs with the sense of when with the pres. e. perf.) that he will support the whole world (iv. 62^). of the relative yá) is used in four distinct senses : 1. they speak together (i. (viz. ná hí tád avakál¬ pate yád brūyā́t for it is not suitable that he should say (ŚB. O bounteous one. pres. then be 1 our protector (iv. if used with the ind. maghávā ví jigye when Indra and the serpent fought. 2. I t also occurs rarely in anacolutha with the pres. fut. indra. This use is also found i n B. .. 4 yád (n. 3. kím ā́ga āsa. tád yát páyasā śrīṇā́ t i : vṛtró vái sóma ásīt that ( — the reason why) he mi^es Soma with milk (is) this : Vṛtra was Soma (ŚB.) will not decay. te śávo yád dháṃsi vṛtrám I praise this mighty deed of thine that thou slayest Vṛtra (viii. ú t sahate is able. kám apaśyo yát te bhī́r ágachat whom didst thou see when fear came upon thee ? (i. and with the subj. e. g. O Varuṇa. when being called (x. e. fut. yád dha yā́ n ti márutaḥ sáṃ ha bruvate when the Maruts go along. aor. g. g. 28 ). I n B. icháti desires.. and the past pass. gṛṇé tád. This use is not common in v. tigmā́ yád aśánir pátāti.. and aor„ and in the sense of whenever or while with the impf. what has been the chief guilt.. e. part.g. 4 a. the bountiful god conquered (i. ynktó bhavati is intent on^ véda knows. g. part. jyéṣṭhaṃ yát stotā́ r aṃ jíghāṃsasi sákhāyam. 86 ).). pácanti te vṛṣabhā́ n . . imp. hūyámānaḥ they roast bulls for th^e. 54 ). when with the ind. 32 ) . átsi téṣāṃ yán‚ maghavan. that thou wichest to slay thy praiser (who is) thy friend ? (vii.. and īśvará it is possible . 37 ) . pres. that. much as in English.tád yáthá víśvaṃ bhúvanaṃ dhārayiṣyáti that (power) of the divine Savitṛ (is not to ----. varuṇa. or the opt. 32 ) . the subj. e. g. índraś ca yád yuyudhā́ t e áhiś ca. 16 7). .. yad is similarly employed i n B. with reference to a preceding tád (often omitted) . citró yád ábhrāṭ bright 13 14 13 when he has shone forth (i. e... 3 a.). . expanding the meaning of a word in the preceding principal clause . 66^) . thou eatest of them. after certain verbs : áva ka1pate it is suitable. ádha no bodhi gopā́ḥ when the sharp bolt shall fly.

yán nūnám 4 aśyā́ṃ gátiṃ. e. only. ádha. perf. indra. e. and the inj. as in V. very rarely with the opt. in B. in B. 98 ) .yád.. mitrásya yāyāṃ pathā́ that I may now 3 obtain refuge. with the aor. yád eváṃ ná^ávakṣyo murdhā́ te vy āpatiṣyat if thou hadst not spoken thus. yád ūrdhvás tíṣṭhā dráviṇā^ihá dhattād yád vā kṣáyaḥ if thou shalt stand upright. tváṃ vā ghā syā́ ahám. when as the beginning of the action is emphasized. then Soma became his exclusively (vii. with the subj. údaṅ nyāg vā hūyáse. is used when it is assumed that the condition will not be fulfilled . pres. syā́m aháṃ tváṃ. thou art called above or below. and opt. g. The opt. that thy breath may pass into the wind (ŚB. in posterior clauses. 1 O Indra.. with the aor. . g. yadā when is used in V. tát prā́ p ṇuhi yát te prāṇó vā́ t am apipádyātai obtain thou this. . ā́ yāhi tuyam if. come quickly (viii. the sense is as soon as . I would go on Mitra's path (v. yadā́ is most commonly used in the RV. sā́ yád bhídyeta^ā́ r tim arched yájamānaḥ if it were to break. 8 ). with the ind. (while with yádi the ful­ filment of the condition is usually assumed) and w i t h the conditional . tád. in V. I n B. átha.. or if thou shalt 1 lie (iii. 44 ). abhí gṛṇanti rā́ d ho yadā́ te márto ánu bhógam ā́naṭ they . ind. this use of yád is very rare. 64 ). occurring only a few times with the subj. g. and with the fut. impf. the sacrificer would fall into misfortune (Ts. ā́ vaha devátātiṃ śárdho yád adyá divyáṃ yájāsi bring hither the host of the gods that thou mayest adore the divine throng (iii. thy prayers here 23 would be fulfilled (viii.. 65 ) .. ind. e. I n B.). 4. átha^abhavat kévalaḥ sómo asya as soon as he had overcome 5 the ungodly wiles. thy head would have fallen to pieces (ŚB. in order that. bestow treasures here. ague. or if thou wert I . syúṣ ṭe satyā́ ihá^āśíṣaḥ if. yadéd ádevīr ásahiṣṭa mayā́.). O Agni. I were thou. and B. a. tárhi . g. and with the subj. 1. The correlative word (when there is one) is in V. átha and tárhi. .) . ā́d. a. e. 19 ) . in V only . yád is used with the opt. yád.

) 30 . 7 ). trembling. he quivered (MS. : sá yadā́ saṃgrāmáṃ jáyed átha^aindrāgnáṃ nír vapet as soon as he may have won a battle. in v only. 100 ). is afraid of him (iv. and perf. when thou didst fix the sun in the sky.praise thy wealth as soon as the mortal has obtained thy reward 2 (x. e. O Indra. a.). : yadā́ satyáṃ kṛṇuté manyúm índro.). 16 ) . When the principal clause contains a historical tense. ā́d ín máyā kṛṇavo vīryā̀ ṇ i when thou shalt have secured for me my share. b. pres.). 17 °) . 3. yadā́ víṣṇus trī́ṇi padā́ vicakramé. sá yadā́ ^ ābhyām anūvā́ c a^átha^asya tád índraḥ śíraś ci¬ cheda as soon as he had told them. it becomesfitfor sacrifice (AB. ádhāraya. and impI. yadā́ tā́m ativárdhā. (here = future perfect) : yadā́ śṛtáṃ kṛṇávo 'tha^īm enaṃ prá hiṇutāt pitṛ́ b hyaḥ when thou 1 shalt have made him done. then thou shalt perform heroic deeds with my help (viii. with the impf. a. indra. with the ind. fuI. . : yadaiva hotā paridhāsyaty atha pāśān prati mokṣyāmi when the Hotṛ shall have concluded. with the subj. . b. then thy two bays grew in strength (viii. yádi if (sometimes when with a past tense) is found with perf. víśvaṃ dṛḷháṃ bhayate éjad asmāt when Indra shows his true anger.). 1 2. he should sacrifice to Indra and Agni (Ms. ind. with the pres. 12-7.) .. a. he bathes (^B.) . . the aor. you shall. keep me in it (ŚB. tásya yadā́ márma^āgachann átha^aceṣṭat as soon as they touched his weak spot. ā́d ít te hárī vavakṣatuḥ when Viṣṇu took his three steps. with yadā́ has the value of a pluperfect. then deliver him to the fathers (X. having dug a pit. sá yadā́ keśaśmaśrú vápaty átha snāti when he has cut off his hair and beard. : yadā́ máhyaṃ dī́ d haro bhāgám.. aor. yadā́ suryaṃ diví . yadā vai paśur nirdaśo bhavaty atha sa 1 medhyo bhavati as soon as the victim is more than ten days old. I shall tighten the cords (AB. Indra cut his head off (ŚB.. átha karṣuṃ khātvā́ tásyāṃ ma bibharāsi when I shall have grown too big for it. with the fut. c. with the opt. The injunetive is found only once with yadā́ in the RV.). all that is firm. g.

asmā́kam índram índavaḥ . 161 ). sense. a. .). yádi vā́ imám abhimaṃsyé kánīyó ’nnam kariṣye if I shall plot against him.and with the subj. with the pres. 128). úd astambhīt samídhā nā́kam agnír yádi bhṛ́gubhyaḥ pári mātaríśvā havyavā́ h aṃ samīdhé Agni supported the vault with fuel when Matarisvan from the Bhṛgus 10 had kindled the oblation­bearer (iii. g. from that release him. 27 ) . adyā́ murīya yádi yātudhā́ n o ásmi to­day I would die. : yádī mánthanti bāhúbhir ví rocate when they rub with their arms.). yádi stómaṃ máma śrávad. 161^) . yádi has its ordinary meaning of if: grā́hir jagrā́ h a yádi vaitád enaṃ. adhvaryúr modate if the sister (coming) from the mother has approached. 29^) . yáthā párāea ā́sīnāya pṛṣṭhato 'nnā́dyam upāháret if you have piled it frontways. with the fut. ásthita. thy might grew great (viii. in V. d. ā́d ít ta indriyáṃ máhi prá vāvṛdhe when thou hadst eaten a thousand bulls. yády áha^enaṃ prā́ñ¬ cam ácaiṣīr. : yády evā́ kariṣyátha. perf. prá mumuktam enam or if illness has seized him. With the perf. . yádi ná aśnā́ti pitṛdevatyo 1 bhavati if he does not eat. tásyā. the priest rejoices (ii. in B. But when the perf. : yájāma devā́n yádi śaknávāma we 13 will worship the gods. yádi means when. e. if we shall be able (i. c. 1. and B. he shines (iii. 5^) . I shall procure less food (ŚB.). indrāgnī. mandantu . b. used historically and with the impf. the verb then having the force of a pluperfect . 2. sākáṃ deváir yajñíyāso bhaviṣyatha if ye will act thus. yádi sahásraṃ mahiṣā́n ághaḥ. only. and with the opt. ye shall become objects of worship together with the gods (i. with the subj. 5 ) . Indra and Agni 1 (x. he becomes dedicated to the Manes (ŚB. 104 ^) . has the pres. with the aor. . it is as if one handed food from behind to one sitting with averted face (ŚB. if I am a sorcerer (vii. : yádī 1 n ā t ú r úpa svásā .

i t means as far as in the RV. yā́d means as long as . but i t sometimes appears as such in B.) found i n B. meaning why . let one of us find out whether √rtra is dead or whether he is alive (ŚB. hánta na éko véttu yádi ható vā vṛtró jī́ v ati vā come. only. as far as we know (how to) . where this use is very common. g. nearly always without a verb .). e. 1 7). 1 5 a. yadi na śaknuyāt. I ) .). 3. yásmād does not occur as a conjunction i n v. 2 ) . e. let our drops gladden Indra (viii. . sá tárhy evá jāyate yárhy agním ādhatté he is born at the moment when he lays his fire (MS.). g. he should sacrifice with the rite of nine nights (Ts. yádi v ā is not only used after a preceding yádi i n the sense of or if. x i i i . e. yáṃ váhanti śatám áśvā yádi v ā saptá whom a hundred horses draw. 1297) and often in B. árcāmasi yā́d evá vidmá tā́t tvā mahā́ n tam (vi. só aṅgá veda yádi vā n á véda he alone knows or he docs not know (x. and with the opt. e. after the verb v i d know. but also alone i n the sense of or. yárhi prajā́ ḥ kṣúdhaṃ nigácheyus tárhi navarātréṇa yajeta when his people should suffer from hunger. so 'gnaye puroḷāśaṃ nir vapet if he should not be able to do it. 6 5 10 . With the ind. g. W i t h the opt. of yá) is found in V. anānukṛtyám apunáś cakāra yā́t sū́ryāmā́sā mithá uccárātaḥ he has once for all done what is inimitable as long as sun and moon alternately shall rise (x.).).^itárathā or conversely (ŚB. only.) . . tváṃ b r ū t ā t if they two shall say that to thee again. átha yásmāt samiṣṭa¬ yajū́ṃṣi nā́ma now (follows the reason) why they are called Samiṣṭayajus (ŚB.). or seven (Av. e. I t is used with the indicative pres. it seems to mean since in the AV. or past. I t has almost invariably tárhi or etárhi then as a correlative . do thou say (ŚB. (x. yádi is used in the sense of whether in one passage of the RV. yádi is (excepting one occurrence i n the Sv. a. or past ind. g. yádi t v a ^ e t á t p ú n a r brávatas.. 129 ) . g. : yá ā́kṣiyan pṛthivī́ ṃ yā́d ájāyata who ruled the earth since it arose ( A v xii.. e. W i t h the subj. e. g. he should ojīer a cake to Agni (AB. 68 ). the great. and with the subj. 7 7 yā́d (an old abl. Here a case is usually supposed with a rule applicable to i t i n the principal clause .if he shall hear my song of praise. g. yádi vā. 21 ) we praise thee. yárhi (at the time) when occurs only i n B„ where it is used with the pres.

164^) . 104 ) . so is my mind (x.) . 1.. or he thine (x. or sentences . juhómi havyáṃ yā́vad ī́śe I offer oblation as long as I am able (iii. e.g. g.).. I t is enclitic. g. e. e. in all but three of which it follows the first word of the sentence . as an adverb meaning as far as. 547). and it connects words. 18 2 9 14 vái is an emphasizing particIe meaning truly. clauses. g. implying exclusive alternatives. áta ā́ gahi divó vā rocanā́ d ádhi come from here or from the shining realm of heaven (i. g. as long as. But vā .) . an extension of its acc. following the word to which it belongs . only. g. 3 9 a. yád vā^ahám abhidudróha yád vā śepá utá^ánṛtam what evil I have plotted or what I have sworn falsely (I. t á d vā jajñáu tád va ná jajñau she either agreed to it or did not agree to it (sB. vā or is employed much in the same way as ca and. vā is frequently used i n the same way .^ ­).)... 1148) as for as heaven and earth. 10 ). use . yā́vad dyā́vāpṛthivī́ tā́vad ít tát (x. ukthā́ vā yó abhigṛṇā́ti who promotes the law or welcomes songs of praise (i. or. b.yā́vat already appears in V. indeed. 6 ) . śáktī vā yát te cakṛmā́ vidā́ vā that we have offered to thee according to our power or knowledge (i. e. tásya vā tváṃ mána ichā́ sá vā táva either do thou seek his heart. they say (Ts. bhadráṃ vái váraṃ vṛṇate truly they make a good choice (x. vā .. just. íti va íti me mánaḥ so. e. I n the R v this particle occurs only in 28 passages. ná vái stráiṇāni sakhyā́ n i santi 1 . vā also mean either . 3 l ) .. yasya bhāryā gaur vā yamau janayet whose wife or cow bears twins (AB. áhaye vā tā́n pradádātu sóma ā́ vā dadhatu nírrter upásthe let Soma either deliver them to the serpent or place them in the lap of dissolution (vii. e. as he does not lay his fire (MS. náktaṃ vā hí dívā vā várṣati for it rains by night or by day (Ts. the verb of the first is accented even when the second is incomplete . esá vā́vá só 'gnír i t y āhuḥ that is certainly the same Agni. 2.) . When they contrast two principal sentences i n this sense. indeed. so far it (extends) . p r á t i yáḥ sā́sam ínvati. 119 ). vā́vá (doubtless a contraction of two particles) is found i n B. I t emphasizes the preceding word i n the sense of certainly. ájāto vái tāvat púruṣo yā́vad agníṃ ná^ādhatté man is so long unborn. being particularly frequent in the first of two correlated clauses . 18 ) .

indeed. I n B. yámo vā́ amriyata : té devā́ yamyā́ yámam ápābruvan Yama died : the gods (then) dissuaded Yamī from (thinking of) Yama (MS. sma. 4^ ) . vái follows the first word of a sentence beginning a narrative. The particle often appears in the concluding sentence i n discus­ sions . evá never does . c. e.). ‘ Vāyu. g. e. paśávo vái devā́ n aṃ priyā́ s tanvāḥ : paśúbhir éva sám abhavan they were together with these bodies . e. The particle is often followed by u (vā́ u) without any perceptible change of meaning. and that with evá the conclusion . ca. he perished (xii.). e. e. 95 ). hí. u. a. the use is similar except that here the particle often appears after a demonstrative or a relative . Here the use of vái in the first sentence of a narrative is typical . vái usually occupies the same position.bhiḥ sám abhavan . are the following : vái coming after the first word emphasizes the whole sentence. tā́ etā́ b his tanu. e. he. i n a period vái is typical i n the clause stating a reason. I n the A v . g. indeed. while evá emphasizes a particular word in any part of the sentence . they were therefore together with animals (Ms. may speak aloud to­day (xi. now animals are the bodies dear to the gods . 9 2.). ascertain this’ (ŚB. and of course always to the enclitics iva. tásmād vā́ ápa úpa sprśati that is. verily. kháIu. b. g. tásmād vái sá párā¬ bhavat therefore. When átho begins a sentence vái occupies the second place. when that with vái contains the reason. yó vái tā́ vidyā́t pratyák– ṣaṃ‚ sá vā́ adyá mahád vadet whoever may know them plainly. no friendships with lvomen (x. té vāyúm abruvan (ayáṃ vái vāyúr yó 'yáṃ pávate) vā́yo tvám idáṃ viddhi^íti they said to Vāyu (now Vāyu is he who blows). The differences between the use of vái and of evá i n B. The stress is laid on the whole sentence. I t is very often placed after the first word of a sentence that gives the reason for the one that follows . 8^). a. but often yields the second place to céd. . g. śraddhā́ d evo vái mánur : āváṃ n ú vedāva now Manu is god­fearing : we two will therefore ascertain (ŚB.15 there are. g.). w h e n vái is used i n this way the clause containing it is often equivalent to a parenthetical one . evá i n that expressing the conclusion. why he sips water (ŚB. indeed. I n this sense vái is especially frequent i n periods of three clauses. g.). not on any particular word. ha.

sú. to fall on Vṛtra's vital spot (viii. ní ṣīṃ vṛtrásya mármaṇi vájram índro apīpatat Indra has caused it. g. why should they mind? (ŚB. being common in the RV.) . Now that which had been Soma­drinking. that sun (iv. prá sīm ādityó asṛjat the Āditya made them (the 4 streams) to flow (ii. is almost restricted as an independent particle to the Saṃhitās. námaḥ sú te homage verily (be) to thee (vS. pári ṣīṃ nayanti they lead him around (L 95–). g. representing a substantive (which sometimes follows) and frequently placed between a preposition and its verb. g. sá yádi ná vindánti kím ā́ driyeran now if they do not find it. g. 63) . tásya tā́ni sīrṣā́ ṇ i prá eicheda. her. su well. but rare in the others . sá yát somapā́nam āsa tátaḥ kapíñjalaḥ sám abhavat he struck off his heads. 1007) . juṣásva su no adhvarám thoroughly enjoy our sacrifice (iii. it is generally used (much like īm) as an ace. 3 a.857). yáṃ sīm ákṛṇvan támase vipṛ́ce. e. e. fully. 13 ). . remove that (V.sá is often used pleonastically before relatives in B.). them. of a pronoun. his bolt. sīm sometimes gives the relative the sense of ever . śiśráthas tát whatever sin we have committed. of all numbers and genders in the third person—him. g. xix. it. xii. 28 ) . sing. e.). This use led to sá being employed in a formulaic way not only pleonastically but also without reference to gender or number . related to sá as kīm to ká. used asseveratively — thoroughly. from that arose the francoline partridge (ŚB. sīm is an. e.. Originally the acc. verity and always referring to the verb. jarā́ ṃ sú gacha go safely to old age (AV. 24­) .’). táṃ sūryam whom they created to disperse the darkness. occasionally also after a relative . e. yát sīm ā́gaś cakṛmā́. . enclitic particle restricted to the RV. sá yó no vā́caṃ vyāhṛtāṃ mithunéna ná^anunikrā́ m āt. 24. he shall lose everything (ŚB. sá sárvaṃ párā jayātai he who shall not follow the word uttered by us with (another of) the corresponding gender.

The verb is in the present ind.a. 44 ^) in which it is not the first word in the sentence (App. g. W i t h preceding u the particle means right well : imā́ u ṣú śrudhī gíraḥ hear these songs right well (i. tiṣṭhata . 26 ) . an enclitic. these emphasizing uses are similar. . I I I . relatives. ind. yé smā purā́ gātūyánti who have always aided = who aids now and formerly did so (i. a. not at all. .. 51 ). or nouns. g. mó sú tvá . adverbs and particles . has two senses in the RV. 37 ) . b. e. . but has become extremely common i n B. smási ṣmā vayám eṣām we are indeed theirs 15 (f. who especially in all battles with heroes dost win the 2 light (i. never . . It generally emphasizes : a. where sma is always preceded by ha. 12^) . rarely the perf . In a few instances sma occurs in the RV. With preceding mā́ i t = by no means. 5 1 sma. . only . or the impv. and may be rendered by just. g. 19 A). The meaning . ā́ smā ráthaṃ tiṣṭhasi thou mountest indeed upon 12 thy ear (i. they have entirely disappeared. demonstrative or personal pronouns. slightly emphasizing particle. which or (if it is compounded) the preposition of which it follows (generally at the beginning of the sen­ tence) . 2. ná 1 sma and mā́ sma by no means. : 1. it appears to have been accented before sma judging by the only example (vI. to express that an action has habitually taken place in the past down to the present time . tásya sma prāvitā́ bhava be his helper (i. before purā́ with the pres. sú kam is used like the simple sú except that i t appears with the impv. e. This use is not found i n the AV. especially. e. asmán ní rīraman let none by any means keep thee from us (vif.. sú kam stand quite still (I. c.g. 191^). e. but in B.. i . e. . 32 ). or simply by stress . śū́raiḥ svāḥ sánitā hear thou. e. 169^). 129 ). 2^). vidmó ṣv asya mātáram we know full well his mother (Av. b. e. sá śrudhi yáḥ smā pṛ́ t anāsu kā́su cit . the verb. a. utá sma and especially . g. I n the Av. g.

i n two or three passages. purā́ is left out and the particles ha sma. are used with them i n the same sense. e. where. 102 ). b. Much more frequently. jáyanti. táto ha sma^. was that which stood in the midst of the sea? (i.). e. e. It may generally be translated by pray . n á ha sma vái pura^. e. ná svid asti : tád ṛtutnā́ ví voeaḥ is this thy heroic deed. beyond this shall we choose ? (MS.agnír aparaśuvṛkṇaṃ dahati formerly Agni used not to burn what was not lopped ojf with the a^e (Ts. g. káḥ svid vṛkṣó níṣṭhito mádhye árṇasaḥ what tree. g. however. an enclitic partic1e occurring after all words capable of beginning a sentence. that itself he pours on the fire (Ms. g. indra. yád áṅgāreṣu juhóti t á t svid agnáu juhoti what he pours on the coals. tváṃ svin no bráhmiṣṭho 'si art thou. g. the perf. include the present) . pray. usually an interrogative pronoun or adverb.). This use of ha sma is very common with the present perfect āha . expressed is that something habitually took place i n the past (but does not as i n the RV. pray. the latter always opposed them again (ŚB. Very rarely (in double questions) the partic1e appears without an inter­ rogative : ásti svin nú vīryāṃ tát ta. 1827). but unlike that particle hardly ever (only twice) appears . 3 ha. kám u ṣvid átó 'dhi váraṃ variṣyamahe what boon. from their frequent association with i t . O Indra. or is it not : that deelare in due season (vi. the most learned of us ^ (ŚB.) . e. svid is an enclitic particle emphasizing the first word of a sentence. pray. I t is probably identical in origin with gha. assume its meaning . I n one passage of the R v this particle gives the interrogative an indefinite mean­ ing : mātā́ putrásya cárataḥ kva svit the mother of the son that wanders who knows where (x. 10 a.). The employment of svid in B.evá^. Other tenses than the present with ha sma are found i n the AB. 34 ).’vajasatayewith thee as companion we are equipped for the obtainment of booty (viii.) . is similar .). I n a few instances svid appears i n non­interrogative sentences : tváyā ha svid yujā́ vayám abhí ṣmo. 18^). té ha sma yád devā́ ásurán. and the impf. b. enān púnar upóttiṣṭhanti as often as the gods defeated the Asuras. etád dha sma vā́ āha nāradáḥ with regard to this Ndrada used to say (MS. has a slightly emphasizing and asseverative force.

. or because. as an emphatic particle = pray. I t nearly always follows the first word of the sentence. e. occurring after personal. the use of this particle varies i n frequency: i t is com­ paratively rare i n the TS. bálaṃ dhehi tanū́ ṣ u no. 53 ^). I t lays stress on the first word of sentences so as to emphasize the connexion or to mark a new or important step i n the narrative . since. demonstrative. śruṣṭīvā́ n o hí dāśúṣe devā́s. while i n the ŚB. it is used in two ways : 1. verbs.. e. b. or the second when the first two are closely connected. that narrate with the perfect. I t is very often used after the first word of a story with or without vái. mostly with verbs of speaking.^imaṃ yajñaṃ sambharáma well. I t is similarly used in B. bring them hither ( the RV. . tváṃ hí baladā́ ási bestow strength on our bodies. a. tā́n ā́ vaha sinee 1 2 the gods give ear to the pious man. g. I t appears predominantly with the perfect i n those parts of the ŚB. i t is extremely frequent. g.. and the A B . i t i marīmṛjyeta : ājarasaṃ ha cakṣuṣmān bhavati ya evaṃ veda with these words he should wipe (his eyes) : so till old age he who knows this becomes possessed of vision (AB. yukṣvā hí keśínā hárī pray harness thy two long-maned bay steeds (i. a. where i t generally appears with sma or with perfects. we will prepare the sacrifice (AB. Thus sa ha^‚uvāca appears here. I t is common in the RV. 45 ). as an interjection in exhortations . if the clause containing it follows. e. we will worship the adorable gods (x.). I n B. if it precedes . mostly with the impv. g. 53­). in indicative sentences (the verb having sometimes to be supplied) to express the reason (like yap). 10^). and relative pronouns. 2. verbal prepositions. hánta occurs three times in the RV. nouns. while so •bravīt is said elsewhere. hí. g. yájāmahai yajñíyān hánta devā́n come. e. : hanta. with its vowel lengthened. meaning either for. interrogative. is used throughout as a subordinating conjunction which regularly throws the accent on the verb.). for thou art a giverofstrength (iii. and adverbs. in exhortative sentences. indeed . In v. in origin probably an emphasizing particle.

) crash/ phál ( A v ) splash l bā́I ( A v ) dash/ bhúk (Av. and the verb is much ofteuer omitted than expressed . bata (RV. pray. A certain number of words having the nature of interjections occur in the Santhitas. híruk and h u r ú k (RV) away 1 hái ( A v ) ho b. idáṃ hí yadā́ várṣaty átha^óṣadhayo j ayante for. e. devó hí sáḥ from that Indra freed hims^if.) whiz^ (of an arrow).) alasl hánta eome. g.) bang l śál (AV.180—l8l] PARTICLES.íti . when it rains here. I n B. then the plants spring u^7 (ŚB. táṃ hí . e.) used in invocations . being either exclamations or imitative sounds. do you see him^' Tes. three uses of hí may be distinguished : 1... 3. The exclamations are : báṭ (RV) truly. ciścā́ (RV. wilt thou do ^t ^ (ŚB. 2. i t expresses assent i n answers after a word repeated from a preceding question . e.. ). 1SI. only that the clause containing hí always follows (— for only). katháṃ hí kariṣyási how.).) used with k ṛ — make the sound kikirā́ — tear to tatters . a. INTERJECTIONS 253 a. Interjections of the onomatopoetic type are : kikira (RV. a. kikkiṭā́ (TS. e. the verb of the principal clause (to which h í properly applies) is sometimes irregularly unaccented. vájro h í vā́ ā́paḥ for water is indeed a thunderbolt (ŚB. as i n the first use i n V.).). I n B.) clap 1 . g. used exhortatively with the subjunctive and hayé come before vocatives. e. tád índro 'mucyata. used with k ṛ make a whizzing sound . pháṭ (Av. The particle vái is often added to strengthen hí . They are of two kinds. g. i t is sometimes employed to emphasize an interrogative = pray . ( I see) him (ŚB. it expresses the reason.). for he (is) a god (ŚfI. when hí appears i n the relative clause of a period explain­ ing a previous statement.g. t á m eva tváṃ paśyasi^. g. VS.

and fut. véd­a m. running (√sṛ). Several primary nominal suffixes connected with the verbal system have already been sufficiently dealt with. 156). Other meanings are only modifications of these two . vṛdh adj. Nominal Stems. g.fighter(yudh fight).CHAPTER V I NOMINAL STEM FORMATION AND COMPOUNDS A. participles : ant (85 . I n meaning they may be divided into the two classes of abstract action nouns (cognate in sense to infinitives) and concrete agent nouns (cognate in sense to participles) used as adjectives or substantives . Roots ending in i or u take a determinative t . Declinable stems. destroyer. companion. eikít wise. The root may appear in a reduplicated form . it usually remains unchanged . spáś m. grābh­á m. a. dā́na ( = dā́^ana) n. yodn­á. āna . praise. though they often consist of the bare root (either verbal or pronominal). strengthen­ ing. seizer (√grabh). knowledge (vid know) . or those added to stems already ending in a suffix and to pronominal roots (which are thus treated as primary stems). e. kār­á making (√kṛ). pillar. e. viz. Primary Derivatives as a rule show the root in its strong form . then gift. dā́ m. g. bhíd f. g. thought (man think) . or those added directly to roots (which may at the same time be compounded with verbal prefixes) . and secondary. sár–aṇa n. stú–t I. act of giving. e. jó­gū singing aloud. b. mí­t I. g. e. those of the pres. 1. spy. g. m. are chiefly formed by means of suffixes added to roots. 1S2. ma­tí I. yúj m. When the bare root is used as a declinable stem. g. e. These suffixes are of two kinds : primary. e. giver.

I. bhāg­á m. 4). ya. megh–á m. of the perf. ox. g. Lat. and m. deed (√kṛ) . g. enclosure . hav­á m. but the whole is employed as a primary suffix (162. seat (√ sad) . earā–car–á fur­extending. e. share (√bhaj) . action nouns : jar–aṇā́ old age. mūrdh­án m. but the whole is employed as a primary suffix (162. ani : I. tavyā and anī́ y a (162). 192. : vaṃs (89 . 5). ás­an n. āyya. g. īyāṃs and iṣṭha. vart­aní I. . vṛj­ána n. form of adjectives in ana . also m. act. áh­an n. kár­aṇa n. tva. e. fire­stick. (Gk. kar­aṇá active. 1 2 ^•vy­o­^ . head. track . ū́dh­an n. tur­áṇā speeding. of this suffix is secondary (182. cloud (mih discharge water). : ta and na (160) . g. saṃ–gám­ana assembling . udder. agent nouns . blood. action nouns. g. sárg­a m. agent nouns and about a dozen defective n. bhúv­ana n. tur­áṇa speeding. nāy­á m. 2). sā́d­ana n. carṣ–aṇí active . The sub­ stantives are almost exclusively m. invocation (√hū). cod­á m. part. water. vadh­ánā slaughter. instigator (√cud). ana: n. Of the rest the following in alphabetical order are the most usual and important : a : e. agent nouns : e. enjoyment (√bhuj). tav‚ is probably derrved from the old infinitive ending tave (p. 103. lover (√jṛ). The forma­ tion of stems to which the primary suffixes of the com­ parative and superlative. háv­ana n. jār­á m. ana : I. e. The first part. 157) . stems . rurukṣ­áṇi willing to destroy (from des. pass. 6). being (√bhū). but yug­á n. 1 The second part. are added has also been explained (88 . īya‚ is secondary. ve­vij­á guich (vij dart). jug­u­m). 2 . action nouns: bhój­ana n. invoeation (√hū). an : in. emission (√sṛj). The second half of this suffix. yóṣ­aṇā woman.and māna (158) . stem of ruj destroy). part. ar­áṇi I. ud­án n. leader (√nī). mā́d­ ana gladdening (√mad). 2). priy–á pleasing (√prī). day. ukṣ–án m. enya. rā́j­an m. king . of the gerundive : ya. This is also the I. of the perf.

contest. g. in u . śī–tá cold . appears. ap­ás active . gam­ay­ā́ causing to go . and m. tan–ū body . agent nouns . action nouns (mostly with concrete sense) . bone. hand . tillage. ásth­i n. id. assailant. nind­ā́ blame . tár–uṇa young. ta: besides ordinarily forming perf. . vár­uṇa m. ghee.. subst. action nouns (with accented root) and agent nouns (with accented suffix) . e. support. and a few neuters of obscure origin . sour milk. e. sto­ká m. śló-ka m. hand . subst. pād­ú m. g. e. with connecting i : ás-i-ta black. i n . knee (Gk. jaw . and subst. op­us). van­ús m. bird. sandbank (n. g. e. hás-ta m. i : action nouns (nearly always I. ten­u­i­s) . dhán­u) . m. ji­gī­ṣ­ā́ desire to win . nák-ta n. ā́m­is raw flesh. but very common as a secondary suffix) : adj.g. e. adj. mith­uná forming a pair. action nouns (from roots and secondary conjugation stems) . messenger. as the suffix of a few adjectives and of substantives with concrete meaning .. barh­ís straw. u : agent nouns. g. is : n. : śúṣ-ka dry . tan­ú thin (Lat. g. arm (Gk. I. work (LaI. dū-tá m. dhán­us n. n. but several I. pāṇ­í m. ghṛ-tá n. scorpion. . dhan­ū́. couple . át-ka m. and : n. in a more general sense. bow . gár–ta m. vadh­u bride. áp­as n. independentlyformed: cam­u dich. n. tṛṣ-ṭá rough.) . e. agent nouns (adj. participles. jyót­is light. g. car-seat. Una: adj. bāh–ú m. dhar­úṇa supporting. (mostly m. and n. pal-i-tá grey. ^you­v).) . e. mortal. eall. hán­u I. g. dádh­i n. āj­í m. a : I. ákṣ–i n.) . śak-uná m. vṛ́ ś c-i-ka m. e. us : n. arc­ís flame. g. u : I. eye. foot . rákṣ­as n. śúc–i bright. pass. már-ta m. aśva-y-ā́ desire for horses. and subst. demon. garment. kṛṣ­í I. cákr­i active (√kṛ). mostly corresponding to m. róh-i-ta red. jay­ús victorious . rakṣ­ás m. jā́n­u n. ka (rare as a primary. 7ri^­v­^). and m. night . dr op . a god. action nouns and m. e.

thunder. dhu. ar­a­tí m. murderer. váṣ­ṭi eager . e. helper (but abhí­ṣṭi I. dā́­tave and dā́tavái ... vā́s­tu n. relative. vṛk­á­ti m. g. I t also forms some twenty agent nouns used either as adjectives or as m. tán­tu m. (when the root is generally accented) . morning (vas shine). ray (añj anoint). man­ó­tṛ and man­o­tṛ́ inventor. sáp­ti m. tra : agent nouns. kṛ­tnú active .­ti m. íṣ­ṭi offering. dī́ d hi­ti devotion (dhī think) . also a few independent action nouns and still fewer agent nouns : ó­tu m. steed. dā́­tos . creature. g. tṛ : agent nouns. thread . g. receipt of bounty. and ace. Ab. abhi­ṣṭí m. uṣ­ṭṛ́ ploughing bull . e. e. rā­tí willing to give. dā́­tu : D. ak­tú m. e. the rest nearly all n.­gen. . fist. less commonly with connecting vowel : cod­i­tṛ́ instigator. aṃh­a­tí distress. A. g. tnu forms more than a dozen agent nouns. kīr–tí praise (kṛ commemorate). iṣ­ṭí desire. servant. tar­u­tṛ́ m . substantives . dṛ́­ti m. skin. gán–tṛ going to (acc. gá­ti motion. father. dā́ ­ ti 1 gift . abl. jan­tú in.G. maghá­tti f. pi­tṛ́ m. mostly adj. a few of them adjectives. often used participially governing an acc. but kar­tṛ́ m.t i : chiefly f. receipt of wealth. vás­tu I. weft (vā weave). mother (101). season. ám­a­ti poor. conqueror . shaker. substantives. e. ao^­rv). var­ū­tṛ́ protector . e. help) . vásu­tti f. This suffix also forms several names of relationship . doer. t u : chiefly forms the stem of dat. expressing the instrument or means. mā­tṛ́ f. sav­i­tṛ́ stimulator . yaṣ­ṭṛ́ sacrificer (√yaj). gift of fortune.).g. pīy­a­tnú reviling . abode (vas dwell : Gk. stanay­i­tnú m. action nouns . dā́­tum . tár­u­tṛ winning. . jnā­tí m. g. infinitives. ú­tí aid (√av). ám­a­ti indigence. rā­tí gift. ā­mar­ī­tṛ́ destroyer . ṛ­tú m. māday­i­tnú intoxi­ cating. 1 This word when the final number of a compound is reduced by syncope to t t i : bhága­tti f. múṣ­ṭi m.

. ^­rpo­^). dhe­nú f. e. sacrifice. idh-má m. goal. form of the preceding : áṣ-ṭrā goad (aś reach). and f. participles (160. bhā­nú m. sū­nú m. cow. man : action nouns (very numerous).): yó­ni m. . . uk­thá n. dā́­nu. . bhur­ṇi excited . ár­tha n. nī́­thā trick. hi-má m. ear. winter. yáj­a­tra adorable . praise. nā) and substantives.) substantives. jái­tra victorious. only. rá­tha m. hí-mā I. thā : occurs a few times as the I. saying (√vac). pre­ṇí loving (√ prī). mi-trá friend (but n. draught animal. 1) appears as the suffix of a number of adjectives (I. nag­ná naked . yaj­ñá m. field. receptacle. colour. dhé­nā cow. mā́­trā measure (Gk. g. na : besides ordinarily forming peri. cup. jerk. vás­tra n. ma: adj. ghar-má m. khan­i­tra n. sthū́ ­ ṇā post. praise. . budh­ná in. jin­má oblique. than n. cold. bottom. the latter mostly m.g. 1 ártha occurs often in the RV. tīr­thá n. e. There are also a few masculines. most of which are n.e. bíl-ma n. n u : action and agent nouns (including some adjectives). gā́­thā song. chip. fuel. garment. na : as the I. fire. trā : occurs a few times as the I. action and agent nouns (some of the latter adj. a few n. f. kṣep­ṇú m. more often m. price. and (almost exclusively m. nearly always m. form of tha : kāṣ­ṭhā course. kṣé­tra n. pā́­tra n. ag­ní m. demon).. rik­thá n. inheritance (√ric). pass. stav­á­tha m. jūr­ṇi I. form of na makes a few substantives : tṛ́ ṣ ­ṇā thirst. mán-tr a prayer. drop (m. pṛ́ ś -ni speckled. tha : action nouns. sé­nā missile. ford (√tṝ cross). kṛṣ­ṇá black. song. but appears only three times (in Maṇḍala X) as am. vas­ná n. wing. n. light. shovel. há­tha. g.. offering. śag-má mighty . praise. in. slaughter . par­ṇá n. uṣ­ṇá hot. bhṛ­thá m. ni : in. stó-ma m. son. e. g. váh­ni m. heat. heat. g. friendship). with connecting 1 vowel : uc­á­tha n. in the later language it is m. vár­ṇa m. e. as dáṃṣ­ṭra tusk (daṃś bite). gā–thá m.

brah­mán m. bhu­ri abundant. ant . śmáś-ru n. seat. abh–rá n. bhū́­mi I. g. g. body . jé­man victorious . priest : bráh­man n. khad­i­rá m. ag­men). vip­ra inspired . vid-mán in. expanse . jás­u­ri exhausted . tear. substantives : yáj­yu pious. praise (Lat. gṛ́dh­ra greedy . vam­rá m. e. e. sad­mán m. vand­ā́ ­ ru praising . enemy. sitter : sád­ man n. patron. knowledge. g. ru : adj. anger. and m. and (mostly m. prath-i-mán m. g. e. car-men) . foot. ján–i–man n. yu : a few adjectives and m. áś-ri f. . áj­man n. subst. vádh­ri emasculated . hero . e. enemy. pat­á­ru flying . finger. rándh­ra n. nā́­man n. ūrdh-vá . e. earth. ordinance . sáh­yu strong . substantives : bhū́­mī earth. milk . san­é­ru obtaining . ús­ri I. point. ra: many adjectives. sú­rā I. cloud. course (Lat. also severa1 substantives of different genders (I. mostly accented on the suffix . mṛt­ yú m. dawn. mi : adj. ūr­ mí m. dhā́­rā I. intoxicating liguor. váj­ra in. sū­rí m. wave. va : adj. kṣu­rá m. : jā­mí related . speaker. ug­rá mighty. g. man­yú m. g. I. lakṣ-1nī́ sign.) substantives . aj­i­rá swift . a^ṃ^ou) . kṣī­rá n. (also one I. śár­ī­ra n. some of these differ in accent only from corresponding n. vár-ī-man n. ras­mí m. worship . mī : a few I. whi1e a good many are m. sitter. gift. rā) . death . no­men). su­ra m. sad-mán m. ray . beard. name (Lat. bhū́ ­ man n. accented on the suffix . âv­po­^). ordainer : dhár­man n. hollow . sūr­mī́ tube. vad-mán m. r i : adj. abundance. d h a r . substantives : cā­ru dear (Lat.accented on the root.) subst. agent nouns. world. sundh­yú pure. ág­ra n. pat­a­rá flying. thunderbolt. as): dā­mán m. and in. áś-ru n. śás-man n. áś-man m. field (Gk. e. also a few rare1y used m. aṅg­ú­ri I.1 n á n m. breadth . mostly accented on the suffix . áj­ra in. stone (Gk. stream. áṅgh­ri m. giver: dā́­man n. a tree. śíṃ­yu m. bhū-mán m. birth . and a few n. action nouns (cp. ca­ru­s). bhī–rú timid . razor. dás­yu m. edge.

abstract nouns. tā́nv­a belonging to the body (tanū́) . n. (from root or cans. pā́ r thiva earthly (pṛthiv–ī́ earth) . road. pár­van n. n. ladle. gatá m. then always takes ī) . disease.. ádh­van m. g. fountain. sár­va all (Lat. priy­ā I. māday­i­ṣṇú intoxicating. mah­i­ṣá mighty. (all genders) . e. púr­ī­ṣa n. g. 2. sru­vá m. ám­ī­ vā I. car–i–ṣṇú wandering . in. pū́r­va preceding. healing. become appellatives and in the n. personifications . end in a . sal­vu­s). ā : forms the I. gṛ́t­sa adroit. bountifulness (maghá­ van bountiful). e. few n. a : forms a large number of adjectives expressing the sense of relation to or connexion with the primitive word . dáiva divine (devá god). mā́ghon­a n. ar­u­ṣá red . friendship (sákhi friend). and n. pṅru­ṣa m. ānī : forms the I. man . rubbish . drop.. dear . priy­á m. ṛ́k­van praising.) . devotion. (mostly m. The first syllable in the great majority of instances is strengthened with vṛddhi (the I. indr­āṇī́ wife of Indra. stem) . náva m. návā I. g. mānav­á belonging to man (mán­u). ji­ṣṇú victorious . ṛj­ī­ṣá rushing. e. n. joint. man­ī­ṣā́ f. of names of male beings in a.g. medicine. áś-va m. human being . pṛk­ṣá dappled (√pṛe). without vṛddhi : bheṣaj­á adj. and subst. kṛ́ t ­van active. horse (Lat. office of priest (hótṛ). pak­vá ripe. g. e. drap­sá m. many of them have in the m. and subst. e. The great majority of these form adjectives with the general sense of relating to or connected with.(Gk. mudgal­anī .. or I. g. snu : adj. e. van: adj. sa : adj. n. gone. battle of the ten kings (daśa-rājan) . út­sa m. mā́ r ut­a relating to the Maruts (marút) . yáj­van sacrificing . eq-uu-s). op0­o­^). gatā́ I. grā́­van m. vadh­a­snú murderous . Secondary nominal Suffixes.. hotr­á n. of adjectives which in m. sakhy­á n. dāśarājñ-á n. new . stone .

chiefly in the later Saṃhitās . son of Aditi . patronymics. ad­at­ī́ eating. ānavan­ī́ y a used for the oblation (ā­hávana). araṇy­āṇī́ nymph of the Forest (áraṇya) .g. e. e. g. in the sense of possessing. e. īya : forms general adjectives. 107. e. sacrificial fire (AV. var­m­in clad in armour (vár­man) . from nouns in a . dev­ī́ goddess (dev­á). i : forms m. pṛthv­ī́ broad (pṛthú). páuruṣ­eya relating to man (púruṣa). gṛhamedh­ī́ y a relating to the domestic sacrifice. g. and often of stems in u (98 c) or in a (always when formed with Vṛddhi) . parvat­ ī́ya mountainous . of m. irregularly formed : ret­ín abounding in seed (rét­as). av­i­tr­ī́ protectress. e. e. as a m. g. in : forms numerous adjectives. e. g. patronymics as well as a few general adjectives . ūrj­ā́nī Strength (ū́rj strength). eya: forms m. samudr­íya oceanic. . kāṇv­āyana descendant of Kaṇva. charioteer (from sa­rátha driving on the same chariot). āyana : forms m. patronymics with initial Vṛddhi . abhr­iyá derived from the clouds (abhrá). iya ( = ya after conjunct consonants): forms adjectives of relation . arvāc­ī́na turned towards (arvāñc hitherward) . also others expressing the general sense of relation .wife of Mudgala . Similarly formed is sā́rath­i m. ī : forms the I. with initial Vṛddhi. almost exclusively from stems in a . chiefly expressive of direction. from other stems: are­in radiant (arc­íbeam). stems made with suffixes ending in consonants (95). sā́ ṃ varaṇ­i descendant of Saṃvaraṇa. from the weak stem of derivatives in añc . g. ādit­eyá m. viśvajan-īna (AV. g. indr­iyá belonging to Indra.) con­ taining all kinds of people. e. páurukuts­i descendant of Purukutsa . ark­ín praising (ar­ká praise). īna : forms adjectives. or with tṛ (101 e). e. Cp. g. hiraṇ­ín adorned with gold (hiraṇ­ya). g.).

companion (amā́ at home).g. e. g. g. g. sanā­tána saná­tna eternal (sánā from of old) . tvana ( = tva­na): forms n. substantives (like tā) . tana and (its syncopated form) tna : form adjectives a temporal sense from adverbs and prepositions . e. and the prep. tāti and (less often) t ā t : form abstract I. śata-tamá hundredth. little boy). úd : tavás­tara stronger . pra­tná ancient with e. e. and (prá before). sarvá­tāt completeness (Lat. kinglet. salu­tdt­). little girl (kumāra­ká m. amṛta­ tvá n. níṣ­ṭya foreign (nís out). abstract substantives (nearly all of them duplicates of others in tva) . salu­tāti­) . tvā : forms n. immortality. . offspring . tā : forms abstract I. tya : forms a few substantives and adjectives from adverbs and prepositions : amā́ ­ tyam. e. little foot. devá­tā divinity. puru­táma very many . máma­ka my . devá­tāt divine service. substantives. g. puruṣá­ tā human nature. maghavat­tvá liberality. kumār­ikā́ I. ápa– tya n. abstract substantives (like tā) . g. tara : forms comparatives from adjectives. with Vṛddhi and con¬ necting i : vā́sant–i–ka belonging to the spring (vasantá). jyeṣṭná­tāti superiority. ní­tya constant. úd) and ordinals . ratnī́ ­ tara better charioteer . The I. sakhi­tvaná friendship. g. of some of the diminutives is formed with ikā . sarvá­tāti complete welfare (Lat. nū́ ­ tana and nū́ ­ tna present (nū́ now) .ka : forms adjectives and diminutives . e. ut­tamá highest . bandhú­tā relationship. ánta­ka making an end (ánta). e. jani­tvaná wifehood. e. g. vasú­tā wealthiness. tama : forms superlatives (from nominal stems and the prep. pāda­ ka in. dūra­ká distant. rāja­ká in. substantives with the sense conveyed by the English suffixes ­ship and ­ness . út­tara higher. tha: forms a few ordinals as well as adjectives (from pronominal stems) with a general numerical sense . e. g.

b a h u ­ I á abundant. g. diminutives . ā d i t y á m. abstract substantives. g. lordship (ádhipati overlord). e. páruṣ–ṇī a river . abstracts. thus pát–nī mistress (Gk. m ṛ n ­ m á y a made of clay (mṛ́ d ). patronymics and n. daśa–má tenth (Lat. thus ṛṣa–bhá and vṛṣa­bhá bull . while k takes the place of t . g. kapi­Iá (monkey­coloured—) brown. śiśú-Ia m. r a t h ­ i ­ r á riding in a car (rátha). little man. in. novi­mu­s). as well as of several adjectives in ta denoting colours . g. son of Tugra. s a p t á ­ t h a seventh . á v a ­ r a lower . mna : forms a few n. son of Aditi . paśav-yā relating to cattle (paśú) . maya : forms adjectives (I.c a t u r ­ t h á fourth. mostly adjectives . g. e. la : forms adjectives and a few m. m a n a s ­ m á y a spiritual. ī) i n the sense of consisting of. e. mant : forms adjectives i n the sense of possessing from substantives (except stems i n a) . almost exclu- . g. g. t a u g r y á m. m a d h y a ­ m á middle­ most. ya : forms adjectives of relation. Most of the latter two classes take Vṛddhi of the first syllable. d h ū m ­ r á grey ( d h ū m á smoke) . e. but also t ú g r ­ y a . ma: forms superlatives (partly from prepositions) and a few ordinals . of p á t i lord and of paruṣá knotty. ^ror­uta). ava­má lowest . ā́dhipa¬ tya n. k r á t u ­ m a n t powerful . abstracts from nouns or particles : d y u ­ m n á brightness. e. g ó ­ m a n t rich in cows. little child. vṛṣa­lá m. deci­mu­s). s u ­ m n á welfare. á s i k ­ n i black (ás­i­ta). e. names of animals . bha : forms m. but only about one­fourth of the adjectives do so . a s á n i ­ m a n t possessing the thunderbolt. nava­1ná ninth (Lat. vat : forms a few I. g a r d a ­ b h á and r ā s a ­ b h a ass. é­ṇī variegated (é­ta). k a t i ­ t h á the how¬ manieth ? nī : forms the I. ra : forms comparatives (from prepositions) and ordinary nouns. I n a few of the colour adjectives nī is substituted for the final a. e. eákṣuṣ­mant possessed of eyes.

áśvā-vant and áśva-vant owning horses . and m.’ ū .sively from prepositions. I b. stems in i and u may be of any gender. aṣṭrā­vín obedient to the goad. g. of comparison . These may be summarized asfollows: Speaking generally. śa: forms adjectives and m.. ni-vát depth. from every kind of nominal stem. as an adv. aṅku-śá m. éta-śa variegated (éta id. 2 . g. ú aref. t i . 1S3. rómaṇ­vant hairy . or n. e. samád-van warlike . g. e. stems i n ī .. g. substantives. a. vaut : forms adjectives. páyas­vant containing milk. jar. are I. yaśas-vín glorious. n may be m. vin : forms adjectives from stems ending in a (which is lengthened). Some of these derivatives.. hook. expressing local position .). g. áthar-van m. maghá-van bountiful. ubhayā­vín partaking of both (ubháya). e. manuṣ­ vát like Manus. if agent nouns. fire-priest. . as adjectives. sákhi­vant having friends . ī. bare roots as stems. mā́­vant like me . in the sense of possessing . nṛ­vánt manly. Exceptionally formed are dnṛṣad­vín bold (dhṛṣát) and vāg­vín eloquent (vā́c). a. tāt‚ tāti. śruṣṭī-ván obedient. Derivative stems in ā. tā. The above lists of suffices practically supply the rules of gender for the Vedic noun. and as . ace. f. From this sense is derived the use of the n. stems in a. trā. Feminine are all stems formed with the suffixes ä. especiallythoseformedfrom pronominal stems. e. ud-vát height. if action nouns. e. roma-śá hairy (róman hair) . see 100. t. g. g. sometimes without change of meaning . substantives . ī. e. víṣṇu­vant accom­ panied by Viṣṇu . kalá-śa m. 2 1 Except . have the sense of resembling . m. e. van : forms adjectives in the sense of possessing and a few m.). yuva-śá youthful (yúvan id. But when stems i n t i appear as agent nouns they are m.

I n patronymics. ma. saṃ­gáchati. as. 2 3 4 5 6 . c. The compound root can be used to form nominal stems by means of the primary suffixes enumerated above (182. tya. la. bha. vin.. 3. The compound verb (which. á­gám come. saṃ­gam­á m. I S 4 . áti beyond. s. ā­dā́ take. ra. a. us. Masc. g. úd up. The prepositions which are compounded with roots are the following: ácha towards. ta. nu. ánu after. tna. unite. union. párā away. Compounds. are stems formed with the suffixes a. va. are stems formed with the suffixes ni. When they are m. also stems formed with the bare root. These when used as adj. however.b. Masc. antár between. Neuter are all stems formed with is. áva down. I . ā́ near. ní down. are occasionally neuter. maya. abhí against. and. those formed with ana. f. man. into. or neut. ka. g. mi. Thus gam go combines with sam together to saṃ­gám go together. tvana. āyana. an. e. tama. Masculine are (in so far as not used adjectivally) all stems formed with the suffixes yu. when they are agent nouns. verbal Compounds are formed by combining roots with twenty prepositions and a few adverbs. also adjectives formed with i n . as well as n. fem. stems i n tr are always m. ápi on. The preposition ā reverses the sense of verbs of going or giving . mant. 6 1 When they are of course m. tva. e. d. tu. tra. īna. t ṛ . vant. na‚ una. unless adjectives or agent nouns. 1) . van . or fem. in finite forms is actually compounded only in subordinate clauses when the preposition immediately precedes the verb) is conjugated like the simple verb. tana. nís out. i . 1 2 3 4 9 B. ápa away. are stems formed with i or u. c. īya. neut. ádhi upon. ya. Masc. tara..

prepare (acc. e. having acquired the character of an adverb. g. like verbal prefixes. after assuming an adverbial charac­ ter. This word is still a substantive i n tl1e RV. with kṛ i t means make visible. ástam­ita set . Lat. cord-). g. āvíṣ karta make manifest. ví asunder. prā­dúr (before the door) begins to appear i n the A V . A few adverbs are also compounded with a limited number of verbs : áram at hand is combined with k ṛ = serve (dat). i n combination w i t h bhū — become manifest. mā tiré bhūt may it not disappear. with participial forms i n the A V . āvis sānti being manifest . sám together. prá forth. A few substantives. appear. w i t h bhū = serve. b. 1 2 1 2 I n the ŚB. āvis openly is combined with as. tirás aside is combined with bhú be and dhā put only . śrád viśvā vāryā kṛdhi entrust all boons (to us). e. astam­eṣyánt about to set. práti towards. appear compounded. credit ( — LaI. ^apt^-ia and ^pa^-i^. c. āvir agnir abhavat Agni became manifest . śrád asmai dhatta believe in him . námas obeisance with the gerund of kṛ make : nam. g. purás in front is combined with kṛ do and dhā put only . appear. is once combined with kṛ and often w i t h dhā put i n the sense of put faith in.g. kṛṇótu ratháṃ puráḥ may he place (our) car in the forefront. w i t h gam = serve . e. e. but is nearly always separated from the verb by other words . g. bhū and kṛ only . conduce to (dat. and later tirás is also combined with kṛ do. e. śrád. an old word meaning heart (Gk.) .). with the two former it means become visible. credo for cred-do). These are: ásta­m home with i go: astaṃ­yánt setting. .pari­ kṛ́ t ya doing homage.

inflexion. kikirā́ kṛṇu tear to tatters . and construction. such as pūrva­kāma– kṛ́ t van fulfilling former wishes. e. masmasā́ k u r u and mṛsmṛsā́ kuru crush . Nominal Compounds. a disease (from vā́ta wind). and those in which three occur are rare. From the Indo­European period the Vedic language has inherited the power of combining two or more words into one treated like a simple word as regards accent. but there are exceptions to both these rules. maṣmaṣā́ karam I have crushed. maIm. for nárā-śáṃsam. a. has vātī́ ­ kṛta n. akhkhalī­kṛ́ t ya croaking. The interjection híṅ is compounded with k ṛ in the sense of utter the sound híṅ. jañjanā­bhávant sparkling . also in a few others. g. 1 1 Chiefly i n dual compounds. I t takes place only when the compound is doubly accented. I I .In the RV. The Av. no compounds of more than three independent members are met with. d. 1S5. hasta­gṛ́hya grasping by the hand. a few substantives designating parts of the body are compounded with the gerund of grah seize : karṇa– gṛ́hya seizing by the ear. pāda­gṛ́ h ya seizing by the foot. and the AV. hiṅ­kṛṇvatī́ lowing. that appear compounded with bhū and k ṛ : aIaIā­bhávant sound­ ing merrily . The latter compound is the only example i n the RV. of ī appearing instead of ā before kṛ or bhū. mostly onomatopoetic and nearly always ending in ā. I n the RV. There are also a few reduplicated interjectional words. Both in the frequency and in the length of compounds the Vedic language resembles the Greek of Homer. The two characteristic features of a compound are unity of accent and employment of the uninflected stem in the first member (or members) . .alā­bhávant glittering . as dyā́va ha kṣā́mā heaven and earth . bibibā­ bhávant crackling . bharbharā́ ­ bhavat became confounded . Occasionally tmesis of a compound occurs. as nárā vā śáṃsam. murmur .

or adjectives in which the first member governs the last in sense (as kṣayád­vīra ruling men) . its gender. 3. or irregular formations arising from the juxta¬ position of two words in a sentence . when it has three. These consist of two substantives. Vedic compounds may be divided into three main classes according to their syntactical relations : 1. the gender of collectives is always neuter. Governing com­ pounds. form. When the word appearing as the first member has two stems. 2. means pair or couple. 1. b. Co–ordinative (Dvandva) ^ Compounds. three lesser groups : 4. or adjectives the general meaning of which implies possession (as bahv­anná possessing much food). or repeated words treated as compounds in the Saṃhitās inasmuch as they have only one accent and a special meaning when thus combined. 1S6. far less commonly adjectives. and inflexion . in order to classify Vedic compounds exhaustively. Syntactical compounds. The gender of compounds. a. or those in which the members are coordinated . . To these must be added. 6. is with few exceptions that of the last member . as a rule. or those in which the first member determines or limits the sense of the last . I n substantive compounds the last member retains. sometimes different from that between words in a sentence. 5. Possessives.The Sandhi between the members is. Iteratives. Co­ordinatives. Classification. the middle stem (73 a). while in adjectival compounds the gender and inflexion of the last member are of course variable. 1 This term applied to co­ordinatives by the later H indu gram­ marians. moreover. if they end in substantives. Determinatives. that in collectives is always singular. The number in compounds depends on the sense . connected in sense with ' and ’. the weak stem is used .

’ 1 Cp. the commonest ending of the first member. e. mitrā́ ­ váruṇābhyām. 2. came to be retained unaltered in the other cases : G. dyā́vā­ pṛthivī́ heaven and earth. aho­rātrā́ ṇ i^ days and nights. I n the later Saṃ¬ hitās and in B. g. tráyo-daśa thirteen (three and ten). e. occur in Book X . g. g. and the f. The only examples in the RV. These show the stem­form in the first member and the accent on the final syllable of the last. This Dvandva shows a double irregularity : the gender of the first member has prevailed over that of the second. A.. 1 e. Another type is represented by the pIural Dvandvas which express pairs of groups. mitrā́ ­ váruṇayoḥ. dva being an old dual . that of the N. indra­vāyu Indra and Vāyu. ajāváyas goats (ajá) and ^heep (ávi) . as in the line ā náktā barhiḥ sadatām uṣā́sā let Night and Dawn seat themselves upon the litter. stem rātrī has been changed to rātra. g. mātárā­pitárā mother and father . A further step towards unification is taken in a minority of cases in which the first member loses its accent and the last syllable of the final member (irrespectively of its original accent) receives the acute. I .LSc] CO­ORDINATIVES 269 A 1. e. The most numerous group (about three­fourths of all the Dvandvas) in the Rigveda comprises those compounds (nearly always names of deities) in which each member is dual in form and has a separate accent . The proper genitive of such compounds is e. this is the prevailing type in new formations. mitráyor váruṇayoḥ. bhadra­pāpāḥ (Av. the good and the bad. mitrā­váruṇā Mitra and Varuṇa. But as these co­ordinate duals early came to be regarded as a unit.).). a later type representing three groups. but in the later SanIhitās this type becoṁes quite general. dvā́­ daśa twelve (two and ten).g. dakṣa­kratu m. e. as sūryā­candramás­ā sun and moon (candrá­mas). The last stage in the Rigveda appears in four examples in which the first member assumes the stem­ form. will and understanding (TB. Latin su­ove­taarilia. e. I n the R v the two duals are often separated. 2 3 . g. several of the cardinal numerals are old Dvandvas. g.

kṛta. hair and beard (AV.) with the two feet. I n the larger group (2 a) the first member has the value of a substantive dependent. (AV. There occur in the Saṃhitās a few singular Dvandvas which express a collective sense and are always neuter.^akṛtám (AV. e. the Greek .3. g. keśa-śmaśrú n. the right and a. B. They express a contrast. mitrā́ — Mitra and Varuṇa . as utkūla­nikūlá (VS.) going uphill and downhill. The old dual Dvandvas (A 1) are frequently represented by elliptical duals which put one of a pair in the dual to express both. 2. This may be called the dependent determinative group (named Tatpurusa by the later H indu grammarians). Originally doubtless iṣṭā́ p ūrtā́ . on the second. . They are of three types : 1. 2. pitárā = father and mother . This numerous class of compounds comprises two groups. bhadra­ pāpám (AV. samiṣṭa­yajús (VS. 1S7. in the sense of an oblique ease.) . I n the other group (2 b) the final member.) sacrifice and sacrificial formula. their combination expressing a mixture of the two. dual in both members. mātárā = mother and father.) good and evil . 1 2 1 Cf. which may be either a verbal noun or an ordinary substantive. as nīla­lohitá dark blue and red = dark red. The adjectives designate colours. and accent the final syllable . Determinatives. parents. as dyā́vā = heaven and earth .^^^o ^. DvandvaS consisting of adjectives are rare. They are used with dual substantives to express that each is an attribute of one unit of the kind. 3. as pad­bhyā́ ṃ dakṣiṇa­savyā́ b hyām the left.) what has been done and not done . iṣṭā-pūrtárn what has been 1 2 offered or given .

adj. or loc. ‚^ The subdivision ending i n ordinary substantives may be called ' nominal dependents '. agni­ d a g d h á burnt with fire . e. v ṛ t r a ­ h á t y a n. Inst. An example of the rare use of a past pass. in a transitive sense. 2. abb.á d eating the oblation . or gen. by the first member. or. The first member (substantive or pronoun) may have the sense (and often even the form) of any oblique case. Dependent (Tatpuruṣa) Determinatives. This may be called the descriptive determinative group (called Karma¬ dhāraya by the later Hindu grammarians)... Greek l^o­^a^o­^ horse­taming. When it has an ace. act of slaying Vṛtra. according as the last member is one or the other.h a y á urging on steeds. tanū́ ­ śubhra shining (with=) in body . In acc. crossing with oars . 1. if a verbal noun. vā́ j a­sāti I. : indra­pā́ t ama most drunk by Indra . g. aritra­ páraṇa. a ś v a . inst. b h a d r a ­ v ā d í n uttering an auspicious cry . 2 a. 5 6 1 The subdivision ending in verbal nouns may be called ‘ verbal dependents ’.2b). 7 ttafordatta(l6O. when it has a daI. it is always an ordinary noun. dependents the final member is always a verbal 1 3 2 4 noun . part. d e v á ­ t t a 7 given by the gods . g a r a ­ g ī r ṇ á ( A v . adverbially. the final member is mostly a verbal noun . h a v i r . The final member of genitive dependents is always an ordinary substantive. bala­vijñāyá to be recognized by his strength. is described adjectivally. act of winning booty. b h ū r i ­ d ā v a n giving much . Cf. ) having swallowed poison . go-ghná cow-slaying. 2 3 4 5 6 . sense. Examples of this sense are very rare. sense. deva­mā́ d ana exhilarating the gods. The compound may be a substantive or an adjective. The final member is an ordinary adjective or substantive.DETERMINATIvES 271 if an ordinary substantive. A.

Plur. pur¬ aṃ­dará. post of wood.) looking fiercely. endings never in these compounds. dru­padá n. and of an adverbial acc. most commonly the acc. e. Examples of an ace pi. the rule before the verbal nouns ­kara making. AbI. but du. H ere the genitive expresses the material. Gen. dhanaṃ­jayá winning booty. dhiyaṃ­dhā devout. ­saha overwhelming . uda­plutá (AY) swimming in the water . 2). not infre­ quently before such as begin with vowels . form with plural sense. deva­kilbiṣá m. often the loc. I n their first member many dependent compounds retain the case­ending.) may express a plur.. Loc. a. : áhar­jāta (AY) born in the day . Dat. Also im i n puṣṭiṃ-bhará bringing prosperity and hariṃ-bhará bearing the tawny (bolt). The form in am is. is śubhaṃ-yā moving in brilliance. 3 An example of a cognate acc. viś-páti lord of the elan. 2 4 5 . sutaṃ­bhará reeeiving pressed 4 Soma . This and áśvam-iṣṭi are Tatpurusa possessives (l89. endings (ace. bandnu­kṣit dwelling among relatives. g. 5. ­sani winning. 5 1 A n example of an Objective genitive. ^ The singular acc. The ace. páśva-iṣṭi desiring kine.3. but the rest rarely. sense. áśvam-iṣṭi seeking horses. and inst. puru­bhū being in many places . abhayaṃ­ kará procuring security. (the commonest sense) : rāja­putrá king's son . : go­jā́ produced from cows . in the RV. tīvra­sú­t pressed from the fermenting mass. ­jaya conquer¬ ing. ­caya collecting. e. ugraṃ-paśyá (AV. ­ruja breaking. ending are kā-citkará doing all manner of things . viśvam-invá all-moving. off nee against the gods .. generally expresses the object of a transitive verb. Sing. 1 2 6. ­tara overcoming. ­dara cleaving. : vakmarā́ j a­satya faithful to the ordainers of hymns .’ destroying forts. g. ­bhara bearing. 4. it also occurs before other verbal nouns. viśvá-śambhū salutary for all. endings (ace and loc) some¬ times occur.

u‚ ṛ) usually add a determinative t . divi­kṣayá dwelling in heaven. hciefiy i n the later saṃhitās.­ṣád dwelling in the waters. e. as agre­gá going in front. e. g. 3 By the false analogy of these words are also formed from a stems ṛta–s­pati lord of pious works and rátha­s­páti lord of the car. agre­pā́ drinking first . as a shortened form of ā. There are also several examples of plurals. Loc. while short vowels (I. final long vowels (a. I t also occurs in the proper names dívo­dāsa servant of heaven and śúnaḥ-śépa Dog's-tail. : very common before páti husband or lord. Abl. also before several formed with a . The singular also occurs a few times before an ordinary adj. member. nama. used as a proper name.) n. or subst. svapne­duḥṣvapnyá (AV.u) undergo no change. jā­s­páti lord of a family . g. śúneṣita driven by dogs (śúnā) . as gnā­s­ páti husband of a divine woman . I f a root forms the last member of a Tatpuruṣa. divi­yáj worshipping in heaven .) m. often appears as a final. heaven .DEPENDENT DETERMINATIVES 187] 273 Inst.­dhá (Av. rathe­ṣṭhā standing on a ear . divo­rúe shining Gen. g. 3 bráhmaṇas­páti lord of prayer. as apsu. with an ordinary substantive as final . as máde­raghu q^uiek in exhilaration . Radical a. : divo­jā́ produced from from the sky. A rare example of an inst.i. e. Dám­pati lord of the house probably = dám­s­pati. yajña­nī́ leading the 4 1 singular ending with plural sense. vācā́­ 2 stena thief by speech. vidmanā́ p as 1 working (apás) with wisdom (vidmánā) . secretly injuring by words. : girā­vṛ́ d h rejoicing in song . Dat. kṣudnā­mārá (AV. evil dream in sleep. death by hunger . nṛtsv­ás piercing the heart. : common in the R v before agent nouns formed from the simple root . : the only example seems to be found in the loose syntactical compound dásyave vṛ́ka wolf to the Dasyu. a. goṣu­yúdh fighting in (=fur)kine. 2 4 .) name­giving..

g. This is the term applied to this class of compounds by the later Hindu grammarians. Before a verbal noun a substantive sometimes implies a com­ parison . 1 2 b. candrá­mā́ s m. g. I f followed by a subst. Descriptive (Karrnadhāraya) 2 Compounds.sacrifice .) reddish like a parrot. Similarly before an ordinary adjective : śúka­babhru (vS. dhāra­vāká sounding like a stream.) m. e. e. attributive.. as dnī-jú inspiring the mind. 2 . it has an attributive sense equivalent to an adj. puruṣa-vyāghrá (VS.) m. raven (lit. There is. I f followed by an ordinary subst.g. has the usual attributive sense . jyotiṣ-kṛ-t light-creating.. demon in form of an owl . I f followed by a verbal adj. ^ By a Substantive. no t added i n vanar-gú forest-roaming. e. king-creating . a. raja-. g. in season = regularly . 2. however.. This class of Determinatives is comparatively rare in the Saṃhitās. īśāna-kṛ́ t acting as a ruler . e. the preceding snbst. but is sometimes a verbal or an ordinary adjective. kṛṣṇa-śakuní 1 (AV. sárga­takta speeding with a rush. the adj. puruṣa-mṛgá (VS. somasú–t Soma-pressing . e. e. The relation of the first member to the last is appositional. is usually appositional in sense . úlūka-yātu m. vṛṣa-kapi m.) m. puru-bhú appearing in many places. g. śyená-juta speeding like an eagle. black Final u sometimes appears as a shortened form of u i n some Tatpurusas.-u. man-tiger. 1SS. or adverbial. stóma­taṣṭa fashioned as a hymn of praise. but divi-kṣí-t dwelling in heaven . expressing sex or a compound nature. a kind of demon . The last member is generally an ordinary substantive. But sometimes it is adverbial . man-ape. owl demon. ṛtv­íj sacrificing. By an Adjective. (bright) moon . i. I t is expressed in three ways : 1. (man=) male antelope .

āśu-pátvan swift-flying. auspicious day. adnara-kaṇṭhá (VS. g.’ Sometimes the qualify¬ ing adj. Cf. ardha-devá m. satya­yáj sacrificing truly ( = satyám). I f followed by a verbal noun.bird) . vamá­jata born as one dear. state of being there . try­aruṣa 7 a. mahā-grāmá ^ m. yellow . i . g. but the Av. 1 sāyaṃ­bhavá As first member of Karmadbārayas (and Babuvrīhis) mahát appears as mahā . the preceding adj. also in apar¬ āhṇá (Av. H ere ában day is syncopated and extended with a . hári-ścandra glittering (AV. dvi­já (AV.^ swift­flying. Also in ṣaḍ­ahá ( A v ) m. ^' This is much commoner in Bahuvrīhis (189. 9 3. A t the end of Karmadhārayas the final n of an stems is dropped'^ in eka­vṛṣá (AV. 2 a. lower (part of the) neck .) born twice. evā́ra quite (evá) ready (ára) . forenoon .) decline of day. only bull. madhyáṃ-dina m. punar­bhū́ arising again. pūrvāhṇá m. sató­mahat equally (sa­tás) great. yāvayat-sakhá m. ^l^­7r^r. indicates a part of what the last member expresses .) afternoon. i . period of six days (189. flying swiftly . amutra­bhúya (AV. 3 6 āśu–héman swiftly-speeding . e. demi-god . e. 4d and 189 A. puró­hita placed in front . Cf. e. nava-jvārá m. great bull. protecting friend. H ere the cardinals are used for the numeral adverbs dví­s^ tri­s. satyám­ugra truly mighty. H ere sákhi friend becomes sakha. new pain . has mahat­kāṇḍá great section. sana–jā́ born of old ( = sánā) . ny–áhn–a (Av. midday.) ruddy in three places. great host . 189.) n. mahā­vrṣá (Av. 4). ^' The sense is rather appositional i n purva­pā́ drinking (as) first.) m. púnar­ nava renewing itself. W i t h case­ending retained i n the first member.) m.’ Similarly before ordinary adjectives : viśvá-ścandra all-glittering .) m. 2 3 4 6 7 9 . 4). bha¬ drāhá (Av. puro­yā́ v an going before . dear by nature. Gk.) n. is adverbial 3 4 in sense . By an Adverb (inclusive of particles and prepositions) : akṣṇayā­drúh injuring wrongly . e.

dośá (vS. duḥ­ śéva unfavourable . for it expresses their general meaning in the vast majority of cases . which have been transformed into adjectives agreeing in gender. devout . number. bi­ped­. puro­rathá whose car is in front . 1S9.( A v ) m. rājá­putra having kings as sons . itthā́–dhī having such thought. great grandson . prá­vīra m. fair garment . in a few instances the more comprehensive sense of ' connected with ’ is required to indicate the relation between the substantive and the Bahuvrīhi compound agreeing with i t . idā­vatsará ( A v ) m . They are determinatives (generally Karmadharayas). full year. ví­grīva wry­necked . áśva-parṇa horse-winged. 3 Lat. The transformation is accom¬ panied by a shift of accent from the final member to the first. and case with another substan­ tive expressed or understood. an appositional subst. enemy . dvi­pád two­footed . i. 2 3 1 H ere the adverbs preceding ordinary substantives are 2 Gk. supreme king . becoming evening.g. later part of the evening.) m. Karmadhāraya Possessives. fire in front. in which the first member is an attributive adj. saṃ­vatsará m. ending in substantives. The term ' possessive ' is probably the most appropriate as applied to these compounds. (including participles). e. . índra-śatru having Indra as a foe .. rúśad-vatsa having a shining calf. áti­kṛṣṇa excessively dark . su­vasaná n. su­dā́ giving willingly. b^r^-7roc^­. híraṇya­ nemi whose fellies are (made of) gold . non­friend. Possessives are of two kinds : 1. hatá-mātṛ whose mother has been slain . adhi­rājá m. whose wings are horses . puró– agni (VS^) m. adjectives. ugrá-bāhu powerful-armed . paścāI. prá­ṇapāt in. e. aṣṭā́­pad eight­footed. These compounds are secondary adjectives. 1 1 3. great hero . g. or an adverb (including particles and prepositions) : e. Possessive (Bahuvrīhi) Compounds. viśva-nara belonging to all men. the present year. a­mítra m.

. tear­ faced . The superlatives jyéṣṭha chief and śréṣṭha best. These compounds very frequently appear as m. duṣ­pád ill­footed . 2 2. pā́ t ra­hasta (Av.g. a­pád footless . I n some possessives based on appositional Karmadhārayas a comparison of the first with the final member is implied . gó­vapus cow­shaped .. proper names.) having bone as its chief part ^chieflybone. sense is intended. fire­bright .) having the brightness of fire. ṛ́kṣa­grīva bear­necked . in. b. as agní­tejas (Av. yamá-śreṣṭha (Av. the adjectival sense often not 1 Gk. b.1 an­udrá waterless .) of whom Yama is best. swift as thought . 3.. some­ times as I. butter­ backed . mayura­roman having the plumes of peacocks.^nya. aśru-mukhá (Av.. but rarely an inst. vṛkṣá-keśa whose trees are (like) hair. The ease­ending is in several instances retained. varṣā́jya ( A v ) whose rain is (like) butter . parts of the body appear as the last member. 2 . Of this use there are three appli­ cations : a. mádhu­jihva having honey on his tongue . vájra­báhu having a bolt on his arm. ásthi­bhuyāṃs (AV. g. tree-haired ^ wooded (mountain).) having tears on her face. but never with a case­ending . H ere the s of the nom. diví­yoni having (his) origin in heaven . or ace. e. Tatpuruṣas. bird.) in which the lower is higher. a.) having a vessel in his hand . topsy­turvy. I n possessives based on gen. a^­v^o­s. and pára higher. Cp. Examples are: rāyás­kāma having a desire for wealth . when the noun with which they agree is dropped : thus su–parṇá fair­winged. tvāṃ­kāma having a desire for thee. are used substantively as final member of possessives : índra-jyeṣṭha having Indra as chief. ghrtá­prṣṭha having butter on his back. bhāsā́ ­ ketu recognizable by light . sense. Bahuvrīhis come to be used substantively. the comparative bhuyas more. the first member often implies a comparison. the later para–s–para and anyo. e. survives from the use of the two words in syntactical juxtaposition. su­parṇá beautiful­winged. kú­yava causing a bad harvest . maṇi­grīvá having pearls on the neck . When a loc. avara­s­pará (VS. máno­java having the swiftness of thought. a. I n Tatpuruṣa Possessives the first member most commonly has a gen. not infrequentIy a loc.

series of six days. But also viśvá­karman. battle of two kings . ví­manyu­ka (Av. having great praise. chando-nāmá (vs. e. g.)free from anger. ni­kilbiṣá n. as names only. The n of several words in an. tri­yugá n. 3 4 1 Except those formed with ahá ā^y‚ which are m „ as ṣaḍ­ahá m. dvi­rājá (Av. b. nā́ m an. a seer. vṛ́ṣan. párvan. ku­nakh­ín (Av. adj. e. anyódar-ya born from another womb (udára). 2 3 4 .g. I. viśvá-karma performing all work. childlessness .) n. m.) n. g. an­apatyá. . Thus bṛhád­uktha adj. period of six days. mádhu­hast­ya honey­handed. But this word retains its n i n seven compounds i n the RV. try­āmba–ka having three mothers. dhā́ m an. a seer . and sometimes ka . period of three lives . metrical. priyá-dhāma occupying desirable places. c. or the adjective sárva all. Priyá­medha (to whom sacrifice is dear) and Vāmá­deva (to whom the gods are dear). length of ten fingers (4 d). 4. lomaśásaktha (vS. su-gáv-a having fine cows. and that of áhan i n numeral collectives . e. n. mātṛ­bandhú (Av.) having bad nails. dwelling in high heaven. maternal kinship. catur-akṣ–á four-eyed. they form sing. from d v i two upwards. bṛhád­diva adj. is frequently dropped in ordinary Bahuvrīhis. g. With numerals. b. bṛhad­divā́ a goddess . as their first member. vi-parva jointless. 1 2 a. The suffixes a and ya are frequently added. especially when the first member is the privative particle a­ or an­. substantives with an abstract (sometimes a collective) sense. They appear not infrequently as n. whole property . childless (Av). The final member of Bahuvrīhis is liable to various changes tending to make i t end in a. dvi-vṛṣá (vs. But a­parván and vṛ́ ṣ a­parvan. The suffix i n (possessing) is sometimes pleonastically added : mahā–hast–ín having large hands. neuters (always ending in ac­ cented á) with a collective sense . deliverance from sin .) having two bulls.) named metre. sakthán.) m. daśāṅgulá n. ṣaḍ-ahá (Av.) earless. m. a­karṇá­ka (TS. sarva­vedasá ( A v ) n. m. e.occurring at all. kárman. dáśa-mās-ya ten months old.) having hairy thighs . e.

) attaining success (rādha) in agriculture. adds the suffix a. I n the prepositional group. sura­patnī having a hero as a husband. paró­kṣ­a (Av. the first member. e. 2 a. Like Bahuvrīhis. I n the latter class the final syllable of a part. ánu­path­a going along the road. being on a wagon. 1 4.) space on a wagon.l^] BAHUVRIHI COMPOUNDS 279 yaśo-bhag-ín (vs. a. 1S9 A. paro­mātrá going beyond measure. vṛ́ṣa­ patnī ruled by a mighty one. when i t does not end i n a.) riding in the same chariot. 2 3 . e. excessive. anu­kāmá according to wish . g. a­pathi and ā­pathí being on 2 3 the way . krṣṭá­rādhi (Av. takes the f. práty­ardhi to whom the half (árdha) belongs. I n this class. The final member. governs the last in sense. On the other hand. e. d. They resemble Bahuvrihis in form as well as in their adjectival character. as i n the Dvandva aho­rātrá n. i t has a transitive (not an intransitive) sense. and ya sometimes even when i t already ends i n a. a is substituted for i in kavā-sakhá having a niggard for a friend. leader (going before the cows) . I n the f. and i n the verbal class. Governing Compounds. H ere rātrī night becomes rātra.) rich in glory. of Bahuvrīhis páti husband or lord. 2) in the RV. compounds of this type may become substan¬ tives . g. instead of remaining unchanged. (Av. e.. i is substituted for a i n some compounds of gandhá smell. o. devá­patnī having a god as a husband. form of the subst. and i n a few others: dhūmá­gandhi smelling of smoke. and i n daśaṅgulá n. op. for in the prepositional class the first member has the sense of a prep. day and night. 1. sa-rath-ín (vS. the first member is a preposition capable of governing a case .) away from the eye (ákṣ).g. upānas­á adj. is always accented (but in Bahuvrīhis only when that is the natural accent). n. in which about twenty examples occur in the RV. (pátni wife) i n dāsá­patnī having a demon as faster. (not an adj). length of ten fingers (aṅgúli). puro–gav­á m. adhas­pad­á being under the feet. being either a preposition or a verbal noun. 1 Otherwise sakhi remains unchanged i n both Bahuvr1his and Karmadhārayas (but 188. which embraces a considerable number of compounds. 189. . But the meaning is entirely different . ati–rātrá lasting overnight .

­dyav causing the sky to rain . śikṣā-nar-á .sakha making his friend famous. dhārayát­kavi supporting the wise.. as the name of a man : trasá. of a third type. which is almost restricted to the RV. antaḥ-parśav-yá (VS. úpa­mās­ya (Av. H ere the stem of the final member is extended with a. tiró­ahn­ya (being beyond a day).) occurring every month (mā́sa).) being between the ribs (párśu). in which the first member is an action­noun i n t i : dā́ t i­vāra giving treasures. tarád­ dveṣas overcoming (tárat) foes. 188. g. of ṛdh increase. 1 a. jamat is a palatalized form of an aor. or áya . 1 2 4 5 6 . 2 3 2 4 5 6 5. 2. Cf. rdhát aor. vītí­rādhas enjoying the oblation. note 6.­dasyu (terrify the foe). part. rdhád­vāra increasing goods. b. The following are used as proper names: r d h á d ­ r a y (increasing wealth). á. With a single exception they never add a suffix. of gam go. some half dozen examples occur in the RV. I n this and the following example tile a of radā and śikṣa is metrically lengthened. part. 2. śikṣā­nar­á helping men. Three types (in all of which examples of proper names occur) may be distinguished. Syntactical Compounds. c. e. belonging to the day (áhan) before yesterday. see below. vṛṣṭí. IS9 B. ^ sakhi friend becomes sakha in two other governing compounds : dravayát-sakha speeding his friend and śrāvayát. (rearing kine). Only three or four examples occur of a second type.ádhi-gart-ya being on the car-seat (gárta). I n the commonest type. i n which the first member consists of a simple present stem (probably representing an imperative) : radā­vasu dispensing wealth. note 2. the first member is a participle ending in át formed from transitive present stems i n a. I n the verbally governing class the first member is an agent noun or an action noun governing the last member as an object. A certain number of irregular compounds are formed in a manner differing from that of any of the four classes described above. They may be treated as a class. since all of them have been produced by the same cause: frequent syntactical juxtaposition in a sentence. j a m á d ­ a g n i (going to Agni). bharád­vāja (carrying off the prize). as tlIe name of a man : púṣṭi­gu m. man¬ dayát­sakha gladdening his friend.

and with a gerundive in the adv. e. b. rather more than half of them being substantives. māṃ-paśyá ( A v ) designation of an aphrodisiac plant (from mā́ṃ paśya look at me) . 6. Thus ye­yajāmahá (VS. The sense conveyed by the repetition is frequency.) n. in so Jar as attainable).) asking garrulously (from kíṃ tvám what are you doing ?). yāc­chreṣṭhá the best possible (lit.189] SYNTACTICAL COMPOUNDS 281 a. The initial words of a text begin to be compounded in the later Saṃhitās as a substantive to designate that text. and prepositions are often repeated. or constant succession in time. or adj. but differs from them in having not the stem but the fully inflected form of nominal words in the first member. Several subst..) in so far as has come to be compounded with a superlative in the adj.) rapacious (from aháṃ sanā I will obtain) .. In the RV. ánaṃ-sana (voc. Thus aham­uttará (AV. compounds have resulted from phrases consisting of two words in juxtaposition. in so far as best). used i n the N. numerals. kuvít-sa some one (from kuvít sá is it he ?) . pronouns. This class resembles other compounds in having a single accent. Substantives. dispute for precedence (from ahám úttaraḥ I am higher) . pi. The relative adverb yā́d (a nominally formed abl. the iteratives number over 140. means the text beginning with the words yé yájāmahe. or distribution in space. Iterative Compounds. Examples of the various kinds of iteratives are the following : . dispute as to owner­ ship (from máma satyám it is certainly mine) . adverbs. as in other compounds. the second member losing its accent and the two words being written in the Pada text with the Avagraha between them. adjectives. ahaṃ-pūrvá eager to be first (from aháṃ pūrváḥ I should be first) . yād­rādhyām as quickly as possible (lit. 1S9 C. mama­satyá n. They are then treated as compounds.) m. kiṃ-tvá (VS.

á ṅ g ā d .) from every quarter . but always ihéha i n RV.^ d. .) each following year.m ā s i month after month .): ékaikaḥ (ŚB.a ṅ g ā t from every diśó-diśaḥ (AV. p r á . ś a s y a t e it is ever proclaimed. g. p r ā c ī ṃ ­ p r ā c ī ṃ p r a d í ś a m each eastern direction . : éka­ekaḥ (AV. Substantives: á h a r . dvan­dvá pair (B. 1 2 3 4 5 6 .limb sya 1 2 a. praise. here. such words are repeated with v ā : yā́ v ad vā yāvad vā and yatamé vā yatame vā. 6 áhar-divi day after day. A d v e r b s : y á t h ā ­ y a t h ā as in each case. d á m e dame. Prepositions : the four which are found used thus are ú p a . b. Adjectives: p á n y a ṃ ­ p a n y a ṃ . I n the ŚB. 2 . The only example of a verbal form occurring as an iterative is p í b a .a h a r . Otherwise a repeated verb is treated independently . of 4 5 f. p r á . párvaṇi­parvaṇi in every joint . Numerals : p á ñ c a ­ p a ñ c a five each time . t á t ­ t a d .). s a p t á ­ s a p t a (tredhā́ three times) seven in each ease ( = 21). adyā́ d yā ś v á ḥ . a g n í m ­ a g n i m (duvasyata). I n the ŚB. now . also occurs yájasva-yajasva. g. Pronouns : t v á ṃ ­ t v a m a h a r y a t h ā ḥ thou didst ever rejoice . Such iteratives led to the formation of regular compounds i n B. dvā́ ­ dvā (RV. i n e from a stems. divé-dive. e. . both words being accented : nū́ n ú now. is a kind of mixed iterative. ú t t a r ā m ­ u t t a r ā ṃ s á m ā m (AV.p i b a drink. s ó m a m Soma who is again and again to be praised . (worship) Agni again and again . ihéhá (Av.): dvan­dvám (MS. yajñásya­yajña¬ every sacrifice . s á m . g.) in twos. á n n a m ­ a n n a m (AV. I n a few instances repeated adverbs are not treated as compounds. For diví-divi and visí-viśi. e. owing to the influence of tl1e frequent loc.) here. on each to-morrow. e.d y a v i every day. p á r ā . gṛhé-gṛhe.) food in perpetuity. dadhe he always bestows that. c. . drink.ś v a ḥ on each to-day. viśé-viśe in every house . m ā s í .). s t u h í s t u h i praise. y á d ­ y a d yā́ m i whatever I ask . d y á v i .p r a .

which is the expression of a connected and definite unit of thought. the normal order is best represented by the prose of the Brāhmaṇas. The later Santhitās and the Brāhmaṇas exhibit a gradual transition by restriction or loss in the former group and by growh in the latter to the condition of things prevailing in classical Sanskrit. and conjunctions.CHAPTER V I I OUTLINES OF SYNTAX 190. the participle which shares the nature of both. H aving in the preceding parts of the present grammar dealt with single words in their phonetic. that of absolute cases and of adverbial prepositions with case­endings is only incipient. we now turn to their treatment in syntax. and that of periphrastic verbal forms is non­existent. the infinitives. . and the genuine prepositions is much fuller and more living in the former. Since metrical considerations largely interfere with the ordinary position of words in the Saṃhitās. the inflected participles. and the pronoun . A comparison of the syntax of the RV. 191. which regards their arrangement and mutual meaning when they are combined to form a sentence. The parts of which the sentence may consist are either inflected words : the noun (substantive and adjective) and the verb. and their inflexional aspects. The Order of Words. the moods. while (2) that of the passive voice and of indeclinable par­ ticiples is much less developed. or uninflected words : prepositions. the tenses. with that of classical Sanskrit shows (1) that the use of the middle voice. adverbs. their derivative.

). be preceded by a particle like u t á or occasionally by any other member of the sentence intended to be strongly emphasized . As regards the cases. A predicative noun with the copula (which may be omitted) being equivalent to a verb. b. The verb occasionally moves to the beginning of the sentence when it is strongly emphasized . e. being emphatic. diví vái sóma ā́sīd. sárve ha vái devā́ ágre sadṛ́śā āsuḥ all the gods in the beginning were similar (ŚB. if . g. a. e. in its proper sense.).) .). but here the gods (ŚB. the remaining members coming between. The subject begins the sentence . I t may. e. g. yánti nákṣatrāṇi the waters move. Occasionally such words move to the beginning . the moon moves. however. d. when they are yoked. The general rule is that the subject begins the sentence and the verb ends it. Nevertheless the predicative noun. follows the word which it explains or defines . e. The apposition.). e. doubtless the original one. Adverbs and indeclinable participles occupy a similar position. moreover.and as it there appears is. e. g. e. g. g. is the kindly one among the gods (TS. prayājáir vái devā́ḥ svargáṃ lokám āyan by means of the Prayājas the gods went to the heavenly world (ŚB. is placed immediately before the verb . the stars move (ŚB.). the King.).). e.). take the sacrifice to the gods (ŚB. átha^ihá devā́ḥ in heaven was Soma. chándāṃsi yuktā́ n i devébhyo yajñáṃ vahanti the metres. yánti vā āpa‚ éty ādityá. g. is as a rule the first word in the sentence . mitró vái śivó devā́nām Mitra. púruṣo vái yajñáḥ the sacrifice (is) a man (ŚB. mártyā ha vā ágre devā́ āsuḥ the gods were originally mortals (ŚB. g. sómo rājā Soma. the acc. A participle. including patronymics and participles. víśaḥ kṣatríyā¬ ya balíṃ haranti the peasants pay tribute to the prince (ŚB. éti candrámā. indeed. e. naturally occupies the same position . g. the sun moves.

. g. g. precedes its substantive . belonging to a gen.). whether adjective or genitive. g. I f they belong to a particular word they follow it . e. ā́ sā́ y akaṃ maghávā^adatta 2 3 3 the Bounteous One seized his missile (i. The subst. The reason of this doubtless is that the former supplement the sense of the case. g. h. especially horses and cows. The preposition as a rule imme¬ diately precedes the verb. 35 ) . generally in V. but is often also separated from it by one or more words . while the latter modify the sense much more emphatically. where. f The preposition belonging to a verb precedes it. e. When a compound verb is emphatic. otherwise they tend to occupy the second position in the sentence. Enclitics cannot.). svapántaṃ vái dīkṣitáṃ rákṣāṃsi jighāṃsanti it is when he sleeps that the Rak^ases seek to slay the initiated man (TS. e. The attribute. do they follow . When used with substantives the genuine prepositions as a rule follow their ease. hiraṇyáyena ráthena with golden ear (I. always in B. e. however. are found after the subst. jáyema sáṃ yudní spṛ́dhaḥ we would conquer our foes in battle (I. tríḥ saṃvatsarásya three times a year. begin a sentence. g.. g. e. e. Also adjectives designating the colours of certain animals. Only when adjectives are used in apposition. the true (TS. while the prepositional adverbs precede it. g. devā́nāṃ hótā the priest of the gods. the preposition alone as a rule moves to the front occupying the position that the simple verb would occupy . prá prajáyā jāyeya I would increase with progeny (TS. 32 ). is placed before the latter only when it is emphatic. ápa támaḥ pāpmā́ n aṃ hate she drives away darkness and sin (TS. g.).). Multiplicative adverbs precede their genitive . of course. it also sometimes follows .ORDER OF WORDS 191] 285 emphatic may be placed at the beginning . The enclitic particles that follow the word with which they are . 8 ). e. especially as epithets of the gods. mitrā́ y a satyā́ya to Mitra. e.

k. j . tád u hovāca^ā́ s uriḥ with regard to this Āsuri said (ŚB. kám . e. as these two classes of words tend to begin the sentence. sú. e. They either follow the word they em­ phasize in any position in the sentence : ā́. a. or they occupy the second position in the sentence. as empha¬ sizing the whole statement : aṅgá. and sma to follow­ ing ha in B. or tád as an acc. sá ha^uvāca gā́ r gyaḥ so said Gārgya . nú. but if it negatives the verb only. which refer to the statement of the whole sentence. 2. svid. it follows that. tát paśun evá^asmai pári dadāti gúptyai thus he hands the cattle over to him for protection (ŚB. Forms of the pronoun tá tend in B. to occupy the first position. cid . kíṃ hí sá táir gṛháiḥ kuryā́ t what indeed should he do with this house ^ (ŚB.most closely connected are ca.. e. g. occupy the second (or third) position in the sentence.) Gārgya spoke (as follows) . Even accented particles for the most part cannot begin a sentence. áha. kam is restricted to following nú. aindráṃ carúṃ nír vapet paśúkāmaḥ one (who is) desirous of cattle should assign a pap for Indra (TS.) . very often by final datives as a supplement to the sentence . evá.). by the subject either when it is the name of an authority quoted or when i t is equivalent to a relative clause. g. vā. sá h. cases of them come to occupy the first position which in ordinary sentences do not occupy it . kíla. iva. utá . especially sá when it anticipates a proper name in dialogues. The only particles that can begin the sentence are átha. ha. e. vái. hí in V.). i. . gha. The other unaccented particles. íd. also ná if it negatives the whole sentence. The order is similar when átha or ápi are used : ápi hovāca yā́ j ñavalkyaḥ (ŚB.ovāca gārgyaḥ (SB . I n relative and interrogative sentences there is nothing peculiar except that. hI.). khálu. ápi.). The last position i n the sentence is exceptionally occupied i n the following ways : 1. u. g. g. tú. when famous authorities are quoted .

a. agníṃ manye pitáram Agni I deem a father (x. 1. mātárā — mother and father. Whether the one or the other is meant is made sufficiently clear by the context . sometimes also otherwise . mitrā Mitra and Varuṇa ( = mitrā́ ­ váruṇā). sám añjantu víśve devā́ḥ. 193. uṣā́sā Dawn and Night ( = uṣā́ s ā­náktā) . . is sometimes used to express a male and female of the same class . g. 25 ). generally speaking. sing. or I. dyā́vā heaven and earth ( = dyā́vā­pṛthivī́) . e. air. I ) . 85 7). This type of the dual has its widest application in naming pairs of deities by means of one of them and is equivalent to dual compounds containing both names . sám āpo hṛ́ d ayāni nau let all the gods. 294). agním He 1 puróhitam I pr aise Agni the domestic pr iest (i. g.192­193] ORDER OF WORDS 287 192. and earth . mitrā tánā ná rathyā váruṇo yáś ca sukrátuḥ Mitra (and Varuṇa) and 2 the very wise Varuṇa. being never con­ strued with a plural form of the verb (cp. g. In B. Sometimes the other member of the pair is added in the N. Number. 4 a. Singular words with a plural or a collective sense are always treated strictly as singulars. e. 7 ). The plural is sometimes used (analogously to the dual) so as to include the other two of a group of three . But in certain parts of the R v the plural is often used instead of the dual of natural pairs . A m. p. 2. 194). dyā́vaḥ the (three) heavens = heaven. e. lik^ two constantcharioteers(viii. 195 B 3b. the 3 anaphoric use of tá is sometimes very nearly equivalent to the definite article (cp. . g. e. du. Their meaning is inherent in the substantive much as personal pronouns are in forms of the definite verb. let the waters unite the hearts of us two (x. The dual number is in regular use and. There is neither an indefinite nor a definite article in the Vedic language. g. in strict application. 3. g. e. e. pitárā = father and mother .

b. air. of the first pers. we would then mean I and 4 those present. thus Yama in his dialogue with Yamī says ná yát purā́ cakṛmā́ kád dha nūnám ṛtā́ vádanto ánṛtaṃ 4 rapema how pray can we. 38 ). pl. 1 . of the personal pronoun is not infrequent both when the pronoun is expressed and when it is latent in the verb . Concord. is sometimes loosely used instead of the sing. I 9 4 . what we have never done before. The 1. that our highest kinship. for the sing. to it the Mitras ( = Mitra. 10 ) nas alternates with the correct nau : sā́ no nā́bhiḥ.1 pṛthivī́ ḥ the (three) earths = earth. váraṃ bhávate gautamāya dadmaḥ we (= I . sing (vii. Aryaman). The plur. and heaven. This inclusive plural is also found with the names of the two other members of the group added in the N. and number are in general the same as in other inflexional languages. I n B. and Aryaman. we two and others in like circumstances. Jaivali) offer a boon to his Honour Gautama (ŚB. thus abhí samrā́jo váruṇo gṛṇanty. sá ha^ uvāca : námo vayáṃ bráhmiṣṭhāya kurmaḥ he replied : we ( = I) show reverence to the most learned man (ŚB. To this use is probably due the conception of the three heavens and three earths in Vedic cosmology. 10 ). person. or du. The rules of concord in case. paramáṃ jāmi tán nau that is our bond of union. . thus in the dialogue of Yama and Yamî (x.). speaking of righteous things now talk of what is unrighteous ? 4 (x. g. sing. the use of the pi. of personal pronouns is also occasionally used in a similar way .) . e. accordant. pers. . Varuṇa. abhí mitrā́so aryamā́ sajóṣāḥ to it the universal sovereigns Varuṇa. This occasional looseness is probably due to the situation for the moment being regarded more generally so as to include others . gender.

a. g. e. 70^) .). ā́ yád índraś ca dádvahe when (I) and Indr a r eceive (viii.) .). this usage seems to be found only when the verb is in the third person . Indra and (thou). 34 ) . To the rule that the verb agrees with its sub­ stantive in person and number the exceptions are very rare. there are a few examples in the RV. I n B. Thus the sing.g. 1. tásyā 1hātā́ ca^aryamā́ ca^ajāyetam from her Dhātṛ and Aryaman were born (MS. appears once with a pi. e. e. g. ye two. I n B . índraś ca yád yuyudhā́ t e áhiś ca when Indra and the dragon fought (1. e. but prthivyā́ vái médhyaṃ ca^. 50 ). e. 1. when two sing. On the other hand. g. When there are more than two subjects the verb is not necessarily in the pi. subjects take a sing. g. in the sing. O Bṛhaspati.amedhyám ca vyúd akrāmat from the earth there issued on the one hand the pure and on the other the impure (Ms. taking a verb in the sing. the verb is also in the dual . ū́rjaṃ 13 no dyáuś ca pṛthivī́ ca pinvatām may heaven and earth increase our strength (vi. 32 ) . bṛ́ h aspate yuvám índraś ca vásvo divyásya^ 16 īśāthe O Bṛhaṣpati. 81 ). drink Soma 10 (iv. ^. prajā́ p atiḥ prajā́ asṛjata : tā́ bṛ́ h aspátiś ca^anvávaitām Prajāpati created beings : (he) and Bṛhaspatifollowedthem (TS. I f each of the subjects is sing. compound . dispose of 10 heavenly wealth (vii. When one only of two subjects is expressed. . pi. I n a minority of cases two sing. . g. When two Sing.). (thou) and Indra. of the word tva many. g. e. the other having to be supplied. but i f a contrast is intended. verb : jáyān u tvo juhvati many a one sacrifices for victories (MS. dhṛṣṇáve dhīyate dhánā to the bold man 3 booty accrues (I. índraś ea sómaṃ pibataṃ bṛhaspate do ye two. a. sense. subjects have one verb. 25­). the latter in most cases is in the dual . 97 ). tokáṃ ca tásya ^ánayaṃ ca vardhate his ofispring and family prosper (ii. b. 2. of a neut.. e. subjects are connected by ca the verb is in the du. having a pi. the verb is sing. but may agree with only one of them. .A. verb when they are equivalent in sense to a dn. . .

índro vidur áṅgirasaś ca Indra and the Aṅgirascs know it (x. the third person is pre­ ferred to the first . or several agents are intended .) . 62 ) . a. 40 ). g.). du. Occasionally. An attributive adjective agrees with its substantive in gender. Indra índro and 2 2. tā́ n i srṣṭā́ny anyò ' n y é n a ^ aspardhanta being created they fought with one another (ŚB. g. a sing. 98 ­). 1. . take the verb in the p l .) . the second to the third . I n B.) . number. g. take the du. the first person is preferred to the second or third. 18 ^) . .mitrás tán no váruṇo ródasī ca dyúbhaktam aryamā́ dadātu let Mitra. The exceptions are few . B. e. subject take a verb in the sing. táṃ yūyáṃ vayáṃ ca^aśyā́ma may you and we obtain him (ix. I n B. When two or more subjects of different persons take a verb in the du. 108 ). anyó 'nyá one another takes the verb i n the sing. amī́ ca yé maghávāno vayáṃ ca míhaṃ ná sū́ro áti níṣ ṭatanyuḥ may these patrons and we 1 13 pierce through as the sun the mist (i. g. 3. and a du. e. according as one.. e. e. The du. dyā́vā ca yátra pīpáyann ánā 1 10 14 ca where heaven and earth and the days have given abundance (vii. e. Aryaman give us this divine wealth (vii. e. or pl. or pf. g. ā́vad índraṃ yamúnā tṛ́ t savaś ea Yamuna and the Tṛtsus helped Tndra (vii. . aháṃ ca 11 tváṃ ca sáṃ yujyāva I and thou will unite together (viii. tā́ b hyaḥ sá nír ṛchād yó naḥ prathamò 'nyò 'nyásmai drúhyāt of these he shall be deprived who first of us may cheat another (TS. two. giráyaś ca dṛḷhā́ dyā́vā ca bhū́mā tujete the firm mountains and heaven and earth trembled (i. néd anyó 'nyáṃ hinásātaḥ lesttheyinjure each other (ŚB.asmin loke 'spardhanta the gods and Yama fought for (the possession of) this world (Ts. Varuṇa. tā́v aśvínau ca sárasvatī ca^apā́ ṃ phenáṃ vájram asiñcan the Aśvins and Sarasvatī moulded the foam of the waters into a bolt (ŚB. 65­). and pl. 61 ) . or the pi.) . or pi. e. and a pi..). a sing. devā́ś ca vái yamáś ca^. ^. I f the subjects are of different numbers the verb may agree with either one or the other . Rodasī. g. and case. however. vyāmamātráu pakṣáu ca púchaṃ ca bhavati both the wings and the tail are a fathom in length (Ts. 141 ). g.

triṃśád devā́ ḥ thirty gods. g. : śúnaś cic chépaṃ níditaṃ sahásrād yū́ p ād amuñcaḥ thou didst deliver Śunaḥśepa. who was bound. form i n agreement with plurals . is neglected . ) . tra¬ yastriṃśato devānām of thirty gods (AB. g. e. śatā́ púraḥ a hundred forts. īśvaráu vā́ etáu nirdáhaḥ both of them can burn (ŚB. 9 7 2. śatám and sahásram are also found (but not i n B. e. being chiefly due to the exigencies of metre.) . the concord of either number or gender.). cases . e. but often also the uninflected form of the nom. but being collectives they take sing. show some peculiarities of concord : i n the oblique cases they appear i n V. pl. sahásrāṇi gávām thousands of kine. being adjectives. e. endings in concord with pi. of īśvará capable used thus i n B. śatám hundred and sahásram thousand are used as the nom. triṃśátaṃ yójanāni thirty yojanas (acc. . tám īśvaráṃ rákṣāṃsi h á n t o ḥ the demons can kill him (TS. They are.and unimportant. sahásram ṛ́ṣibhiḥ with a thousand seer s. pañcásu jáneṣu and páñca kṛṣṭíṣu.) . a. however. īśvaró ha^etā́ ánagnicitaṃ saṃtáptoḥ these (f. I n the last two examples quoted . g. tā́ n y enam īśvarā́ ṇ i pratinúdaḥ they can drive him away (MS. I n B .) with an inst. sā́ ^ enam īśvarā́ pradáhaḥ she can burn him (TS.) . they also appear i n the same sense in the plural . generally treated like adjectives . 98 ). The concord here is i n the majority of cases normal . as śatáṃ pūrbhíḥ with a hundred forts beside śaténa háribhiḥ with a hundred bays. g. a. The cardinals from 20 upwards being substantives i n form may govern a G. sahásraṃ paśū́ n a thousand beasts (TS.) . not only i n their inflected form. 2 ) : this use does not seem to occur in B. only the inflected forms are used. g. from a thousand posts (v. The nom.). e. saptábhiḥ putráiḥ and saptá hótṛbhiḥ.) . g.). sometimes. sahásraṃ hárayaḥ a thousand bays. however. acc. b.g. śatáṃ púraḥ a hundred forts.). īśvaró vā́ áśvó 'yató 'pratiṣṭhitaḥ párāṃ parāvátaṃ gántoḥ a horse if unbridled and unobstructed can go to an extreme distance (TS. tásya^īśvaráḥ prajā́ pā́pīyasī bhávitoḥ his offspring can degenerate (ŚB. śatáṃ gónām a hundred kine. ..) are liable to weigh heavily upon one who has not built a fire altar (ŚB. triṃśátā háribhiḥ with thirty bays. The cardinals from five to nineteen. pi. e. ṣaṣṭím áśvānām sucty horses. and acc. A predicative adjective used with as or bhū (often to be supplied) agrees in gender and number with its subject. or of both. The noun accompanying sahásra occasionally appears by a kind of attraction i n the sing. sahásrāṇy ádhi¬ rathāni a thousand wagon loads (x. e. is equivalent to a verb = be able.

properly takes a verb in the 3. g..). 195. the polite form of tvám. nor after vocatives. is used . women.and i n others the masc. But being practically equivalent to a personal pronoun of the 2. As in Greek and Latin. ) . Pronouns. A. yád áśru sáṃkṣāritam ā́sīt tā́ni váyāṃsi^ abhavan what was the concentrated tear (those =) that became the birds (ŚB. pers. b. íti vā́vá kíla no bhávān purā́ ^ . or the masc. a. g. i f there are two. has become stereotyped as a nom. uses the nominatives of personal pronouns far less frequently than modern European languages do. dependent on k ṛ agrees w i t h its subst. and sleep (are) the treble pernicious (things) . Owing to its highly inflexional character the Vedic language. 8 ). like Latin and Greek. i t then seems to agree in gender with the subst.) dice. of all genders and numbers. Personal. b. e. nearest it. A predicative adj. e.. are to be recited ( i . e. stoma and uktha. can be used neither at the beginning of a sentence or metrical line (Pada). ye tuṣāḥ sā tvak what (are) the husks (that =) those (are) the skin (AB. conjunctive or disjunctive particles. trayā́ vái náirṛtā akṣā́ḥ stríyaḥ svápnaḥ (Ms. nor before em­ phasizing. the du. g. it occasionally appears with a verb in that person . The unaccented forms of ahám and tvám (109 a) being enclitic. e. 10 3. . sing. The use of a predicative adjective referring to two or more substantives differing i n gender is very rare . seems to have been preferred to the neut. g. e. Bhavān Your Honour. a demonstrative pronoun agrees with a predicative noun in gender and number . which first comes into use in B. evā́ hy àsya kā́myā stóma uktháṃ ca śáṃsyā thus indeed his two favourites. dáivīṃ ca vā́ v á^asmā etád viśaṃ mānuṣī́ ṃ ca^ánuvartmānau karoti so he makes the divine andthehuman folk obedient to him (Ms. Being already inherent in the first and second persons of the finite verb such pronouns are expressed separately only when they require emphasizing.). . sing.

B. ayáṃ jánaḥ the people here (vii. ami ea yé maghávāno vayáṃ oa those (absent) patrons and we (i. in the three bright realms of heaven (I. I n Ṛ.anuśiṣṭā́ n ávocaḥ (ŚB. or possession of the speaker. and yó ­sáu tápati he who burns there ( = sun). 1). and asā́v ādityáḥ the sun there. the usage is similar. presence. but in a different sense. I t is not like asáu essentially deictic and local. idáṃ bhúvanam this world . 1. nor does it imply a contrast (that there as opposed to this here) . e. but it refers to something already known either as just mentioned or as generally familiar. ayáṃ ta emi tanvā̀ purástāt here 1 I come with my body before thee (viii. persons who are not present or are at a distance .). ayám this (here) is a deictic pronoun used adjectivally of what is in the neighbourhood.) in this sense then you have formerly spoken of (us =) me as instructed (cp.). 100 ) . a mannikin (viii. e. asáu is besides used in a formulaic way ( = so and so) when the actual name is to be substituted . only the contrast is more definite : it is typical i n referring to the earth (iyám) and the heavenly world (asáu). asáu nā́ m a^ayám idáṃrūpaḥ he here. iyáṃ mátir máma this my hymn . 2. 13 2 a. immortals. form ásau is also used thus : y áthā vā́ idáṃ nāmagrā́ h am ásā ásā íti hváyati as one here (­­­in ordinary life) by way of mentioning the name calls : ' you there. ayáṃ vā́ t aḥ the wind here (on earth) . g. A very frequent application of this meaning is its . I n B. 55 ) . ayám agníḥ Agni here (present). a. as heaven and its phenomena. 14 l ) . g. 105^). 9l ). O gods. 5 who are there. g. youthere’ (Ms. tá. is so and so by name (ŚB. asáu yá éṣi vīrakáḥ you who go there. Opposed to ayám is asáu that (there). amī́ yé devā sthána triṣú^ā́ rocané diváḥ ye. like asáu. and i n the phrases yó 'yáṃ pávate he who blows here ( = Wind). 194. Demonstrative. I n addressing a person the voc. and may often be translated by here . e. I n the R v ayám is sometimes used even with div heaven and ādityá sun as if they were included in the environment of the speaker. having this form. 3. applied to objects remote from the speaker. can be translated by that.

of them he visited Rohiṇī (only) . sadyáḥ kā́ v yāni báḷ adhatta víśvā (i. sā tathā^ity abravīt: sā vai vo varaṃ vṛṇā i t i she said.). sá pratnáthā sáhasā jā́ y amānaḥ. tā́ ī́rṣyantīḥ púnar agachan Prajāpati had thirty daughters. and may then be translated by as such. . b. tváṃ vā́jasya śrútyasya rājasi : sá no mṛḷa thou rulest over glorious spoil : as such be gracious to us (i.). 96 ) he (who is in our thoughts. tā́ḥ sómāya rā́jñe ­dadāt. that 4 certainly goes to the gods (i. the son of Iḍā is some sentences later referred to with : tád dha tā́ apsarása ātáyo bhūtvā́ pári pupluvire then the Apsarases swam about in the form of water birds (ŚB. referring back to a noun or a pronoun of the third or second person (in B. e. he gave them to King Soma . prajā́pates tráyastṛṃśad duhitára āsan. I ). 36^) . g. lo ! has straightway assumed all wisdom . tā́ vāṃ víśvasya gopā yajase (viii. the famous Agni) being 1 engendered in the ancient way with strength. an ante­ cedent clause is lacking and must be mentally supplied in some such form as whom we have in mind. however. yáṃ yajñáṃ paribhū́ r ási. g. so . e. g. they (the others). tá has a very frequent anaphoric use. g. When this tá is widely separated from the antecedent noun to which it refers (sometimes only indirectly) it may he translated by the definite article . e. e. tā́sāṃ róhiṇīm úpait. . yes : I as such ( = in the proposed circumstances) will choose a boon of you (AB. sá íd devéṣu gachati the sacrifice that thou encompassest. Often. also of the first). Then tá is equivalent to the well known. This use comes out most clearly in the first verse of a hymn . thus the opening of the story of Urvasī : urváśī ha^apsarā́ ḥ purūrávasam aiḍáṃ cakame an Apsaras Urvaśī loved Purūravas.). 25 ) 1 you two famous guardians of the universe I worship. This usage is a prominent and some­ what monotonous feature of the narrative style in B.reference as a correlative to what is made known by an antecedent relative clause . went back (TS. being jealous.

a. tā́n vas. I n its anaphoric use tá is frequently followed by personal pronouns of all persons (regularly i n their enclitic form when they have one) . etá this is used like tá but is more emphatic. téṣāṃ vas. tá itself. táṃ tvā vājáyāmaḥ having drunk of this thou becamest a slayer of Vṛtras : so we strengthen thee (I. e.. g. du. A. The N .). sā́ tváṃ b r ū t ā t (ŚB. bhavaty asya^anucaro ya evaṃ veda : sa vā eṣa ekatithiḥ.). similarly used are : sing. tlie relative clause here usually following . sing.). The corrective use of etá seems to be limited to B. tásyas te . táṃ mā sáṃ sṛja várcasā unite me as such with glory (i. mā́ṃ yajñā́d antár agāta : sā́ vo 'hám evá yajnám amūmuham ye have excluded me from the sacrifice . tā́ṃ tvā́m (here exceptionally not enclitic).) . pl. and without a verb is added solely for the purpose of emphasizing a particular word . p. sā́ ^ iyám asmé sanajā́ pítryā dhī́ḥ this here is among us an ancient hymn of our forefathers (iii. tā́ṃ h a ^ e v á n á ^ á t i dadāha : tā́ṃ ha sma tā́ṃ purā́ brāhmaṇā́ ná taranti that (river) he (Agni) did not burn across : that same one the Brāhmans used not formerly to cross (ŚB. A. G. sá is sometimes used adverbially i n B. 36 ) . tásmai te. sa eṣa juhvatsu vasati he who knows this has a follower . tásya te. asyá pītvā́ ghanó vṛtrā́ ṇ am abhavas . . I t refers to something known to the listener as present either to his senses or his thoughts. Four demonstrative pronouns are found following tá i n this way : idám. (see 180.) .). and oftenest of all etád . haviṣmanto vidhema te : sá tváṃ no adyá sumánā ihá^avitā́ bháva bringing oblations we would serve thee: so do thou be for us to­day a benevolent helper (i. g. e. yádi t v ā ^ e t á t púnar brávataḥ. this same (follower. e. tā́ vām .a. e. G. yo yajñe muhyati he diverges from the path who goes wrong in the sacrifice (AB. so I have thrown your sacrifice into confusion (ŚB. the sun) abides among the sacrificers (AB. adás. that (follower) is this one guest . D. 3 2 9 2 4. I t is somewhat peculiar when the relative in the neuter sing. 4 ). 249).) if they (two) shall say this to you again. g. ^v. svargaṃ vā etena lokam upapra yanti yat prāyaṇīyaḥ people go to the heavenly world with that which (is) the preliminary sacrifice (AB. tásya vā́lo ny āsañji : tám amúṃ vā́to dhunoti its tail hangs down : that the wind tosses to and fro (sB. g. then do you say (to them) . 39 ) . I n these circumstances etá when alone always agrees in gender with the noun in the . . ^. 23^ ). patho vā eṣa praiti.

46^) .). g.g. more emphatically than tá does .) . tá eté māyé asṛjanta suparṇī́ṃ ca kadrū́ ṃ ca they created these two (well­known) miraculous beings. by words or a sentence explaining i t . etáir átra^ubháyair ártho bhavati yád deváiś ca brāhmaṇáiś ca there is need here of both. so much we give you (ŚB. with the latter . In the last example ete requires the addition of the two following names to supple¬ ment its sense. In this usage yád often loses its inflexional character to such an extent that it becomes like an explanatory particle ( = that is to say).).). disperse. a. that is. of the gods and the Brāhmans (ŚB. united with these deities. approached (Ms. The use of etá without an antecedent. depart from hence: this place . somewhat similarly this pronoun is sometimes followed i n B. Suparṇī and Kadru (ŚB. sá h a ^ e t á d evá dadarśa :^anaśanátayā vái me prajā́ḥ párā bhavanti^íti he saw this: in consequence of hunger my creatures are perishing (ŚB. is common both in v . the substantive that follows it agreeing in case with that which precedes. e. yuvám etáṃ cakrathuḥ síndhuṣu plavám ye two have made that boat (present to our thought) in the ocean (1. ápeta vī̀ta ví ca sarpata^áto : asmā́ etáṃ pitáro lokám akran go away. b. paśavo vā ete yad āpaḥ water is equivalent to cattle (AB. téna^etám uttaráṃ girím áti dudrāva therewith he passed over that (well known) northern mountain (ŚB. and B. I n its anaphoric use etá expresses identity with that to which it refers back. parallel to that of tá. e. e.) . e.relative clause . sá etā́ b hir devátābhiḥ sayúg bhutvā́ marúdbhir viśā́ ^ agnínā^ánīkena^upaplā́ y ata he. té ha^ásurā asūyánta iva^ūcur: yā́vad evàiṣá víṣṇur abhiśéte tā́vad vo dadma íti the Asuras said somewhat displeased : as much as this Viṣṇu (here present) covers lying down. e. the Maruts as the fighting folk and Agni as the head. 182^) .) . g.). g. g. . eṣó uṣā́ vy úchati this Dawn (whom we see before us) has shone forth ( i . but when it is accompanied by a substantive.

not infrequently appears as an unemphatic correlative (while the accented form is a deictic adjective).(on which you have been standing) the fathers have pr e­ pared for him (x. yásya deváir ā́sado harhír agne. yé asmā́kaṃ pitáro góṣu yodhā́ ḥ there is among mortals no reproacher of them who. nákir eṣāṃ ninditā́ mártyeṣu. like Atharvan. it. she. 91 ) . refers to the whole preceding hymn . fair days arise for him (viI. with them do ye two come hither (vii. O Agni. e. 9 3 1 2 0 4 . 43^). in the final verse the expression eṣá stóma indra túbnyam (i. and often after the particle ha. imám u tyám atharvavád agníṃ manthanti they. g. 88^). when it is unaccented. 5. 6. clay and water. 14 ) . they). áhāni asmai sudínā bhavanti on whose litter thou. O Indr a. rub forth that (famous) Agni here (vi. 11 ). e. yásya tyác chámbaraṃ made dívodāsāya randháyaḥ in the exhilaration of which (Sonia) thou didst at that time subject Sambara to Divodasa (v1. 15 ^). I t often follows forms of the demonstrative pronouns etá and idám . tyá occurs only in the sense of that (well known) . 39 ). hast sat down. g. in an adverbial sense . (being) our fathers. ā́bhir yātam arvā́k the hundred teams that accompany you. e. 75 ) . The pronoun a that in its substantive sense ( = he. they made the brick : therefore a brick consists of both these. yā́ vāṃ satáṃ niyútaḥ sácante. g. 173^) this praise is for thee. werefightersfor cows (iii. kvā tyā́ni nau sakhyā́ babhūvuḥ what has become of those friendships of us two? (vii.). eté tyé bhānáva uṣása ā́guḥ here those (familiar) beams of Dawn have come (vii. The neuter tyád is sometimes used after the relative yá. tád nbháyaṃ sam¬ bhṛ́tya mṛ́daṃ ca^apáś ca^íṣṭakām akurvaṃs : tásmād etád ubháyam íṣṭakā bhavati mṛ́c ca^ā́paś ca having brought both those together. clay and water (ŚB.g. e.

think oneself. .T H E CASES. e. as a singer ? (viii. 15 ) . e. ékaviṃśatiḥ sáṃ padyante they become twenty­one (TS.). g. vad i n the middle) . víṣṇū rūpáṃ kṛtvā́ assuming the form of Viṣṇu (Ts. í:ndro brāhmaṇó bruvāṇáḥ Indra calling himself a Brahman (TB. sudānavaḥ fur ye are liberal 4 2 (i. gókāmā me achadayan they 1 10 seemed to me desirous of cows (x. tváṃ hi ratnadhā́ ási for thou art a bestower of treasure (i. e. śivā́saḥ sánto áśivā ābhūvan being friendly they 3 have become unfriendly (v. sómaṃ manyate 14 3 3 papivā́n he believes he has drunk Soma (x. is sometimes used . Nominative. a. 85 ) .). because i t is equiva¬ lent to bhū become.) . I n B. may also be expressed in B. ṛ́ṣiḥ kó vípra ohate who counts as a seer. also appears with verbs meaning to call oneself (brū. 3 ) .). b. the phrase rūpáṃ kṛ to assume a form. tvám . rayipate rayīṇā́ m thou alone hast been 1 I n B. 12^) . parābhaviṣ¬ yánto manāmahe we think we are about to perish (TS. g. e. W i t h verbs of naming the predicative acc. is mainly used as the subject of a sentence. . the voc.) . as in other languages. 108 ) . g. g. hántāvocathāḥ thou hast described thyself as a slayer (Ts. ábhūr éko. ^. With passive verbs the predicative nom. vac. e.F ). by the nom. become. 196. Instead of the predicative nom. object of the active verb . 15 ) . that is. takes a predicative nom. with verbs meaning be. . ucyase pitā́ thou art called a father (i.). 3. rā́ s abha íti hy ètám ṛ́ṣayó 'vadan for the seers called him ­ ass' (Ts. yūyáṃ hi ṣṭhā́. apratír mánya¬ mānaḥ thinking himself irresistible (v. 32 ) . g. e. takes the place of the acc. c. seem or be accounted. g. the predicative nom. The nominative. with íti . a. A second nominative is employed as a predicate with certain verbs beside the subject.

) . 162 ). chiefly gam. 5 10 Accusative. car. 35 ) . 2.). g.) . drink the Soma (iv. 14 ) . is employed to express : 1. is similar. also i . 7 ). 161 ) . A. 180 under ná. b. the acc. g. 197.). gáutama bruvāṇa thou who callest thyself Gautama (ŚB. since apparently two vocatives cannot be connected with ca. the nom.g.) attain prosperity (ŚB. índraṃ stómāś caranti 13 21 to Indra fare the songs of praise (x. sáraj jāró ná yóṣaṇām he sped like a lover to a maiden (ix. a. 2 ) . śatáṃ jīva śarádo várdhamānaḥ live prospering a hundred autumns (X. 477) .) a. yamáṃ ha yajñó gachati to Yama goes the sacrifice (x. much less often yā. the goal with verbs of motion. prajā́patiḥ prajā́ asṛjata. tā́ váruṇam agachan Prajāpati created creatures. 34^) . ye know (i. e. e. The ace. (Cp. devā́m̐ i d eṣi pathíbhiḥ sugébhiḥ to the gods thou goest by paths easy to traverse (i. g. often appears instead of the first or the second vocative . táva krátubhir amṛtatvám āyan by 4 thy mental powers they (went to =) attained immortality (vi. 61 ) . 31 ) . Besides its ordinary use of denoting the object of transitive verbs. śríyaṃ gacheyam may I (go to ----. sabhā́m eti kitaváḥ the gambler goes to the assembly (x. 2 a. a place. duration of time (in origin only a special form of the cognate acc.). 50 ). an activity or a condition . índraś ca sómaṃ pibataṃ bṛhaspate Indra and Bṛhaspati. 180 under ca‚ 1 a. and sṛ and some others. jaritúr gachatho hávam ye two go to the call 14 14 13 of the singer (viii. may be a person. The usage in B. sá ná dívam apatat he did not fly to heaven (ŚB.theywent to Varuṇa (TS. e. vā́yav índraś ca cetathaḥ O Vāyu and Indra.1 the lord of riches (vi. 101 ) . e. Cp. ma tvát kṣétrāṇy áraṇāni ganma may we not go from thee to strange fields (vi. This case is usually employed in connexion with verbs in various ways. só aśvatthé saṃ¬ vatsarám atiṣṭhat he remained in the Aśvattha tree for a year 4 .

125 ).).g. kāmaṃ tad dhotā śaṃsed yad dhotrakāḥ pūrvedyuḥ śaṃseyuḥ the Hotṛ may.) . e. with a concrete sense . 128 ) . Adverbs of this form all originated in various uses of the acc. which may be allied to the latter etymologically or only in sense . ṛtásya jihvā́ pavate mádhu the tongue of the rite (soma) streams mead (ix. 12 ).g.) . 8 ). yád āśúbhiḥ pátasi yójanā p u r ū ́ when with the swift ones thou fliest many leagues (ii. kā́mam at will (still rare in the RV. mā́ṃ ́ dhur índraṃ nā́ma devátā . saptᬠ1 pravyādhā́n ājíṃ they dhāvanti run a race (a distance of) seventeen arrow­flights (TB. tisró rā́ t rīr vratáṃ caret he should perform afastfor three nights (TS. tváyā^ádhyakṣeṇa pṛ́tanā jayema with thee as witness we would conquer in battles 1 (x. . ví y á t sū́ryo n á rócate bṛhád bhā́ ḥ when. chooses booty for himself (MS. samānám añjí^añjate they deck themselves with like adorn­ ment (vii. e. e. yad agne yāsi dūtyàm when. 57^) . a. take a cognate ace. 4. e. verbs meaning to stream or to shine in v . They are formed from : a. O Agni. as he likes. náktam by night (not during the night like the acc.). 2 5 4 5. 75 ). 90 ) . like the sun.).) . g. sá bhū́ m iṃ viśváto vṛtvā́ ^ áty extended daśa atiṣṭhad daśāṅgulám he cov ering the earth on all sides beyond (it) a distance of ten fingers (x. nā́ma by name .(TB. a use rare in both v and B. the cognate object of intransitive verbs. tásmād rā́jā saṃgrāmáṃ jitvā́ ^ udājám ú d ajate therefore a king. substantives . g.) . which have acquired an indepen­ dent character. g. thou 4 goest on a message (i. 3. tásmāt sárvān ṛtū́n varṣati therefore it rains during all the seasons (TS. g. an adverbial sense.). saṃvatsaratamī́ṃ rā́ t rim ā́ gachatāt (ŚB. he beams forth lofty light (vii. extension of distance (in origin only a special form of the cognate acc. 16^) . e. e. tásmā ā́po ghṛtám arṣanti for him the waters stream ghee (i.) for the night a year hence thou shalt come (to me). recite what the assistants of the Hotṛ may recite the day before (AB. having won a battle. of time) .

or direction (as nyák downward. e.). yathā­kāmáṃ ní padyate she turns in according to her desire (x.) these same Saṃpāta hymns Viśvāmitra inventedfirst( as the first thing). ^.. g. g. They have an attributive origin when they express the senses of quickly or slowly (kṣiprám. stukā­sárgaṃ srṣṭā́ bhavati it is plaited like a braid of hair (ŚB.) irrevocably conquered these worlds by means of the metres (Ts. e. 37 ). is largely used with verbal nouns. being of the nature of cognate accusatives . but an adverb derived from the relative yá . ^. e. adverbs from ordinals seem to have been appositional in origin. much or greatly (bahú. but there is only one found i n the RV. b. Some other adverbial compounds are used like gerunds i n am. g. 49 ) me they have placed as Indra by name (or verily) among the gods.). cirám). Another class of acc.) .). e. g.g. t ā n vā etān saṃpātān viśvāmitraḥ prathamam apasyat (AB. yāvaj­jīvám (as long as = ) for life (sB. but very common i n B. ^. A number of these are formed with the privative particle a. adverbs are from comparatives and superlatives in tara and tama formed from prepositions and adverbs . 146 ). The acc. tvā́ d ūtāso manuvád vadema ( i i . boldly (dhṛṣṇú). B. active and middle. drā́ g hīya ā́yuḥ prataráṃ dádhānāḥ obtaining longer life furthermore ( i . 33 ). adhidevatám with reference to the deity (ŚB. anukāmáṃ tarpayethām satisfy yourselves according to desire ( I . form i n later use.g. adverbs is formed from various adjectival compounds. &c. devā́ś chándobhir imā́l lokā́ n anapajayyám abhy ájayan the gods (unconquerably ­­­–. are those formed from prepositionally governing adjectival com­ pounds. various kinds of adjectives.g. 10 ) having thee as our messenger we would speak like men (—as men should speak : properly some¬ thing that belongs to men). 17 ). 53 ^ ). e. bálavat). a.. A special class is formed by adverbs i n vat expressing that an action takes place like that performed by the noun preceding the suffix. e.Another group comparatively rare i n V. ^. : saṃtarā́ṃ pādukáu hara put your two little feet closer together (viii. e. e. .g. The acc. 1 19 6 3 5 197.). Besides being governed by all participles.) . well or badly. acc. báIavad vāti it blows hard (ŚB. bhadráṃ jī́ v antaḥ 6 living happily (x. A good many such have a fem. Probably following the analogy of some of these were formed others i n which the first member of the compound is not a preposition.2 (x. several ace.

Such nouns are made from the simple root (when compounded with a preposition). e. 24-^) . sarpā́ enaṃ ghā́ t ukāḥ syuḥ the snakes might bite 1 .). śatáṃ pṅro ruruk– 2 2 ṣáṇiḥ ready to destroy a hundred forts (ix. is found even with samyáñc united . van (when com¬ pounded). tasmād anūcī patnī gārhapatyam aste hence the wife sits behind the 6^arhapatya jlre (AB. it is used with agent nouns formed from the root or other verbal stems by means of about ten primary suffixes.) . īyas and iṣṭha (comparatives and superlatives). u (from desiderative stems). e. 22^) . dṛḷnā́ cid ārujáḥ breaking even what is firm (iii. with such agent nouns are : devā́ṃs tváṃ paribhur asi thou eneoṃpassest the gods (v. tar (when the root is accented).. some adjectives formed with anc from prepositions governing the acc.and by genuine infinitives. 14 ). xii. ani (from the aor. uka (very rare in V. in V. 47) and the wolf slays the calves . but this adj. i (generally from the reduplicated root). 20 ) .). and a few with the secondary suffix in. prātaryā́vāṇo adhvarám 3 3 coming early to the sacrifice (i. also takes the inst. g. g. dā́tā rā́dhāṃsi śum¬ bhati giving riches he shines (i. anváñ's following . tváṃ no víśvā abnímātīḥ sakṣáṇiḥ thou overeomest all our adversaries (viii. the natural ease with a compound of sám. vatsā́ṃś ca ghā́ t uko vṛ́kaḥ (AV. pratyánṅ uṣásam urviyā́ ví bhāti facing the Dawn (the fire) shines forth far and wide (v. 1 kāmī́ hí vīráḥ sádam asya pītím for the hero always desires 1 a draught of it (ii. 441 ) . are also used with that ease. Examples of the ace. pāpmānam apajighāṃsuḥ wishing to drive away sin (AB. snu (from causative stems) . stem). 13^) . e. sthirā́ cin namayiṣ¬ ṇavaḥ O ye who desire to bend even what is rigid (viii. adjec­ tives i n u and the ordinary adjectives in uka (which are very common) and those in i n . índrā ha rátnaṃ váruṇā dhéṣṭhā Indra and Varuṇa bestow treasure most abundantly (iv. 45 ) . a.). or desid. g. I n B. ^. 48 ) . 28 ). Such are pratyánc facing. 4l ) . and with the suffixes a (when the stem is compounded with a preposition). the only nouns taking the ace seem to be the des. The acc. óṣadhīr evá^enaṃ samyáñcaṃ dadhāti he puts him into contact with the plants (MS.

éyāya vāyúr : éd dhatáṃ vṛtrám Vayu came (to see): behold. (they came back. only.^ (ŚB. however. is taken by two interjections. 1­3). púnar éma íti devā́ : éd agníṃ tiróbhutam ‘we are coming back'. is always preceded by a verb of motion. I t is also taken secondarily by others which primarily govern other cases (cp. has sometimes to be supplied . which first occurs i n B. . upári above. e. g. A second acc.) . g. The genuine prepositions with which it is exclusively connected in both V. thinking (man). e. . 177. vac). The acc. of adjectives and substantives or formed with tas from pronouns expressive of some relation in space) take the acc. Double Accusative. Lat. i n B.) .^ (cp. úttareṇa north of dákṣiṇena to the right or the south of. and secondarily by some others (cp. choosing (vṛ). It is further used : 1. the ace. éd lo behold. dhik tvā jālma^astu fie on you.). 2). The ace. except.). and B. púruṣaṃ ha vái devā́ ágre paśúm ā́ lebhire the gods in the beginning sacrificed a man as a victim (ŚB. also (as i t often does in post ­vedic sanskrit). páreṇa beyond . e. 19S. Vṛtra (was) dead (ŚB. abhítas around. . and) behold l Agni (had) disappeared. One of them. is governed by more prepositions than any other case. making (kṛ). . 1. a number of adverbs (inst. práti against. takes the acc. ubhayá­tas on both sides of.). (and there has only been noted once). I n B. begins to take the acc. such are ágrena in front of ántareṇa within. sanitúr apart from . only ácha towards. ordaining (vi-dhā). ánu after. which. and in V. aprativādy enaṃ bhrātṛvyo bhavati his enemy does not contradict him (PB. is further taken exclusively by the adnominal prepositions antarā́ between. predicatively with verbs of saying (brū.^im (Ms. are áti beyond. used with the acc. beiween. tirás across. ^. knowing (vid). e. appointing (ni–dhā) in both V. ^. abhí towards. g. and rté without. a. The other interjection dhik jie .^. of the person only. 176.). is still very rare i n B. said the gods . governs the abl. The preposition vínā without. hearing (śru). appears in apposition with various verbs . which i n the RV. en). I n B. rogue (KB.

ná vái hatáṃ vṛtráṃ vidmá ná jīvám we know not (whether) Vṛtra (is) dead nor (whether he is) alive (ŚB.) . śṛṇvánty enam 11 agníṃ eikyānám (TS. mariṣyántaṃ eéd yájamānaṃ mányeta if he thinks the sacrificer (is) going to die (ŚB. e. yā). . sacrificing to (yaj). 42 ) . vidmā́ h i tvā purúvásum we know thee (to be) possessed of much wealth (i. 2 ) . pṛchā́mi tvā páram ántaṃ pṛthivyā́ ḥ I ask thee 34 about the farthest limit of the earth (i. 164 ).) . 807) . śvā́naṃ bastó bcdhayitā́ r am abravīt the 13 he­goat said (that) the dog (was) the wakener (i. 81^) . 361^).) . tád agnihotry āgníṃ yācet that the Agnihotṛ should beg of Agni (MS. milking (duh). approaching with prayer (ī. as a light for every man (i. g. 64^’) . apó yācāmi bheṣajám I beg healing from the waters (x. ciráṃ tán mene he thought that too long (ŚB. duhánty ū́dhar divyā́ n i they milk celestial gifts from the udder (i. vásūni dasmám īmahe we approach the 10 wondrous one for riches (i. 24 ) . e. agníṃ hótāraṃ prá vṛṇe I choose Agni priest (iii. 11 .) . tát tvā yāmi I approach thee for this (i. g.) . téṣāṃ pūṣáṇam adhipām akarot he 0 made Pūṣan their lord (MS. imā́m evá sárvān kā́ m ān duhe from her he (milks — ) obtains all desires (ŚB. agníṃ manye pitáram Agni I think a father 3 (x. 7 ) . agníṃ mahā́m avocamā suvṛktím to Agni we have addressed a great hymn (x. 2.) .) . shaking (dhū). tásmā ā́hutīr yajñáṃ vy ādadhuḥ they made ( = ordained) the oblations (to be) the sacrifice for him (MS. 161 ). yád anyó ^nyáṃ pāpám avadan that the one ealled the other wicked (ŚB. asking (prach).) . revántaṃ hí tvā śṛṇómi I hear (about) thee (that thou art) rich (viii.) . yā́ j ñavalkyaṃ dváu praśnáu prakṣyāmi I will ask Yājñavalkya two questions (ŚB. O Agni. ní tvā́m agne mánur dadhe jyótir 1 jánāya śáśvate Manu has appointed thee. doing to (kṛ) . 80 ) . to express the person as a direct object beside the thing wdth verbs of addressing (vac). begging (yäc).) they hear (about) him having piled the fire (altar) : asmā́n sú jigyúṣaḥ kṛdhi make us thoroughly victorious (viii.and B. 9^). 19 ) .

I n B. tā́ váru¬ ṇena^agrāhayat (MS. devā́n ásurā yajñám ajayan the Asuras won the sacrifice from the gods (Ms. When the goal is a person i t is expressed by the loc. the agent is frequently put in the inst. e. 2 . yájā devā́m̐ ṛtáṃ bṛhát sacrifice to the gods the lofty rite (I. e. 1 3. never a person) .’IIaruts(PB. g. e.). however. yájamānaṃ suvargáṃ lokáṃ gamayati he causes the sacrificer to reach the celestial world (TS. agnír vái váruṇaṃ brahmacáryam ā́ gachat Agni (approached—) askedVaruṇafor the position of a religious student (Ms.) he caused Varuṇa to seize them ( –­­ he caused them to be seized by Varuṇa). I n B. dhā milk. expresses the goal (with nī lead) or duration of time beside the acc of the object .vṛkṣáṃ phálaṃ d h ū n u h i shake down fruit from the tree (iii. g. yaj and kṛ do not seem to be found w i t h two acc. jyā wrest from are so used there . g. tisró rā́ t rīr vratáṃ caret he should observe a fast for three nights (TS ). I45 ) . . tā́ yájamānaṃ vācayati he makes the sacrificer name them (TS.). 45 ) . e.). b. with the simple verb . 30^). which would be taken by the simple verb also . 1 Which would be expressed by the nom. to express the agent with causative verbs beside the acc. a second acc. e. adverb. 75^) . k í ṃ mā karann abalā́ asya sénāḥ what can his feeble hosts do to me ? (v. e. j i win. g.g. evám evá^enaṃ kūrmáḥ suvargáṃ lokáṃ nayati thus the tortoise leads him to the celestial world (TS. 6 2 4 a. índro marutaḥ sahasram ajināt Indra wrested a thousand from the.). i n B.) . e. with various causatives. imāl lokān adhayad yaṃ­yaṃ kāmam akāmayata from these worlds he extracted whatever he desired (AB. on the other hand á­gam approach.) . Of the above verbs vac. párām evá parāvátáṃ sapátnīṃ gamayāmasi to the extreme distance we cause the rival wife to go (x. ī and yā.).) . 37 ) . g.) . 4 a. agnā́v agníṃ gamayet he would send Agni to Agni (ŚB. or a Joe. dhū. expresses the goal (which is. g. especially that of grah seize . uśán devā́m̐ uśatáḥ pāyayā havíḥ eager thyself cause the eager gods to drink the libation (ii. devā́ havíḥ pibanti the gods drink the libation. With verbs of motion the other ace. devatrá^evá enad gamayati he sends it to the gods (ŚB. instead of the acc.

4. śīrsṇā́ bī́jaṃ haranti they carry corn (with =) on the head (ŚB. índreṇa yujā́ nír apā́m aubjo arṇavám with Indra 1 as thy eompanion thou didst release the flood of waters (ii. ā́ gatam come hither for the sake of the Soma draught (i. I n its soeiative sense the instrumental expresses the companion or accompaniment of the subject in any activity . . causality. 102^). e. áhan vṛtrám índro vájreṇa Indra smote 1 Vṛtra with his bolt (i.oell to the accom­ paniment of which he offers the oblation is the Yajus (ŚB. which may variously be rendered by with. similarly in B. similarly i n B.Instrumental 199. 32^).). instru­ mentality^ or agency. by. vayám índreṇa sanuyāma vā́jam we would win booty through Indra (i. . g. The fundamental sense of this case is con­ comitance. 101l ) . 23 ^) .). tásmād dákṣiṇena hástena^ánnam adyate therefore food is eaten with the right hand (MS. a. I n its instrumentai sense it expresses the means (person or thing) by which an action is accomplished . A. : kéna vīréṇa by whom as champion (ŚB. e. a. 46 ). : sá bhīṣā́ ní lilye he concealed himself through (ŚB. 1. : agnir vasubhir ud akrāmat Indra departed with the Vasus (AB. on account of for the sake of.ā́ d itsanta they tried to take it from him by force (TS. devó devébhir ā́ gamat may the god eome with the gods (i.) . I n its causal sense it expresses the reason or motive of an action — by reason of. through. 55 ). índro no rā́dhasā^ā́ gamat may Indra eome to us with wealth 10 (iv. g. yéna mántreṇa juhóti tád yájuḥ the s. according as it expresses accompaniment. 1^) . .). motion through space or duration of time. a. 2.). g. tád asya sáhasā^. e. so nā́ m nā by name. aśatrúr janúṣā sanā́d asi thou 13 art by thy nature without foes from of old (i.) .). 3. similarly in B. In its local sense of through or over it is used with . sómasya pītyā́ .

in special connexion with . but by a shift of accent . ántareṇa within. anuṣṭhuyā́ immediately (anuṣṭḥyā́ B. e. anomalously formed from u stems : āśuyā́ quickly. the inst.).g. dhrṣṇuvā́ boldly. sādhuyā́ straightway. uecáis above.) . raghuyā́ swiftly. expresses the time throughout which an action extends . Sometimes. 199. e. I n a number of these instrumentais the adverbial use is indicated. 5. 14 Agni over the earth.). the Wind here goes through the air (i. Such are formed from either substantives or adjectives (of which sometimes no other form occurs) . áñjasā straight­ way. naktayā́ by night . Besides having the above general and indepen¬ dent uses the inst. akṣṇayā́ across (B. thus ṛtúnā and ṛtúbhiḥ mean in due season. dívā by day . of time . e. a. śánais and śanáis. e. Many instrumentais (chiefly of the sociative and local classes) have come to be used in a purely adverbial sense. I n B. madhyā́ between . e. mithuyā́ falsely (mithyā́ ŚB.verbs of motion to express the space through or over which an action extends . a. g. and from a pronoun.). the temporal meaning is rare . g. 86^). g. amuyā́ in that way. śanakáis slowly. pūrvī́bhir dadāś¬ imá śarádbhiḥ we have worshipped throughout many autumns (i. prācáis forwards. sávā́ iṣumātrám ovā́ h nā tiryáṅh avardhata he grew in the course of a day quite an arrow's length in width (Ms. the inst. not only by the sense. however. máhobhiḥ mightily. a.) . 161 ) . g. 6. also appears. dak¬ ṣiṇā́ to the right . sáhasā and sáhobhis suddenly . but rarely with others . I n its temporal sense the inst. I n B. ṃcáis below. divā́ yānti marúto bhumyā^agnír ayáṃ vā́to antárikṣeṇa yāti the Maruts go along the sky. 87^). parācáis sideways. e. is constantly used in the local sense w i t h words meaning path or door. B. yáthā^­ákṣetrajno 'nyéna pathā́ náyet as if one who does not know the district were to lead by a wrong road (ŚB.). sárasvatya yanti they go along the Sarasvat^ (Ts. g. svapnayā́ in a dream . being then used like the loc. the sense of duration is not apparent. antárikṣe pathibhiḥ pátantam flying along the paths in the air (x. úttareṇa to the north .

With yaj sacrifice to the deity is in the acc. pass. 71^) . pūrṇá with the gen. mah delight in. the sacrificial date also is put in the (cognate) acc. . procedure: the verb car in both V. 1 in B. pī swell with . in B.). . with verbs expressing : a. g. I n B. vi­ji contend victoriously (with)..filled with. purchase for (a price) .g. yuj join (mid. . ádhenvā carati māyáyā he acts with barren craft (x. in both v. in RV. opus est aliqua re) is similarly used . mad be exhilarated with. in B. enjoyment . g. in B. = full of but with theinst. 164 ^) . hṛṣ rejoice in. c. : cans. vi­vṛt turn away from. of pṝ : pūraya fill. d. adoration or sacrifice (the victim or object offered). : vy­ā­vṛt id. repletion . and B. h. e. in RV. yād combine. : vi­yu dissever from. f. separation from (compounds with vi) . e.). e. e. in R v : yat marshal. .: the past part. krīḍ play. hās race. víṣvaṅṅ i go away from = lose. in RV. in B.different classes of words by which it may be said to be ' governed ' : 1. spṛdh strive. g. amāvasyā̀ ṃ yajate he celebrates the feast of new moon. in v. : yudh fight. : tṛp be pleased with. kím 3 ṛcā́ karíṣyati what will he do with a hymn ? (i. vy­a­vṛt separate (intr. kíṃ sá táir gṛháiḥ kuryā́ t what could he do with that house? (ŚB. b. upāṃśu vācā carati he proceeds in a low tone with his voice (AB. tuṣ be satisfied with. 1 sometimes also with the gen. sac accompany . uc be fond of. . : pṝ fill (acc. purya be filled with. the phrase ártho bhavati there is business with = there is need of (Lat.) with.) from . yudh fight. : niṣ­krī ransom for. bhuj enjoy . : vi­krī bargain away for . and B. pass. ability to do : the verb k ṛ in both V. nand be glad of bhuj enjoy. : kan find pleasure in. association or contention with . in B. and B.). vi­ṛdh be deprived of vi­sthā be removed from.

g. numerals accompanied by ná. 48 ) . as gerundives and infinitives. with prepositions : genuine prepositions are virtually not used with the instrumental. e. 118 ) . of the active verb) . expresses either the means (as w i t h the active verb) or the agent (the nom. 22 ) . similarly in B.) the verb jīv live on.) . g. uṣā́ uchántī ribhyate vásiṣṭhaiḥ Uṣas when she dawns is praised by the Vasisthas (vii. 54 ^).). yáyā manuṣyā jīvanti (the cow) on which men subsist (Ts. substantives and adjectives (especially those com­ pounded with sa­) expressive of association or equality . 76 ). e. take the same construction . g.). nāsunvatā sakhyáṃ vaṣṭi śūraḥ the hero desires not friend¬ 4 ship with him who does not press Soma (x. 1.). ā́jyena miśráḥ mixed with butter (ŚB. g.). a. nṛbhir hávyaḥ to be invoked by men (vii. W i t h passive forms of the verb (including participles) the inst. ripúṇā ná^avacákṣe not to be observed by the enemy (iv. e. by means of) .e. g. 42 ) . úṣo vā́jena vājini O Dawn 1 rich in booty (iii. subsist by . when they have a passive sense. bahúḥ prajáyā bhaviṣyasi thou wilt be rich in offspring (ŚB. dominion: only (in V. e. 3. to express deficiency . Nominal forms connected with the verb. ^. ekáyā ná viṃśatíḥ not twenty by (lack of) one — nineteen. g. yarhi vāva vo mayārtho bhavitā if you (gen. e. ási samó 19 deváiḥ thou art equal to the gods (vi. : prajā́pa¬ tinā sṛjyante they are created by Prajāpati (MS. ghṛténa^agníḥ sám ajyate Agni is anointed with ghee (x. with nouns : a. to express that by which the quality in question is produced . e. other adjectives.) . b. índro víśvair vīryāiḥ pátyamānaḥ 1 Indra who is lord of all heroic powers (iii.) shall have need of me (AB.). subsistence : only (in B. 61 ) . The only exceptions in . e. g. pā́ t rair ánnam adyate food is eaten with the aid of dishes (Ms. j . 4 7 7 5 2. índro vái sadṛ́ṅ devátābhir āsīt Indra was equal to the (other) deities (TS. e. g.) the verb patya be lord of(lit. 58 ) .

giv e . ā-labh (catch and tie up — ) offer . in the RV. explain (but with ace of person if — address) : in v B. Dative in a special sense with : 1. and in v B. say = announce.) . in B. I n B. vad (in B. agníbhyaḥ paśū́n ā́ labhate he sacrifices the animals to the Agnis (TS. hear : in RV. also ram linger for = listen to. The dative expresses the notion with which an action is concerned. e. also ā–cakṣ) . verbs (mostly as affecting persons) having the sense of a. and B. sú set in motion (for). V i d find (for). a-yaj offer to (while yaj takes the aec. in v . g. e. of úpa in three passages with dyúbhis and dhárma¬ bhis . sacrifice . brú. 12 ) . . rap.). 3 áva-duh milk down on. g. only avás below and parás abov e .) to. But prepositional adverbs are found thus used . pr bestow fully. mā measure out. dhā bestow. also : ni-hnu apologize to . of snú height . A. in v . I t is either connected with individual words or is used more generally as a complement to the whole statement. and others.the RV. in v . d. ah. pṛc bestow abundantly. and possibly of sám with in a few passages with the inst. maṃh give liberally. sṛj shed (for). yam extend. bhaj apportion .). also many other verbs expressing a modification of the sense of giving : diś assign. da giv e. g. śaṃs praise anything (acc. B. ní-yu bestow permanently. also are and gā sing to. gir. e. in v. 177. e. 200. vac. sahá and sākám with. Cp. tád u devébhyo ní hnute thereby he craves pardon of the gods (ŚB. rā procure (fur). Dative. dádhāti rátnaṃ vidhaté he bestows treasure on the worshipper (iv. kṛ when — make an offering to . and in both V. 2. are the employment of ádhi with the inst. a few times śru — listen to . b. stu utter praise to. san obtain (for).

bhṛ. : mṛḍ be gracious to. utó tád asmai mádhv íc cachadyat and may that 9 mead be pleasing to him (x. be gracious to. 74 ) . mó aháṃ dviṣaté radham may I not succumb to 13 my enemy (i. sáṃ-nam be complaisant to . 22 ). i. 50 ) . cud set in motion for. succeed : in B. only there are many other verbs. g. asmábhyaṃ vṛtrā́ randhi subject 9 our foes to us (iv. e. g. 12^) . bring : nī. 73 ). l.) . : asūya . kálpate ^smai he succeeds (TS. táṃ harāmi pitṛyajñā́ y a devám that god I bring to the sacrifice for the Manes (x. g. k. also ś1āgh trust in. believe. 154 ). vah. e. that take the dative. and figurative expressions such as abhi-kṣar stream to. e. sidh avail . g. mrad and kṣam (B. have confidence in: śrád dhā . śrád asmai dhatta believe in him (ii. h. svádasva^índrāya pītáye be sweet to Indra as a draught 9 (ix. ṛdh and kḷp . I n v. 124 ) . hṛ (hṛṇīte) .e. g. pruṣ sprinkle on.) yield to. g. and B. j . also the verb i go is used with the dat. g. pay homage to : in v. subject to : radh . yield to: radh succumb. abhi-vā waft to : in v. dī and śuc shine on. víśaḥ 10 kṣatríyāya balíṃ haranti the peasants bring the taxes to the nobility (ŚB. please : svad be sweet to and chand be pleasing to . inv. in V. and B. ná ha^evá^asmai tát sám ānṛdhe he did not suceeed in that (ŚB. sac pay homage to (a god). such as ṛ. g. hi. e. hṛ . f help. tasthúḥ savā́ya te they obey thy command (iv. nam and ni­hā bow before. be angry with : in V. e. dāś.). devébhyo havyáṃ vahanti they take the oblation to the gods (TS. saparya do anything (ace.) in honour of (a god) . amā́ saté vahasi bhū́ r i vāmám for him who is at home thou bringest much 12 wealth (i. in B. 54^). sthā obey. . śam serve (a god) . 16 ) . śak aid. in v. daśasya pay honour to. prá víṣṇave śūṣám etu mánma let my strong hymn go forth 3 in honour of Viṣṇu (i. vidh. e.) . ā-vraśc fall a victim to .). with this general sense. e.

33 ) . also arātīya be hostile and glā be averse to. e. accrue to : as be.) . g. and w i t h the latter also the object by attraction instead of the acc. e. 142 ). as throw . especially námas homage (with the verbs kṛ do or as be. 3 a. ná^asmā á-kaṃ bhavati it does notfare ill with him (Ts. gambhīré cid bhavati gādhám asmai even in deep water there is a ford for him (vi.).). g. ví śrayantāṃ prayái devébhyaḥ let (the doors) open wide for the gods to enter (i. Similarly used are the sacrificial formulas svā́hā. g. g. e. cast at : v .). druh . The indeclinables śám i n V. índram arkáir ávardhayann áhaye hánta vā́ u they strengthened Indra with hymns to slay the serpent (v. 3 l ) . g. yáthā śám ásad dvipáde cátuspade in order that there may be welfare for biped and quadruped (i. e. e. námo 'stu bráhmiṣṭhāya adoration to the greatest Brahman (ŚB.) . átha kó máhyaṃ bhāgó bhaviṣyati then what share will accrue to me (ŚB. ā́hutayo hy agnáye kám for the oblations are a joy to Agni (ŚB. a. 1 . or acc.). g. vájraṃ bhrā́ t ṛvyāya prá harati he hurls the bolt at the foe (TS. o. váṣaṭ hail ! blessing ! e. 13 a.) . 24 ) . svadhā́. yáḥ stotṛbhyo hávyo asti who is to be invoked by singers (i. námo mahádbhyaḥ homage to the great (i. índra túbhyam íd abhūma we have become thine own. and B. with the dat. .). in B. n. meaning welfare are used as nom. 114 ) . tásmai tā́m íṣum asyati he shoots the arrow at him (MS. The dative is used with a certain number of sub­ stantives. v.and krudh . sṛj discharge . exist or be intended for. which are often to be supplied) . Such are words that invoke blessings. O Indra (TS. seek to injure : in v . pra­hṛ hurl at . 71^) . bhú become . 2 6 4 2. e. yád dudróhitha striyái pumsé what mischief thou hast done to woman or man (AV. B. The dative is used with gerundives and infinitives to express the agent. . B. g. and kám i n B. sṛjád ástā didyúm asmai the archer shot a lightning shaft at him (i. tébhyaḥ svā́hā blessing on them (Av. m.). 27 ) .

3. e. 5 4. belong to Aditi. álam appears in the place of áram and is often similarly used . 4 . ayáṃ sómo astu áraṃ mánase yuvábhyām let this Soma be agreeable to your heart (i. 34-) . g.1n V.). In B. hostile . gam.) . e. I n the name Dásyave vṛ́ k aḥ Wolf to the Dasyu (RV. e. ánāgas sinless often seems to take the dative of the name of a deity. g. The adj. g. nor suitable for food (ŚB. sā́smā áram he is ready for him (ii. 146 ) . 108­). nā́laṃ bhakṣā́ya he was not suitable for sacrifice. 28) .). and bhū. g. beneficial. kṛṇvā¬ nā́so amṛtatvā́ya gātúm procuring for themselves a path to immortality (I.g. 16 ). e. a. yé áraṃ váhanti 43 manyáve who drive in accordance with (thy) zeal (vi. The adverb āvís visibly is used with the dat. but only when accompanied by the verbs kṛ. The dative is used with adjectives meaning dear. yád vā́vá jīvébhyo hitáṃ tát pitṛ́ b hyaḥ what is good for the living is good for the Manes (ŚB. 241) may perhaps mean may we. the substantives kā́ma desire and gatú path may perhaps be regarded as taking a dative without a verb to be supplied .) the dat. g.g. e. átithiś cā́rur āyáve a guest dear to man (ii. kind.. a.).) he is ready for felling (the tree) . . When used with the dat. e. ^v. pratyudyāmínīṃ ha kṣatrā́ y a víśaṃ kuryāt he would make the peasantry hostile to the nobility (ŚB. . but i t is somewhat uncertain whether the case should not be connected with the verb . 72^). nā́lam ā́hutyā ā́sa. 18­) . ill­disposed. as sinless. and B. b. in V. áram often takes the dat. obedient. is to be explained as due to its use i n the sentence he is a very wolf to the Dasyu. willing. áram is not infrequently equivalent to an adj. sá rátámanā vráscanāya bhavati (ŚB. śivā sákhibhya utá máhyam āsīt she was kind to friends and also to me (x. e. bhú or as (the latter sometimes to be supplied) . This use of áram is common in combination with the verbs kṛ. āvír ebhyo abhavat sū́ r yaḥ the sun appeared to them (i. agreeable. tásmai vā́ āvír asāma we will appear to him (ŚB. ánāgaso áditaye syāma may we be sinless (to =) in the eyes of Aditi ( i . The dative is used with a few adverbs.

The dative also in a general sense complements the statement of the whole sentence. ná súṣvim índro ávase mṛdhāti Indra will not leave the pious man in the lurch for 0 help (vi. e. g.) . e. asti) Soma (is for =) produces intoxication (ŚB. The final sense is commonly expressed by abstract substantives (including in v. The dative is used. 15 ) . they could find no one willing to bind him). a. 3. ádhi śriyé duhitā́ súryasya ráthaṃ tasthau the daughter of the sun has mounted the car for beauty = so as to produce a beautiful effect (vi. I t expresses the purpose for which an action is done (final dative) . is particularly used with as and bhū . téna^evá^enaṃ sáṃ sṛjati śā́ntyai with him (Mitra) he unites him (Agni) for appeasement (TS. agníṃ hotrā́ y a prā́vṛṇata they chose Agni for the priesthood — in order that he should be priest (ŚB. saṃvatsarā́ya sám amyate for a year an alliance is made (MS. a. g. I t expresses the person for whose advantage or disadvantage the action of the sentence takes place . g. ūrdhvás tiṣṭhā na útáye stand up for our help = in order to help us (I. 2. e.).) . in expressions of time like the English for . of div. svargā́ya 1okā́ya viṣṇukramā́ ḥ kramyante the Viṣṇu steps are taken for the sake of(= in order to gain) heaven (TS. nūnáṃ na indra^ aparaya ca syāḥ now and for the future mayst thou be ours.) for him when he had been brought near they eould find no binder (i. e. devā́n devayaté yaja worship the gods for the benefit of the pious man (i. mádāya sómaḥ 1 (sc. e. many infinitives) . O Indra (vi. to intoxicate you (I. g.B. i. tásmā etáṃ vájram akurvan for him 12 they made this bolt (ŚB. though rarely. e. 63^) . 1. 33^) .e.). is probably i n reality meant for the loc.). The iterative compound divé­dive day by day. g. 37 ^) . 23 ) . though apparently dat. of the transfer stem divá. tasmā upākṛtāya niyoktāraṃ na vividuḥ (AB. 30^) .). ásti hí ṣmā mádāya vaḥ there is (something) fur your intoxication. . This final dat.

A.g. vṛtrā́ y a hántave = vṛtráṃ hántave to slay Vṛtra (cp. 5. abhrā́ d íva prá stanayanti vṛṣṭáyaḥ from the cloud as it were thunder the 3 3 rains (x. where. however. Ablative. This occurs in V. as go.).one expressing the purpose. loosen.^idáṃ pāṇi¬ bhyām avanéjanaya^āháranty evám just as they bring it for washing the hands (ŚB. A. lead. 5 ) . There is an analogous use i n B. The adverbial use of the dative is very rare : kā́ m āya and árthāya for the sake of may be regarded as such . 62 ) . īyúr gāvo ná yávasād ágopāḥ they went like unherded kine from the pasture (vli.). e. an abstract substantive takes the place of the infinitive. g. the other the person affected by the action . 75 ) . ásataḥ sád ajāyata from non­being arose being (x. call.4. The ablative. exclude . e. yáthā. 18 °) . 967) . I n its dependent use the ablative appears with : 1. dáśo 0 hiraṇyapiṇḍā́ n dívodāsād asāniṣam ten lumps of gold I . I t is chiefly connected with various classes of words.g. drive. verbs a.) . for sacrifice (AB. take. 1 o a). Two datives connected in sense often appear together. bhujyúṃ samudrā́ d ūha– 6 thuḥ ye two have borne Bhujyu from the sea (vi. 72 ).. e. ward off. vṛtrásya śvasáthād ī́ṣa¬ 1 māṇāḥ fleeing from the snorting of Vṛtra (viii. may as a rule be translated by from. expressing a local action. proceed. tváṃ dásyūm̐r ókasa ājaḥ thou drovest the enemies from the house (vii. asmākārthāya jajñiṣe thou hast been born for our sake (AV. Two datives are here often found with the verb stha. a. 2O1. pour. e. when an ace is attracted by a dative infinitive . but is also used independently. kāmacārásya kā́ m āya for the sake of unrestrained motion (ŚB. receive . 200. drink . expressing the starting­point from which the action of the verb proceeds. g. devebhyaḥ paśavo 'nnādyāyalambāya na^atiṣṭhanta the animals did not present themselves to the gods for food.).

138 ) . 37 ) . Examples from B. divó vṛ́ ṣ ṭir īrte rain comesfromthesky (Ts. prefer : verbs with the latter two senses as well as uruṣya protect. máruto yád vo diváḥ hávāmahe O Maruts.) . śúnaś cic chépaṃ yū́ p ād amuñcaḥ thou didst release Sunaḥśepa from the post (v. . and rej tremble take this construction in V. 5 5 11 2 a. i. pā and t r ā protect and bnī fear in both V. transcend.). y u y u t á m asmád ánirām ámīvām ward off from us sickness and calamity (vii. 128^) . e. 33 ). g. only : vājreṇa^enaṃ suvargā́ l lokā́d antár dadhyát he would exclude him from heaven with the bolt (Ts. e. p r á síndhubhyo ririce. ápād dhotrā́ d u t á potrād amatta he has drunk from the Hotṛ's vessel and has intoxicated himself from the Potṛ's vessel (ii. sá evá^enaṃ varuṇapaśā́ n muñcati he releases him from the fetter of Varuṇa (Ts. expressing rescue. protect . suvargā́ l lokād yájamāno hīyeta the sacrificer would fall short of heaven (Ts.) . ) . excluded him from i t (AB. and B. indrasya vájrād abibhet she was afraid of Indra’s bolt (x. sá ráthāt papāta he fell from his car (ŚB.) . enān asmāl lokād anudanta they drove them away from this world (AB. are : yád dhā́ v ed annā́ d yād dhāvet if he were to run. b. 4 11 2 ^. sá nás trāsate duritā́ t he shall proteet us from misfortune (I.) . sómāt sutad índro avṛṇīta vásiṣṭhān Indra preferred the Vasisthas to (Pāśadyumna's) pressed Soma (vii. 27) . keśavā́t púruṣāt sī́sena parisrútaṃ krīṇāti he buys the Parisrut from a long­haired man for lead (ŚB. only .) . the other the action proceeding from it . when we call you from heaven (viii. With bhī two ablatives are found. The two verbs antár dhā hide and ní­lī conceal oneself are used with the abI. 7l ).) . agnír devébhyo ní¬ lāyata Agni concealed himselffrom the gods (Ts.).23 have received from Divodāsa (vi.). 47 ) . e. fear. áṃhaso no mitrá uruṣyet may Mitra rescue us from distress (iv. rṣayaḥ kavaṣam ailūsaṃ somād anayan the seers led Kavaṣa Ailūṣa away from Soma. tásmād ánasa evá grhṇīyāt therefore he should take it from the cart (ŚB. 7 ) . rakṣ guard. 55 ) . g.). bībhatsa be disgusted with in B. he would run away from his food (Ts. p r á kṣitíbhyaḥ he reaches beyond rivers and beyond lands (x. i n B. gopāya protect. indrasya vájrād abibhed abhiśnáthaḥ she was afraid of . only . dislike . the one being the object feared. 89 ) .

) . i n B. b. e. numerals. 138 ).).). g.) . daśa vā etasmād arvāñcas trivṛto. comparatives and adjectives of cognate sense. 24 ) . both ordinals and cardinals : with the former the abf. which with bhu are equivalent to a verb . .). e. arvā́ ñ c before. I n B. e. g.g. 66^). yajnāj jihmā īyuḥ they (would go obliquely firom =) lose the sacrifice (AB.) . rákṣobhyo vái tā́ṃ bhīṣā́ vā́cam ayachan they restrained their speech from fear of the demons (ŚB. e. yát kíṃ ca^. 123 ) . jihmá aslant . of its crushing (x. úpa chāyā́ m iva g h ṛ ́ ṇ e r áganma śárma te vayám we have entered thy shelter like shade (that protects) from heat (vi. and B. when i t means than . e. with the latter i t expresses the figure by which the complete number is defective . 2. i n B. īśvaro na^‚asmad dvitīyo vā tṛtīyo vā brāhmaṇatām abhyupaitoḥ the second or third (in desCent)from him can obtain Brahminhood (AB.). expresses the point from which the reckoning is made . several local and temporal adjectives: arvācī́ n a below. 3. yajamānāt paśavo 'nutkrāmuka bhavanti the animals are not inclined to run away from the sacrificer (AB. brahma h i pūrvaṃ kṣatrāt the priesthood is superior to the warrior class (PB. substantives when derived from.) . that i t would crush her. 96^) . daśa parāñcaḥ ten Irivṛts occur before it and ten after it (AB. c. ékān ná śatám not a hundred by one -– ninety-nine.arvācī́ n am ādityā́ t whatever is below the sun (sB. e. verbs used with the ablative . etásmāc cā́ t valād ūrdhvā́ ḥ svargáṃ lokám upód akraman upward from that pit they ascended to heaven (sB. of their attachment = that they would attach themselves to them (ŚB. parā́ ñ c after . g. ūrdhvá above. 20 2 a. víśvasmād índra ú t t a r a ḥ Indra is greater than every one (x.). i .^0l] ABLATIvE 317 5 Indra’s bolt. e. ghṛtā́t svā́ d īyaḥ sweeter than butter (viii.) . g. adjectives i n uka. śárma no yaṃsan trivᬠrūtnam áṃhasaḥ they shall grant us thrice­protecting shelter from distress (x. g.. adjectives : in v. jātā́ n y ávarāṇy asmāt born later than he (viii. anyo vā ayam asmad bhavati he becomes other than we (AB. 861) . purvā víśvasmād bhúvanād abodhi she has awakened earlier than every being (i. or equivalent to. asurarakṣasébhya āsaṅgā́d bibhayā́ ṃ cakruḥ they were afraid of the Asuras and Rakṣasas. pā́ p īyān áśvād gardabháḥ the ass is worse than the horse (TS.). 16^).

). The genitive is a dependent ease. expresses the amount of the deficiency. without are used prepositionally with the abl. e.. a. purás before . outside. avás down from. ékasmad akṣárād ánaptam (a verse) incomplete by one syllable (Ts. 2O2. only are : adhás below. in V. tirás apart from. rule over. e. only : abhyardhás far from. being in its main uses connected with verbs and substantives. Similarly in B.g. āré without.) . the only verb .). ánṛtādvái tā́ḥ prajā́ váruṇo 'gṛnṇāt by reason of their guilt Varuṇa seized creatures (MS. dūráṃ ha vā́ asmā́n mṛtyúr bhavati death is for from him (ŚB. O god. kásmāt wherefore Genitive. some other adverbs with a local or temporal sense . but also appear­ ing with adjectives and adverbs. e.) . on account of this sin (vii. and B. below. is used independently of any particular class of word to express the reason of an action in the sense of on account of. beyond. prāg ghomāt before (making) the oblation (AB. in B. mā́ nas tásmad énaso deva rīriṣaḥ 5 let us suffer no harm. I n B. With verbs the gen. dispose of: always with k ṣ i and rāj.g. : ṛté without. g. It is used with verbs having the following senses : a. In B. parás outside. has a sense analogous to that of the acc. téṣām alpakā́ d evá^agnír ásaṃcita āsa their fire (altar) was not completely piled up by a little only. 89 ) . The abl. for from. adverbs meaning before. 177. tásmān madhyamā́ c chaṅkór dakṣiṇā́ páñeadaśa vikramā́ n prá krāmati he strides forward fifteen steps to the right of this middle peg (ŚB.e. nearly always with irajya and īś (rarely ace). Cp.). but only in part.). i. B. A.Analogously with words meaning incomplete the abl. was almost completely piled up (ŚB. : tásmād therefore. bahís outside. but differs here from the latter in expressing that the action affects the object not as a whole. 4. 3. purā́ before . Those occurring in V.

: cit observe. only aś and p ā besides bhakṣ eat (in RV. not so used i n V. grabh take of and i n the passive be seized = suffer in (a part of the body). take note of: always with 2. a. with acc. -gam. present. I n B. átha^eṣāṃ sárva īśe then every one has power over them (MS. of thing. is īś have power over . and with the caus. optionally with kan and mad (also inst. a. pṛc give abundantly of. kīrtaya mention and smṛ remember take the gen. e. prī. partitiveness (while the expresses full extent) : acc. with the same verbs 1. abhi­ghar pour upon. several verbs having the general sense of giving and taking. I n B. e. -gā attend to. b. of the person . drink : aś eat of. 2. of the object i n a partitive sense : vap strew. vṛdh . I n A v . . and loc. eat. I n B. upa-stṛ spread over.). a. gen. g.g. e. e. give. ā-vṛṣ fill oneself full of. v i d know about (with acc. budh take note of. of person.). come to be used with the gen. 53­). g.g. ā-ścut drip. adhi-i. śru hear (gen. e. ad eat (almost exclusively with acc. care for . I n B.). only) take the partitive gen. e. ni-han (Av. attend to. eare for . g. hu offer. the only verb of this group taking the gen. ánnasya tṛpyati he refreshes himself with (some) food (ŚB.) . vī and jus enjoy. tásmad ā́jyasya^evá yajet therefore he should sacrifice some butter (SB).with this sense taking the gen. ^.). ā-daśasya and śak present with. know fully) . yaj sacrifice (acc. ava­dā cut off some of. ná cákṣuṣo gṛhe he does not suffer in his eye ( M s ) : yó vācó gṛhītáḥ who suffers in his voice (Ms).. d. rejoice in : always with tṛp. only three verbs of this class are thus construed : vid and śru as i n RV. . alternatively with acc.) and pra-han strike. is tṛp i n a partitive sense. pā drink . and kīrtaya mention. of pan (also ace. yaj may be used without acc. sacrifice: dā give of. sómasya tvā yakṣi I will worship thee (with a libation) of Soma (iii. I n B. acc. vi-khan dig up some of. k ṛ speak highly of and ā-dhī think about. heard). of offering). a. of person.

obtain) .) — in order not to injure the sacrificer. yógo vājínaḥ the yoking of the steed = he yokes the steed .. e. e. 98 ). g. with verbs (especially those expressing possession). . tasya śataṃ jāyā babhūvuḥ he had a hundred wives (AB. apakramā́ d u ha^evá^eṣām etád bibhayā́ ṃ eakāra he was afraid of their departure (ŚB. e. I t often occurs with datives . The objective gen. bhikṣ beg for. of that to which he is invited . yajñásya sámṛd– dhyai for the success of the sacrifice (TS.).) . a. receive as a share).) —thatthey would run away. g. of the possessor in both v. I t depends on verbal substantives and is then allied to the gen. asmākam astu kévalaḥ let him exclusively be ours (i.. e. also ā­yu take possession of 5 a. b.) = that the sacrifice might succeed. agnī-ṣómabhyāṃ médasó 'nu brūhi invite Agni and Soma to the fat (ŚB. g. 22 ) . = have a share in (with ace. g. g. iyate vásū– nām he is implored for some of his riches (vif. .) — before he slew vṛtra. g. obtain. ask for : bhaj participate in (with acc. yájamānasya^áhiṃsāyai for the non-injury of the sacrificer (MS. I n B. uṣáso vyúṣṭau at the break of dawn — when the dawn breaks . The genitive is used with two classes of substantives. 7 ) . B. f belong to: as and bnú. : with gen. ī and 1 ḍ implore for (generally acc. e. e. and B. I t very often occurs with datives . 1. átha^abhavat kévalaḥ sómo 10 3 asya then Soma became exclusively his (vii. g.^. which is equivalent to the object expressed by the cognate verb .). anu-brū invite is used with the dat. with the gen. which is equivalent to the agent of the action expressed by the cognate verb . 32 ) . mánor ha vā́ ṛṣabhá āsa Manu had a bull (ŚB. e. Of these verbs bhaj remains in use in B. of thing as well as person) . purā́ vṛtrásya vadhā́t before the slaughter of Vṛtra (ŚB. tám īmahe indram asya rāyáḥ we 3 implore Indra for some of that wealth (vi. of the god and the gen. e. The subjective gen.

.).) . 23 ). ná párā jigye kataráś canáinoḥ not either of the two of them conquered (vi. ^. when the root is accented . I t also appears with abstract nouns derived from such words . caramá last. Already appearing a few times i n the RV.). a. 69^-) . with the gerundive . The gen. the agent nouns in t r with few exceptions take the acc. e.g.). The gem is occasionally used for the dative with śrad dhā believe and da give i n the AB. part.a. 30 ) . The gen. But i n V. 10 3 2. It may then have two senses : a. anyasya balikrd anyasya^adyah paying taxes to another. ^v. 33–) — then they became friends of the gods. e. mantrakṛtāṃ mantrakṛt best of composers of hymns (B. The gen. The gen. e. is frequently used possessively where we would use a dative . commonly depends on non­verbal substantives. . pūṣā́ paśūnā́ ṃ prajanayitā́ Puṣan is the propagator of cattle (Ms. data vásu one who gives wealth (vi. especially those i n tr . g. e. This genitive is common with agent nouns. mitró vái śivó devā́nām Mitra is the kindly one among the gods (TS. pátyuḥ krītā́ (MS. The possessive gen.). . used with the perf. The partitive gen. g. .g. is similarly used. véḥ parṇám the wing of the bird = wing belonging to the bird . is a plural of the same word as that on which it depends it is equivalent to a superlative . ^. ā́d i d devā́nām úpa sakhyám āyan then they came to friendship with the gods (iv. This use may have started from the possessive sense. a. to be devoured by another (A1^. tasya ha putro jajñe a son of his was born = a son was born to him (AB. sákhe sákhīnām O friend among friends = best of friends 11 (i. e. is i n particular used with comparatives and superla­ tives (including prathamá first. e. devā́nāṃ dūtáḥ the messenger of the gods. e. is a variety of the possessive gen. g. ^c. e. felt to be the agent. e.). g. 23 ) . This gen. b. expresses a part of the whole . I f the gen. g. gardabháḥ paśūnā́ ṃ bhārabharítamaḥ the ass is the best bearer of burdens among animals (Ts. rayó data giver of wealth (vi. e.) the bought (wife) of the husband (the wife) bought by the husband. it is common in B. pass. g. g.g.

sakṛ́t once with áhnas once a day . ándhasaḥ of the juice (I. antikám near.) . e. used like adjectives. e. nédiṣṭh. agratás before (AV. paścā́d behind. g. a multiplicative sense: in V. C. and with rā́ t ryās in B. (also the abl. The gen. ánuvrata obedient . sometimes expresses the material . . g. is used by transference to express not a part. in V. as in marútāṃ gaṇáḥ the h oSt (con­ sisting) of the ^Iaruts. g. e. ^. I t is used with numbers above twenty (in B. with the genitives áhnas and áhnām = at the present time of day.). The gen. sometimes this gen. e. 3 D. capable of knowing. 52 ) .aré far from takes the gen. purás before . of the thing offered. g. like. I n B. offering. krṣṇā́ n aṃ vrīhīṇaṃ carúṃ śrapayati he cooks a mess of black rice (ŚB. gávaṃ yūthā́ n i herds of cows. parástād above. yásyā rā́ t ryāḥ p r ā t á r yakṣyámānaḥ syā́t in the morning of which night he may be about to sacrifice (MS). áhnas in V. ṣaṣṭím áśvānām (an aggregate of) si^ty horses. īsvará able to. 2. a local sense : in v . návedas cognisant of. abounding in: priyá dear. á n u r ú p a similar .^. p r ā t á r early with the gen. e. gónām ardhám half ofthecows. but the whole . the local adjective (like the local adverbs) údañc northward of takes the gen. in B. 3. PáPrí bestowing abundantly (partitive gen. nédīyas nearer. : dakṣiṇatás to the right of. I t is used i n this sense w i t h the verb k ṛ . a. The gen. and : upáriṣṭād behind. t r í r a diváh thrice . nearest. is used w i t h a few adjectives meaning attached to. p ī p i v ā ́ ṃ s abounding in. ^. is used w i t h certain adverbs having 1. p r á t y a r d h i standing at the side of. avástād below.).). only with sahásram) and words expressive of a division or a measure . purástād before . yá evá káś ca vṛkṣáḥ phalagráhis tásya kāryā whatever tree bears fruit. of (a part of) that it is to be made (Ms.) . I n theRV. and with the participles. pūrṇá full of. trís thrice in t r í r áhnas.g. etéṣāṃ vṛkṣā́ṇaṃ bhavanti they (the fences) are (made of the wood) of these trees (ŚB. a temporal sense : idā and idā́nīm now are used in V.

in the presence of. at . I t may therefore be variously translated by in. 48 -) . e. concrete . diví in heaven. : dvís twice and tris thrice with saṃvatsarásya.g. or with verbs of motion the sphere which is reached by the action. (ŚB. of the gen. 8 ). g. vástos and usásas of a morning. 20^) . asmín puṣyantu gópatau let them 3 prosper under this herdsman (X. saṃgrāmé id. yát kíṃ ea duritáṃ máyi whatever sin there is in me (I. a.). pīpāya sá śrávasā 1 n á r t y e ṣ u he 22 3 abounds in fame among mortals (vi. twice. beside. yát sthó druhyávy ánavi turváśe yádau. e. 10^) . O Indra.a day and t r i r aktós three times a night . Persons : e. ghṛtakīrtáu at the mention of (the word) ghee (ŚB. thrice a year. párvate in or on the mountain (i. appears in a general and independent way in the following senses : 1. This case expresses the sphere in which an action takes place. Its sense includes not only locality (both concrete and abstract) but persons and time. yá ādityā́ n āṃ bhávati práṇītau who 4 3 1 4 13 is in the guidance of the Ādityas (il. A. g. 19 ). yudhí in battle (i. Turvasa (or) Y adu. 10 ) . 32-) . to. huvé vām whether ye two are beside (with) Druhyu. uṣáso . sárasvatyām at the Sarasvatī (iii. 877) . vájrasya yát pátane pā́di śúṣṇaḥ when upon the flight of the bolt Śuṣṇa fell (vi. in B. 23 ) . Place : a. 93 ) . The loc. tád indra te váśe that. 23 ) . Time : here the lee expresses that an action takes place within the limits of the time mentioned. 2. b.). is in thy power (viii. Locative. kṣápas and ksapás of a night . abstract : asya sumatáu syāma may we be in his good graces (viii. in a temporal sense is perhaps derived from that with multiplicatives : aktós. I call you (viii. The adverbial use i n v. 203. vayáṃ syāma váruṇe ánāgāḥ may we be guiltless in the eyes of Varuṇa (vii. into. among. Anu. on. 3. 27 ) .

) . cows.. is connected with different classes of words by which it may be said to be governed. agníṃ toké tánaye śáśvad īmahe Agni we constantly implore for children and for grandchildren (viii. kṣipré ha yájamāno 'múṃ lokám iyāt the sacrificer would speedily go to yonder world. receive from . water (vi. 7P ) . shall live (i. yá eṣāṃ bhṛtyām ṛṇádhat sá jīvāt he . yā́n ā́bhajo marúta indra sóme the . hū) . 36 ) . g. the loc. 3 a. gen. prā́va nas toké bless us in 12 children (viii. 2O4. 23 ) . and B. 19 ) . Adverbially. g. : let share in (ā–bhaj) and struggle for (spṛdh. 1148) . appearing even in compounds (e. prātár is used instead) .). implore. trír áhan three times in the day (in B. ádhā hí tvā hávāmahe tánaye góṣu^apsú for 3 12 we invoke thee for offspring. 84 ^) . mā́ nas toké rīriṣaḥ injure us not in our children (I. of kṣiprá quick is several times thus employed. g. O all­gods. 161 ) = at the end of a year . tátaḥ saṃvatsaré púruṣaḥ sám abhavat thence arose in (–^­ at the end of) a year a man (ŚB. This temporal use sometimes comes to mean that something happens at the end of the period . devéṣu^ amṛtatvám ānaśa ye received immortality (among =) from the gods (iv. in ŚB. e. e. injure in respect of. in V. rarely in V . táviṣīṣu vāvṛdhe he grew in strength (I. 52^) .) . rejoice in the oblation (vi. grow. invoke for (ī. g. : rejoice in . 1. saṃvatsará idám adyā́ vy àkhyata ye have opened your eyes now to­day (for the first time) in a year (i. The lee. bless. ágre often occurs in the sense of in front and at first. A few substantives and adjectives are thus used . agre­gá going before. jāyate māsí­māsi he is born (once) in every (successive) month (x. 13 4.who will sueeeed in 1 their support. prosper . B. g.vyuṣṭau at the flush of dawn . 52­) . only) . I t is specially connected with verbs expressing : a. e. viśve devā havíṣi mādayadhvam do ye. 4 in V. g. e. uṣási in the morning (in B. e. 52 ). agre­pā́ drinking first) . dyávi­dyavi every day (not used in B.

are : go (gam). : request (iṣ). ánu no 'syā́ṃ pṛthivyā́ m ā́ bhajata let us have a share in this earth (ŚB. verbs meaning to throw at are especially common with the loc. sā́ ha^iyáṃ devéṣu sutyā́yām apitvám īṣe she re¬ quested from the gods a share in the Soma feast (ŚB.) . sómo bhūtv avapā́ n eṣv ā́bhagaḥ let Soma be a participator in drinking bouts (i.) . e. vīryāṃ yájamāne dadhāti he puts energy into the sacrificer (TS. to indicate the goal or object aimed at : gṛdn be eager.). I n B. didst allow to share in Soma (iif. 35^) . is also used to some extent connected with nouns : a. enter (ā–viś). I 3 6^) .). call in question (mīmāṃs) . upon. e. e. g. and B. put (dhā. ask (prach). ná tásya vācy ápi bhāgó asti he has no share in speech (x.). to indicate the place that is reached. 29 ) . hu).) . yó mártyeṣv i t kṛṇóti devā́n who brings the gods to mortals (i. flow (arṣ. verbal nouns (substantives and adjectives) derived from verbs taking that case . pour (sic. e. yat strive. ā-śaṃs hope . 4 16 3 1 . O Indra. ā́ tu na indra śaṃsaya góṣv áśveṣu pray give us hope. e. 71^) . dhāv). Indra. in B. Such verbs in v. desire. of cows and horses (i. 1 ) that goes to (= reaches) the gods (while devā́n gachati wou1d mean goes in the direction of the gods) . 2. in v. ná vā eṣá grāmyéṣu paśúṣu hitáḥ he (is not placed among =) does not belong to the tame animals (TS. The case may here be translated by to. sá íd devéṣu gachati (i. g. descend (ava-vyadh). 75 ) . g.325 LOCATIvE 204] Maruts whom thou. : motion. The lee. ādityāś ca ha vā aṅgirasaś ca svarge loke 'spardhanta the Ādityas and the Aṅgirases struggled for (the possession of) the heavenly world (AB. kṛ) . 77) . O Indra. sutá i t tváṃ nímiśIa indra sóme thou art attached. ascend (ā-ruh). into. b. g. ánneṣu jāgṛdhur they are eager for food (if. agninOtríṇi devátā a śaṃsante the gods place their hope in the maintainer of the sacrificial fire (MS. 23 ) . divi svanó yatate the sound soars to heaven (x. te deveṣv apṛchanta they inquired of the gods (PB.) .

the perf. appears in the RV. An example of the perf. and B. 37^) . part. 15 ) . is somewhat doubtful in V. act. 2O5. priyáḥ sū́rye priyó agnā́ bhavāti he will be dear to Sūrya. 184 ). part. stīrṇé barhíṣi.. the perf. at. g. and úpa near to. in V. in which the case is always accompanied by a participle. with . e. b. tásminn evá^etā́ nímiślatamā 1 iva to him these (women) are most devoted (ŚB. dear to Agni (v. 1.. 161). 6 ) the 33 guest having eaten. 176. a in. is used with a few prepositions : in V. ix. yó áśvasya dadhikrā́ v ṇo ákārīt 4 . b. The perf. such as jāté agnáu. in vant used absolutely is : aśitā́vaty átithāv aśnīyāt (Av. pass. a. 177. upon. which then acquired the independent sense 1 when dawn shines forth (i. as well as the prepositional adverb sácā beside. at. cā́rur mitré váruṇe ca dear to Mitra 9 and Varuṇa (ix. part. on. Combined with a participle it came to be regarded as a temporal or qualifying clause where the case alone could not be employed. The loc. probably still has its ordinary sense . 23 ) . in which the loc. in. dhruvá firm .). is quite isolated .). is in fully developed use in V. while the pres. started from the ordinary use of the loc. rāṣṭrám evá^ asmin dhruvám akaḥ he has made the sovereignty established in him (TS. g. .to the pressed Soma (vi. ordinary adjectives : in V. e. 61 ) . he may eat (cp. in several expressions. As regards the participles used in this construction. priyá and cā́ru dear . the future never occurs . Locative and Genitive Absolute. as well as B. part. The absolute construction of the loc. act. ádhi on and antár within (cp. 2 . Thus beside uṣási at dawn could appear uchántyām uṣási at dawn as it shines forth. and (rarely) ápi near. suté sóme. but undoubted in B. víśvam adhāg ā́yudham iddhé agnáu he burnt every weapon in the kindled fire (ii. g. 5). in B. 3. e. pass.

205] LOCATIVE ABSOLUTE 327 sámiddhe agnā uṣáso vyúṣṭau who has honoured the steed Dadhikrāvan beside the kindled fire at the flush of Dawn (iv.) . Vrtra is dead . Of the pres. 3 3 1 a. sá hovāca : ható vṛtró . 103 ) . 184 ). yád dhaté kuryā́ t a tát kuruta^.) .íti he said .). Similarly in B : yajñamukhé­yajñamukhe vái kriyámāṇe yaj¬ ñáṃ rákṣaṃsi jighāṃsanti always when the commencement of the sacrifice is being made. g. in the absolute sense there are many examples in V.) . The substantive has sometimes to be supplied . 16 ) . . e. indraṃ prātár havā¬ maha índraṃ prayatí^adhvaré Indra we invoke early. the rainy season having come (vii. O Maruts. 1 a). g. are exhilarated at the rising of the sun (v. part. I n B. 3 7 1 a. Sarasvatī while the sacrifice is extended (x. 17 ) . krīté sóme maitrāvaruṇā́ y a daṇḍáṃ prá yachati when the Soma has been bought he hands the staff to the Maitrāvaruṇa priest (TS. is much more pronounced . H ere súrye could not be used alone. if he were dead. sá enāḥ śvó bhuté yaj ate he sacrifices to them when the morning has appeared (TS.). is normal (cp.thatdo (ŚB. 39 ). e. especially in yán marutaḥ s ū ́ r y a údite mádatha when ye. c. sárasvatīṃ deva– yánto havante sárasvatīm adhvaré tāyámāne men devoted to the gods invoke Sarasvatī. . the Rakṣases seek to destroy the sacrifice (TS.. what you would do. with the loc. 54^).) . possibly when the fire is kindled. though the construction of mad with the loc. tásmād gardabhé purā́ ^ ā́ y uṣaḥ prámīte bibhyati therefore one is frightened when a donkey has died before its time (TS. 204. part. úditeṣu nákṣatreṣu vā́caṃ ví srjati whenthestars have risen he sets free his voice (Ts. e. pass.). sóme hanyᬠmāne yajñó hanyate when Soma is destroyed. while the loc. 1 Because the sense rejoice inthesun would be unnatural. Indra when the sacrifice proceeds (i. tā́ vām adyá tā́v aparáṃ huvema^ uehántyām uṣási so you two to­day. the sacrifice is destroyed (Ts. of time would be expressed by úditā sū́ r yasya at sunrise.g. I n other examples the absolute sense seems more likely : yád īm enām̐ uśató abhy ávarṣīt tṛṣyā́ v ataḥ p r ā v ṛ ́ ṣ y ā́gatāyām when it has rained upon the eager thirsty ones. the absolute use with the perf. so you two infuturewe would invoke when Dawn shines forth (f.

or perf. Participles are of a twofold nature inasmuch as they share the characteristics of both noun and verb. tásmād apā́ṃ taptā́ n āṃ phéno jāyate therefore. final. The substantive is sometimes omitted. while owing to their passive nature they are not construed with an acc.). qualifying the main action and equiva¬ lent to subordinate clauses. but also indicate differences of voice and generally speaking retain the distinctions of time expressed by the tenses to which they belong.) . They are as a rule used appositionally with substantives. t á m e t á t p r a t y ā y a t y ā ́ ṃ r ā ́ t r a u s ā y á m ú p ā t i ṣ ṭ h a n t a so they approached him in the evening when night returned (ŚB. pass. of the agent or means. of the object. I t arose from the possessive genitive which acquired an independent syntactical value when accompanied by a (pres. Participles.) participle much in the same way as the loc. The verbal character of participles formed directly from the root (and not from tense stems) is restricted (with certain exceptions) to the passive voice in sense. but only with the inst. causal. In form they are adjectives both in inflexion and concord. On the other hand they not only govern cases like the verb. I n the first three of the above examples the close relationship of the absolute to the possessive case is still apparent. or hypothetical sense.) .). when water is heated.this voice departed (ŚB. concessive. temporal. sá etā́ viprúṣo 'janayata yā́ īmā́ḥ skūyámānasya viprávante he (Agni) produced those sparks which dart about when (the fire) is stirred (MS.). and to past and future time . They may thus express a rela­ tive. but has already come into use in B. 2. foam arises (ŚB. teṣāṃ ha^ uttiṣṭhatām uvāca while these stood up he said (AB.) .t á s m ā d a g n i c í d v á r ṣ a t i n á d h ā v e t therefore the fire­piler should not run when it rains (Ts. The genitive absolute is unknown in v . 206. . Examples are: tásya^ā́ l abdhasya sā́ vā́g ápa cakrāma he beingsacrificed.

similarly i n B. 30 ) . ās remain. The past passive particip1e in ta is very frequently used as a finite verb . g. ṛcā́ṃ 4 tvaḥ póṣam āste pupuṣvā́n the one keeps producing abundance of verses (x. The perf.) . grasitám evá^asya tát what has got into him. is used with the verbs i go. sómam evá^etát pibanta āsate they thus keep on drinking Soma (TS. e. ucchváñcamānā pṛthivī́ sú tiṣṭhatu let the earth keep on yawning wide (x. . .g. part. . e. 82^) . 40^) . 24 ) . 171 ). also i n subordinate clauses: tásmin yád āpannaṃ. dhūmás te ketúr abhavad .) . 18 ) . but which are these gods ? (TS. 2OS. víśvam anyó abhicákṣāṇa eti the other (Pūṣan) goes on watching the universe (ii. trembling with fear of Indra. tváṃ hí .) . The pres. pass. a.). and B. by anaco¬ luthon as a finite verb . e. sthā stand as auxiliaries to express continued duration in V.). he has not been born. asmā́d aháṃ taviṣā́d ī́ṣamāṇa índrād bhiyā́ maruto réjamānaḥ I (am) fleeing from this 4 mighty one. 71ll) .207–208] PARTICIPLES 329 207.). éko vṛtrā́ cárasi jíghnamānaḥ for thou alone goest on killing the Vṛtras (ill. yuktás te astu dákṣiṇaḥ let thy right (steed) be yoked (i. g. 104^). g. té 'rcantaḥ śrā́m¬ yantaś ceruḥ they went on praying and fasting (ŚB. té 'sya gṛhā́ḥ paśáva upamūryᬠ10 māṇā īyuḥ his house and cattle would go on being destroyed (ŚB. The pres. e. tatáṃ me ápas tád u tāyate púnaḥ my work is done and it is being done again (I. vicākaśac candrámā náktam eti the moon goes on shining brightly at night (i. a. This use does not seem to be found in B. ná tvā́vām̐ indra káś eaná ná jātó ná janiṣyate no one is like thee. ye Maruts (f. is occasionally used in V. vitṛṃhā¬ 12 ṇā́s tiṣṭhanti they keep conflicting (TS. is not infrequently used with forms of as and bhū as auxiliaries constituting a periphrastic mood or tense in V.81^) . part. 110l) . and he will not be born (i. car move. : iṣṭā́ devátā átha katamá eté the gods have been wor­ shipped. that has been devoured by him (TS. part. . used impersonally : śráddhitaṃ te mahatá indriyā́ y a confidence has been placed in thy great might (1. O Indra.

ind. Future Participles Passive. worthy of praise. The commonest sense expressed by these verbal nouns is necessity . 22^). ye gods. but various allied meanings. and perf.. 1. sákhā sákhibhya ī́ḍyaḥ 11 4 a friend to be praised by friends (i. thus tásmai déyam means to him gifts should be given (ŚB. two. and opt. those in tavya and anīya in v . 3 b. I n B.). There are six of these : one. 63 ). 113 ) .. dat.. Four of them are construed with the inst. such as obligation. . e. víśvā hí vo namasyā̀ n i vándyā nā́māni devā 21 utá yajñíyāni vaḥ all your names. 96 ). mood in B. impf. and aor. a. tásmād vídhṛtā ádhvāno 'bhūvan therefore the roads have been divided (TS.) . Such forms (pres.). only . e. thy banner. . of bhū.g. e. tád vā ṛ́ṣīṇām ánu¬ śrutam āsa that was heard by the seers (ŚB. sadyó jajñānó hávyo babhūva as soon as born he became one to be invoked (viii. are adorable. The agent may be 2 expressed by the inst. g. and worshipful (x. that in āyya occurs in the RV. tváṃ nṛ́bhir hávyo viśvádhā^asi thou art always to be invoked by men (vii. or gen. devāsurā́ ḥ sáṃyattā āsan the gods and Asuras were engaged in conflict (TS.) . 75 ) . yá éka íd dhávyaḥ carṣaṇīnā́m who alone is to be invoked of men (vi. certain futurity. of as) make regular past and present tenses and the opt. but not i n the dat. fitness. and dat. 227). sometimes appearing instead). bhūyasībhir ha^asya^āhutibhir iṣṭaṃ bhavati by him sacrifice has been made with several offerings (AB.diví śritáḥ the smoke... and possibility..) . I t often appears without a verb . This example also illustrates the impersonal use of this gerundive i n B. the agent may be i n the inst. asmā́ b hir ū n ú praticákṣyā^abhūt she has become visible (by—) to us (i. The commonest of these gerundives is that in ya . are also frequent. and tva‚ in v. while the forms in tva and anīya are never found connected with a case. (but not in the R v ) and in B. three. . (was raised = ) arose to heaven (v. 2O9. those in enya. of the agent (the gen. and in B.g. or gen. 11 ). ind. ya.

e. I n B.). or the dat. The only meaning that seems to be expressed by this gerundive in B.).). snā́ t vam udakám water that can be bathed in (ŚB.) . tád viśvam abhibhūr asi yáj jātáṃ yác ca jántvam thou surpassest all that has been born and that is to be born (viii. . 79^) . 34 ). occurs only twice in the A v .). g. 2 a. is possibility . 24 ) .). g.g. e. . This gerundive is always without a verb. 4 ). g. dakṣā́yyo nṛ́ b hiḥ to be propitiated by men (i. . 30i^) . putró yājayayitavyāḥ a son must be made to sacrifice (MS.^ j GERUNDIVE 331 a use unknown to the RV. g. being unaccompanied by forms of as or bhū in B. implies necessity or possibility and is often used in contrast with the past . 2. but it is not found accompanied by a verb (as or bhú) or a noun expressing the agent . yó nántvāny ánaman ny ójasā who by his might bent what could be bent (ii. The gerundive in tva in the RV. agnicítā pakṣíṇo ná^aśitavyām an Agnicit should not eat (any part) of a bird (Ms. 1 a. thus ná brāhmaṇó hiṃsitavyāḥ a Brahmin is not to be injured (Av. e. . some¬ times appears accompanied by an agent in the inst. e. it is frequent and used much i n the same way as the form in ya . . 2 3 4.g. may be accompanied by an agent in the inst. a. at all. 89^). The form in enya. The gerundive in ā́yya. e. almost restricted to the R v . 129 ) . v. . bahú déyam much (is) to be given (MS. thus vā́cam udyāsaṃ śuśrū¬ ṣéṇyam I would utter a speech worthy to be heard (Ts. only. 3. ripávo hántvāsaḥ the enemy are to be killed (iii. nó asya^anyád dhótvam āsīt prāṇā́ t and he had nothing else that could be offered but breath (MS. found in the RV. e. It is once or twice also found in B.) he should act afterthemanner of . agnír īḷényo girā́ Agni to be praised with song (I. 18^). which is not found in the RV. The gerundive in tavya. abhyāyaṃsényā bhavataṃ manīṣíbhiḥ be willing to be drawn near by the devout (i. here i t is also used impersonally and with the agent i n the inst. 5. dakṣāyyo dāsvate dáma a who is to be propitiated by the pious man in his house (ii. paśúvratena bhavitavyām (MS.

is pained . 55 ). it has hardly attained the full value of a gerundive even in B. however. tásmāt suptvā́ prajā́ḥ prá budh¬ yante therefore creatures awake after having slept (Ts. and only twice in the prose of the A v . and never used either with an inst. āhavanī́ y a suitable to be offered to (AB. The usage in B. having seen a woman. Dawn has awakened with light (vii. or impersonally. which is rare in both v . pass. gūḍhvī́ támo jyótiṣā^uṣā́ abodhi having hidden away the darkness. agnihotrahávanīṃ pratápya hásto 'vadhéyaḥ his hand (is) to be put into it (by the holder) after having heated the fire­sacrifice ladle (MS. 40 ) .).. The gerund is. . after having sat down (i.). 177 ) . e. 80­). yó h á n t i śátrum abhī́tya who slays the foe after having attacked him (ix. 163) and in ya or tya (164) are synonymous.).cattle (more literally : action should be taken by him as one following the manner of cattle). yuktvā́ háribhyām ú p a yāsad arvā́ k having yoked (them) may he come hither with his two bays (v. g. 6. abhicaraṇī́ya liable to be bewitched (ŚB. Gerund or Indeclinable Participle. g. táṃ ha^. ending in tvī‚ tvā. upajīvanīyo bhavati he is one who may be subsisted on ( A v ) .). The forms of the gerund. g. I t regularly refers to what is regarded as the subject of the sentence . in tavya or ya used predi¬ catively as a finite verb . does not occur at all in the R v . e. and B. 21O. stríyaṃ dṛṣṭvā́ y a kítaváṃ tatāpa having seen a woman it pains the gambler (x. Thus i t refers i n sense to the agent implied by the future part. is similar . tvāya (cp. here found loosely con­ strued i n various ways not occurring i n V. still looser is the connexion i n such sen­ tences as the following : t é paśáva óṣadhīr jagdhvā́ ^ apáḥ pītvā́ táta eṣá rásaḥ sáṃ bhavatithebeasts having eaten the plants and drunk water— . 4 11 4 4 a. g. The form in anīya. ' e. 34 ) — the gambler. expressing an action that is past before that of the finite verb begins.enaṃ dṛṣṭvā́ bhī́r viveda having seen him fear seized him = having seen him he became afraid (ŚB. Expressing only suitability or possibility. píbā niṣádya drink.) . e.

g. The infinitive is. Dative Infinitive. or ear to express continued action . which is always a compound. however. 211. sometimes (according to the nature of the verb) another case . g. b. similarly with the verb man think : etád vái devā́ ḥ prā́ p ya raddhvā́ ^ iva^amanyanta the gods. as in other languages after an auxiliary. Being a cognate ace. to praise the bountiful hero (i. sometimes dependent on a particular word in the sentence. The gerund is here sometimes equiva­ lent to the finite verb of a subordinate clause . usually a verb. it has become common . i . abhikrā́ m aṃ juhoti (Ts. tantráṃ yuvatī́ abnyākrā́ m aṃ vayataḥ the two maidens weave the web while going up to it (Av. e. índrāya^arkáṃ juhvā̀ sám añje. 61^) . or (by attraction) a dat. 1.). The object when it is expressed is generally in the accusative. occasionally a noun : it then loses some of its full meaning.) he sacrifices while approaching (the fire). e. vīráṃ dānáukasaṃ vandádhyai for Indra I with my tongue adorn a song.). having obtained this. expresses a simultaneous action performed by the subject of the finite verb of the sentence. e. I n B. .210-2ll] GERUND 333 then this vital sap ari^cs (SB) then acquire this vital sap. and the first member of which is nearly always a preposition. g. a. g. té parāpā́ t am asata they keptflyingaway (MS.. Infinitive. The gerund in am.). e. a. thought that they had as good as won (ŚB. The past sense of the gerund is often emphasized by the particle átha then being placed immediately after it. e.). discord came uponthem(ŚB. The various forms of this infinitive govern either an acc. used adverbially it is only beginning to be used as a gerund in late V. g. This gerund is sometimes used with ās. tvám akṛṇor duṣṭárītu sáho víśvasmai sáhase sáhadhyai thou didst display irresistible power to overcome . The normal use of this form is to supplement the general statement of the sentence in a final (in order to) or a consequential (so as to) sense. ātithyéna vái devā́ iṣṭvā́ tant samád avindat after the gods had sacrificed with the rite of hospitable reception.

tā́v asmábhyaṃ dṛśáye sū́ r yāya púnar dātām ásum may these two give us back our breath that we may see 12 the sun (x. O hero. 1 ). b. 3 hast made the waters to flow (vii. 97 ) . 14 ) . prá yád bháradhve suvitā́ y a dāváne 4 when ye proceed to give welfare (v. 18^) . té hí putrā́ s o áditer vidur dvéṣāṃsi yótave for those sons of Aditi know how to ward off hostilities (viii. amítrān pṛtsú turváṇe to overcome foes in battle (vi. O Indra. 31 ) . áva sya śūra^ádhvano ná^ánte 'smín nó adyá sávane mandádhyai unyoke. The dat. 16 ) . átha^úpa prá^ aid yudháye dásyum then he advanced to fight the demon 9 (v. on our guadrupeds to go to their work (i. 46 ) . g. ábodhi hótā yajáthāya devā́n the priest has awakened to 2 worship the gods (v. 75^) . 71 ^) . 124^) . not infrequently depends on a particular word in the sentence . to delight in this our Soma pressing to­day (iv. ā́ no nāvā́ matīnā́ ṃ yātáṃ pārā́ y a gántave do ye two come to us with 11 the boat of our hymns. 59 ) . 1 ) . 21 ). 2 ) .every power (vi. tvám indra sravitavā́ apás kaḥ thou. 154^) . inf. śiśīte śṛ́ ṅ ge ráksase viníkṣe he shar pens his hor ns in or der to pierce the 4 demon (v. tā vāṃ vā́ s tūni^usmasi gá– madhyai we desire to go to those abodes of you two (i. e. ā́ ta etu mánaḥ púnaḥ jīváse jyók ca sū́ryaṃ dṛśé let thy spirit return (to live =) that thou mayest live and long see the sun (x. ábnūd u pārám étave pánthā the path has appeared. 46^) . cikíd nāśayᬠdhyai understanding to destroy (viii. sadyáś cin máhi dāváne to give much at 9 25 once (viii. 30 ) . agníṃ dvéṣo 3 14 yótavái no gṛṇīmasi we implore Agni to ward off hostility 1 from us (viii. as at the end 1 2 of a journey. vidyā́ma tásya te . índraṃ eodaya dā́tave maghám urge Indra to give bounty (ix. devó no átra savitā́ nú^árthaṃ prā́ s āvīd dvípat prá eátuṣpad ityái here god Savitṛ has now urged on our bipeds. 467) . 46 ) . 57 ) . 66 ) . índram avardhayann áhaye hántavā́ u they strengthened 4 Indra to slay the dragon (v. dā́dhṛvir bháradhyai strong to carry (vi. to (enable us to) go to the farther shore (i. to go to the farther shore (i.

4. predicative infinitive : see Brugmann. is not to be overlooked (viii. 125 ). bhiyáse mṛgáṃ kaḥ he has 2 made the monster to fear (v. . or gen. ábhūd agníḥ samídhe mā́ n uṣāṇām Agni has appeared to be kindled of men (vii.). . 113 ) Dawn has wakened all creatures (for those who now see little to – ) that those who see little now may look far and wide . esā́ purutámā drśé kám she here that constantly returns (so as) to be seen (i. g. aháṃ rudrā́ y a dhánur ā́ tanomi brahmadvíse śárave hántavā́ u I stretch the bow for Rudra (for the arrow to =) that the arrow may strike the hater of prayer (x. e. e. Grundriss. kavī́mr̐ ichāmi saṃdṛ́ ś e I wish to see the poets (iii. The agent (or instrument) of the action expressed by the inf. 2 3 . 461 and 488. The dat. when there is a passive sense . 97 ). ye Trojans (ibid. jajanúś ca rājáse and they 4 10 ereated (him) to rule (viii. 2. inf. náiṣā́ gávyūtir ápabhartavā́ u this pasture (is) not to be taken away(x. práti vāṃ ráthaṃ 1 7 6 1 2 7 2 21 19 4 8 1 5 6 3 1 I n Latin the gerundive actually appears to have taken the place of the I E . the subject being either expressed or requir¬ ing to be supplied in the first or third person . e. 29 ) . 142^). which when used predicatively (as a rule with the negative ná) are equiva­ lent to a future part. g. Which i n Latin would be : laudanda (est) vestra benignitas. e. The inf. O Ādityas. 67 ) . ví śrayantāṃ prayái devébhyo mahī́ ḥ may the great (gates) open (for the gods to = ) thatthegods may enter (i. impv. g. 14 ). g. tave. O Vasiṣṭhas. e. ná^asmā́ k am asti t á t tára ā́dityāso atiṣkáde this our zeal. Od) .y. 38 ). The infinitive i n dhyai is not infrequently employed elliptically to express an intention. pers. ^ra^ra ­­ab^ a^y­^īAa^ ^^a^.. is not to be equalled by another (vif. n á ^ a n y é n a stómo vasiṣṭhā ánvetave vaḥ your laudation. stusé sā́ vaṃ r a t í ḥ that bounty of yours is to be praised (i. pp. This sense is especially noticeable i n the infinitives i n tavái. dabhráṃ páśyadbhya urviyā́ vicákṣa uṣā́ ajīgar bhúvanāni víśvā ( i . 39 ) . 37 ) . ^'s^p. 24 ) . 124 ). is similarly used i n Greek i n the sense of a 2. ā́ vo vā́ h iṣṭho vahatu stavádhyai ráthaḥ may your most swift car bring you hither to be praised (vii. yásya ná rā́ d naḥ páryetave whose treasure is not to be surpassed (viii. 77 ).^ai T^o^ tell me. 122 ) . e. with the copula . is put in the inst. 1 a. When there is no passive sense the agent is expressed by the dat. g. pass. ná pramíye savitúr dáivyasya tát this (work) of the divine Savitr (is) indestructible (iv. has sometimes a passive force . 45 ) . g.^Ao^ tell all this c^n^l b^ not afals^ messenger (Homer. gīrbhíḥ sakhā́ y aṃ gā́ṃ ná doháse huve with songs I call my friend like a cow to be milked (vi.INFINITIVE 211] 335 vayám ákūpārasya dāváne may we know this of thee who art inexhaustible to give (v. 33 ) . 54 ). and e. ^.

śak).). e. the god. sometimes impersonally . ^.). e.1 jarádhyai the chariot of you two ( I purpose) to invoke (vii. avarúndhaṃ ná. gopālā́ n sáṃhvayitavā́ uvaca he said that the cow­ herds should be called together (ŚB.). 3. e. wish (vaś). expresses the purpose with verbs of motion and also appears in dependence on the verbs arh be able and ci intend .) . iyétha barhír āsádam thou hast gone to seat thyself on the straw (iv. appears only i n dependance on the verbs arh. i n tavái has three uses : I. tásmād eténa^áśru ná kártavái therefore tears should not be shed by him (MS. śakéma tvā samídham we would be able to kindle thee (I. uvāca and brūyāt . The form in am is used to supplement statements con¬ taining a verb of going or in dependence on verbs meaning be able (arh‚ aś. with a pass. g. g. g.) . sense after an acc. e. the acc. a. . g. ā́ va auśijó huvádhyai śáṃsam the son of Uśij (intends) to proclaim your praise (i. or know (vid) . 79­°). 3 1 3 3 a. agníṃ páristarītavā́ āha he says that thefireis to be enclosed (MS. predicatively with ná. The inf. with a final sense . taṃ pra harati yo'syastrtyas tasmai startavai he hurls it in or der to strike down him who is to be struck down by it (AB. Accusative Infinitive. tád aśvám ā́netavái brūyāt then he should order the horse to be brought (ŚB. I n B. 1 4 1 The use of this inf. n á vái yajñá iva mántavái it is not to be regarded like a sacrifice (ŚB. knows (how) to guide hither the gods (iv. 8 ). k ó vidvaṃsam úpa gāt práṣṭum etát who has gone to the wise man to ask him this? (I. 164 ) .). 5 2.) . n á purā́ suryasya údetor mánthitavái one should not rub fire before sunrise (Ms. governed by aha. is restricted to dependence on such verbs i n the Latin supine i n tum. this form of the inf. bhū́yo vā dā́tum arhasi or thou canst give more (v. here depends on the inf. 94 ) . however.^aśaknot he was not able to keep back (Ms. b. 122 ). Perhaps. 2. e. úpo emi cikitúṣo vipṛ́ c ham I go to the wise to inquire (vii. I n B. v i d . and śak when they are combined with the negative ná. sá veda devá ānámaṃ devā́n he. e. alone : he should give orders to bring the horse.) . g. 9 ) .g. often with a passive sense. in tum in the RV. 67 ). 86 ) . the inf.

e. kam desire. as is shown by its being used with words governing that case. The form in tos is abl. trā́ d hvaṃ kartā́ d avapádaḥ (ii. 301°) . purā before. ī́śe rāyáḥ suvī́r¬ yasya dā́toḥ he can give wealth and heroic offspring (vii. viz.). a. I n B. b. 54^). ṛté cid abhiśríṣaḥ purā́ jatrúbhya ātṛ́ d aḥ without binding. 4^) .. a.) . I n B. 28^). governed by īśvará . from falling down). Ablative-Genitive Infinitive. hótum eti he goes to sacrifice (TS. before being struck (iii.) . g. and the verbs pāproteet. form is found only in dependence on the verb ī́ś be able (with the object by attraction in the gen. i t appears only as a gen. e. sáīśvaró yájamānasya paśū́ n nirdáhaḥ he is able to burn the cattle of the sacrificer (MS. the pre­ positions ṛté without. or in dependence on the verbs dhṛ intend and (generally accompanied by the negative ná) arh and śak be able. 1 ) . this inf. ā-dṛ trouble. kathám aśakata mád ṛté jī́ v itum how have you been able to live without me ? (ŚB. 3.). the use is similar. trā rescue. There is one example of its being a gen. e. g. g. . as it is governed by the verb īś : nahí tvád āré nimíṣaś caná^ī́ ś e for without thee I am not able even to blink (ii. e. ā-śaṃs expeet .) or on the adverb madhyā́ in the midst of. dhṛs dare. anyád eva kártuṃ dadhrire 'nyád vái kurvanti they have purposed to do one thing. e.ll] 337 a.). g. purā hántor bháyamāno vy âra fearing he withdrew. ná cakame hántum he did not wich to kill (ŚB. g. but do another (ŚB. from the pit. yuyóta no anapa¬ tyāni gántoḥ save us from coming to childlessness (iii.) .INFINITIVE 2. 29^) save us 12 from falling into the pit (lit. bhīfear . dráṣṭum a gachati he comes in order to see (ŚB . The gen. when it is governed by the prepositions purā́ before and ā́ till or by verbs of saving and preventing . expressing the purpose with verbs of motion. The form in as (which is always compounded with prepositions) is almost exclusively abl. before the cartilages being pierced (viii.

e. (for us to —) that we may conquer all regions (iv. and a predicate is in the abl. tád va ukthásya barháṇā^ índrāya^upastṛṇīṣáṇi this song of praise ( I will) spread out with power for your In^lra (v1.).). náyiṣṭhā u no neṣáṇi. 44^) . . g.) till . ā́ médhyad bhávitoḥ till becoming pure . by attraction be i n the abl. Locative Infinitive. purástād dhótoḥ before sacrificing (MS.. arvācī́naṃ jánitoḥ before being born (MS. g. form occurs only i n dependence on īśvará able.the milking of three (cows) – till three (cows) are milked. forms to which a genuine inI. priyáṃ vo átithiṃ gṛṇīṣáṇi (do ye) extol your dear guest (vI. Occasionally īśvará is omitted . is found with prepositional words only. use (cp. I t usually occurs with ā́ till and purā́ before.). 89 ). pers. 9 a. both the subject and the object being i n the gen. 15 ) . 2. 132 ). 4) can be attributed are the few in sáni. and the predi­ cate i n the nom.. táto dīkṣitáḥ pamanó bhávitoh hence the initiated man (can) become scabby (ŚB. The object may. form is also sometimes used with the prepositional adverbs purástād and arvācī́¬ nam before.g. asmábhyaṃ víśvā asās tarīṣáṇi do ye open up for us the paths to sacrifice. and (like the form in dhyai) express an intention or exhortation (with the ellipse of a verb in the 1. 4. e. párṣiṣṭhā u naḥ parṣáṇy áti dviṣáḥ the best guides to guide us.). I n B.)----. purā vāgbhyaḥ saṃpravaditoḥ before the voices' uttering (PB. g. e. or 3.) = before the voices are uttered. however. These supplement the general statement of the sentence or depend on a particular word in it. The gen. . 167. the object being i n the acc. ā́ tisṛṇā́ ṃ dógdhoḥ (ŚB. (sometimes by attraction i n the gen. 126 ) .) .).. 377) . The only loc. inf.before the sun rises.). tā́ īśvarā́ yájamānaṃ híṃsitoḥ these two can injure the sacrificer (Ms. e.g. the best leaders to lead us through our foes (x. the abl. e.mā́ no madhyā́ rīriṣata^ā́ y ur gántoḥ injure us not (in the midst of—) before our reaching old age (I. ví naḥ patháś citana yáṣṭave. sá īśvará ā́rtim ā́rtoḥ he can fall into misfortune (Ts. purā́ suryasya^údetoḥ before the sun's rising (Ms. ā́ sū́ r yasya údetoḥ (Ms. ījānáṃ bhū́ m ir abhí p r a b h ū ṣ á ṇ i (let) Earth assist the sacrificer (x. The abl. 3 6 1 .) till the sun's rising ­­­­ till the sun rises .

this multiplicity is for the most part lost. the pres. g. pra-yam and pra-dā present . .. fut. perf. such are ad and ghas eat. e.. sasā́ra. no differences of meaning are traceable.occur the plup. it has the same sense as the latter. has also the pres. a number of verbs form two or more present stems.). only. only. I n v. fut. fut. is opposed to the aor. śad and sī fall. only. 5. dhāv and sṛ run : in theRV.). 3. in B. a few additional pairs of roots supplement each other to some extent. Such are : 1. paś and dṛś see : the former appears in the pres.. vívakti). only .. stem only . the latter in the aor. 2. aj and vī drive. i and gā (aor.. by bhú alone.. ádadhāvat and the pres. (v. the impI. perf. impI.. of both being used promiscuously. are formed by as . A. the latter in the aor. in which. as and bhū be : the pres. 4. sísarti . and the perf. Present. and perf. I n B. I n its proper sense bhū means to become (originally to grow).212] TENSES AND MOODS 339 TENSES AND MOODS. Two or more roots of cognate meaning sometimes supplement each other in such a way as to be used for different tenses of what is practically one verb.. . the pres. I t also appears in the impf. the fut. impf. khyā see is used in the same tenses as dṛś. b r ū and vac speak: the former is used in the pres. 212. but unless opposed to as be. dhāvati.) go . however.. and perf. a. but as opposed to the latter means discern. I n B. han and vadh slay: the former has the pres. and perf. ásarat. the latter the aor. and aor. yamó vā́ idám abhūd yád vayáṃ smáḥ Yama has become that which we arc (TS. The contrast appears clearly when the pres. : yā́ viprṅṣā ā́saṃs tā́ḥ śárkarā abhavan what were sparks beeame gravel (MS.

327). g. e. 88^) . ánaddhā^iva vā́ asya^átaḥ purā́ jā́naṃ bhavati previously his origin i^ as it were uncertain (ŚB. then he is a Hotṛ (SB) . however. the present is used to indicate an action that is taking place when the speaker makes his statement. g. a. e. áhotā vā́^ eṣá purā́ bhavati yadā́^evá^enaṃ pravṛ¬ ṇīté 'tha hótā he is previously a non­Hotṛ . 861 °). e. kvā tā́ n i nau sakhyā́ babhūvuḥ. to indicate an action which has extended through the past down to the present . to express a previous stage i n typical conditions . the simple pres.g. purā́ is also used without reference to the actual present from the speaker's point of view. expresses that something used to happen in the past. with ha sma purā́ . a. a. g.g. sá thamáṃ yájatha ha^agnír uvāca^átha yán māṃ purā́ kvā^aháṃ bhavāni^íti so Agni pra¬ said: now that you have hitherto honoured me at the sacrifice as the first where shall I be? (^B. tápati). as soon as he chooses him.). sácāvahe yád avṛkáṃ purā́ cit where has that friendship of us two gone. e. As in other languages. I n B. g.The only type here showing any development is that in ya. This use does not seem to occur in B. Such present stems are formed in B. tápyati grows hot (RV. purutrā́ vṛtró aśayad vyāstaḥ : amuyā́ śáyānam áti yanti^āpaḥ Vṛtra lay scattered in many places : over him as he thus lies the waters flow (i. b. from more than a dozen roots that do not form it in the RV . purā́ formerly is used with the pres. e. the purā́ is . The same usage is common i n B. sma purā́ with the pres. 2.). inasmuch as we have hitherto associated inoffensively (vii. In the RV. saṃhotráṃ sma purā́ nā́rī sámanaṃ vā́^áva gachati formerly the woman used to go down to the common sacrifce or the assembly (x.). ná ha sma vái purā́ ^ agnfr áparaśuvṛkṇaṃ dahati formerly Agni used not to burn what was not cut off with the axe (TS. ind. which tends to have an intransitive sense. 1. e. is sometimes employed of past actions in narration to add a new statement in a vivid manner . H ere.

Each of the past tenses (except the pluperfect) has a distinctive meaning of its own. e. uses the perf. The perfect characteristically expresses the condition attained by the subject as the result of a preceding action. túbhyaṃ bráhmāṇi gira indra túbhyaṃ satrā dadhire : juṣásva to thee 1 16 prayers. and the impf.) The particles ha sma. it may be translated by the present . g. to thee songs have always been offered (and 6 still are): accept them kindly (iii. g. 34 ) . with ha sma i n the same sense. indraś ca rusamaś ca^aṃśaṃ prāsyetāṃ : yataro nau pūrvo bhūmiṃ paryeti sa jay¬ ati^iti Indra and Rusama proposed a wager : whichever of us shall go round the earth first shall win (PB. the same sense appears with the adverb satrā́ always . ind.212—213] PRESENT 341 much more usually omitted. e. g. or the subj. I f that action (often a repeated or continuous one) is con­ tinued into the present so as to include the latter. 213. Past Tenses. But even without a particle this double sense is not infrequently apparent : . especially often w i t h the pres. The pres. by the present perfect. (The AB. which originally only accompanied it. have thus acquired.) . e. āha . A. purā nūnáṃ ca stutáya ṛ́ṣīṇāṃ paspṛdhre the praises of the seers have vied together in past times and (do so) now (vi. O Indra. 51 ).) with regard to this Nārada used to say. I t can express both these senses when accompanied by the adverbs purā formerly and nūnám now . 67 ) . forms occur that are almost indistinguish­ able in sense from the impf. and perf.). g. when used alone. ha sma alone expressing the same sense. e. e. though occasional examples of aor. perf. is also sometimes used for the fut. etád dha sma vā́ āha nāradáḥ (Ms. if it is regarded as concluded before the present. . the sense which is inherent i n purā́ only. áham ápi hammi^íti ha^uvāca he said : I too will slay him (ŚB. śáśvad dhí va ūtíbhir vayáṃ purā́ nūnáṃ bubhṇjmáhe we have constantly enjoyed your aids and (do so) now (viii.

sad. yáthā^iyáṃ pṛthivī́ mahī́ dādhā́ r a^imā́ n vánaspátīn evā́ dādhāra te mánaḥ as this great earth holds these trees. prosper . 22 ) . váne-vane śiśriye takvavī́ r iva on every tree he sits like a bird (x. possess . kó bibhāya who flees (and) speeds. Such perfects are formed from verbs meaning to know . become . they have not fallen into calamity (and do not now) : the liberal are not injured and waver not (x. the terrestrial space does not contain thee (viii. 113 ) . ná te pū́rve ná^áparāso ná vīryàṃ nū́ t anaḥ káś caná^āpa not earlier men. . 32^) . as is indicated by their often occurring by the side of actual present forms. ná tvā vivyāca rája indra pā́ r thivam thou extendest beyond the ends of heaven with thy might. hold fust . prá h i ririkṣá ójasā divó ántebhyas pári. 26 ) unpressed Soma has not (in the past) intoxicated Indra (and does not now) . stand. 42 ) . g. út te śocir bhānávo dyā́m apaptan brilliant 1 1 3 2 6 . encompass . ubné ā paprau ródasī manitvā́ Indra has with his greatness filled (and still fills) the two worlds (iii. ká īṣate. be pleased. Thus a number of perfects (since their action includes the present) can be translated by the present. tujyáte. ná bhojā́ mamrur ná nyarthám ī y u r : ná riṣyanti ná vyathante ha bhojā́ḥ the liberal have not died (and die not). séd u rā́jā kṣayati carṣaṇīnā́m. so he holds thy spirit (x. tie . índra . 88^) . not future men. 32^) . 357) . . who is afraid ^ (i. rest upon. surpass . índreṇa śuśuve nṛ́bhir yás te sunóti^ through Indra he who presses (Soma) for thee prospers in men (vii. 60^) . sit. show oneself. arā́n ná nemíḥ pári tā́ babhūva he rules as king over men. ná methete ná tasthatuḥ they (night and morning) clash not and stand not still (i. 84 7) . kvā^idā́ n īṃ sū́ryaḥ : káś ciketa where is now the sun : who knows ^ (I. a. he encompasses the worlds (tā́) as the felly the spokes (i. no man of the present (has attained =) equals thy heroism (v. bhadrā́ dadṛkṣa urviyā́ v i bhāsi. or afraid . 91 ) . have. 54^).1 ná sóma índram ásuto mamāda (vii. e. 107^) . yán na índro jujūṣé yác ca váṣṭi what Indra likes from us and what he desires (iv.

O hero. e. perf. d. which sum up past action but exclude the present. 8 ). of narration. those are coming who shall see her in the future (I. 64 ). ó [ = ā u] té yanti yé áparīṣu. thou shinest afar. This use of the perf. e. The distinction seems to be this : in the above passage the perfect means come because the Soma has been pressed. pásyān those mortals have gone who saw flushing the earlier dawn. yát sīm āgaś cakṛmā́ tát sú mṛḷatu whatever sin we have committed. yát stotā́ r aṃ jíghāṃsasi sákhāyam what has that chief sin been (in niy past life) that thou desirest to slay the praiser. 179^) . the aor. e. when it cannot be translated by the perf. thou didst win the Soma. 48 ) . The perf. would mean come because of the fact that the Soma has just been pressed for you. may be translated by the present perfect . Other perfects. comes very near that of the aor. 86 ) . often expresses a single action that has been completed in the recent past. tā́ saṃsátsu prá vocata what old and new deeds the Vṛtra­slayer has set going in the distanee. uvā́sa^uṣā́ uchā́c ca nú Dawn has flushed (in the past) and she shall flush now (1. ā́ no yātaṃ divás pári : putráḥ káṇvasya vām iná suṣā́va somyáṃ mádhu come to us from heaven : the son of Kaṇva has here pressed for you the Soma mead (viii. let him forgive that (I. have shot up to heaven (vi. The perf. 45 ^) . g. pres.213] PERFECT 343 thou appearest. is not infrequently used of a single action in the remoter past. īyúṣ ṭé yé pū́ r vatarām ápaśyan vyuchántīm uṣásaṃ mártyāsaḥ . . thy friend? (vii. kim ā́ga āsa varuṇa jyéṣṭhaṃ. I t occurs thus beside the impf. 113 ). c.g. those proclaim in the assemblies (viii. ávāsṛjaḥ sártave saptá síndhūn thou didst win the kine. when it can be translated by the pres. i . thy beams. yā́ vṛtrahā́ parāváti sánā návā ca cucyuvé. is ready for you . Thus in the story of the Vṛtra fight the poet says : ájayo gā́ ájayaḥ śūra sómam . thou didst let 2 2 3 4 11 4 . when the story is interrupted by a reflexion which often expresses the result of the action previously related. thy light. b.

TS. g. . dīdāya shines .). perf. expressing that an action once occurred i n the past (but not i n the narrative sense of the impf. A somewhat different connexion w i t h the narrative impf. dādhāra (he has constantly held and now) holds. I t often occurs i n the AB. e. babhū́ v a (has become =) is (MS. bībhā́ y a (beside bibhā́ y a) fears (while the periphrastic bibhayā́ ṃ cakāra has always a preterite sense). g. also the perfect of grah and pra-āp : yé hí paśavo lóma jagṛhús té médhaṃ prā́ p uḥ the cattle which have hair have also fat (MS. This use of the perf. lelāya quivers .).). Other perfects of this kind are . he who sacrifices with it prospers (MS. e. whatever prayers they have offered with the voice or will offer in future (Ts..). yoyāva wards of . i n an historical sense. vivyā́ca (has encompassed =) contains. chiefly i n forms that have a strengthened reduplicative vowel and thus seem to have an intensive meaning. 32 ) . eténa vā́ úpakerū rarādha : ṛdhnóti yá eténa yájate by this sacrifice Upakeru once prospered. This perfect is found con­ trasting what is past with the present and future i n the following successive sentences : yád vā́ asyā́ṃ kíṃ cā́ r canti yád ānṛcúr . párīyāya (has acquired ­­­­) possesses (TS. yát sāyáṃ juhóti rā́ t ryai téna dādhāra if he offers in the evening. yád evá kíṃ ca vācā́ ^ ānṛcúr yád átó 'dhi^arcitā́ r aḥ whatever prayers they offer on it (the earth) or have offered . upa dodrāva rashes at . i n a preterite sense. dadṛśé (has been seen -^) appears (while dadárśa always has a past sense) . perf. equivalent to that of the impf.. appears i n the following example : etā́ṃ ha váiyajñásenaś cítiṃ vidā́ ṃ cakara : táyā vái sá paśūn ávārnnddha this method of piling Yajñasena once in¬ vented : by means of it he acquired cattle (Ts).12 loose the seven streams to flow (i. the perf. 3. is hardly distinguishable from the impf. I n B. in the phrase tad etad ṛṣiḥ paśyann abhyanū¬ vāca seeing this a seer has uttered with reference to it (the following verse).). 2.).). expressing that an action takes place in the present as a result of its repetition i n the past . several other perfects with ordinary reduplication often have the present sense : ānaśé (has obtained =) has (MS. ind. he then adds índras ca yád yuyudnā́ t e áhiś ca^utá^aparī́ b hyo maghávā v i jigye when Indra and the serpent fought.. the bounteous god conquered (— remained conqueror) for the future. Besides these verbs veda knows and āha says always have a present sense.). which may be translated by once said or has said . This use most often appears i n the form uvaca..g. I t is the pres. i n narrative. in a present sense based on the pres. e. at the conclusion of a story related in the impf. appears i n three different uses : 1. he thereby holds (Agni) for the night (MS. a. that includes the present.

I t may nearly always be translated by the English present perfect. (vi-viii) and the ŚB. (i--v .). e. g. C. . i--v .) . 47 ^). The imperfect is the past tense of narration. expresses that an action has occurred in the past with reference to the present.). xii. she said : he has died to­day (MS. táṃ devā́ abruvan: mahā́ n va ayám abhūd yó vṛtrám ávadhîd íti the gods said of him : he has shown himself great who has slain Vṛtra (TS.). PB„ AB. te devā abruvan : yajño vai na ud akramīt the sacrifice went away from the gods . has also to do duty for the pluperfect. exceptions i n both groups. and the aor. g. I t neither describes nor indicates duration.2l3] PERFECT. t á m apṛchan : kásmai tvám ahauṣīr íti they asked him : to whom have you sacrificed ^ (MS. áhann áhim . g. a.) .. as in the relative clause of the preceding example. yásmād duṣvápnyād ábhaiṣma^ápa tád uchatu 1 let her (Dawn) drive away with her light the evil dream that we 1 have feared (viii.TB. As compared with the impf. Thus i n the former uvāca said and devā́ś ca^ásurāś ca paspṛdhire the gods andtheAsuras were in conflict. e. vi-x. he pierced the bellies of the mountains 1 (i. té h a ^ ū c u r : agnáye t i ṣ ṭ h a ^ í t i tátas tasthāv. never having any relation to the present as the perf. i n the latter abravīt and aspardhanta would be used. xiii). . may be distinguished : 1. (MS. usually expresses the immediate past . three uses of the aor. the gods then said : the sacri¬ fice has gone away from us (AB. i t never narrates .g. There are. I n B.yajño vai devebhya ud akrāmat. ŚB. amṛta^íti when they asked her. 52 ) . have . then . agnáye va asthad íti tám agnā́v ajuhavuḥ they said: stand still for Agni . B. is used elsewhere i n B. táto ha gandharvā́ ḥ sám ūdire : jyók vā́ iyám urváśī manuṣyeṣv avātsit then the Gandharvas spoke together : this Urvaśī has dwelt long among men (ŚB.. e. ná vái tváṃ tád akaror yád ahám ábravam you did not do what I said (ŚB.. 32 ) . tā́ṃ yád áprchant sā́bravīd : adyá^. The aor. The impf. The aorist ind. i t expresses what has occurred i n the speaker's experience. xiv). práti divó adarśi duhitā the daughter of heaven has appeared (iv. K. which is equivalent to what I had told you. but simply states a fact.. IMPERFECT.) . while the impf. x i . of course. TS. ind. e. AORIST 345 in certain parts of the AB. very commonly i n the statement made by the witness of an action . prá vakṣáṇā abhinat párva¬ tānām he slew the serpent.

The adverb pura is not infrequently used with these aorists . an action is to take place in the near or the remote future. átrā samudrá ā́ gūḷhám ā́ sur yam ajabhartana then ye brought the sun hidden in the sea (x. úd u ṣyá deváḥ savitā́ yayāma hiraṇyáyīm amátiṃ yām áśiśret that god Savitṛ now has 1 raised up the golden sheen which he has spread out (vii. they sacrificed it in Agni (ŚB. e. I.. 38 ). and from rather more than twenty others in the A v . i t is employed by the author with regard to what from his own point of view has either just happened or has occurred i n the more remote past . as an augmented perfect. A. e.) . The simple future is in comparatively rare use in V. but the stress is here laid on . g. 727) .). e. 214. 2. hope or fear of the speaker. the specific meaning of the subjunctive. D. n á vā́ etásya brāhmaṇā́ ḥ purā́ ^ ánnam akṣan Brahmins have never hitherto eaten his food (Ts. I t means that. is equivalent to the corresponding Greek tense in form only. yád dhí^asya^amedhyám ábhūt tád d h i ^ asya^etád avadhūnóti what has been impure in it. puro va etān devā akrata yat puroḷāśāṁs tat puroḷāśānāṃ puroḷāśatvam because the gods have madethesecakes their castles.) . g.). that in it he shakes off in this way (ŚB. I t cannot be distinguished in syntactical use from the impf. the cakes are so called ( A B ) . g. being formed from only fifteen roots in the RV. putrásya nā́ma gṛhṇāti : prajā́m evá^ánu sám atanīt he gives his son a name : hc has thus extended his race (MS. g. in some examples and from the aor.^āpnóti thereby he has obtainedthethirdsacrifice when he obtains the metres ( stood still . e. etád vái trtī́ y aṃ yajñám āpad yác chándāṃsi. Future. i t expresses what results from a ritual act or is antecedent to i t . expectation. The pluperfect. thinking it has stood still for Agni.) . intention. This limited employment is accounted for by its sense being partly expressed by the subjunctive and to some extent by the present. according to the opinion. 3. in others .). The sphere of the future includes that of the will. sá bándhur śunāsīryāsya yáṃ purvám ávocama this is the import of the Śunāsīrya oblation which we have explained above (ŚB.

I n B. is equivalent to an exhortation . 9^) . B. O Indra.) .). devā́n rákṣāṃsi .. tán ma ékāṃ rā́trim ánte śayitā́se. .). só 'bravīd : idáṃ máyi vīryāṃ. e. ajighāṃsan : ná yakṣ¬ yadhva íti the Rakṣases wished to slay the gods (saying) : you shall not sacri¬ fice (ŚB. the simple future is frequently used after verbs of speaking. té h a ^ ū c u ḥ kéna rā́jña. e. The periphrastic future though not occurring i n V. need not be expressed by an adverb . which are sometimes also to be supplied. After the impv.) . t ā n viśve devā anonudyanta neha pāsyanti neha^iti all the gods drove them back (saying) : they shall not drink here.) . índro ha v ā īksā́ ṃ cakre : mahád vā́ itó 'bhváṃ janiṣyate Indra rejlected : a great abuse will arise from this (ŚB.FUTURE 214] 347 the futurity rather than the purpose . ^. The point of time. tád esyamaḥ come. is frequent in B. g. ásurā vā́ íṣṭakā acinvata : dívam ā́ rokṣyāma íti the Asuras built up the bricks (thinking) : we shall scale heaven (MS. is often used with á t h a .) . you will be partakers of the sacrifice with the gods (I.íti in regard to that he should know : it will rain (ŚB. yády evā́ kariṣyátha sākáṃ deváir yajñíyāso bhaviṣyatha if ye will do so. After an impv.). the 2. not here (AB. Examples are : saṃvatsara¬ tamī́ṃ rā́trim ā́ gachatāt. then you 5 2 . that I will give thee (Ts. atha^ataḥ paśor vibhaktis: tasya vibhāgaṃ vakṣyāmaḥ next (comes) the division of the (sacrificial) animal : (now) we will (shall) state its division (AB.g. ' I shall suffer from skin disease' (TS. kéna^ánīkena yotsyāma íti they said : with whom as king. thinking. e. 2. tát te prá dāsyāmi^ íti he said : here is heroism in me. śvás to­morrow (but never by adyá to­day).) make my husband young again : then I shall tell you (two). fut. 161 ) . k í ṃ svid vakṣyā́mi kím u nu maniṣye what pray shall I say. 44^) . of a-i or pra-i the I. are : staviṣyā́mi tvā́m ahám I shall praise thee (I. yádi bibhīyā́ d duścarmā bhaviṣyāmi^íti if he should fear. a.. I t is therefore often accompanied by such words as prātár early in the morning. pers. sarvā devatā āśaṃsanta : m ā m abhi prati patsyati^iti allthegods hoped : he will begin with me (AB. pers. however. Examples from the RV.^. prá^ita. fearing. I t expresses that something w i l l take place at a definite point of time i n the future. hoping.). with whom as leader shall wefights(ŚB. tátra vidyād : varsisyati^. pátiṃ n ú me púnar yúvānaṃ kurutam : átha vāṃ vakṣyāmi (ŚB. g. has been born or will be born.) . we will go there (ŚB. ná tvā́vām indra káś eaná ná jātó n á janiṣyate no one equal to thee. e. and even the 3. W i t h the negative ná. what shall I now think ^ (vi. knowing. jātá u te 'yáṃ tárhi putró bhavitā́ come for the night of this day year.). g.g. it may be defined by a clause. the fut. may have the value of a prohibition . e.

. bhávetām . The forms later regarded as imperatives of the 1. bhávantu. bhávasva . but also a desire in the widest sense. yádi purā́ saṃsthā́nād dī́ r yeta^adyá varṣiṣyati^íti bruyad . then (on that particular occasion) I will come back to yon (AB. Sometimes this form is used to express not that an action will take place at a definite time. bhávata. does so distinctly . e. advice.. still be used for the later of two opposed actions . tarhy eva vo 'haṃ punar agantasmi when you will have need of me. then too this son of thine will be born (ŚB. ihá^evá mā tíṣṭhantam abhyéhi^íti brūhi. 3. a.) . he should say . tā́ṃ t ú na ā́gatāṃ pratiprá . has a tendency in v. bhávantām. pers. if it has been completed. pi. 12 11 prá vām aśnotu suṣṭutiḥ may the hymn of praise reach you 9 two (i. bnávāni. yádi sáṃsthite śvó vraṣṭā́ ^ íti brūyāt if it (the vessel) should be broken before the completion (of the sacrifice) he should say: it will rain to­day. 3. váraṃ vṛṇīsva^átha me púnar dehi choose a boon and then give it me back (TS. a request.). are injunctives (cp. bhávāva.will lie beside me for one night. b.) . The only pure impv. bhávethām. and 2. The sphere of the ordinary impv. bhávatam.g. 122 a a). 14 ) . g. bhávatu . áheḷamāno bodhi be not angry (1. it may. but that i t w i l l take place with certainty . imā́ n i^asya śīrṣā́ṇi chinddhi cut off these heads of his (MS.) . sa^. sā́ ^ evá^iyám adyá^ápi pratiṣṭhā́ . devam̐ ihá^ā vaha bring hither the gods (i.). bhávatām. pi.).. let one of us find out (ŚB. represented by bháva and bhávatāt. bhávāma are subjunctives (cp. Imperative. however. hánta na éko vettu come. forms are those of the 2.u e v á ^ á p i ^ á t ó 'dhi bhavitā́ this is the foundation to­day. to express the more remote future. and it will also (certainly) be so in future (ŚB. The impv. 131): while the 2. it will rain to­morrow (Ms. The form in tād. and 3. e. bhávadhvam. and in B. yarhi vāva vo mayā^artho bhavitā. g. however. vṛkṣé nā́vaṃ práti badhnīṣva tie the ship to the tree (ŚB. du. does not express commands only. such as a wish. a direction . 215. is the present .). e. sing. A. a. 24 ) . 17 ) .) . e. g.

bhávata . . with the prohibitive particle mā́ (which is used with injunctive forms only. thus táṃ vṛṇīṣva = do thouchooseit (now) as opposed to táṃ vṛṇāsai choose it then (ŚB. who may give us directions (vi. e.123). as represented by act. subj. (and passages borrowed from it) except satsi (Av. anuśā́ s ati bring us together with one who knows. g. has a number of 2.). when she has come. cáraḥ might be = á. Its use constitutes one of the chief difficulties of Vedic grammar and interpretation. thus i t never appears i n V. vi. g. bhávatām. almost exclu­ sively with the aor. The genuine impv. sing. pl. e. I t is employed i n positive principal clauses only . which later came to be regarded as imperatives). gamat might be the subj. 1 15 1 1 B.). bhávatam. forms made with si added directly to the root. The RV. Formally this mood corresponds to an unaugmented past tense (including the 2. a.g. you shall (then) tell it us (ŚB. 14 ). g. and in B. 54 ). seems never to be found in negative sen­ tences .215] IMPERATIvE 349 brútāt tell her : come to me as I stand here . tásya sma prāvitā́ bhava be the promoter of him who adores thee as a messenger (i. of á­gan or the inj. 110 ) . du. bhávetām.). 3. ā́ devébhir yāhi yákṣi ca come with the gods and sacrifice (i. may pre­ cede or follow . Judged by its uses the inj.caraḥ).. A subordinate clause with ind. sáṃ vidúṣā naya yó . 54 ) . and 2. because it cannot always be distinguished from the subjunctive (e. or (very rarely) opt.). mid. which are clearly used imperatively. bhávethām. bhávadhvam. g. inj. These forms are confined to the RV. As this form is only active. ^. Injunctive. e. takes its place in middle verbs .. the subj. I n such periods the form with tad would regularly be used i n B. ví no dhehi yáthā jī́ v āma so dispose usthatwe may live (ŚB. and they are restricted to positive principal sentences. idáṃ me haryatā váco yásya tárema tárasā śatáṃ hímaḥ gladly accept this word of mine by the force of which we would pass a hundred winters (v. of á­gamat) or from an unaugmented indicative (e. yás tvā́ṃ dūtáṃ saparyáti. the context showing . as is indicated by their being generally accompanied by imperatives (sometimes by subjunctives and imperatives) . probably represents a very primitive verbal form which originally expressed an action irrespective of tense or mood.

párā duṣvápnyaṃ suva to­day. e. ā́ no vavṛtyāḥ suvitā́ya by reason of that find 13 for us the path. and then let the . The addition of the augment gave the sense of a past tense to one set of forms. The third person also is used exhortatively. índrasya nú vīrya^ṇi prá vocam now I will proclaim the heroic deeds of Indra (i. proeure us good fortune.. while the rest finally became incorporated with the impv. The first person expresses an intention the execution of which lies in the power of the speaker . ā^idáṃ barhír yájamānasya sīda . .. g. g. g. e. e. As compared with the subj. eténa gātúṃ vido naḥ . very often beside an impv. sugā́ naḥ supátnā kṛṇu . here procure us wisdom . g. agníṃ hinvantu no dhíyas : téna jeṣma dhánaṃ­dhanam let our prayers urge Agni : through him we shall assuredly win booty after booty (x. ^ adyā́ no deva sāvīḥ sáubhagaṃ.which was meant. áthā te yajñás tanvé váyo dhāt mayst thou listen to these our prayers. 53 ). the execution depends on another . I t appears less frequently with the subj. a. mayst thou bring us to welfare (i. O god. g. . . 4 drive away evil dream (v. ê. the inj. puṣann ihá kratúṃ vidaḥ do thou make fair paths for us easy to traverse . e. is essentially appropriate in principal clauses. may Agni accept our songs (vii. it is often accompanied by a 2. very often beside an impv. combining the senses of the subj. sémā́ṃ vetu váṣaṭkṛtim . .. and the impv. The general meaning of the inj. b. O Pūṣan. Sometimes. expresses a desire. e. though it sometimes appears in subordinate clauses intro­ duced by relatives or the relative conjunctions yád and yadā́. 173 ). g. e. g. úpa bráhmāṇi śṛṇava imā́ no. The second person is used exhortatively. and then may the hymn be sung to Indra 3 (iii. sing. impv. A parallel opt. 321). however. agnír juṣata no gíraḥ let him come to this Vaṣaṭ call. áthā ca bhūd ukthárn índrāya śastám seat thyself upon this straw of the sacrificer . 82 ). e. 15^) . is much less common . the opt. 156l).

(215 C) in two types of sentences: 1. kó no mahyā 5 áditaye púnar dāt who will give us back to great Aditi? 1 (i.g. ném agháṃ naśat whom. the use of the inj. but its relative predominance has greatly increased in the AV. g. mā́ na indra párā vṛṇak do not. is very frequent i n negative sentences. kadā́ nah śuśravad gíraḥ when will he ṣpurn the niggardly mortal like a mushroom with his foot . e. in positive interrogative sentences . however. 52 ) . 977) . 2. I n negative sentences the inj.2l5] INJUNCTIvE 351 4 sacrifice bestow vigour on thyself (vi. e. g. form is Commoner than the impf. also sometimes i n subordinate clauses. not infrequently expresses a future sense like the subj. The injunctive is very frequently used alone (unaccom­ panied by any other modal form) in an impv. pári no hetī́ rudrásya vṛjyāḥ. e. itself is here sometimes found beside it . 40 ). form bhujema) with which the prohibitive particle mā́ can be used . e. devā́ n avat let it refresh the gods . e. On the other hand the inj. preserves several examples . is the only mood (with the exception of the single opt. viśváyan 1 mā́ na ā́ gan let not any swelling thing come near us (vii. e. in positive sentences has almost entirely disappeared. d. e. 33­ ). 24 ). when will he hear our songs ? (i. e. néd idáṃ bahirdhā́ yajñā́d bhávat lest it be outside the sacrifice. let the great malevolence of the impetuous one avoid 4 us (ii. A parallel opt. e. The ŚB. The inj. 50 ) . The subj. kadā́ mártam arādhásaṃ padā́ kṣúmpam iva sphurat. The aor. him misfortune will not reach (viii.. : juṣántāṃ yújyaṃ páyaḥ let them accept the suitable milk. O Indra. is not common .. pári tveṣásya durmatír mahī́ gāt would that the dart of Rudra pass us by. abandon us (viii. 1 a. in negative sentences with ná . yám ādityā abhi druhó rákṣathā. 28 ). g. form in the RV. . mā́ tántuś chedi let not the thread be cut (ii. g. g. the preceding verse has the regular impv. g. O Ādityas. imā́ havyā́ juṣanta nah let them accept these oblations of 11 ours (vi. especially with n é d . 84^). sense . 47 ). g. I n B. ye proteet from harm.

i n the vast majority of cases in the aor. may also express an exhortation to another to share an action with 12 .). also certain sacrificial verbs : idh kindle (with the co-operation of the god). form. dāś worship. From this it appears that the fundamental sense of the subj. kilbiṣaṃ nu mā yātayan letthemnot reprove it as a fault (AB. paś live to see. g. &c. īś be master of. e.. brū speak. is either wish or possibility (this mood being therefore alternatively called optative or potential). mā bibhīta fear not ( which i t constantly appears with mā́. su press. g. form occur : ma vadhadhvam slay not (Ts. while that of the opt. are thus used the verbs nan strike. This distinction appears clearly from the fact that in the first person in independent sentences one group of verbs in the RV. as be (with predicates such as prosperous. vidh serve. Subjunctive. while another employs the opt. śak be able . k ṛ make. sac be associated with . I t is often accompanied by the particles nú and hánta .). while in the latter it is not in his control. is best brought out by contrast­ ing its use with that of the opt. is will. ṛdh prosper . and pl. are the following: The first person declares the will of the speaker . mad be happy . hú call (= bring hither). vac and vad speak (effectively). The meanings expressed by the different persons of the subj. With the opt.). exclusively or almost exclusively. t ṛ overcome. employs the subj. 1. vid acquire. as and naś obtain. and from the perfect : mā́ suṣupthāḥ sleep not (SB). C. sah conquer . ā́­vṛt attract (to the sacrifice) . The I. The meaning of the subj. e. but is only possible. 51 ). because in the former the execution is dependent on the will of the speaker. prá nú vocā sutéṣu vām I will now praise you two at the libations (v. on the other hand appear : j i conquer. With the subj. 691). Only a few examples of the impf. sap please — obtain the favour of(a god). svastáye vā́yum úpa bravāmahai for welfare we will invoke Vāyu (v. du.) .

pers. the usage is the same . 67^). g. e. e. do ye drink the honied draughts beside us (vii.g. g. 80 ). Indra shall procure us wide space (vii. sentence is sometimes connected with a preceding one . jáyā apáḥ slay Vṛtra. impv.the speaker. urúṃ na índraḥ kṛṇavad u lokám may the wrath of Varuṇa 22 2 avoid us. 90^). 43 ).g. agne śṛṇuni . 63^ ). 837) . impv. imáṃ naḥ śṛṇavad dhávam he shall hear this our call (viii. is almost equivalent to a future . is used only when the speaker makes a condi¬ tion or gives a direction relating to the (not immediate) future . e. 139 ) . In B. atho etaṃ varam avṛṇīta : mayā^eva prācīṃ diśaṃ pra janatha^‚iti so he made this condition : thr ough ^ne ye shall (in future) discover the eastern quarter (AB. The subj. e.g.). jéṣāma^indra tváyā yujā we will eonquer ( — let us conquer) with thee as our ally 1 (viil. g. or an exhortation to aid the speaker. pári ṇo héḷo váruṇasya vṛjyāḥ . The third person is as a rule used in exhortations to the gods. ā́ vāṃ vahantu . . usually then preceding. the 2. e. g. 165l-). dakṣi¬ ṇató bhavā me : ádhā vṛtrā́ṇi jaṅghanāva bhū́ri stand on my right : then we two will slay many foes (x. When an expectation is indicated.). pers. do thou say to the gods (f. pibātho asmé mádhūni let the horses bring you two .g. an impv. pers. The subj. sá devā́ṁ. 1 ) . the subj. e. áchānta me. . The second person is used exhortatively : háno vṛtráṃ.) . here often approaches the 24 . g. . sometimes it follows a 3. agním He : sá u śravat I praise Agni: he shall hear (viii. 43 ). O Agni. prá te sumnā́ no aśnavan thy good intentions shall reach us 2 (viii. subj. váraṃ vrṇai I will choose a boon (Ts. 84 ).) . vayúṃ devā́ abruvan : sómaṃ rā́ j ānaṃ hanāma^íti the gods said to Vdyu : let us slay king Soma (TS. ā́^ihá vakṣati he shall bring the gods hither (i. e. I will terrifytht^m(AB. e. I t often follows a 2. I n B. chadáyāthā ca nūnám ye hav e pleased me and ye shall please me now (i. e. h a n t a ^ i m ā n bhīṣayai well. devébhyo 3 7 bravasihear. though the subject is not always the name of the deity. win the waters (i. áśvāḥ.

kathā́ mahé rudríyāya bravāma how shall we speak to the great Rudra­host? (v. subj. g. I n negative sentences with n á not . devās t ā n aśapan : svena vaḥ kiṣkuṇā vajreṇa vrścān i t i the gods cursed them (the trees) : they shall destroy yot^ with your own handle with a bolt (TB. appearing only when a condition. or curse is expressed. 3 1 10 I n B. e. The 3. g.) . asthāt : n ú n á ṃ devébhyo ví h i dhā́ t i rátnam god Savitṛ has just arisen : he will now distribute bounty to the gods (ii. kadā́ naḥ śuśravad gíraḥ when will he hear our prayers? (i.future in sense. e. 48 ). being then usually opposed with nūnám or n ú to another verb : ú d u ṣyá deváḥ savita .g. 41 ^). I t appears in principal sentences : a. often also expresses the purpose of a ceremony . . 38 ) . and an interrogative word is sometimes lacking ^ . it (the wound) shall heal up (Ts. O seer: shall they hear thy call? (viiI. Sometimes there is no opposition . he replied :thefuel shall be sacred to me (MS. The syntactical employment of the subj. so 'bravīn : maddevatyā^eva samid asad i t i they said . is not found i n the hortative sense. the 3. subj. ná tā naśanti . pers. e. 848). a. is twofold. first persons only seem to be met with i n this use. kuvíd nearly always accen­ tuates the verb (which is thus treated as in a subordinate clause) . e. 26 ). vṛṇīṣva^ i t y abruvan . pers. khātā́ t parābhaviṣyántī manye : táto mā́ parā́ bhuvam íti . sā́ ^ abravīd : váraṃ vrṇai . He replied : beforethelapse of a year for you.). either the pronoun or the adverbs katha how ? kadā́ when. choose a boon .) .) the litter is made of reeds withtheintention : it shall destroy him (the adversary). e. . shall we do for you ? (ii. e.g. and kuvíd . pray. purā́ te saṃvatsarā́d ápi rohād íty abravīt she said : I will make a condition . I think I shall perish in consequence of digging . ā́ ghā tā́ gaehān úttarā yugā́ni. 10 ). yátra jāmáyaḥ kṛṇᬠvan ájāmi there shall eome those later generations when those who are akin will do what befits not kinsmen (x. aśvína sú ṛṣe stuhi : kuvít te śrávato hávam the Aśvins praise well.g. 2. uvā́sa^uṣā́ uchā́c ca n ú Dawn has flushed (in the past) and she will flush now (I. let me not perish. kím ū n ú vaḥ kṛṇavāma what. g. śrṇā́d íti śaramáyaṃ barhír bhavati (MS.. with interrogatives. promise. 29 ) . 1 3 10 I n B.

.g. the antecedent clause has either an ind. n é t tva s t e n á ṃ y á t h ā r i p ú ṃ t á p ā t i s ū r o arciṣā shine forth. no thief shall (can) harm them (vi.) . lest. v y ù c h ā duhitar divo mā́ c i r á ṃ t a n u t h ā á p a ḥ .. á p a táṃ–tam í d dhatam whoever shall combat us.n á d a b h ā t i t á s k a r a ḥ they perish not. in a final sense with the negative particle n é d that not. daugh­ ter of the sky. or an impv. átha yán ná prékṣate. used with mā́ : akāmā́ ṃ sma mā́ ní padyāsai you shall not approach me (in future) against my will (ŚB. u l o k á m agne k ṛ ṇ á v a ḥ s y o n á ṃ . n é d evá m ā y u n á j a n n á t r a devā́ ḥ fearing the office of Hotṛ. nén mā rudró ninásad íti now (the reason) why he does not look is lest Rudra should injure him (ŚB. The antecedent clause has either an ind. ná is similarly used . 28 ). him no distress can reach (ii. in relative clauses : 1. e. lest the sun scorch thee.). 51 ) . y á s t ú b h y a ṃ dā́ ś ān n á t á m áṃho a ś n a v a t who shall serve thee. ^ . hotrā́ d a h á ṃ varuṇa b í b h y a d ā y a ṃ .). is used either with a negative or with relatives (pronominal or adverbial) : a. him do ye two slay (i.). y á s m a i t v á ṃ sukṛ́ t e j ā t a v e d a . manly deed thou. or an opt. . . 23 ). I n dependent clauses the subj. u t á n ú n á ṃ y á d in¬ d r i y á ṃ kariṣyā́ indra p á u ṃ s y a m . that let no one belittle to­day (iv. b. not infrequently a subj. 79 ). shalt now do. ná^ató 'paraḥ káś caná sahá śárī¬ reṇa^amṛ́to ’sat from now onwards no one shall be immortal with his body (ŚB.. tike a hostile thief with his ray (v. e. 30 ) . in a command. A gerundive i n the antecedent clause has also been noted in the AB.g. seldom an inj. Indra. e. or ind. is the subj. Once only. lest this that belongs to Rudra injure his teeth (ŚB. y ó naḥ p ṛ t a n y ā d . I went away. g. 4 9 I n B. g. the latter usually has an impv. delay not long thy work. such a clause normally precedes if it contains a suppo¬ sition determining the sense of the principal clause . O Varuṇa. lest the gods should appoint me thereto (x. adyā́ n á k i ṣ ṭ á d ā́ minat and what heroic. nén ma idáṃ rudríyaṃ dató hinásad íti he should not chew it with his teeth. tán ná dadbhíḥ khāded. sá r a y í ṃ 6 4 23 . 3 In B. e. 132 ).

) . h á n t a vayáṃ t á t sṛjā́mahai yád asmā́n anvásad íti come. imáṃ bibharmi súkṛtaṃ te aṅkuśáṃ yéna^ārujāsi maghavañ chaphārújaḥ I bring to thee this well­fashioned weapon (with which =) in order that thou shouldst break the hoof­breakers (x. tád vái sámrddhaṃ yáṃ devā́ḥ sādháve kármaṇe juṣā́ n tai that. The subj. sáṃ pūṣan vidúṣā naya. tā́ny abru¬ van. and ind. yán ma dhinávat tán me kuruta procure for me that which shall refresh me (ŚB. indeed. the latter usually has an impv. he obtains riches for welfare (v. 4 ). a comfortable place. tuṣṇī́ m evá^āsva whoever shall come towards you. e. opt. this type of relative clause with the subj. yás tvā káś ca^upā́ y at. or ind. we will make a condition : what we shall win fromtheAsuras that shall be ours in common (TS. is by far the commonest form in the principal clause.. g. with a wise (guide) who shall at onee direet us and who shall say : here it is (vi. let us create what shall come aṛter us (sB^). g. asmábhyaṃ tád rā́dha ā́ gāt.).. 44 ). sit still .) .. yád vindā́ s ai t á t te 'gnihotráṃ kurmaḥ what thou shaltfind. 38 ). váraṃ vrṇāmahai : yád ásurañ jáyāma.. O Agni Jātavedas. but here the subj.thatwe (shall) makethyfire­oblation(Ms. e.g. (sometimes omitted) being rare. O Pūsan. . śáṃ y á t stotṛ́bhya āpáye bhávāti let that wealth eome for us which shall be a blessing to thy praisers and thy kinsman (ii. The relative clause follows i f i t expresses a final or consequential sense (in order that. e.g. e. 2. the use of the subj. 53 ) .ifthegods shall be pleased with him for a good work (ŚB. (is) excellent. of these relative clauses sometimes comes to have a purely future sense . but some¬ times an inj. 11 I n B. I n the last example the relative clause exceptionally follows.naśate svastí the righteous manforwhom thou shalt procure. ó (=a^ju) t é yanti y é á p a r ī ́ ṣ u páśyān thosearecoming who in future days will see her (i. t á d adyá vācáḥ prathamáṃ Inasīya yéna^ásu– rām̐ abhi devā ásāma I would to­day think of that as the first (point) of my speech whereby we gods shall overcome the Asuras (x. 113 ). the impv.) . so that) arising from the principal clause . 54 ) . yá evá^idám í t i brávat assoeiate us. yó áñjasā^anuśā́ s ati. is rare . i n relative clauses is similar. tán nah sahá^asad íti they said. . 1 11 4 9 11 I n B.

a subj. 19 ).^y. the house friend. or an ind. O youngest. tásya vāṃ syāma ^anitā́ra ājéḥ when shafts shall play in battles. In such posterior clauses the yád sometimes comes to express the content of the principal clause . 45 ). if the dependent clause is final or consequential . This yád may . while the principal clause contains an impv. (so) that we can now 11 make Indra our friend (viii. but sometimes an inj. 11 if yad — in order that. tavéd u tā́ḥ sukīrtáyó 'sann utá práśastayaḥ. ná te sákhā sakhyáṃ vaṣṭy etát. yád in nv índraṃ sákhāyaṃ kṛṇáv¬ āmahai we deem not ourselves. mayst be merciful to us (viii. that thou mayst adore the heavenly host to­day (iii. 10 ) thy friend wishes 2 not this friendship. the dependent clause then follows. . if yád = when : úṣo yád adyá bhānúnā v i dvā́rāv ṛṇávo diváḥ. that thou. so that. prá no yachatād avṛkám O I)awn. 61 ). while the principal clause usually contains an impv. 4 yád indra mṛḷáyāsi naḥ these laudations and praises shall be thine. yád. if the clause is determinative.. 48i^). or so that : sá ā vaha devátātiṃ yaviṣṭha. g.g. e. wicked. the conjunction means in order that. 123 ). or an opt. shall declare us guiltless 3 to Sūrya (i. of that conflict of yours we would be the winners (iv. a subj. e.. 41 ). yád didyávaḥ pṛ́ t anāsu prakrī́ ḷ ān. sálakṣmā yád víṣurūpā bhávāti (x.. yád va ā́gaḥ puruṣátā kárāma. which. let us not have a part in that (shaft) of 4 yours (vii. with relative conjunctions : I . god Savitṛ. úṣo devó no átra savitā́ dámūnā ánāgaso vocati sū́ r yāya when thou shalt to­day distribute a share to men.. O Indra. O Dawn.. the dependent clause then precedes. when to­ day with thy beam thou shalt open the doors of heaven. śárdho yád adyá divyáṃ yájāsi ^o bring hither the gods. yád adyá bhāgáṃ vibháj– āsi nṛ́bhya. means when . mā́ vas tásyām ápi bhūma when we shall commit a sin against you after the manner of men. 33 ná pāpā́so manāmahe. then bestow on us safe shelter (i. 57 ) . that she who is of the same type (= akin) shall become of a different kind (—not akin)..

This use does 1 not seem to occur in B. it is found with the subj.). g. 113 ). when it is not equivalent to the loc. is rarely found in these clauses with yád . worship at the divine service of man. śréṣṭhaṃ no átra^dráviṇaṃ yáthā dádhat at this 20 time of day he is to be addressed by men that he may here bestow 1 on us the best wealth (iv. opt. 36 ^). e.. as an antecedent clause means as.. so that. yáthā vásu náśāmahai we implore the favour of the great. yátra when seems not to occur in v with the subj. 4 ). act. in the sense of a future perfect : e. as a posterior clause it has the sense of in order that. evā́ no adyá yakṣi devā́n as thou canst. when it is a genuine conjunction (that is. Examples of the second use are : gṛhā́n gacha gṛhápatnī yáthā^ásaḥ go to the house that you may be mistress of the house (x. idā́nīm áhna upavā́ c yo nṛ́bhiḥ. tát pratiprasthātā́ prātaranuvākám upā́ kurutāt when the Hotṛ shall have got to the end of the metre. tát prāpnuhi yát to prāṇó vā́tam apipádyātai attain this that your breath shall transfer itself tothewind (ŚB. 44 ). mahatā́ m ā́ vṛṇīmahé 'vo. in order that we may obtain riches (x. or pass. or a subj. in order that it may exhilarate the god to benevolence 10 (vi. or gerundive) or a statement (ind... the principal clause containing an impv. . the subj. 85 ) . idáṃ pā́ t ram apāyi mátsad yáthā saumanasā́ya devám this bowl has been drunk 1 up.once be translated by till : kiyāty ā́ yát samáyā bhavāti yā́ vyuṣúr yāś ca nūnáṃ vyuchān in what time will it be that (— hO­^v long will it be till) she shall be between those that have shone forth and those that shall now shine forth? (i.). pres.. The negative in such clauses is ná or nū́.). or aor. In B. then let the Prati¬ prasthātṛ start a Prātaranuvāka (ŚB. the principal clause containing either a demand (generally impv. 2. 10 I n B. 54 ). . yátra nótā chándasaḥ pāráṃ gáchāt. 3. of the relative pronoun). however. Examples of the first use are : yáthā hotar mánuṣó devátātā yájāsi. so do thou for us to­day worship the gods (VI. O priest.g. yáthā with the subj. occasionally inj.

2 ). with the subj.g. do thou say (ŚB. yádi sómaiḥ .). is regularly antecedent. yájāma devā́n yádi śaknávāma we will adore the gods. e. yā́d so long as occurs twice with the subj. (rarely) an opt. yádi práti tváṃ háryāḥ . is the same . g. 27 ) .g.. : anānukṛtyám apunáś cakāra yā́t sū́ryāmā́sā mithá uccá­ . asmā́kam índram indavo mandantu if he shall hear my praise.. with yádi is very rare . we might thereby 11 win the waters (v. an example is : yádi t v ā ^ etát púnar brávatas. or an ind. I n B. if we shall be able (i. The usage of B. or a subj. yádi if with the subj. yadā́ 4. 16 ). or aor. (sometimes to be supplied). Agni shall hasten to thee as a messenger (iii. the principal clause containing an impv. sá yadā́ tám ativárdhā. in the RV. 2 yadā kadā ca whenever seems to give the verb the same sense : yadā kadā ca sunávama sómam. then deliver him to the fathers (x. 1 13 apá enā jayema if thou shalt accept (it) gladly. 5. or a subj. 1^) .g. e. e.). 16–). átha devā́nāṃ vaśanī́r bhavāti when he shall have gone to that spirit world. perf. átha karṣuṃ khātvā́ tásyaṃ mā bibharāsi when I shall have outgrown that (vessel). saṃ¬ dhā́ṃ nú sáṃ dadhāvahai yáthā tvā́m evá praviśānī́ti now let us two make an agreement in order that I may enter into thee (Ms. . tathā me kuru yathā^aham imāṃ senāṃ jayāni so arrange for me that I may conquer this army (AB.). tváṃ brūtāt if they two shall saythisagain to thee. (pres. the subj. yadā́ gáchāty ásunītim etā́ m . 4 ^. I n B. 3 a. then having dug a trench you shall keep me in it (ŚB. e.. 4l ). indrā ha váruṇā dhéṣṭhā. . then he shall become subject to the gods (x. átha^īm enaṃ pári dattāt pitṛ́¬ bhyaḥ when thou shalt have made him done. generally precedes the principal clause. 53 ). which contains an impv. yadā́ when. if they shall delight in the Soma offerings (iv. a subj. which then has the value of a fut.. let these drops of ours gladden Indra (viii.). agníṣ ṭvā dútó dhanvāty ácha whenever we shall have pressed Soma.) . mādáyaite Indra and Varuṇa (are) the most liberal.. 6. śṛtáṃ kárasi jātavedo. the usage is similar: the principal clause here contains either an impv. .a. yádi stómaṃ máma śrávad.

9 ). g. The second person is much less common. 50^). so long as the dawns (vii. g. pray. ^. is sometimes used i n an antecedent clause with ca in the sense of if. 3 I n B. 928). The subj. 41 ). Optative or Potential. viśé ca kṣatrā́ y a ca samádaṃ kuryām I should like to create enmity between people and nobility (MS.g. opt. e.). tyā́ me hávam ā́ jagmyātam so.g. ā no mitrā́ v áruṇā hotrā́ y a vavṛtyāḥ pray bring Mitra and Varuṇa to our oblation (vi. e. which is then treated as a subor¬ dinate conjunction and accentuates the verb . índraś ca mṛḷáyāti no. the sense of the first person is similar. do ye two come to my call (vi. IS­ ). 68 ) . yān nú dyāvas tatánan. is predominantly a wish. I would obtain that glorious wealth (i. dhiṣvá vájraṃ rakṣohátyāya : sāsahīṣṭhā́ abhi spṛ́dhaḥ take the bolt for 1 10 2 . vidh. 10 4 11 D. We might here often rather expect the impv. vayáṃ śyāma pátayo rayīṇā́m we would be lords of riches (iv. The meaning of the opt. 11 ).éma te stómaiḥ we would worship thee with songs of praise (ii.g. e. 50 ) . yā́d does not occur. expresses the wish of the speaker. The first person. no evil shall afterwards touch us(ii. pray. owing to the nature of the subject­matter. generally addressed to the gods . .. I. prá sū́ na āyur jīváse tiretana do ye. extend fully our allotted span that we may live (viii. úṣas tám asyāṃ yaśásaṃ rayím O Dawn.rātaḥ he has once for all done what is inimitable so long as sun and moon alternately shall rise (x. . . vásiṣṭhaṃ ha váru¬ ṇo . e. 216. I t is almost exclusively used to express a wish or a request addressed to a god . ná naḥ paśeā́d agháṃ naśat if Indra shall be gracious to us. so long as the days shall extend. ṛ́ṣiṃ cakāra . which indeed frequently either precedes or follows the 2. which is modified according to the person of the verb. 88 ). I n B. but its occurrence. which is very common. e. yā́d uṣāsaḥ Varufta has made Vasiṣṭha a seer. is far less common.

In the sense of a supposition (regarded as possible or probable) the opt.) .). expressing a wish . 143^) would he not stimulate our prayers for gain ? (cp. but seldom independently . for water is extinction : they would thus extinguish (if they did this). e. graciously hear these songs (Ü. seldom appears independently.the slaughter of the demons : mayst thou overcome our foes (vi. I n B. e. a general precept (where a gerundive may also be used) . mīḍhvā́m̐ asmā́kaṃ babhūyāt may he be bountiful to us (i. a supposition in the apodosis of periods. 23 ) . 2 a). imā́ṃ me samídhaṃ vaneḥ. O Indra. kadā́ na indra rāy á ā́ 1 daśasyeḥ when wouldst thou. e. the second person is used almost exclusively i n wishes. 121 ). e. p. g. g. A possi­ bility is sometimes thus repudiated . imā́ ū ṣú śrudhī 1 gíraḥ pray accept this my fuel. either the pronoun or the adverbs kathā́ how kadā́ when ^ and kuvíd . pṛṇánn āpir ápṛṇantam abhí ṣyāt the friend who bestows would prevail over him who does not bestow (x. asmfn yájamāne bahvyah syāta may you be numerous besidethissacrifice^ (ŚB. precept. 2. the two (garments) should be given to the Adhvaryu (Ms.1177).. The syntaetical employment of the optative is two­ fold: a. 27 ). e. The protasis in this example must be supplied. e.g.) . 37^).g. or supposition . ná^asya tā́ṃ rā́ t rīm apó grhā́n prá hareyur . In B. g. imám amṛ́taṃ 2 dūtáṃ kṛṇvīta mártyaḥ this immortal the mortal should make 19 his messenger (viii. bestow riches upon us ? (vii. apaś¬ úḥ syāt may he be bereft of cattle (TS. 6 ) . The third person is used in the three different senses of wish. it is common in all three senses .g. e. g. 354.) they should not during that night bring water into his house . it appears in principal sentences (for the most part re­ taining the sense of a wish) with interrogatives. kád dha núnám . but often in an apodosis. kásmai devā́ya havíṣā vidhema what god would we worship with oblations (x. kuvít tutujyā́ t sātáye dhíyaḥ (f. 45 ^) . kṣáume vásānā agním ā́ dadhīyā¬ tāṃ‚ té adhvaryáve déye wearing linen garments the tno should lay the fire . ā́po vái śā́ n tiḥ : śamáyeyur eva (Ms.

10 ). yó vā́ imám ālábheta. e. ). is used with ná to express either a general prohibition or a potential sense . precept. the opt. g. g. 85 ). The sense is either optative or potential . tásya^etád vratáṃ : ná^ánṛtaṃ vaden.) . 517). such a clause having a determining sense.. or the repudiation of a suggestion . yāmīm eva pūrvaṃ śaṃset he should jirst pronouncethejbrmula addressed to rama (AB. g. g. on the other hand. which always imply a supposition. possibility. This type is very rare in v .ṛtā́ vádanto ánṛtaṃ rapema how could u. here expresses a precept or a potential sense . The only opt. e. appears in negative sentences with ná not. also . sometimes nú eid never. ná tád devó ná már¬ tyas tuturyād yā́ni právṛddho vṛṣabháś eakā́ra no god. I n the principal clause a gerundive occasionally appears or the verb to be has to be . táṃ dhyāyet whom he may hate. nu ein n ú vāyór amṛ́taṃ v i dasyet may the nectar of Vāyu never^foil (vi. The opt.).g.) what would then accrue to me (if I did this)'^ kás tád ā́ driyeta who would pay attention to that ^ (ŚB. 54 ). ná riṣyema kadā eaná may we never suffer harm (vi. 9 3 2 I n B.). usually precedes. katháṃ n ú prá jāyeya how should I propagate myself^ (ŚB. no mortal could surpass what the mighty bull has done (viii. he should think of (Ts.). kíṃ máma tátaḥ syat (ŚB. e.) . would be delivered from this sin (TS. the principal clause most often has the opt. a. e. sūryaṃ yó brahmā́ vidyā́ t . yáṃ dviṣyā́ t . b. ná māṃsám aśnīyat this is his vow : he should not speaktheuntruth. I n dependent clauses the opt. clauses of this type. the optative with interrogatives may express a wish. múcyeta^asmā́ t pāpmánaḥ he who were to offer this (bull). sá i d vā́ d húyam arhati a priest who should know Sūryā deserves the bridal garment (x.e now speaking righteous words utter unrighteousness ^ (x. 96 ). he should not eat meat . form with which the prohibitive mā́ occurs is bhujema: mā va éno anyákṛtaṃ bhujema may we not suffer before you for a sin done by others (VI. 37 ) . The opt. 4 I n B. ná^enaṃ dadhikrā́ v a caná pāvayā́ ṃ kriyāt Dadhikrāvan himself could not make him pure (Ms. is used with relatives (pronominal or adverbial) : a. 34 I n B. e. are very common.

40 ) . 33 ). e. tváṃ vā ghā syā́ aháṃ. e. g. O Agni. 42 ). when the fulfilment of the condition is not expected (yádi with opt. revátīr naḥ sadhamā́ d a indre santu yā́bhir mádema (i. kā tatra prāyaścittiḥ if any one's fires should be united with a village fire. final relative clauses with the optative are rare.. being used when i t is expected). yasya^agnayo grāmyeṇa^agninā saṃdahyeran. yad etāṃ śaṃsed īśvaraḥ parjanyo 'varṣṭoḥ if he were to repeat this (formula). were thou. The apodosis normally contains a potential opt. and thou wert I .g. with relative conjunctions : 1. yó rāṣṭrā́ d ápabhutaḥ syā́t tásṃai hotavyā́ this should be offered for him who should be deprived of his kingdom (Ts. ^. so that) follows. syúṣ ṭe satyā́ íhá^ā́ ś iṣaḥ ifI. 44 ) .) yád ifwith the opt. yác chu¬ śruyā́ imáṃ hávaṃ durmárṣaṃ cakriyā utá.). or an opt..g. 30 ) let our feasts 13 beside Indra be rich (by which = ) that we may rejoice (in them) . e. Parjanya might not rain (AB. thou wouldst be our most intimate friend (viii. yád agne syā́m aháṃ tváṃ. yáyā^áti víśvā duritā́ tárema sutármāṇam ádhi nā́vaṃ ruhema we would ascend the rescuing ship (by which = ) that we may cross over all misfortunes (viii. 11 I n B.). The infinitive with īśvará may take the place of the opt. yád if : in the antecedent clause of pres. 3 The temporal sense of when with the opt. sā́ yád bhídyeta^ā́ r tim ā́r^hed yájamānaḥ if it should be broken. is very common i n the protasis. (as i n V. 451 ) . if it has a final or consequential sense (in order that. g.. inj. e. g. dhāsatho rayíṃ yéna samátsu sāhiṣīmáhi bestow wealth on 1 us (by which = ) that we may be victorious in battles (viii. the sacrifice^ would fall into calamity (Ts. thy prayers would be fulfilled (viii. in the prin¬ cipal clause .supplied . y. bháver āpir no ántamaḥ if thou shouldst hear this call and shouldst not forget it. a subj. (though isolated examples of the impv. . occur). conditional periods. and ind.). occasionally 23 the fulfilment of the condition is expected .. the condition being generally regarded as unful­ filled. seems to occur only once in the R v (iif. 3 I n B. the relative clause. e. e.) . The principal clause contains an impv. what expiation (is) there ^ (AB. g. sometimes the .

icháti desires. g.of what use would you be to me ? (afterwards he does enter Indra). véda knows. g. does not occur in the RV. of as be) is omitted i n the apodosis.).). I n B. svayáṃ vā́ etásmai devā́ yuktā́ bhavanti yát sādhú vádeyuḥ for the gods themselves are intent on this. yuktó bhavati is intent. 3 ^. yán nūnám aśyā́ṃ gátiṃ. at all. it is very common.I cannot be) your Hotṛ. The clause with yádi generally precedes. asurarakṣasā́ni. 2. that he should be pious (ŚB.) if you were to enter me. yád with the opt. and AV. I n the ŚB. yád introducing a clause with the opt. kás tád veda yád vratapradó vratám upotsiñcet /or who knows (this that = ) whether he who hands the fast-milk (should add — ) adds (fresh milk) to it (ŚB. e. The opt. e. t á d dhy èvá brā́ h maṇena. ná hí tád avakálpate yád brūyā́ t for it is not fitting that he should say (ŚB. I n B.). īśvará also is used with this construction (in other Brahmaṇas with the infinitive only) to express a possible consequence (though the yád is nearly always omitted) .verb (opt. implies non-fulfilment of the condition). . in the final sense of in order that is very rare . in the sense of that is frequently used after áva kalpate is suitable. perhaps because īśvará came to be regarded as a kind of adverb ­­­­­ possibly this might be so. e.). mitrásya yāyāṃ pathā in order that I might now obtain a refuge. devā́ ha vái bibhayā́ ṃ cakrur yád vái naḥ . Otherwise the phrase regularly appears in the form of íti^īśvaró ha táthā eva syāt. yád with the opt. yádi if with the opt. ná vā́ ahám idám út sahe yád vo hótā syā́m (ŚB. a. with yád here rarely expresses a purely hypothetical case (that is.^eṣṭávyaṃ yád brahmavarcasī́ syā́t for that is to be aimed at by the Brahmin. ú t sahate endures.g.). 64 ). accompanied by ná and ending with íti. g. is equivalent to lest . dependent on a verb of fearing or similar expres­ sion. e. índro ha vā́ īkṣā́ ṃ eakre yán mā t á n ná^abhibbáved íti Indra pondered (fearing) lest that should vanquish him (ŚB.^imáṃ gráhaṃ ná h a n y ú r íti the gods feared lest the Asuras and Rakṣases should destroy this draught (ŚB.) . The apodosis has : . without the im­ plication that the condition w i l l not be fulfilled) . expressing a condition the fulfilment of which is assumed (while yád with opt. párāṅ asmād yajnô 'bhūd íti^īśvaró ha yát táthā^evá syā́t the sacrifice has turned away from him : it is possiblethatthisshould be so (ŚB.g.). in posterior clauses . yán mā́ṃ praviśéḥ kíṃ mā bhuñjyaḥ (Ts. and only once in the S v I n B.) I cannot endure this that should be ( ----. I would go on the path of Mitra (v. e. that they should say what is right (ŚB. ^y.

generally following the principal clause.g. 1 9 . e. sa yadi na jāyeta. we could again betake ourselves to them (MS. g. but if (as is to be assumed) we should conquer. g. yádi purā́ saṃsthā́nād dī́ryeta^adyá var¬ ṣiṣyati^íti brūyāt if (the vessel) should be broken before the completion (of the sacrifice).). yáthā used in v .). . which expresses a precept applicable when the condition is fulfilled . e. ^.avagáched. e.thedemon­slaying verses are to be repeated (AB.). yády u jáyema^imā́ abhyupā́ vartemahi^íti if they were to conquer us (not to be assumed). ^. may be illustrated by the following example : yán no jáye¬ yur imā́ abhyúpa dhāvema.) ifhe (the banished man) should return after one or two libations they might exclude him from the sovereignty (but not i f he returns at the conclusion of the ceremony). or an ind. an ind. we should take refuge with these (friends). īśvará with the infinitive . The difference between yád and yádi with the opt. g. tasmād yadi yajña ṛkta ārtiḥ syād brahmaṇa eva n i vedayante therefore if at the sacrifice there should be any failure with regard to a Ṛc verse.a. which contains an impv„ an inj. The precept occasionally has a potential sense . it is possible that fame should come to the Hotṛ (AB. 4 ).. he should ofier a c^. k ā prāyaścittiḥ if we shall have an accident at the sacrifice in regard to a Ṛc verse.). usually the opt. īśvaro ha yady apy anyo yajeta^atha hotāraṃ yaśo 'rtoḥ evenifanother should sacrifice (instead of him). e. what (is) the penance (AB. g. yadi na śaknuyāt so 'gnaye puroḷāśaṃ nir vapet if he should not oe able to do so. a gerundive . yadi no yajña ṛkta ārtiḥ syāt. yátnā táva śárman mádema drive away all foes that we may rejoice in thy protection (x. ápa víśvām̐ amítrān nudasva. 3.. .ke to Agni (AB. rakṣoghnyo gāyatryo 'nūcyāḥ if it (the fire) should not be kindled. sūribhyo gṛṇaté tád váyo dhāḥ bestow on the patrons and the singer this blessing that through thee the Gṛtsamadas may be superior to their neighbours (ii. úparām̐ abhi ṣyúḥ. he should say : it will rain to­day (Ms. (sometimes omitted if it is a form of as be). e.). tváya yáthā gṛtsamadā́ s o . 131 ) . ^. only in the sense of in order that.).). yády ékatayīṣu dvayī́ ṣ u vā^. they inform the Brahman priest (AB. aparódhukā enaṃ syuḥ (MS.

átho yáthā bruyā́ d etán me gopāya^jti tādṛ́ g evá t á t then it (is) so as if he were to say : guardthisfor me (TS. an ind.) . only in the R v and only once with the opt. so he sawtheend of his life from afar (ŚB. mārutáṃ saptákapālaṃ nír vaped yátra víḍ rā́ j ānaṃ jíjyāset he should offer a cake on seven dishes to the . one should mutter the following prayers (ŚB. In B. yadā́ as soon as seems often to imply that the action of the opt. e. yátra and yadā́ are not found with the opt. yáthā bhávema mīḷhúṣe ánāgāḥ we implore the divine aids that we may be sinless before the gracious one (vii.) .. the principal clause has the opt.^evam eva te plaveran just as a boat cut from its fastening would drift. also .) . g.).) .. all three conjunctions are used hypothetically with the opt. yárhi prajā́ḥ kṣúdhaṃ nigácheyus. sá yadā́ saṃgrāmáṃ jáyed átha^aindrāgnáṃ nír vapet as soon as he may have won a battle. and yárhi does not occur at all in the RV. sá yáthā nad¬ yái pāráṃ parāpáśyed eváṃ svásya^ā́yuṣaḥ pāráṃ párā cakhyau as if he were looking across to the farther bank of a river. I n B. I would cut off your head (ŚB. sá yátra prastuyā́ t tád etā́ni japet as soon as he (the priest) begins to sing. táta evá te śíraś chindyam if you were to communicate this to another. so they would drift (AB. often seems to mean at the moment when. 2 a. e. 97 ). ^. he should sacrifice to Indra and Agni (Ms. as if.. like yádi (with which it may inter¬ change) .) . i n antecedent clauses in the sense of as. e.). : e. I n B. i n the sense of when. tát tátha^eváhotavyàṃ yáthā^agníṃ vyaveyā́ t hence it is to be so poured that it may divide thejire (MS. has two uses : ^.). e. in v. e. or no verb . in the A v . g. úpa jānīta yáthā^iyáṃ púnar āgáchet do ye find out how she could come back (ŚB. as soon as . g. then he should sacrifice with the rite of nine night (Ts. i t seems always to be followed by átha then . in case. with a correlative meaning so in the principal clause.). yatha^eva chinnā naur bandhanāt plaveta. and A v . yátra. céd if is used with the ind. etáṃ céd anyásmā anubrūyā́s. besides having the sense of when. which usually has the opt. which contains an opt.ā dáivyá vṛṇīmahé ^vāṃsi. g. tárhi navarātréṇa yajeta when his people should be exposed to hunger. or the ind.^Maruts in case the people were to oppresstheking (MS. g. 4. yárhi when is generally followed by the correlative tárhi then i n the principal clause. i n posterior clauses i n the sense of how. ^I.). g. sothat. should be assumed to be past . 5. it is used with the opt. ^. yáthā with the opt.

). yád eváṃ ná^ávakṣyo murdhā́ te vy āpatiṣyat if you had not spoken thus. your head would have split asunder (ŚB. ii. śatáṃ hímā íti śatáṃ varṣā́ṇi jīvyāsam íty evá^etád āha by the expres­ 2 21 sion ‘ a hundred winters ' he says this : ‘ would that I may live a hundred y^ars ' (SB). Otherwise it occurs only in compound sentences : 1.217—218] PRECATIvE. g. expresses a prayer or wish addressed to the gods almost exclusively. 2 21^. The conditional clause is generally introduced by yád. sometimes found in genuine prose narrative also . and A v . not relax in (thy) friendship (iii. the conditional occurs only once (RV. sā́ ha vā́k prajā́patim uvāca : áhavyavāḍ evá^aháṃ túbhyaṃ bhuyāsam Vāc said to Prajāpati : I would like not to be a con­ ductor of sacrifice for thee (ŚB. 53 i). usually in both protasis and apodosis of conditional sentences. 54 ). g.). bhuyasīnām útta¬ rāṃ sámāṃ kriyāsam íti gávāṃ lákṣma kuryāt would that I may do (this) to more next year : so saying he should make the mark of the cows (Ms. Conditional.) . e. as is to be expected from the nature of those texts . bhágo me agne sakhyé ná mṛdhyāḥ may my good fortune. I n v . When a negative is used i t is ná . CONDITIONAL 367 Precative. e. 30 ) in a somewhat obscure passage. expressing what might have happened in the past. though the form abhariṣyat used after a past tense appears to mean would take away (in place of the future which would have been used after a present tense). tám aśapad: dhiyā́­dhiyā tvā vadhyā¬ suḥ him (Agni) cursed (saving) : I wish they may kill thee with repeated deliberation (TS. O Agni. e. . In B. g. e. This form. yó no dvéṣṭy ádharaḥ sás padīṣṭa may he who hates us full to the ground (iii. however. I t is. pā́dau te 'mlāsyatāṃ yádi ha ná^ ágamiṣyaḥ your feet would have withered. which occurs in the RV.). the conditional is once found in a simple interrogative sen­ tence : táta evá^asya bhayáṃ v1yaya : kásmād dhy ábhesyat there­ upon his fear departed: for of what should he have been afraid^ (ŚB. rarely by yádi (216) . and never interrogatively. e. ná ha^evá prā́yaścittir abhaviṣyat if it (Soma) had alsoflowedout of his mouth. but did not happen because the condition was not fulfilled.). g. g.). sá yád dha^ápi múkhād ádroṣyan.). the precative is almost restricted to verse or prose formulas quoted and to paraphrases of such formulas . In B. in principal clauses only.ifyou had not come (ŚB. there would not have been a penance (ŚB. 217.

2.a. in a clause introduced by yád that dependent on a negative (or equivalent) clause .g. e. in relative clauses dependent on negative principal clauses containing a past tense (always of v i d find). ciráṃ tán mene yád vā́saḥ paryádnāsyata he thought it too long (that =) till he should put on the garment (ŚB. sá tád evá ná^avindat prajā́ p atir yád áhoṣyat Prajāpati found nothing that he could sacrifice (MS. sá vái táṃ ná^avindad yásmai tā́m dákṣiṇām áneṣyat he found no one to whom he should give this sacrificial fee (TB. e. . 3. g. the supposed condition refers to the present (216).). When yád is used with the opt.) = he thought the time was not short enough till he should put on the garment.).

aśnuvánt. sB. acyáte . akṣāṇá. aśyā́s (=aśyā́ s ­t). akṣ mutilate. ­acya. : PR. AO. P. PP. aśyā́t.) . áca . aṣṭa. GD. iṣ : ā́kṣiṣur. Intensive (1. aśnávat.) . sB. 2. Optative (OP. iNJ. Participle (PT.). anaśāmahai . PT. PF. 1Pv.). PP. when all are given. 3. PT. Injunctive (INJ.) . 3. anájat . anajā . ac bend. s. ájeta. v l l . Imperfect (IPF.) .). 1PF.). anajāná. Subjunctive (ŚB. ácati. : PR. ákṣat.) . ajyámāna. Past Participle (PP. a : aśét. Causative (es). añj anoint. Present. āśátur. Ps. that i t is conjugated in the Ātmanepada (middle) only. PT. ajyáte. signifies that the verb is conjugated i n the Parasmaipada (active) only. aṅdhí ( = aṅgdhí). ácasva. ānaśmá. aśnótu. ájāti . ajyáte. aktá. ā́jat.). acyámāna . also ā́śa.).) . aśnóti. : PR. 1Pv. is : Present Indicative (PR. PT. aśata. iPv. ajyámāna. ānaśyā́m . PP. ānaśāná . 1PF.).) . oP. IPv. Ps.NT. ānajré . The order of the parts of the verb. áṣṭave. OP. Desiderative (ns. sn. I n f i n i t i v e (1NF.). ānaśá.). PT. 1Pv. Imperative (IPV. oP. Ā .). ájate . v : PR.). akná (B. akṣṇuhí. Ps. anáñja . Gerund (on. PT. s: sB. anákti. s. acyánta . Pluperfect (PPF. s. ānasé . p l . Conditional (co. añjánt. anajyā́t . ā́ṣṭa. iNF. Perfect (PF. PT. añjāná. ānaśúr . ájatu. sB. PP.). Ā. ájāni. ā́śata . ā́ñjan. ānajé. I . āśā́ t he. . Aorist. ­ajya (B. Future (FT.).). iPF. : PR.). aṅkté . PT. sn. 1NF. a n á k t u . du. root : Ā . PP. āśúr . aj drive. AO. pl. aktvā́ (B.APPENDIX I L I S T OF VERBS. I . v. Precative (PRC. ájati. oP. ájant. GD. ájāsi. ­áje. āśā́te. PRC. The Roman numerals indicate the conjugations class of the verb . Passive (Ps. Gerundive (Gnv) . ānáṃśa and ānā́śa . Aorist (AO. PT. aṃś attain.

ā́vat. FT. árcān. áreā. aniṣyáti (B. ásan. L : PR. is : ā́vīt. PP.) . sB. an breathe. ānṛcúr . sánti . : ániti . áviṣat.). aviḍḍhí. aśnīyā́ t . anihí . I P F . átti . Ps. Ao. I I . ā́nīt. 3. V I . : PR. Ds. syā́ t .). ádān (Av. anitá(B. addhí. FT.). āmiré (B. GD. avyā́s. ā́vitha. arháse.). aśnánt. sánt. attám. smás. cs. aśīt. ánna n. 1PF. 1NF. es. ā́śnan. i P F . PT. PRC 3. ŚB. sB. iPP. aśiṣyáti (B. 1Pv. aś eat.) . ásāma. āmáyati. ṛcyáte . ásasi and ásas. anánt.). aśnīté. 1PF. oP. ástu . ā́niṣur. I I . ádmi. ā́śīs. ṛcyámāna. I . FT. PP. PT. árcant. ā́rcan. ási‚ ásti . 1Pv. aviṣṭā́ m . ­úta. av fuvour. : PR. aśitá. 1. P F . arc praise. aśnánti . áreāma. PP. PT. ávāt . syúr . aśnáte .) . ávatu. : PR. ā́śīt. PT. sB.). P. PT. áviṣṭu. aśāná. ādáyati (B.) . 1NJ.). 1PF. ávant. árhāt. adánti . 1Pv. cs. oP. arh deserve.). ásatha. PP. INF. 1NF. aviṣyánt. ávitave. 1NJ. FT. root : oP. ánitum (B. PP.). ā́na. aviṣyáti. áme . aśyáte. PP. PT. -áśya (B. i ṣ : ā́śiṣam. ā́va. iNJ. ádat. arcáyati. cs. ávet . eat. INJ.). árcan. PP. edhí. ámīṣva . iPv.). ásmi. átsi. avyā́s (=avyā́s–t) . ā́mamat.). PT. iPv. aviṣṭám. ámanta . árcati. áttu . ā́dat. ásāni. ávati . stám. ā́mīt. : PR. 1Pv. P. Ao. ámīti . : PR. PT. ṛcáse. árhant. I . s n . I X . pl. anṛhúr (TS. āśáyati (B. ­anya(B. ā́śa. as be. sthá and sthána. ā́sam. sán. anáyati. atsyáti. syā́ma. syā́ t ām. sthás. syā́ta and syā́ t ana. syā́s. am injure. ā́śnāt. árhati. attā́m . ámamāna. ā́s (–­^ā́s­t) and . arcat. I I . ­avya. sB. : L ánati (Av. INJ. ásathas. I . IPv. amyáte. : anáti (AV. attá. PP. árcāt. I I . cs. arhiré. PT. ānṛcé. P. ā́sīs. adántu . 1NF. Ao. áttum. Ps. attvā́ya (B. oP. ávīt. adyā́t . aśiśiṣati (B. adánt. aśitva (B. syā́tam. oP. áttave. Ps. stás . ásati and ásat. aśnan. árcatu. 1PF. adāná. PT. aviṣṭána. ámīṣi. 1pv. stā́m . ā́śnām. áttos (B. syā́m. 1NF. 2. : PR. sántu.). 1NJ. pl. Ao. stá. : PR. ávat . aśnā́ti. PF.

pl.). āsitá (B. ā́pitha . 1NF.: ā́pipan (B. āpnóti. ā́sitha. pk áyantām. āptā (B. áita. 1PF.) . ī́mahe . iyāte. idhīmáhi . 1NF. iye. Ā. PP. 3. áyama. PF.). PT. iyádhyai.). īdhiré. sB. indhā́m (=inddhā́ m ). Ps. ā́smahe. ­te (B. I . : PP. PP. yán . Pp.) . ī y ú r . ­te (B. Ao. ā́yan . ā́san. yánt.). : PR. ). idhyásva. ā́dhvam . āptvā́ (B. āpāná. indhátām. áyan . áyase . ā́Sa. ā́pa. 3. áyate. V. sB.). inviré. FT. 1NJ. 2. ā́sīta . itā́m . inádhate.). áindha. 2. 3. PP. āp obtain. áyati and áyat . IV. ī́psati. 1PF. pl. ā́ptum (B. ā́situm (B. ihí. ā́ste . du. GD. red. ā́sāthe. PT. idhaná. áyā. é t i . 3. iyāná. cs. oP. : PR. étum (B.) . iyā́ma .). iyā́ y a. V.). ásyāmasi. ­ídham. 1NJ. āpsyáti. I I . i go. ­asya. : áyati. s. étavái.). īyáthur. īdhé . : PR. ā́syat. indhvám (=inddhvám). PF. 1Pv. īyátur. āpáyati (B. PT. 1PF. ā́ha. GD. ásyanti. of es. asyáte . ā́sate .).). I I . pl. P. āsā́ṃ cakre (B. du. áitam. pl. iPv. ásyatu.). ­ítya. a: ā́pat. 1NF. ā́pi (B. astá. sB. ā́sate . eṣyáti. āsim. Ao. áinos. V I I . PT. 3. oP.). ā́sa. : PR. s. ásyant. ­ídhe. idhyámāna. áinot. IPv. āhátur (B. 3. áiyes. PP. áyasi and áyas. inddhé. itána. ayiṣyati (B. áis. cs. āhúr. iPF. as tarn. inóti . : PR. īyiVā́ṃs. Ds. āpyáte (B. 1. ástave. áyatam. ā́yam. Ao. ásyati and ásyate . áit . ī́psate (B. P F .) . Ā. āsátur . āsúr. iddhá. ā́stām. āsāná and ā́sīna.).) . étave. idh kindle. yánti. ā́sa. Ao. etā́ (B. ásya and ásyatāt.ā́sīt. PT. áipsīt (B. idhyáte. FT. idhaté . pl. itá and eta. Pr. ah say. indháte and indhaté. 1Pv. ásyāmi.) . áyanta.á. FT. o P . ­āpya (B. Ā. āsᬠthur. GD. Ps. índhāna. From the nasalized . iyā́t . ā́sata. PP. rPv. itá. INF. Ao. GD. Ā. itvā́. ā́stām. yántu . á p é y a m (AV. āsiṣyáti. PT. sB. 1pv. iyétha and iyátha. āpipayiṣet (B. 1PF. Ps. itám.). ástavái (B. āptá. I. P T . ā́yata. ā́ttha (B. étos. áitām . oPT. ās sit. ityái.). as throw. āsáyati (B. FT. āsitvā́ (B.) . étu .) . iyā́m. : PR. 1NF. Ds.) . PPF. asiṣyát1. P F . ápiré . āsiṣṭa (B. PP. ā́sāte .

ī́ḷāmahai and īḷāmahe. 1NF. ­t^ . áikṣanta. P. ī́śāthe. áikṣata . 1Pv. .). ī́ḷate . I X . iṣṭá. oP. P P . I I . 1NJ. 1PF. īṣé. iṣéma . áir–a–tam .) . (B. FT.). ī́śe a n d (once) ī́śate. ī́śate. ínvatas. 1NJ. icháti. (B. GD. ī́ratām.) áiṣīt. p l . īkṣitá (B. ) . iṣṇā́ti . ī́kṣe . indh. áindhiṣṭa. PP. áir­a­t. PT. īráyant. PT. áichat. áirayat. íṣyatam . indhiṣīya. 1PF. īkṣ see. ínvathas. sB. ín¬ vatām . ichátām . áiṣiṣur. íṣyant. (B. du. PER. īṅkhayāvahai . īkṣā́ṃ eakre (B. ichéta. Ao. 1. iṣ : álkṣiṣi. ī́ḷāna. īṣúr. īráyati. PT. F T . PT. I I . GD. 1NJ.).). PP. īrṇá (B. 1NF. ī́rte . ínvāt . 1. 3. : PR. icháta. : PR. iṣádhyai. oP. 1Pv. éṣṭum (B. ínvant. ­íṣya. PT. īṅkhitá.ī́śire.) . ínvatu . áirayata. 1Pv. P F . V I . īśāná. iṣé ^ 1NJ.). P P . ichā́t . sB. ­te (B. invasi. PP. 1Pv. : 1ND. 1PF. 2. īḷé (3. īḷata (3. ī́śidhve. pl.) . PT. ínvati. ī́rāthām. 1PF.) iyéṣa. PT. ichá. 2. GD. oP. īḷīta. ī́rṣva. īṣiré. īkṣeṇyā. i­nu+a) : PR. iṣṇāná. īḷénya. ínva. i s f o r m e d in B. OP. íṣyati. ī́kṣe a n d ī́śiṣe. īkṣáyati. PT. cs. īritá. ī́ḷiṣva. īráyāmahe. 1. iṣayádhyai. ī́kṣamāṇa. sB.). ī́ḷe. ī́ṭṭe . īṅkháyātai (AV. I . ī́rdhvam. s. áiṣanta. īṅkh swing: es. ichánta. Ā . –iṣya(B. airata (3. sB. PT. ī́śata (3. áikṣetām . : PR. ī́śīya. i ṣ send. PP. 3. ī́śmahe. iehét. ( = V . īráyasva. áiram. 1ṣṭe. 1Pv.). 1Pv. the i s Ao. ī́rāṇa. 1Pv. īr set in motion. ­te. īḍ praise. īráyatam. ichátu. ichámāna. ī́śe. GDV. īkṣiṣyáti. sn. Ao. iṣitá. 2. is desire. PT. ­te. V I . : PR. A. ­te . īṣiré. sB. PP.) eṣiṣyáti. īṣúr. ichánt . ī́rat. : PR. íṣyata . 1NF. ínvatam. ī́rate. éṣṭavái (B. īrayádhyai. IV. PP. 1PF. PP. 0P.root. Ā . 1ṣé. PP. inv go. ­te . īṅkháyati. : PR.). cs. īś be master. 1NF. ichásva. ī́ḍya. īṅkháyant. ichás . īráya. I L Ā . īṣáthur. GDv. īṅkháya . īráyanta. P T . ­te. īḷitá. 1NJ. ī́śīta .). ī́śāna. : PR. iṣṇánt . iṣánta . īkṣitvā́ (B. iṣáyaṭi. īráyadhvam. : PR. I . s. PP. cs.

ukṣiṣyáti (B. pl. INJ. us burn. : 1Pv.). ubhnā́ s .) . : PR. v I L : PR. s. : PR. ukṣ (=vakṣ) grow. óṣant.). ubj force. ubdhá. pp. s.). GD. uvóca . : 1PF. 1PF. áuhata. 1Pv. : Ā . u. Ao. ā́ra . I . du. P F . 1NJ. ucyasi. : PR. : I P F . ṛcháti (­te. PT. sB. áuhiṣṭa .). áumbhat. éṣati . ī́ṣamāṇa. pp.īṣ move. ubjá. ukṣitá. v I I . áubjat. 1NJ. áuhat . IPF. óṣati . PF. PT. P. V I . P. ukṣámāṇa. īṣé (1. 0P. 2. ṛṇvátām (3. PT. ūeé . uvócitha. ī́ṣati. ubh confine. īṣatu. ­úkṣya. : PR. ­uhya and ­úhya (B. : PT. pl. v I . PT. IPF. ­ubjya (B.) . iPv. cs. ṛṇutá (3. p p . I . ūh remove. uttá (B. ū́hati . ārúr .). v I . ubj as. PT. Ao. Ā . óhāna and ohāná. ā́ritha. sB. ud wet. undáte (3. éṣant . áubhnāt. PP.). 2. ṛṇviré . ukṣéthām .). undánt. s.) . unap (2. uvóṣa (B. okivā́ṃs. ū́ha. pT. 1NF. I X . ṛṇómi. umbháta (2. v L : PR. 2. P. iṣ : áukṣiṣam (B. undánti. 1. s : áukṣīs. 2. PP.). I X .).).) . áuhīt (B.). I I . uc be pleased. araṇá. uhyat (B. Ps. éṣas . I . uṣṭá (B. Ipv. ūhyā́the (=ūh¬ ā́the •?). PP. P. : PR. 3. áukṣat. ubjánt. ánmbhan (TS. AO. óṣas . uṣṇán. PF. 1Pv. I I I . ubjátu .: PR.). i P F . P P . GD. ukṣáyate. ṛṇván. iyarmi. iyarta (2. B. ṛṇávas . óṣa and óṣatāt. ukṣyáte (B. undáti (B.). PP. ṛchántu. ubjátam . āráthur. ṛṇvé . ṛṇós . ṛṇvánti . 1. ukṣáti. Ao. PT. 3. ukṣátam. : PR. u n á t t i . 1PF. 1pv. and v L : PR. ukṣitá. ­īṣita. ṛehā́ t . ucitá. ukṣáta . iyárṣi. uṣṇánt. u n á t t a . PT. ūhé. arivā́ṃs . Ā . P F .) . PT. P F . úkṣant . ṛ go. P. áuhan. ṛṇóti . 1pv. pl. ūḍhá (B. : PR. : pR. P.). P. P. ṛṇvánt.). I v . ṛṇván . óṣatu . V I . I P F . GD. A0. áunat. u d y á t e . ṛchátu. ubjáti .).) .). I . óhate. F T . P P . ukṣ sprinkle.). L : PR.bjitá. V. áuṣīt (B. óṣatam . ukṣámāṇa. : PR. . Ā . úciṣé. óhasāna. undhi (=unddhi). Ā . pl. PT. iPF. P. G D . ūdúr. PP. ­ūhitavái (B.). ­te . ūh eonsider. Ac. óhate (3. 1Pv. 1Pv. ubjántu. P.). ­te . éṣatu. ps. ipv. íyarti . ­udya (B. PT. pl. ūcúṣ. áuhata (3.

ṛñjánt. sn. aranta. A. Ps. : PR.). V. kamitā (B. sB. árṣati. : ácīkamata (B. PT. sB. ṛ́jyant. a : áram. P. ṛñjáse.). éjatu . arpitá and árpita. arīta . 1Pv. PF. cākandhí. i ṣ : oP. PT. ­te . FT. PT. arāṇá . Ā . édhatām (B. 1Pv. ī́rtsant. kamáyamāna. aratam. cakánat. ṛñjé. áranta . Cs. P. aram . kā́ y amāna. caké. árdhya. aran . ardhitā (B. : sB. PP. kam love: PP. ardhiṣyáte (B. ṛṣánt. edhā́ṃ eakrire (B. P. ṛñjáte (3. 1NT. PT. ṛddhá. cakāná. PR. PT. ákāniṣam . PP. OP. I . sB. ardáyāti. iNJ. PF. 1PF.’ Gnv. PT.). PP. edh thrive. ṛdhyā́ m . ṛtvā. –ṛ́tya. éjāti and éjāt . PT. 1NJ. 3. arta ( Ā . Ao. árṣatu. 1PF.). ṛdhyátām. : PR.root : ā́rta . ī́rtsati . red. Ao.). ­te . 1NF. FT. ṛdhīmáhi. ṛdhát .). OP.). V I . PT. I . ṛ́dhyati. ṛ́jyate . ṛ́dhyatā. 1Pv. ānṛdhúr . Ao. s.rn. oP. Ds. aratām.) . áīarṣi.) . aryāt (TS. eakánas. ṛndhyā́ m . ṛñjáti. 1Pv. ā́rdan. ṛdhnóti . ṛdhā́ t he (2. éjant.).) . : PR. pl. ariṣyáti (B. ṛd stir. ej stir. áijat. : PR. cākántu. r e d . ānṛdhé. iṣ : ā́rdhiṣṭa (B). PER. ṛṣáti . ejáyati (B. ṛdhyā́s. I . ārata. árṣāt . cakanyat. cākán (2. sn. FT. IV. ardháyati. : PR. edhiṣīya. PT. PT. PP. . cākánanta. kamiṣyáte (B. árṣata. ā́rata . ka eṇjoy. ṛdhyáte. cs. ṛdh thrive.). eākánāma.) . édhasva. PT.) . I V . ṛdántu. a: oP. V I . AO. ṛj direet. du. : 1Pv. árjati (B. ṛtá. arpayitvā́ (AV. : PR. V I I .). GD. ṛṣṭá. sn. 1NJ. arā¬ mahi. ṛdhét. arāma .). . Ao. –te . 1Pv. ­árpya. root : ā́rdhma (B. OP. kamáyāse.) . P. arat . Ā . Ā . 1NJ. árṣat . ṛñjasāná. s. : PR. édhate (B. 1Pv. AO. Cs. 1Pv. Ā. ā́rdhnot. es. PT. : PR. ṛndhánt.) . ānardha (K. árṣant. sB. PT. : arpipam . PP. s ) . L : PR. álarti. GD.: PR. ṛdhéma. I V . aran . ṛdhyā́ m a. PPF. sB. V I L P. V I . arpáyati . éjati . árdati (AV. 1Pv. ardáyati. kā́niṣas. ā́rata (3. ṛñjáta .). árṣantu. 1PF. PT. ṛṣ rush. I . ṛṇádhat . : PR.). PRC ṛdhyā́ s am. kan. cakamāná. ṛdhánt. Cs. árṣa. kāmáyate.

kárati and kárat . kṛṇómi. ákurvan . ákaros. Ā. F T . cakártha. karávāt. and kṛṇótana. ákṛ¬ ṇuta (3. kā́ ś ate (B. kṛṇudhvám . P T . kup be angry. PT. kṛṇmáhe. Ao. PT. INT. ákarot . ku¬ ruté. kṛṇávan . cakré . Ā. kṛṇváte . 1NJ. kṛṇú. eakā́ r a. kurvánti . cā́kaśat. kariṣyáti. kṛtá and kártana. eakrā́ t e . eakrāṇá. ákṛthās. PP. kṛṇváta (3. knrú. PT. : PR. kṛṇutā́ m . Ā.). cākaśān (AV. kṛṇvāná. kṛ¬ ṇutás . ákṛṇos.) . Ā. kṛdhvám. karóti . VIII. kṛṇvā́ t hām . kṛṇóti . kupitá. ákṛṇuta. cakára. krāṇá. kuryāṇá. kúpyant. kárase. kṛṇuṣé. kṛṇvánti . kṛṇóta. : PR. sB. ákurvata.). ákṛta.) . ákarta.) . sB. Ā. eakṛṣé. kṛṇváite ( f o r kṛṇávaite). kurvátām.) . eakṛmá. cakriré . karatām . kurvánt . kuruthā́ s . cakáram. kopáyati. kṛṣé. Ā. ca– krā́ t he. s^ ákārṣīt (B. kṛṇávāmahai. kṛṇávātha (VS. kṛṇávanta.) . 1Pv. sB. cakrá. ákṛṣi (B. kárāmahe . iPv. kurvé. o P . 1PF. kṛṇávai. ákṛṇot.karávas. kṛṣvá.) . Ā. kṛṇávāma. ácakriran. kṛṇávat. 1Pv. IV. I. a : ákaras. kṛṇvé. káranti and káran . kṛṇutā́ m . ákuruta .kāś appear. kṛṇuhí and kṛṇutā́ t . 1Pv. Ao. kṛṇavam. k ṛ t h á s . root: ákaram. cs. kártam. Ā. pl. oP. : PR. kṛṇávate. cakrátur. kárāṇi. PT. kṛṇóṣi.karótu. k ṛ t h á . eākaśyáte (B. s. kāśáyati. kurmás. ákṛṇutam. kṛṇávase.). PT. kṛṇuṣvá. kṛṇmási. kṛṇutám. ákar. karatam. ákṛṇudhvam. kṛṇávāvahai. kṛṇávas. kárāma. kṛṇávā. o P . ákar . ákṛṇvata. kárate . ­te (B. 1NJ. k á r ṣ i . kṛṇótu. eakré. kṛṇuthá. ákartām . kriyā́ s ma. kṛṇuté . cakṛvā́ ṃ s . kurváte. áeakrat. v : PR. kṛ make. ákarat . kṛṇuthás. Ā. I . 1PF. kara . kṛṇvītá. sn. kriyā́ m a . ákri. cakrúr . PP. PRc. kṛṇávāva. kṛṇvánt . es. kṛṇutá. cā́ k aśīmi. Ā. kṛṇvántu . eakráthur. i P F . kár . : karómi. áeākaśam. ákarma. ákṛṇota and ákṛṇotana. ákran . káram. . P P F . ákṛṇvan. Ā. ákrata. kṛtám and k á r t a m . kárathas. I I . káratas . k r á n t . cakriyā́ s . A. cā́ k aśīti. kárasi and káras. k ṛ d h í .

GD. karśáyati. klptá. cakradé. INT. kṛ́ ś yati (B.) . cakṛpánta. kiráti. kalpáyāti. krándant. sB. I. kṛntát . ákṛp– anta. 1Pv. Ao. Ps: kṛṣyáte . PT. kṛṣ plough. cakṛpe (K. I P F . PP. cárkiran. IPF. Ps.). ákariṣyat (B. ákṛpayat. kárikrat and eárikrat. s : ákārṣarn . : PR. kṛt cut. PT. IV. PT. 3.) . PP. kṛtyáte . kartsyā́ m i. Ao. Ps. eárkṛṣati. 1Pv. PP. PT. 1Pv. cs. eárkṛṣe (3. INJ. PT. co. kḷp be adapted.). PPF. ákārīt. krándati . kīrṇá (B. PT. kṛntáti . cakradat. cakárśa.). krand ery out. : ácīkṛtas (B. FT. kártos . 1NT. kárṣati . PP. VI. sB. PPF. cakradas. kirā́ s i . Ac. GD. kṛ́ p amāṇa. AO. Ps. kártavái . kṛṣántu . kárṣa. : PR. kṛṣṭá. a : ákṛtas . kāráyati. cakártitha. Ā. eakárta. kri¬ yámāṇa . carkṛ́tya. Ao. eikīrṣati.). PT. PT. 2. GDv. ákirat. kṛṣánt. ­te (B. kalpáyasva . kálpasva. 1NJ. sa : ákṛkṣat (B. kalpáyatu . ákṛntat. cíkalpayiṣati (B. kálp­ amāna. kṛśitá (B. cākḷpré. krándat. P. V I . kṛpáyant . ácarkṛṣur. kṛntánt. kránda. kīryáte (B. ákalpayat. PF. 1PF. V I . Ao.). FT. FT. I . 1NT. kártum. kṛś be lean. 1Pv. GD. ákāri . kalp­ syáte (B.). cākḷpúr . kalpáyāvahai . kriyáte . red. GDv.). 1PF. GD. : PR. P. : áeīkḷpat . . 1PF. P. pl.). : PR. Ao. cīkḷpātI. kṛtá. ­kṛ́ t ya. Ds. P. krakṣyé (B. s. kalpáya. kirátu. kalpáyant . ­te . PT. PT. kártave. k r á n d a t u . I . PP. : PR. : ácīl^ṛṣam . kāriṣat. : PR. kṛṣ¬ ásva. sB. kirá. PT. kṛ́ p ate . kṛṣṭvā́ (B.). red. krándat . kṛtánt . 1Pv. 1NF. is : ákāriṣam. cs. kártva. iPv.sB. IPF. kṛ commemorate : Ao. PF. red. PP. 1NJ. kāráyate (B. es. kṛntá . kṛṣátu . iPF. ákaIpanta.). kárṣat . iṣ : ákrapiṣṭa. kalpáyati. eakárṣa (B.).). ákalpata. kṛttá. I .). cárkṛṣat. ŚB. kṛtvī́. kṛp lament. PP. eárkarmi. iPF. ákrandas.). es. 1Pv. PP. kṛtvā́ y a. ns. cárkṛṣat. kalpayitvā́ . PP. Ā. sn. root : ákṛp¬ ran . kariṣyā́s. káIpate. : PR. i ṣ : sB. kṛtvā́ .. k ṝ scatter. PP. kṛṣáti . : PR.

krī buy. r o o t : ákran . pl. : o p . krā́ m ati . es. kṣad div ide. P T . Ā. ákramīs. krīyáte (B. krāmáyati (B.). PT. kruś eṛy out. kánikradat. I . cakramā́ t he . krodháyati. oP. s : ákrān (2. krīṇīté . kram stride. s : ákṣār. eakramāṇá. : PR. kráṃsate . 1NJ. iṣ : ákramiṣam a n d ákramīm. : krámate . INF.) . cukrudhāma . 1. cakrā́ma. cs. cakṣamīthās. kreṣyáti. : PR. INF. G D . PT. sB. ákramur . : PR. P P F . ákraṃsta. P. i P F . 3.) . cakṣadāná. kṣárat. s. I I . I X . : áeikradas. kramiṣṭám. kṣámadhvam. kṣam endure.) . : PR. kṣaritá (B. kṣádase. ákraman. krudhas. PT. krīṇā́ v ahai. kṣámamāṇa. PT. k ṣ i possess. Ao. krámasva. kraṃsyáte . PT. 1NJ. PP. I P v . kṣárant. caṅkra­ m­a­ta (2. INJ. a : ákramat. cákram­ anta . I . sn. kṣéti . PT.). kṣiyánti . krámitum (B. cakramúr. L P. cakṣadé . krámitos (B. króśati . a : 1NJ. F T . 1NF. krīṇā́ t i .). pp. cukrudh­ am . caṅkramyáte (B. I P v . kṣār¬ áyati (B.: . krand¬ áyati. red. krāntvā́ (B.) . P F . I . ­krámya. kṣára. I N J .). kṣáyema (Av. I . króśant . kṣáyāma. kramiṣyáti. ákrāmat . kruṣṭá (B. sB. ca­ kramé .). ­krī́ya (B. o p . i p v . sa : ákrukṣat. i p v . : ácukrudhat . PP.). PP. : PR. kramīs . ákṣaran. kṣáyat. 1pv. Ao.). krúdhyati. 1NJ. kradas . ákramīt . Ao.) . A o . –te (B. ákṣarat . kṣádāmahe. kruddhá. : P R. kṣáyant. kṣáyas. áci¬ kradan. = kánikrant–ti) . króśatu . kṣáradhyai. kṣitás . krā́ m ema . kṣáyati. PT. PP. kṣárantu . Ps. s: Ā. 1Pv.). krā́ m ant .). a : INJ.Ao. kṣámeta . : PR. 1NT. : PR.). kánikranti (3. kṣar flow. Ā. kramur . ­kráme . PF. I v P. áeikradat . PT. P. ákrīṇan.) . I v P. 1Pv. P. s. krā́ m a .) . r e d . krītvā́ . GD. krāntá. krītá. cikradas. I . cakṣamé (B. sB. ­te (B. PP. kṣárati.). cs. krudh be angry. PT. i p F . 1PF. króśamāna. P F . Ā. cs. sB. cukródha (B. kṣéṣi. INT. krám­ āma. kramiṣṭa (3. o p . ákraṃsata. s. kṣiyánt.

Ao.). khyátam .). khánāma. jagáma. cakhā́ d a. GD. : PR. kṣayáya. gáchāsi and gáchās. kṣiṇánti .). : PR. kṣṇáu. ákhanat. kṣipáti . 1NF. PP.). khaniṣyánt. khā́da . jagmivā́ ṃ s. PF: PT. khidvā́ ṃ s. : PR. sB. Ao. khyát. kṣeṣyánt. kṣíyema. iNJ. I . khā́ d ant. PT.). : PR. eikṣipas . iNJ. FT. jagā́ma . sB. 2. I . gáchadḥvam . I X . Ps. kṣṇu whet. Cs. GD. a: ákhyat. jagmátṇr . cikṣipan. k ṣ i destroy. kṣipát . Ps. 1PF. PP. red. jagamyā́ t . ­khyeya. PT. gáchet . kṣip throw. kṣiṇā́ t i . gáchān.). ágachānta. khan. ájagan . gáchai. khātvī́ (TS. 1NF. P. op.) . khidát . khidét. khāditvā (B. PT.). kṣiptá.. oP. khidáti . ákhidat. gáchatām. jagmāná. Gnv. jagmúr. Per. PT. ­khyái. kṣīyáte. IPv. khyāsyáti (B. gá­ chantu . kṣitá. khidánt. A. 1Pv. ­kṣī́ y a(B. PP. 1Pv. cakhnúr. kṣīṇá(Av). ­kṣeptos (B. Ds. kṣiṇómi. GD. : PR. kṣṇutá (B. ­kṣetos (B. s: iNJ. kṣṇuvāná. khāyáte (B. ­khāya (B. 1NJ. ­te . ipv.). oP. : PR. gáchema . gácha and gáchatāt. jaganvā́ ṃ s. PT. ppF. PP. kṣiṇā́ m .). eíkṣīṣati (B. GD. khidá . 1NF. kṣíya. cs. khid tear. jagántha. ­kṣṇutya (B. ákhananta. gam go. GD. F T . jagamyā́ m . khán­ ema. PF.). gáchant. PP. gáchāti and gáchāt. ­khyā́ y a.). iPF. PT. Ao. V. P.mi . Ā.) . khánant. iPF. kṣipá . gáchatam. jaganmá. oP. khātvā́ (B. gáchati.PR. gáchamāna. gáchasva (Av). 1NJ. khā́ d ati . kṣíyati. kṣī́yate . khād chew. I . PT. INJ. 1PF. cakhyáthur. khāditá (B. ^o. GD. PP. : PR. 1Pv. PT. kṣīyante. khyātá. ­te (B. ­khidya (B. jagmáthur. : 1NJ. khyā sec: PP. 1Pv. I I .). khātá. P s . PP. khyayáte (B. khánitum. kṣéṣat. s: sB. Ā. gamayaṃ cakāra (AV. PP. kṣīyámāṇa. ákṣiṇās. ágachat. 1NF. khyā́ t um (B. kṣepáyat. gáchatām . cakhā́ n a. : PR. khā dig. khyāpáyati. jagamyúr. gáchātha. : PR. gáchata. v l . 1Pv.) . v l . oP.).). PF. PT. khyáta. kṣipánt. gáchatu and gáchatāt.) . khánati. IV. kṣeṣṭa ( A v ) . jagmé. PP. jagamyā́ t am.

ágayat. Ps. ágāma. 1.) . GD. gatá. gā́t . ­te. gā́ y ant. gāpáyati. Ao. 1NF. s . gamémahi. gántos. sB. gamádhye (TS. Ā.). P. gaméma. ­gurya. 2. GD. s. gámadhyai. jugurat. gur greet. gántave. GD. 1NT. s. gámāma. gán. PP. gātá and gātána. 1NJ. root: ágām. Ā. red. a : ágamat. jígamiṣati. : ájīgamam. Ds. root : ágamam. ­te (B. i ṣ : gamiṣṭam. gatá. : PR. jígāti. gāh plunge. jígāta. gā́tave. gamyáte. ágāmi. gā́ h emahi. gā́yasi. 3. gā́hase. gmiṣīya (vS. 1NF. cs. juguryā́ s . IPv. gantā́ (B. gā sing. ájagmiran. 1Pv. gamiṣyáti (Av. gesam(vS. jígāsi.) and –gīya (B. gamés. c s . gámatas. AO. gā́ma. gámas. A. gītá. –te (B. gā́ h ethām. gītvā́ (B. siṣ: ágāsiṣur. ájigāt. gánigmat. Ao. : PR. gántavái. I l l . oP.). FT. I . águr . 1PF. gā́ y a. PP. gámat . Ds. ájaganta . 1NJ. oP. gamáyati and gāmáyati.). gámāni. gā́ y antu. PT. ágāt . gā́ h ate. gā́ma . gā́ y at. I . PT. gamātha . sn. gā́s. s : ágasmahi.). ágmata . 1NJ. gā́ y anti . gámantu . jígāt. 1Pv. gatvā́.).). 3. s : 1NJ. 1Pv. gánvahi . ­gámas. gánta a n d gántana. gurtá. ps. gā́yati . FT. gāgo. PP. gā́tum (B. guhas. ágās. 1PF. PT. Ao. root : gūrta (3. gāsyáti (B. guhathās. V I . gū́hati. gaméyam. PT. 1PF. pRc. guh hide. gámathas. áganma. gurásva. gámanti. gamét . jigāsati (B. ágatām . jī́gāsa (SV). gamātas .).).). iNF. ­gāya (B.). ágata . ágātam.). gadhí a n d gahí. op. : PR. gā́hamāna. gmánt . gamyā́s .: PR. ágathās. ágāhathās. gatám and gantám.). gā́m . ágata. jígat. gantam. gāni. gmīya (B.) . ájīgamat. PP. gánīganti. gīyámāna. ­gátya. gúr . 1NJ. gā́siṣat. PT. IV. s. PF.). DS.) . gatvā́ya. gāsi (1.(2. s : iNJ. gā́ye . jagán (B. ágaman . jígātam. Ao. geṣma(Av). gamyā́ s . iNJ. áganmahi. jigāṃsati. gā́yata. ) . ágan (2. sB. juguryā́ t . INJ. gatvī́. ágman . 1Pv. sB. A. PP. jagāyāt. PT. sn. jáṅgahe.) . gám¬ an. : PR. 1Pv. s. OP. INT. gántu. .

PT. gṛbhṇīhI. gṛṇánti . ájagrabham. Ds. gṛ sing. pp. 1NJ. ájāgar. gṛhṇánti . : 2. gṛṇé. ágūhat. gṛbhṇánti. jagrábha (1. gṛṇā́ti . jāgariṣyáti. gā́r1t. ágṛbhīṣata (3.). gṛṇīmási. op. gṛṇīhi. gṛbhītvā́. gṛbhṇā́ti. 1NT. op. PT. guhyámāna.). Ā. s. gṛdhás . gṛbhāṇá . 1PF. ágrabhīṣma. jāgṛyā́ma(TS. gṛbhṇáte. i s : 1NJ. jāgṛvā́ṃs . s. gṛṇīṣé. 1Pv. ágṛbhṇāt. gṛṇánt. GD. red. gṛṇītá. 3. gūḍhá. gṛṇāná.) . gṛṇīmáhe . PT. a: guhás. 1Pv.) . -gṛbhé. gīrṇá. PT.).). jāgaritá (B. jāgṛdhúr. IX.). gṛhṇā́ti . gṛṇītá (3. 1NT. gṛṇántu. -gī́rya (AV. root : sB. : PR. gṛṇā́mi. jagṛbhré and jagṛbhriré . gṛṇīté (and gṛṇé). PP. -gohya. pl. PP. ágṛbhṇan. IV. guhyáte . PT. grásetām. ájagrabhīt. gṛbháyant. sB. PP. jāgára. 1NF. GDv. oP. PP. sB. PF. gras devour. root : ágrabham . jāgarti. gṛṇītā́m. gū́hata. AO. guhánt. gū̆hamāna. PT. jā́garāsi (AV. jigṛtám . FT. s. pl. op. PP. gṛhṇáte . gṛdhát. gū̆nant. INJ. PT. 1NF. gṛṇītás . gṛ́dhyant. ) .). s . júgukṣatI. Ā. gṛhṇāhi (AV. s. jálgulas . guhámāna. jagṛbhmá. gṛhṇé . jāgṛhí and jāgṛtā́t. grah seize. 1PF. 1PF. jagṛbhvā́ṃs. jāgṛtā́m . ágrabhīṣur. gṛbhītá. jagrasītá . 3.).). : gṛhṇā́mi. GD. jāgaráyati (B. I. -te (B. grabh seize. cs. 1Pv. a : ágṛdhat . Ā. -grabhé. Ā. gúhya. gṝ swallow. grahhīṣṭa (2. gṛbhṇītá (3. sa : ághukṣat. ^ṛ wake : AO. gūḍhvī́. gariṣyáti (B. op. jā́grati. P.). red.). 1. pp. guhás. jagṛbhyāt. A o .). a: ágṛbham.). PF. jagā́ra. PT. gṛṇītám. gṛhṇīmáhe. IX. Ao. FT. ipv. : PR. PT. i ṣ : ágrabhīm (TS. jāgā́ra. 1NJ. P. sB. 1Pv. jigṛtá. jā́garat. PT. grasitá. jagrasāná. 1. -gṛ́bhya.). gṛbhṇā́mi. VI. : PR. jā́grat. Ā. Ā. giráti. gáran. : PR. PT. gṛṇā́tu . : PR. gṛdh be greedy. gṛhṇīyā́t . jāgṛtám. jägriyäma(VS. gṛbhṇā́s .). jargurāṇá.).: ájīgar (2. gṛṇīṣáṇi. grásate . ájīgar . pl. ágṛbhṇās.1pv. pT. gṛbhṇé.: ájigrabḥat. jagṛbháthur . jagṛbhúr . PF. GD. 2. -gī́rya (B. red. ágṛbhṇata (3. 1NJ. Ps. GD. . INJ. ágṛbhran . PPF. ágrabhīt. I X . es. gárat. Ao.

. s : ácār­ ṣam (B. ácarat.) . ácacakṣam. PT. PP. cakṣur. sB. P. s : ághās (2. 1.gṛhṇītā́t and gṛhāṇá . cinvántu. I I . I . 3. B. iNF. ágrahīṣyat (B. ­cákṣi. PPF. Ps. cā́yati (B. es. PP. jughóṣa (B. iṣ : ácāyiṣam. Ps. ghóṣati. cáritum (B. Ā. PER. Ao. PT. cinuté. 1NT. : ácīcarat . gṛhītá. cákṣata (3. ­caréṇya. gráhītos (B. cs. oP.) .). ps. cā́rīt. cárcarīti . : PR. jagrā́ h a. 1NF. ághat (3.). GDv. 1NJ. jagṛhúr.: PR. cā́ y amāna. PP. cákṣate (3. caritVā (B. gṛhṇánt.). ághasta (2.) . s. v.) . cinvánti. ghoṣáyati.). root : ághas (2. gṛhṇántu . ghóṣān . iPv. einóti. red.) . ákṣan. 1NJ.) . PF. earitá . jighatsati. : PR. I .) . gṛhṇāná. cinuyā́ m a. ­cákṣya. carádhyai . s. 1PF. L : PR. eákṣe ( = eákṣ­ṣe).) . cákṣate. cinótu. ­gdha (TS. cárān . caráse. cára. PP. pl. ­cāyāṃ cakrur (B.) . cináv­ at. sB. du. ághastām (3. ­te (B. Ds. : ájīgbasat. 1Pv. Ds. PP. du.). gṛhyáte. B. ­cákṣe. PF.). GD. cáritavái (B. cs. cáratas .) . ­gṛ́hya. cárant. carcūryámāṇa. ghuṣ sound. FT. ghóṣi. car move. s. s. iṣ : ágrahīt . jíghṛkṣati. cāy note. eákṣí ( = cákṣ­ṣi) . cárat .. gṛhāmahi .). ci gather. eákṣya. cāyitvā́ . Ps. ghas eat: PF. Ao. PT. jagṛhé. co. cakṣáyati. Cs. cákṣase . Ao. ghóṣāt . Ao.ghásas. gráhītavái (B. gṛhṇā́tu .). gṛhṇītám . Ds. sB. cāyyáte. PT. cárata. B. ágṛhṇan.). Ao. cāráyati.) . ghásat . cárātai (Av. ágrahaiṣyat (B. P. ágṛhṇāt.). GD. GD. iṣ : ácāriṣam. ghóṣant.). cariṣyā́mi. iPF. FT. oP. ­ghúṣya.). 1Pv. ­te (B. ghóṣate . GD. PP. cárati . PT. GD. cacákṣa . red. : PR.).). jaghā́ s a. eerúr. cinuhí. oP.. cákṣāthe. s. gṛhītvā́. cacā́ra . 1PF. jagráha. jakṣi– vā́ṃs (Av). cárantu.).). cáritave. 1NF. cerimá. cáratu. ­cárya (B. GDv. jakṣīyā́ t . sB. ­cā́yya. cárāva. iPF. jagṛhmá. caryáte (B. ágrahīṣṭa. grahīṣyáti (B.). cáritos (B. . jaghása. ca­ eakṣé (B. I . cáṣṭe.). cicarṣati (B. cáret . cakṣ see.). ghástām (3.). a: 1NJ . grāháyati (B. PT. cieariṣati (B. cárāṇi . : PR.

1NJ.) cikitām (AV. ­te and citáyati. c i k y ú r . ácetat. I I I . coditá. : áceti . ­te . : PR. chántsi. PT. FT. ipv. (3. ciyántu . cyávam . cé­ kitat .) . 1Pv. PPF. sn. cud impel. ) . A. codáyāte .). oiyáte(B. cyávasva . 2. cékite (3. : PR. eyávadhvam. cétatha . 1NJ. Ao. oP. cetáyāni. códasva. einvánt . cikyé . AO. Ā. chandáyāte . PP. cáyate . cíkīṣate. chántsat. áchāntsur. cikitvā́ ṃ s . PP. cíkitsat. citáye. áciketat. root: ácet. PP. PPF. : PR. eitá. cétavái (B. es. eikāya . cétati . chadáyati. cyu move. I . ­te (B. ciketu (TS. Ā. iPv.). cikitré and eikitriré. sn. citána. cétate . eikyiré. Ao. eetáyātai (TS. codáyāse. s. PT. 1PF. cyaváyati. cikiddhí . 1Pv. es. cikéta . cikīhí (AV.cucyavat . códāmi . cyávate . áciket . cucyuvī1náhi. s: áchān. PT. cikité. cáyadhve . iPv. FT. eáyema. cékitat.) .). s. eíketathas . Ps. cétante.) . 1NJ. 1NJ. s : ácaiṣam (B. PP. iṣ : cáyiṣṭam. áehānta (=áchānt­s­ta). cetáyati.) . cikyat. cod¬ áyāt . : PR. chad or chand seem. Ds. Ds.) . 1PF. áci­ dhvam. cachadyā́ t . ^ cicyuṣé. 1NJ. cítāna . PP. eyávanta .). codáyāsi. s : cyoṣṭhās. áeikayur (B. sB. root : ácet . Ds. cikéṣi (AV. ciketam. ácu¬ cyavur. 1NJ. PT. citvā́(B. cyutá. cáyat . oP. chindhí .). cucyav¬ īráta. eitáyema. PP. chadáyātha . cétum (B. s. PP. cit perceive. cétant. eikitaná. GD. 1NJ. Ps. eeṣyáti. Ā. ácucyavītana. cí note. ehinátti . cachánda. cucyuvé (3. chadáyat . 1NF. códate . eité (3. 1NF. I . oP. eikéthe (for cikyā́the). : PR. 2. : PR. I .). citá. sB. PP.) . sB.). cétatām. INT. cyoṣyate (B. códat . cyávethām . cikitas. or. einvāná. cétathas . s. I I . PP. áchadayan. ­te.). chandáyase. PT. : PR. chinádmi. du. cáyase. ácucyavīt . es. Ā. sB. AO. I L : PR. cikyátur . cíkīṣate (B. ehid eut off. root : ácet . cikā́ya . Ā. PT. cikitúr . 1rF. es. códa. ciketati and eíketat .). códata. ) . 1Pv. Ao. I . cétat. 1Pv. s : ácait. códethām. V I I . ácueyavat.cinuṣvá .

1NF. jajā́ n a. GD. root : ájani (1. PP. j á n a t u . I I . 1Pv. PP. janiṣyáti. jéṣam (VS. jáyatu. ­te (B. PP. IV. s : ájaiṣam. 1Pv. jés. I . PP. ) . Ao.). : 1Pv. FT. janáya.). jā́ni. ájayat. P. jambháyant. janáyatam . jánamāna. jétave (B. ájais (=ájais­t). : ájījanat. Ps. OP. janiṣīyá. i ṣ : sB. PT.(=ehinddhí). jéṣāma. PT. red. jijaniṣate (B. root: chedma. GDv. : PR. ájanat. jan generate. jā́yasva. PT.). ns. 1NJ.). jajñátur. 1NJ. jáni. : ájījabham . janiṣīṣṭá. 1Pv. jáyatha. ájaiṣma. : PR. root : 1NJ. : áj1jasata (3. chéttavái (B. jigā́ya . jigétha. jásyata. janáyatu . 1Pv.). jāyata.) . : jáyati. jajñiré . jā́ y atām. janáyata. 1Pv. PP. jījanam . jéṣi. 1NJ. ájījanan . 1NJ. jajñé .). jéṣat. chéttum ^(B. L : PR. jajastám. jéṣas. oP. A. jigivā́ ṃ s (B. jambh chew : Ao. s n .) . jáyāsi. jajñaná. c i ­ chéda. I . 1PF. jétva. ájāyata . jáyant. jajñúr and jajanúr . 1NJ. s. : PR. jāyate. jáñjabhāna. jeṣyáti. jitám. co. B. jajā́sa. ­te . jigīvā́ ṃ s . Ds.). Ā. janitā́ (B. ájaniṣyata (B. jambháya . jámbhiṣat. sB. Ps. j i conquer.) . jāpáyati (B. jāsáyati (B. –chidya. PF.). áchedi . ehidyámāna . jambháyatam . jajñiṣé. ­jítya. jabdhá. jā́ y adhvam. PT. jánat.). ájaniṣṭa . jánata (3. A. jáyat. jánant. jánati. : 1Pv. jas be exhausted. chittvā́ (B. cichidé (B. j i ṣ é . op. áehidan . s : áchaitsīt (B. jáyāti . cíchitsati. c s . PT. jan­ áyati. j á n a t . is : jániṣṭām (3. jigyé .). jáyema. 3. 1. PP. red. PT. sB. s. du. jātá. jáyantām. jéṣma. jigyúr . red.) .). jāyemahi. ájayathās. cs. Ao. PT. chitthā́ s . jántva and jánitva. ­te . PP. ájananta. PT. janitvī́ . jā́ y amana. : Ao. 1PF. jáyās. AO. GDv. janáyes . 1NF. oP. chintám (=chinttám). jásamāna . Ā. 1Pv. a: áchidat. IV. 1PF. janáyās . jigyáthur . jā be born. chidyáte . chetsyáti.) . PT.). PP.) . es. Ao. ájāyanta. Ā. jijananta . es. GD. jáyātai (AV. Ā. j i t á . ­te (B.) . FT.). 1NJ. s n . jáyāva. FT. 1NF. j é s . jáiṣur (AV. ájaniṣṭhās. jétum (B.) . ájani . 1NT. chináttu. s . GD.). jañjabhyáte (B.. jitvā (B. Ao. ájījapata .). jánitos. ­te . chinná. jeṣyánt.

jānīté . jī́vatām . járasva. jajā́ra . Ps. sB^ jānā́ma . Ā . Ā . I v . P. oP. jínva. ­te . jinvate . : PT. jū́ r yant . jinviṣyáti (B. is : jū́ r vīt. v l . junā́ t i. jújoṣatha.). PP. 1Pv. es. jarádhyai. 1Pv. joṣáyate . jíjīviṣati (B. jīviṣyáti (B. jujuvúr. : PR. jigīṣati. járeta . : PR. jūtá. jínva¬ tḥas . jānīmás. PT. jujurvā́ ṃ s. I . I X . jí quicken. rP. PT. I . P. jú speed. PP. V I . jīvyā́ s am. sB. PP. jujuvat (=jújavat). PP. jurvati . jānīthas . jū́ r vās . : PR. juránt. . jī́ v ant. jānā́ t i . járant. oP. sB. jīv live. juṣṭá gladdened and júṣṭa welcome. Guv. oP. jínvatam . : PR. Ds. jújyū́ ṣ ati (B. I . jújoṣan. jñā know. sB. juṣámāṇa . jújoṣati. jī́vatu . j u ṣ enjoy. P. Ā. Ao. jaráyati. P. I.). ájujoṣam. jijyūṣitá (B.) . is : jāriṣur. P. járatām . root : ájuṣran . ) . jújoṣat. j ṝ . jínvatha. jujóṣa . jīvanī́ya. AO. PT. jávate. jīvitá. PF. jur waste away. ­te. PP. es. jóṣase . jínv¬ atu. Gn. jīvāti and jī́vāt . PT. Ds. jinvitá. j ṛ sing. Ā . jóṣat . ájūryan. jī́vān . járate .) and ájījipata (TS. : PR. ájinvat. jīvā́ t ave (Ts. sB. jānánti . jinvé. PT. jī́vīt.junā́ s . PP.jínvant. ájinot (B. PT.). jígī¬ ṣamāṇa. PT. juṣérata . sB. jī́va. PT. jóṣati. sB. AO. járatam . jūrṇá. : PR. jīvitvā́ (B. P. PP.). PP. jī́viturn (B. : PR. jī́vata. iPv. 1PF. jī́ v itavái. jujuṣé . jínvanti . pT.^ 1Pv. junánti. oP. jinv quieken (=v ji­nu+a). 2. : PR. jī́ v ātha. jivyáte (B.).(VS. ájuṣata. jinvasi. 1NF. IPF. jujuṣṭana .). jī́vema . jú­ juvaṃs . jīrṇá. 1PF. r o o t : PRC. jurva .).). Ao. 1PF. juṣáte . jī́ r yati. I . sB. jī́vās. es. javáse. juṣṭvī. iNF. juṣāṇá. júrv consume. PPF. PT. jānáte . ájuṣat .) . 1Pv. jīváse. jū́rvanI.) . jī́vati . PP. juryati . jínvata . FT. jī́vāni. jaráyant and jaráyant. GD. : PR. jujuṣāṇá. V. jī́ v antu. jínvati. jóṣiṣat. i ṣ : sB. FT. ájinv¬ atam. jijī́va (B. járamāṇa. 1Pv. PT. jújoṣate. : PR. jūjuvāná. i ṣ : iNJ. jānīthá. sn. I X . jinóṣi. PT. jijinváthur. jīváyati. : PR. jānā́ m ahai . Ā . PT. v s . INF. járati . juṣéta . jujuṣvā́ ṃ s . járāte . I . joṣáyāse.

tatakṣé. jānā́ t u. FT. P. tákṣati . tákṣata. GDv. tanvánti . taṃsayádhyai.).) . Ds. sB.). tanvāná. ­te (B. tanótu. PP. Ps. ájijñipat (TS. Ā. tanuṣvá. tatné and taté (√tā). PP. janátām. tákṣāma . tatané. tatán– anta . Ps. Ds. jñāsyáti. Ao. tan stretch. tanat. jvaIitá (B. jvaIáyati (B. taṃsyáte (B. tatanyúr . jñāpáyati (B. tanuthā́ s . jñaptá (B. iṣ : átakṣiṣur. IPv.). jíjyāsati. taṣṭá.). átaṃs– mahi (B. I. Ā. tanóti . Ao.). FT. Ā. INJ. Ao.). tantas­ áite. s: ájñāsam (B. takṣ fashion. sB. tatánan . ájñāyi. jñeya (B. I v . jñātā (B. PP. tákṣati (3. tāyáte . PF.). pl. taṃs shake : PP. PT. jinánt. 1NJ. PP. sB. v . átathās. jñeyā́ s (Gk. Ā. es.). . a : átanat . jñapáyati. tatákṣa (takṣáthur. P. jajñáu. INJ. INF. jinīyā́ t . átasi (B. FT. Ao.). jajñé.). tanmási. PP. jānītá.). átaṣṭa. P. PP. 1PF. Ao. PT. PT. 3. ­jñā́ya (B. átata . iPF.). PT. jānāná. pl. ­tantasā́ y ya. jñā́tos (B. jajvā́Ia (B. ájānan. jñā́ t um (B. tákṣantu. jānántu.yuoí^). sis : ájñāsiṣam. 1NF. j ñ ā y á t e . jānīdhvám. talhí.). jval flame. jyā overpower. v I I L : PR.). PPF. 3. tanú.tanvánt. 1. 3.). cs. oP. Ps. ájñāsthās . : PR. jñapyáte (B. átnata (3. jñātvā́ (B.) . átakṣma. Ā. 1PP. GDv.). jñeṣam .). Ao. tatántha.). : PR. tákṣat . ­te (B. jānīhí. tanávavahai. tanuté . siṣ : ájyāsiṣam (B. root : átan . átakṣat. jváIati (B. jinā́ t i. . sB. jijyáu (B. iṣ : átānīt. tāṣṭi(B. j ñ ā t á . cs. tatasré. iNJ. tákṣant. ­te . tatánāma. r o o t : oP.1Pv. Ps. PP. GD. jānánt. átataṃsatam. : PR.) . 2.). Ao. I . PT. tatánat . ájānām. tanuhí. tanudhvám. jyāsyáti. ájānata. PP. : PR. pl. tákṣatam.). takṣṇuvanti (B. átanuta. átanvata. ájānāt. jīyáte. PP. jíjñāsate. IPv. jānītā́ t . tatāna and tātā́ n a.). I I . 1NT. jvaIiṣyáti (B. PT. jī́yate.: PR. : PR. oP. jītá. PT.) . ájvālīt (B. takṣúr) . P. a : átasat.) . iPP. i P v . iNJ.). Ao. jajñivā́ ṃ s and jānivā́ ṃ s. taṃsáyati. s: átān and átāṃsīt. tatanvaṃs. I X . tatniré and teniré .) .

GD. taptvā́ (B. tā́ m yati (B. tiktá. tāpyáte (B. PP. PT. 3. tatvā́ (B. átapat.). a : 1NJ. cs. tṛntte (B. Ps. PT. tṛp be pleased. tāpáyati. root : PT. tapsyáti (B. tṛmpá.). tutóda. ­te. t u be strong. tud thrust. cs. tápati.) . pp. tápat . tij be sharp. 1NF. : PR. tepāná. : PR. sB. 1NT. turyā́ m a. tujáye. GD. turáyate. tujyáte. PT. títarpayiṣati. tāntá (B. v l l . PP. tujáse. tepé. red. tū­ tujāná and tutujāna. tatvā́ y a (vS. tṛpṇutám. tunná. PT. 1. : PR. c s . átāyi (B. tṛpyā́ s ma . AO. : op.). táVltVat ( = távītuat). sB. tṛpṇóti .). tujáyant. tatā́ m a (B.). : 1Pv. tṛpánt . P. FT. tur^(= tṝ) pass. turáti. I L P. 1pv. tṛptá. tāpsīt . PF. támitos (B. PT. . : PR. Co. tápyati (B. v i l . tutos. tūtūrṣati. Ā. turváṇe. átarpsyat (B. taptá. tántum (B. I. I. tutur. PP. ­tṛ́ d as. : átītṛpas . OP. tṛd split. sB. tatárditha. ­tūrya. tápant. ­te . tṛ́ p yati. tūtā́ v a. : PR. tudánt. tardas. tatárda. pp. tuturyā́ t . tṛpṇávas . PT. PF. tápatu . PT.). tṛṇátti . tṛmpáti. v L : PR. root : PRC. V. pl. 1PF.). tūrtá (B. VI. tṛṇṇá (VS. tápāti . tātṛpúr . s : átāpsīt . 1NF. 1NF.).). tatá. tujánt. tudát. pp. PF. 1NJ. : PR. t u d á t i . Ds. red. tāptam. tatápa. tuj urge. táptos (B. s. v I . 1NF. v L : PR. ps. GD. root : sB. : PR. I I . tṛpṇutá. tap heat. tujéte. távīti. téjate .). t u d á .). tatā́ p a. AG.). PP. IV. ­tátya (B. tatṛdāná. átṛṇat. pp. tūtot.). PP. : átītipe (3. tétikte. ­túje. ­te . AO. 1pv. átāpi . titig­ dbí (B. títikṣate.) . ­te ( A v ) .) . I v P.AG. PT.). tuñjāná.). titṛpsati . átapthās . : PR. a : átṛpat . tatápate. –tṛ́dya. P. títṛpsāt. PP. turya. 1PF. c s . tuñjáte (3. P. tuñjánti . : PR. 1NF. INJ. op. PF. ŚB. PF. tamát. tātṛpāṇá. tapyáte . ­tápya. tītipāsi . PT.). I v P. INT.). PP. on.^ā́ma. átītṛpāma.). INF. AO. P. : PR. tapāná . PT. PT. tam faints Iv. átṛndan. tṛṇádmi. : PR. tutujyā́ t . tam¬ áyati (B. Ds. AO.). téjamāna. t u d á n t u . tarpáyati. 1PF. PPF. 1pv. 1Pv. sB. Ds. 1Pv. PT. Ps. Ds. tṛpṇuhí . PF.

PF. 1NF. 1NJ. GD. PPF. trāsyáte (B. r e d . tatárha. t á r a t . VI. : tarute. tṛhyáte . trā́maṇe. tirádhvam . 1NJ. PP.). ­te . tiráta^ tirántu . tāriṣīmahi. trā́ y asva. tāráyatI. tViṣé.:^ PR. 1Pv. Ao. Ds. I I . trā́ d hvam. tatṛṣ¬ úr . átarat.tṛṣ be thirsty. iPP.). tiránta. INF. –te. r e d . trā́ s āthe . PP. 1Pv. : PR. 1NJ. átāriṣma and átārima. is : átārīt .). tityagdhí. trā́ y atām . : PR. Cs. tā́riṣas. tṛṇáhān ( A v ) . : átviṣanta. tras be terrified. pl. PP.). is : trā́sīs (B. : PR. : átitrasan . tártarīti . I I I . Ā . sB. AO. tṛh crush. root : PT. s. : PR.). táritrat. átāriṣur . 1NT. tára . PP. : PR. PT. tárant. PT. tṛḷhá. trā́ y etām . trā́ y adhve. IV. tṛ́ṣyant. átāri . títīrṣati (B. a: átṛham. . titviṣé . trā́ya– dhvam. tatarus­ (weak s t e m ) a n d titirvā́ ṃ s. PP. daṃś. tárāthas . Ao.). : PR. átirat. OP. P. 0P. VI. OP. trasate . Ā . tīrṇá. PP.). tātṛṣāṇá and tatṛṣāṇá. ­tyájya (B. 1NT.). tṛḍhvā́ . 1Pv. trā́ y ante . ­tana (2. : PR. Ps. L P. 1NJ. tviṣ be stirred. I. trātá (B. tṛṣitá. Ao. : iPF. Ps. tṛṇéḍhu. daś bite. trásat1. tyaj forsake : PP. PP. tṛṃhánti. trasas. trastá (B. cs. dáśa. pr. tartúryánte . tarīṣáṇi. PT. titviṣāṇá. tarṣáyati (B. P F . PT. tiréta. v l H . sB. tirā́ t i . tā́rīt . Ā . L P. átviṣur. Ao. tā́rīs. tṛḍhá. PF.). v l L P. PP. tṝ cross. tatā́ r a . a : t ṛ ṣ á t . I L P. tātrasyáte (B. dáśant. : áts^riṣam (B. GD. ­tiram. FT. ­tsárya (B. tṛ́ṣyati. dáśati . SB. tṛṣāṇá . tityā́ja . 1NF. trasva . PT. tviṣitá. AG. tará­ dhyai . trasá­ yati. tsárati. : átrāsmahi (B. tárati. trā rescue. : átī­ taras . tirá . tyaktá (B).). 1PF. . . PF. átsār . táret . PT. GD. AG.). PT. tiráti. trā́ y amāṇa. Cs. tītṛṣas. 1Pv. es. pp.). : 1Pv. trā́ y antām . 1NF. trā́ y ase . tatsā́ r a. traya­ yā́ y ya. : PT. I . oP. : átītṛṣāma . títrat. titirúr . tā́riṣat . sn. GD. tatré. PT. tsar approach stealthily. r e d . átitviṣanta. 1Pv. tiránt. 1pv. trā́ s īthām. s. PP. tṛṃhánt. ­te. Iv. ­tire . PT. Ā . trā́ y ethām. GDV. tṛṇéḍhi. tīrtvā́ .

V. dadā­ . op. cs. 1pv dákṣata . PP. ­dághos (B. : PR. ádattana. dípsāt. s. dasáyate. dadakṣé (B. dhā́k (3. I. PT. dábhati . dā́sati . PT. PT. : PR. 1Pv. PP. dahyáte . 1NJ. dakṣiṣyáte (B. P. PT. dattā́m . dádātana. I . I I I .). dákṣati. V. dhak (2. 1NJ. daghiṣyánte (B. red. 3. dadate .). dádas. dakṣ be able. daghnuyā́ t (B. dadā́ t he. dehí. Ao. dhaktám. dípsant. dagh reach to.). ­te . dadvā́ṃs.). Ao. ádadāta. ádattam . PT. pp. root : 1NJ. dadé. I. dagdhá. daghma. PRC. dádāna . dambháyati.). dastá (B. sn. PF. sB. ádadanta.). PT.). dā́sant. 1Pv. 1NF. is : dā́sīt. PP. dák¬ ṣamāṇa. da¬ datām (3. dattā́ t . dakṣā́yya. debhúr . 1NJ. : PR.). dā́sāt .). datsvá .) .) . dabhnuvánti .). oP. SB. das. s . s. 1NF. 1NF. Ao. PF. dádātai(AV). : PR. 1Pv. GD. dasat . dádat . dhakṣyáti .) . dábhāti . P.). daṣṭá. 1Pv. 1NJ. dádāmahe. dabḥ. dadīrán . dadúr . PP. ádadāt . –dáhas (B. dattá and dádāta. dádatu . : ádhākṣīt . GD.). P. dásyet. : PR. dadaśvā́ṃs. 1NJ. ádadām. dábdhum (B. PT. dádat . das lay waste. dadīmáhi.).). dattám. dadáu . dadriré . ­dághas (B. ádhāk (3. daṃṣṭvā́ (B. 1NT.).). ­dáhya (B. PT. P. : ádadakṣat (B.). dadabhanta. dakṣáyati (B. ádatta. dabdhá. 1. dā give. dáhāti. dhákṣant a n d dákṣant. ) . dhī́ p sati (B. Ao. dā́sat . dadá. Ps. 1NJ.PT. GDV. : PR. dándaśāna. dambh harm. Ā. dadámbha . dadasvā́ṃs. dāsáyati. ) . dadā́ b ha. dásyati . dátte . dásamāna . : PR. dádan. dadyā́ t . dhákṣi. PT. Ā.). root : dabhúr . dadat . dabhṇuhi. oP. ádadur . dágdhos (B. Guv. s. s . dipsati. dadā́ha (B. dádātu . I . Ao. 1NJ. L P. Ps.). sn. : PR. dáhati . dhī́kṣate (B. dagdhvā́ (B. dabhúr. FT. dábhat. Ds. I L P. IV. ­dábhe. dadivā́ṃs (Av). s. dabhyáte . FT. dadáthur. dah burn. cs. dadät. a : 1NJ. ádadat . daddhí. dhakṣyánt. 1PF. dádāti . ádadās. PR. 1PF. dadátur . dadā́tha. daghyā́s (3. FT. : PR.. Ā. PP. dadās. PT. dágdhum (B. dábhya. Ds. sB. : dadati . PP. es.

dadāná.). dā́ 1 nane. déya. GDV. dātám. dídeśati . 2. diśánt . dāsyáti . dā́sat. Ao. FT. didiṣṭa (3. K. 1PF. : PR. s.). PT. PP. dā́ ś āt . PT. dédiṣṭi.. dúr. dā́t . : PR. dā́ t um . –dā́m (B. dadiré (B. ppF. sB. i N J . a : ā́dat. ­dái. didīhi and dīdihi. AO. ditá.) . 2. didiḍḍhí. dāśivā́ṃs (SV. : PR. Ao.). dīṣvá (VS. dadāśvā́ṃs.). ­te (B. dī́ d ayat . dadāśas. pp. d é d 1 y i t a v á i .) . 1pv. 1PF. dyáti . dīdyati (3. PP. IPF.) . : ádikṣi . Cs. dégdhi . IPv. ipv. dāváne . 1Pv. : PR. Ps. : ádhikṣur (B. dáyasva. digdhá. . dadā́śa. dáyamāna. dúr . . ps. 1PF. ­dā́ya. dáyāmasi . Cs. dīyáte . 1NT.) . PT. 1Pv.). PP. sB. dáyatām .) . I v . dātā (B. dídāsant. dā bind. dāś make offering. sB. Ao. ádediṣṭa. : PR. ádimahi (TS. sB. VI. dī́ya. dyā́ 1 nasi. 3. didéśa . ­tta (B. 1.vā́1ns (AV. 1NJ. s. dī́ d yāna. ádāśayat (B. sn. sa : ádikṣat (B. s.). dadiṣyé (K. ­te . P. dīdī shine : PR. dyátu.). Ao. pp. : PR. dī́yati . diś point. dā́ti . dîyáte . diná . 1pv. L P. dyáti. ádihan. dā́tos.) . Ps.) and ádīmahi (VS. 1pv. P. dā́nti . dattvā́ . déhat . dāpáyati. ádīyam.). dihánti . dī fiy. dáyanta. I L : PR. dātá. dā́ntu. PT. ádāt. –díśe. dyā́mi. pl. deṣma (VS.) . ­dadya (Av. PP. ádita (B. dyátām. PF. : PR. 1NF. dih smear. dāyi . diśā́mi. V I .) . dihāná. root : ádiṣṭa. dā́ti. GD. diṣīyá.). root : ádās. oP. dediśam. dattvā́ y a . dāśnóti. 1PF. : PR. sn. sB. dā́śema . dī́ d yat. adīmahi (VS.). Ā . dāśvā́ṃs. PT. PP. deyām. dídeṣṭu . I L P. iNT. dā́yi . ádi‚ ádithās (B. PT. 1PF. s : oP. PT. dā divide. ) . Ds. P. dī́yat . 1NJ. diśá¬ māna.) . dediśyáte. didiṣṭána. : ádiṣi . dā́ t avái. Ā . dā́ ś at. ádur. dā́ s athas . Ao. -díśya. dā́ṣṭi . ­dāta. op. iṣ : ádadiṣṭa (Sv). dadyámāna . I I . ádāśat. 1PF. iNF. dā́ ś ati . PT. dítsant. GD. IV. P. : PR. dātā́ m . dā́tave. ­dā́ya. 1pv. diṣṭá. dattá. dádāśati and dᬠdāśat. dā́t . GD. s. diśátu . dā́s. dā́ t u. ádāma. root : ádimahi (B. 1NF. ­tta. V. v l .). dī. ádyas.

dadṛvā́ ṃ s. Ā . dóhate. Ds.) . ádī­ dipat (B. 1NP. dīdiyúr . : 1PF. AO. PT. dīdáyati and dīdáyat. dúdukṣati. dīdivā́ṃs.). FT. : ádidīkṣas (B. Ā . : ádidīpat .). dukṣas . I v . 3. PF. dīdáyasi and dīdáyas. dārayati . dóhate. duhádhyai.). du¬ dóha.). I I . : PR. dunvánt. dṛṇīyā́t(B. is : sB.). duhrā́ m (Av. PF. IPF.ádīdes. Ps. duduhé . s.) . sa: ádhukṣas. 1Pv. dúhāna.) . dugdḥá.. OP. es. áduhan (B. dhukṣásva. Ps. oP. didīkṣé and didīkṣúr (B.). dugdhé . duhánt. s : ádhukṣata (3. 3. v. 1NJ.I. dī́ p yate. : PR. dīkṣitvā́ (B. dīdā́ya .). FT. duduhúr.áduhat (TS. dógdhi . s : sB. dógdhos (B. ^dī́vya. du. Ps. PT. Ā. dû burn. dīpáyati. PF. dóhat. cs. : PR. cs. 1Pv.).) . Ā . PP. duh milk. dīv play. PT. Ā . : PR. Ds. du. and duhāná. pl. PP. dūná. pl. PT. : PR. red. duhāthām . ádhukṣata.) and duhrátām (Av. Ao.). pl. sB. ádīdet.). AO. P. 3.) . P. du. PF. dukṣata and dhukṣata. I. I X . dhukṣata (3. dukṣata and dhúkṣata . duhyámāna.) . dadā́ra . I v Ā . didéthe.). GD. dárṣate . a: duṣát (B. dhukṣīmáhi. P. PT. dīkṣiṣyáte (B. PP.). ádhok. red. PP.). duhyáte.). duduhré and duduhriré . 3. dudóhitha. PF.). d u h ú r .Ā . dúghāna. duhánti . : PR. red. dīkṣitá. Ā. dṛ pierce. C s . dárṣasi. darṣīṣṭá. GD. root : ádar . dīvyate (B. : PR. 3. AO. is: doṣiṣṭam (B. : oP. Ao. duhīyát. duhrate and duhré . es. duhīyán . dárṣat . dárṣi. oP.). dīkṣáyati (B. dīryáte (B. ádukṣat and ádhukṣat . dhukṣánta . dīkṣ be consecrated. dūṣáyati. Ao. doháyati (B.). duháte and duhaté. 1NJ. sB. dīrṇá (B. duhā́ m . doháse. : ádūduṣat. dúṣayiṣyāmi. P. didéva. dunóti . A. didīpas. GD. dúṣyati (B.) and áduhran (Av. GD. dip shine. daráyati .). I v : PR dī́ v yati. dukṣán and dhuk¬ ṣán. dáviṣāṇi (or from du go ?). VI. didīkṣiṣate (B.). pl. dyūtá. dunvánti . 1NJ. is : ádīkṣiṣṭa (B. dugdham . dugdhvā́ (B. I L P. dikṣate (B. dus spoil. ádhukṣan. ­dīrya (B. PT. duduhaná. I.

A. dra run. P. a : ádṛpat (B.) . 1NJ. Ā. 1NT. PT. drā́ntu. dṛḍhá. dyotiṣyáti (B. -dyutya (B. AO. ádarśi a n d dárśi . INJ. dadṛśrire (TS.). r e d . dṛ́pyati. dardṛhi a n d dādṛhi.) . dyútāna a n d dyutāná . drāpáyati (B. Ā . a : ádyutat (B. dṛp rave. PT. PT. Ps. Ao.). dṛ́kṣase . dṛ́ṃha . dávidyutat . GD. dyotáyati (illumine). s : dṛḍhvam (B.). ádadṛhanta. dárdirat. didyutāná. FT. pl. dardar (2. : Ipv. dyutánt . PT. dávidyot. dáridrat. Ā .). 1Pv. ádarśur (B. dáridrat (TS. . PT. FT. dádṛśe.) . a : ádṛśan . dárśati. FT. 1NT. Ds. dṛṣṭvā́. Ā . iNF. dṛ́hyasva.). PT. sB. dṛśáye . dādṛhāṇá. pp.) . PF. is : ádṛṃhīs. PF. v l . 1Pv. A o . c s . dṛṃhánt. : ipv.). dṛṃhántām . dídrapayiṣati (B. Ao. dṛśé¬ yam. -dṛ́śya. dávidyutati (3. dídṛkṣase. sB.) . Ā . dṛś see: PF.). . dṛ heed : AO. iPF. IV. dṛṣṭá .). pl. 1pv. ádīdṛśat (B. c s . dadárśa. sB. Cs. ádardṛtam. I I . darśáyati.(B. 2. dadrāṇá. r o o t : PT.) . drakṣyáti (B. ádṛśma (B. dṛṃhéthe . PF. dárśathas.) . GD. : ádidyutat . GD. dadrūr . Ā . dárśam. dyótate. Iv.) . didyutúr . dióyóta . dárdrat.). sB. INT. GDv.). s. ádarśma (TS. : IPv.). dávidyutat. 1. dṛ́ṃhata . ádṛśram.) a n d drapiṣyáti (B. I . driyáte (B. ádṛśran.).). dadṛkṣé. PP. sa : dṛkṣam (K. (3. : PR. dṛśāná and dṛ́śāna . dyutáyati (shine). dádṛśāna. P. ádṛthās (B. dárśan . PT. I .). 3. iPF. ns. dṛṃháyati. dárdarīti. –dṛ́tya. ádardar. r e d . Ps. P. drapsyáti (B. ádṛṃhīt. : ádyaut. pl.). dṛh make firm. pR. Ao. A O . dyut shine. PT. dádṛśre. didyutas . dyuttá. PT. oP. PP. dardartu. PPF. ádardirur. dṛśyáte . dṛśé.). dárdarīmi. dṛśénya. ) dadṛśrām (AV. dadṛśvāṃs . dṛṃháta (3. dráṣṭum. 1NJ. s. s. pl. 1PF. ádṛṃhat. dṛptá a n d dṛpitá. dṛśan . didyuté .) . ádṛkṣata (3.) and ádrākṣīt (B. : PR. PP. 3. s: ádrāk (B. dṛṣṭvā́ya. s : sB. r o o t : ádarśam (B. 1PF. drāsat. dṛ́hya .) . es.

draváyati (flows) . Ā. PT. PF. dadhanviré. Ā. ádadhās.). dádhātu . 1Pv. dvéṣṭi . dhánvati . sB.). dVéṣya. 1PF.) .2. dvikṣata (3. drāṇá. dviṣmás .). GD. PT. ádadhur. dádhas. Ao. dhanáyante. dudróha. dhatté . dádhat. dhāput. : PR.). ádadhāt . : ádudruvat (B. I . dadhidhvé.). III. 2. d m t á (B. blow. dádhatu. drā́ti (B. : PR. Ā. sn. 1. dádhatām. Ao. 1NT. da¬ dhā́tha. : PR. 1PF. druhán . dadhā́ t he. dádhase. iṣ : adhanv­ iṣur. INJ. Ds. dvéṣṭos (B. drāsyáti (B. dodrāva.dvéṣat . dadhā́the. dádhāvahai. PF. dádhate . 1NF.). drógdhavái. dadhátur. Ps. dhánva. L P. dádhati . PT. dvéṣṭu . PP. PP. dadhmási and dadhmás. I .).).). . dᬠdhīta and dadhītá . dhrokṣyáti. ádhatta. ádudrot. drā sleep. Ā. dudrávat. dadhé . Ā. P. dhmā. dhamyáte. sa : ádrukṣas (B. : drávati. I L : PR. red. dru run. PPF. PT. I I . ádhattam . druhás . drugdhá. : PR. dadhé. dadháu.). Ā. dhattá and dhattána. dadhīmáhi .). dhamitá and dhmātá. dhattá.). dádhāni. IV. dvéṣāma . s. PP. P. sis: ádrāsīt (B. dádhāmi. a : druhás . dadhan­ vā́ṃs. dhmā́ya (B. dadhā́te . dhātam. dhanáyanta. dadhanvé . cs. 1Pv. dádhan. dhánvāti .). sa: 1NJ. dvéṣate . dádhathas. dhmāyáte (B. dadhā́ t e . dhattám. Ao. dviṣṭá. dviṣ hate. sB. dhatsvá. Ā. ­drútya (B. drutvā́ (B. dhámant. dadhanyúr . ádhāt and dhat . FT. dhanáyan.) . GD. GDv. drāváyati. oP. dhanv run. 1Pv. dádhat. PT. dhā́s. dádhāsi. ádhatthās. dhehí and dhattā́t. dádhate. dhan run : PF. dᬠdhāna. dádhāma. PP. iPv. ádadhām. dadhiṣvá . PP. Ao. dadhimá. da¬ dhiré and dadhré . dham. root : ádhām. Gn. dúdrukṣat. Ao. P. –drúhya. dvikṣát. sB. 1. cs. dhattā́ m . Ao.ŚB. PP. dádhāti. dadhánat . PP. dadhiṣé. : PR. drúhyati (B. dhámati . ádhamat. dadhidhvám. Ā. druh be hostile. ádhātām . droṣyáti (B. oP. didvéṣa (B. ádhatta.) . P. dadhúr. PP. dudrā́ v a (B. 1NF. PP. dhatsé. PT. ­dviṣeṇya. dviṣánt. dudróhitha. dhat¬ thás .

i ṣ : ádhāviṣṭa. dhútá. dīdhyāthām and dīdhīthām (Av. 1Pv. sB. v I . PT. dídhiṣantu . ádhītām . cs.). iPP. dhāvayati. dhā́– tave. I v P. root: pr. root : ádhāt. 1NP. dhuváti. 1Pv. dhā́m.). dhātā́(B. didhi¬ ṣā́yya. GD. dhāpáyate . dídhiṣanta . dhiṣvá . a : ádhat (Sv). dhāv wash. dhūvét. PP. dhā́tos. and dhetana. Ā. dhā́ s atha . PPF. dhāváyati. dhāsur .). ádhithās. ­te. dhā́ti and dhā́t .). I I I . PF.). Ao. dhā́ma . : PR.) . ádhīmahi .). Ds. Ps. dhītá. I . dhīyáte.). dhā́ t u. didhiṣema . ­uhā́ m . dhūnuté . dhā́ v ati. dhī think. ­dhī́ya (B.ádīdhet. oP. dhā́ v ati.ádhur . pl. es. dī́ d hyāna. I .). Ps. dī́dhye . 1. dhūnuhí and dhūnú . dīdhet.). 1NJ.). ádhāyi. dīdhiyúr and dīdhyúr. dídhiṣāṇa . sB. GD. dhūnóti . iNJ. PF. : PR. ­te(B. ádīdhayur. dhṛ hold : PP. Cs. ­dhita. dhāv run. ádhūnuta. Ā . dhunu.) . dhāpáyāthas. didhiṣati. dudhuvé. dī́dhayan . P . dedhyat (TS. dhā́s.) . dhūtvā́ (B. dīdhiré. sB. dhā́ t um (B. dādhártha. dhā¬ syati. op. dhā suck. GD. : PR.). PP. dhātana. dhātam. Cs. oP. dheyūr. dudhuvītá. dhaviṣyáti. dhiṣīyá (B. ádhita .tá . : PR. 1Pv. dhū shake. ­te. sB. dheṣīyá (MS. dūdhot. dódhuvat and dávidhvat . FT. PP. 1PF. INT. ­te . dhā́ t avái. ádhūnot . s : Ā . ádhiṣata (B.). ádhūnuthās. 2. Ao: iṣ : ádhāvīt (B. 2. dhúr. –ti (B. dháithe . dhīmahi. oP. ádadhāvat. 1NF. Ā . ­dhuya. dīdh­ á y a . dhitvā́ (B. dheyā́m. ádhūṣata (3. dhāpáyati . ­te(B. dīdhimá. PP. ­te . dhītá. Ao.). Ao.). dháyati. PT. ­te (B. PT. hitá. dhúnuṣvá . FT. dhát . oP. A. dhéthe. dhūnvant . s : ádhiṣi (B. PPF.dī́ d hyat. dhītvā́ (B. dhā́ s athas . dódhavīti . sB. dhūnvāná. dhūyáte . dhautá. dādhā́ r a . dhā́ n tu . PP. ádīdhīta.). dhitsati. dhiyádhyai. dadhriré. dadhré. PT. Ao. dhā́ t a. ­dhā́ya. dhā́¬ mahe. dhuvāná. ­dhe. GDv. : PR. Ā . : PR. v. 1NT. Ā . dhūnávat . PF.dī́dhayas. dídhiṣeya . . davi­ dhāva. dhā́ t ave. 1NJ.

­námam. ­dhṛ́tya (B. Ao. : PR. is : ádharṣiṣur (B. AO. ­te. : PR.: ádīdharat. dádhṛṣanta. PPF. PP. dhvasáyati. dhváṃsati. FT.: i N J . nákṣamāṇa. Ps. Cs. dharṣáyati (B. dhāryáte (B. 1NT. Ps. PP. : PR. i s : ádhvanît.). nákṣ­ asVa. nákṣant. a : 1NJ. FT. 1NF. sB. Cs. 1NF. nántVa. dhármaṇe. PP. B. 1NJ.AO. 1Pv. GDv. dhṛtvā́ (B. P. Ā. 1NF. Cs. Ds. GD. Ao.).). dhrā́ j amāna.). pl. nádati.). nadáyati. I . náṃsai. dadhársati and dadhárṣat. dhṛṣámāṇa .). da­ dhrati (B.). dhṛṣ dare. ­dhṛ́ṣe . ­te(B. : PR.). dhū́rvaṇe. dhvasta (B. s: ánān (K. nā́nad­ ati (3. dhyā́ y ati.). dhṛṣṇuhí. dhriyáte. dhyātvā́ . a: dhvasán. nam bend. s : Ā. dhvāntá. PP. dhṛṣaṇá (Av. v . dhraj.) .). AO. PT. PER. dhvárati (B. PT. dadharṣīt . cs.). i ṣ : oP. dhṛṣát . ­dhṛ́ṣas. dhrājiṣ1yá. naṃsyáti (B. P. ádhurṣata (3. ádhrajan. 1NJ. GD.). PP. nā́ n adat. I . : PR. dhṛṣṭá and dhṛṣitá. PP. sB. dhṛṣṇóti .).). dhariṣyáte. dadharti (B. dhvṛ injure. dhārá­ yati. : PR. I . Cs. red. Ao. ­te. –nátya (B. dhṛthā́ s . 3. PP. dadhṛṣ– ate .). I .). red. FT. • nakṣ attain.). dādhartu (B. GD.). dadhyán (B. . dhartári. d á r d h a r ṣ i . 1Pv. dhrāj sweep. 1PF. 1NT. ­te . : PR. 3. P. ­te (B. 1PF. : PR. PT. FT. dadhárṣa . nīnamas. ánakṣan. dhṛtá.) . GDv. pl. PF. nad sound. ánaṃsata (3.). ­dhṛṣya. dhrájant .). ­náme. didhṛtám. dhārayiṣyáti . dúdhūrṣati. námati. dīdhār (2. I .). PT. PP. dhvanáyīt. root : 1NJ. dhvan sound : Ao. PF. dadbṛṣvā́ ṃ s . AO. dhvaṃs scatter. I .). PT. s i ṣ : ádhyāsiṣam (B. dhyā think. nemé. pi. dhyātá (B. 1NJ. nānā́ m a . Ā. Ds.). dī́ d harat. P. dhártavái (B. nákṣati. dadhvasé. dādhṛṣúr. ­dhṛṣya (B. I v . nákṣat . nānadyáte (B. Ao. Cs. 1NJ. PF. dídhyāsate (B. ádhvan­ ayat . didhṛtá. iPP.). PT. namáyati. on. ádardhar. natá . dhṛṣánt . naṃsante. nanakṣé. dhvaṃsáyati. pl. 1NF.. namasāná.). 1Pv. dhyatā́ (B. PPF. iPv. s. nanámas. nanakṣúr .).

ninaya . ­te (B. 1. náyāsai (Av.) . n a n ā ́ ś a . nétum (B. nā́ t hate (B. ánannata (3. náyitum (B. PT.) . naśiṣyáti. I . naiṣṭa (2. 1PF. nas unite. ­nī́ya. náhyamāna. IPF. nahyámāna. náṭ (3. s. neṣṭa (3. s. PP. : PR. nāthitá . pl.). nītvā́ (B. nādhitá. nanāha. néśat. i P v . nétavái (B. nethá . naśīmáhi . INJ. nī lead. náyatu.L I S T OF v E B B S 395 1NT. sB. : 1Pv. i ṣ : ánayīt (AV).). P.). ninīṣati (B. náhyati. náśati.). sB. naddhá. : PR. PP. nah bind. ánayat. ninétha. nindata. níndiṣat. FT. nas be lost. násanta. néśat. ŚB. néṣat . 1NJ. Ps. I I I . nij wash. PP. 1NT. pl. PP. náyant. is : ánindiṣur . –náśe. néṣati. s.). PT. n é s i ( = IP v. násate . root : PT. Us. Ds. náyāti. ninitsāt. : PR. revile.) . ínakṣat. a : ánijam . Ā. INF.). Ao. nánnamat . nī́naśas . nákṣat. náṃśi . Ā. s. I . náyanta. néṣatba . nindāt . nánnamīti .). ­nije. ninétu. . ninīthás. 3.) . ánaṣṭām . s. pl. nesúr(B. nindimá . GD. níndati . iPv. 1pv. pp. root : oP. ­nijya(B. ninīyat. nétos (B. s : sB. 2. Cs.). náyamāna. : ánīnaśat. nenīyáte.). nā́dha­ māna. I v . s : ánaiṣṭa (2. 1NJ. náyasva . nasīmáhi. I L Ā. niktvā́ ( B. Ao. Ds. : PT. sn. I I .) . nikṣi. nák and náṭ (3. nādh seek aid. Ā. : PR.). neṣáṇi. ninidúr. nijāná. 1NJ. du. niniktá (2. s : ánaikṣīt . -te. INF.) . : PR. naṣṭá. nāth. PP. Ā. ninditá. Ao. : PR. nind. oP. GD. PT. cs. nīyáte . P. nindyáte . náyāt .). náyat. Ā. nītá.). 1NF. 1NF. : PR. I . 1NJ. náhyatana (2. : PR. nenigdhi. PP. ínakṣasi . 1NJ. naś attain. : PR.). ps. náyati. niktá. PP.). s. náśati. ­te . I v . nāśá¬ yati . 1NJ. Ps. nejáyati(B. nánnate (3. Ao.) .).) . PT. I .). 1Pv.). ánītām (3. náśyati . 1Pv. root : ā́naṭ (2.) . ninyáthur. pl. nayi­ ṣyáti (B. I . FT. P F . pl. -te.). ninye (B. PP. 1NT. neṣyáti. nidaná . nán¬ namāna . GD. red. sB. Ao. I . PT. nenikté.). ­náhya (B. Ā. nāśayádhyai. áneṣata (3. sB.). oP. Ao. násāmahe . 1PF.

pādáyati. pípatiṣati. s : sB. GD. nuttá . 1PF. Ao. páttos (B. pā́ d i. pácāt . papā́ta . 1Pv. r o o t : nṛtur (PP. paptata. padyati (B. pátet . nónuvanta . 1NJ.). ­te . pácata. 1PF. Ds. ­te (B. padīṣṭá. PT. sB. návante . A o . GDv. red. pácāni. pac cook. ­pádya. I . nónavīti . pátant. ápatiṣyat (B. ápādi. sB. ápaptan. pātáyati. paptan. PF. patthā́ s . 1Pv. 1NJ. ánaviṣṭa. ánāvan. pácati. A o . paptimá.). Cs. ?) . pátāt 1NJ. PPF. : ápaptat a n d ápī­ patat.). ápadyanta. nṛttá.). Ps.). ápaptāma. FT. patiṣyáti . nunudé . PP. ánonavur . nudiṣṭhā́ s . nṛ́tya. patitá. návīnot . nonumás a n d nonumási . pátitum (B. paptúr . PP. i s : ánartiṣur. ­te .). praise. PT. pácāti. pátatu . pátāti. PRC. PP. sB. 1Pv. nud push. ánavanta. a : PT. petátur . PT. I I . iPF. pecé. 1NF. paktā́ (B. iPP. sB. ápatat. –pádas . pádyasva. pádyate . PPF. ápeeiran. 1NT. návanta.) . FT. : PR. návamāna. patsi (1. Ao. patáyati. nṛ́ t yant. páktave. nunot . : PR. I . návant. GD. v l . návāmahe. nṛ́ t yati . PP. r e d . ­pátya (B. návya.) . ­nudas. pā́ p atīti . pátati . papā́ca . P. PP. Ao. : PR. papā́ d a . Ps.). ánūṣātām . I N J . not­ syáte (B. pácat . ápāti (B. nūṣata (3. i ṣ : i N J . : ápīpadāma. padāt . I v . oP. Cs. nónāva . ápadran . : PR. sB. ­te . Ao.vur. Co. PS. nudáti. pádyamāna . padāti^. pat fly. P. pādyáte (B. pátat . PF. r o o t : 1NJ. ánūnot.). : PR.) . pācáyati.). PT. nuttnā́ s . pad go. INT. PP.) . 1NJ. : PR. paptivāṃs. 1NT.). patsyati (B. Ps. papatyāt. Cs. pakṣyáti. PT. páttum (B. FT. paptat.). 1NF. PP. nṛtámāna . r o o t : ápadmahi. nunudré. nṛ́ t yatu . nunná (Sv. Ā. ánūṣi . s. nṛt danee. i ṣ : Ā. s : 1NJ. I v . ­te (B. pácantu. návati . Cs. GD. nartáyati. nónu. pedé (B. 1NF. ánonudyanta (B. P. ­te. . oP. patitvā́. Ds. páttave.). pípāda­ yiṣati (B. panná. 1Pv. : PR. s : Ā. pácyate. paptas. Ao. petáthur. –núde . pacyáte. I .). Ao.) . : PT.). FT. IPP. pákṣat. Paktvā́. pl. I v . ánūṣata . nuvánt . 1Pv. pā́ p atan.

s. oP. I.) . Ā . pāthána. pipīṣant. pinvire . pipyata . pāná . pipes . pīyáté . pā́ t avái .). pīpā́ya. panáyati. PT. pāhí. papána (1. 1Pv. píbant . ápaśyanta. ­te (B.). papáu . pā́ti . : PR. pīná (Av. pánanta. papā́ t ha. pīpáyatas . PP. ápāt .). pīpihí. páśyant . píbadhyai. I . ápīpyan. 1Pv. pātás . PT. páśyāma. PT. pīpáyat .) . 1NF. pípāyayiṣet (K. 1NJ. Ao. sn. panyáte . cs. sB. pātám. payáyati . 1Pv. pinvatī́ . pā́tos (B. iPv. pipyúr . ápām. –pā́ya. sB. -te . 1PF. PT. pī swell. s . pīpivā́ ṃ s . ápāt . ) . pā́ n tu . p a p ú r . pī́ p yana and pīpyāná. GDv. s : 1NJ. ápās. pā́tu . pā́si. pīpáyas. páśyāt . PPF. : PR. 1NJ. Ao. páśyet . papáthur. Cp. I L Ā . píbati. pipāná and pípāna (Av. pínvat . pāhí.). papāná. Ao. páśyamāna . pāthás. PT. FT. pāsta (3. v : PR. pipyatam . sB. pā proteet. píbatu . ápaśyat . pā́ s ati. s. ápāma. spáś. páśyati. pātá and pātána. pī¬ pétha. PP. píbat . pātám. papīyā́ t . pā́ n tu . píbāti and píbāt . oP.). 1NT. I .) . : PR. píbadhvam . panitá. p ā t u . píbāva. PT. pā drink. ápibat.) . Ds. root : ápām. INJ. pītvā́. panayā́ y ya. pā́ t ave. ­te . pipīte (B. PT.) . Ao. píyāna. INJ. pā́mi. páśyān . pínvanta . PRC. ­te . . : PR. 1PF. PF. I v : PR. Ps. pāsyáti. pipyáthur. sB. 1NJ. pīpáyanta . s. pītá. 1PF. 2. pipyatam. pīpáyata . pāthá. ápipita(B. iPF. es.). : PT. pínvati. pātā́m . s. ápīpayat. 1pv. páśyeta . papiré . páśyāni. pinv fatten. pipate (B. papné. pánipnat. pānt .). pā́nt . píbasva . pīpáyan . Ā . peyā́s (3. papé . : PR. pā́s . pāthás.). papivā́ ṃ s . s : sB. pinvánt. pípīṣati. píbāsi. I . pīpaya . : PR. I I I . PF. i s : paniṣṭa (3. ápāma. PF. pipatu (K. ápipema. pā́t . páyate. GD. pītví . ­te. pípāsati. pītáye. pā́tas . ápur . 1. pātām . PT. L Ā . píbāthas. PT. pā́ n ti . páśyasva . I I . ápipet. pātá. Ds. páśyāsi and páśyās. op. ápur. ápāyi . PT. pā́ n ti. páśyat . pas see. ps. ápīpayanta. ápās. pipīya (B. pi.pan admire.). PP. pinvāná. 1Pv. pipyé (3. píbātas . pásya .

pī́ p arat and pīpárat . s. piṇák. pínva. punā́tu . pṛñcītá . Cp. Cs. ápunan. pipṛtám. pl. s. PT. puṣyáse. parṣa. Ao. puyáte. piṣṭá.)and punaté. root : PT. pavitum (B. pūtá. punītána and punāta. píparti. sB. PT.). pipéṣa . Ps. pā́riṣat. paviṣṭa (3. 1pv. punántu . PF. –púya (B. A. ­te (B. pávamāna . PP. INJ. pipīḍé. piṣyáte (B. P. v l . 1NF. Cs. I l l . pipṛthá. pīḍáyati.). PF. PP. pāráyant. 1NJ. I . 1NF. root : PRC puṣyā́sam (B. pṛñcánti . Ps.) . p i swell. pipṛthás. PT. pṛṇákṣi . pávadhvam. 3. s. sB. piśitá. piśaná. 3. : PR. I v . iṣ : sB. pinváyati (B. pináṣṭi . : PR. puṣṭá. punītá. PF. : PR. pináṣṭana . pipiṣé. pávatām . pupuvé (B. pípartu. pāráyati . pínvadhvam .). : PR. puṣéyam . : ápīparam. puṣéma. 1NJ. Ā . 1Pv. pupuṣyā́s . -te.).) . pupóṣa . pīḍ press : PF. piṃśáti. : 1PF.1Pv. pi¬ pṛtá and pípartana. punā́ti. ápinvas. punánti. : PR. V I L : PR. pávantām . Cs. parṣáṇ1. pávasva. pínvamana . péṣṭum (B. piṃṣánt . piś adorn. ápinvata. s. AO. 1NF. V I I . pūtvā́ . pínvasva.). piṣ crush. Ā. GD.) . pipiśré.) . ápinvam. pāváyati (B. punīte. AO. pṛc mix. ápīparas . a : oP. pipṛhí and pipṛtā́t. píprati .). ápupot. pépiśāna. pu¬ náte (AV. pp. INT. iṣ : ápāviṣur. PF. pínvatam. PPF. párṣati. pī́ p aras. punánt . púṣyati. ápinvan. pupuṣvā́ṃs. 1Pv.) . GD. PT.). ápinvatam. pus thrive. pépisat . 1PF. 1PF. pínv¬ atām . pútvī́ . punītām . red. ápavathās. pṛṅkté . OP.). 1PF. pṛñcáte (3. pṛṇák (3.) . pipiśé . IX. P. Ao. poṣáyati. péṣṭavái (B. P. ápinvata. piṇák (2.). Ao. 1Pv. punīhí and punītā́t. Párs^t. ápīṣan (Āv. pipinváthur. ápī– paran . pupuv¬ úr(B. 1PF. paváyat. PP. 1NF. Cs. PP. PT.). punā́mi. piṣṭá . piśyáte . pus¬ yā́sma (B. piṣṭva (B. 1Pv. 1NJ. píparṣi. pipéśa . pāráyāti . : PR. es. pipiśúr . A. pínvant .). pávate . punāná . P. ápinvat. pávāte . Ā . Pp. pú cleanse. pṛñcé. 1Pv.).) . pínvata. . piṃṣánti . Ps. sa : ápik¬ ṣan (B^). oP. PT. pinvitá (B. v I . pṛpass. s : sB. PT.

A. Ps. Ao. sB. i ṣ : pūriṣṭhās (B. práthiṣṭa. PP. pṛṇā́mi. pupurantu . AO.). pí­ prati (3. PT. pṛṇītás . Ps. pl. paprā́ t ha. práṣṭum. pyasiṣīmahi (AV. PP. ápṛkta. prā́s .).). 1PF. PF. : PR. pṛṇá . es. PF. prathāná . s. 1PF. PT. papráthat. INF. P.) . PT. pṛehái. A0. papṛcúr (B. PT. ­pṛ́che . pyā́yasva. 1PF. papré . ápras. papṛcaná. pratháyati. I . pṛ́eas. pṛṇāt . siṣ : oP. s. IV. papṛṣé. 2. 1Pv. pṛṇádhvam . Ps. pṛṇā́ t i. i ṣ : 3. pṛñcánt. pyātá. pṛṇáithe (du. paprā́ and papráu . pipṛgdhí . pupuryā́ s . oP. 1Pv. root : áprāt . A0. –pṛgṇa. red. papṛeyā́m. PF. Ao. áprathiṣṭa . pṛṅktám. píparti . s : 3. PF. I I I . pṛcīmáhi . pṛcyáte. oP. ápṛṇat. : PR. s. 1Pv. Ps. prā fill. s : áprak­ ṣam‚ á p r ā ṭ . pipartana . PP. prāta. pūryáte (B. prach ask. pyāyatam . GDv. pṛchāt . es. papráthur. I I I . .) . pṝ fill. oP. pūráyāti. 1Pv. A c . pípartu . Ā. 1NF. píparmi. pṛṇītána . párcas . priyāsam (Av.) . 1NJ. v l . ­pṛce. Ā. paprathé and páprathe (3. Ā.). I I . : PR. oP. pṛṇáta . root : PT. PRC. pṛṇásva . pṛktá. pīparat . pṛcāná . pṛṇā́ t i . pūrdhí . 1Pv. : PR. paprátur . pṝ fill. sn. Ā.) .) . papṛvā́ ṃ s. pṛṇáti . papṛkṣéṇya.). IX. –te . áprāyi . — ápipṛta). root : sB. PT. ápṛṇak (3. Cs. Ao. paprúr . prath spread. puráyati . pṛṇáktu. pṛṇītám . 1NF. : ápúpuram (B. papráthas. pyayantām . s. Cp. PP. Ps. Ā. purtá.) . : PR. áprākṣīt. : 1Pv. papráthan. pṛñcāná . sB.) . pṛṇánt . pṛchā́n . pṛṇánti . PT. ­puras (K. prakṣyáti (B. pṛṇá­ dhyai. ápṛkṣi. Ā. sB. ápṛṇās. pṛṇ fill. pṛeháti. paprathāná. pyā́ y amāna. 1PF. s : áprāk . v l . 2. pyā fill up. sB. ­pṛ́cham. pipṛktá. : PR. r o o t : 1Pv. PF. prā́sI. purṇá . pṛṇīṣvá . papṛ­ vā́ṃs. sB. pyāyáyati. pyāyyáte (B. ápṛṇāt. papṛcyā́t . pipṛtā́ m . INJ. ápiprata (3. paprathanta. 1NF. pṛṇā́si. pṛṇīyā́t . s. FT. PT. pṛṇīhí. pṛch­ yáte . paprā́ t ha ( = pa­ prát­tha ^) . pṛṇā́ t u . pṛṣṭá . P.). : PR. sB. paprácha . ­te. pyā́yase . práthate. papṛcāsi . PP.pṛṅdhí (=­ pṛṅgdhí).). Ā. pṛṇītá. papraehúr (B. PT.

A. búdhyate . ápruṣyat (B. bādhiṣṭa. bódhati . PT.). PP. red. badbadhé . 1PF. pruṣṇuvánti . badh¬ nántu . . bódhatu. phaṇ spring : Cs. bandh¬ áyati (B. IPv.).). PF. pruth snort. préṣat. pIoṣyáti. : PR. ábadh¬ nan . INT. ápipres (B. bandh bind. PT. PP. pruṣá . cs.). PT. baddhvā́ . pipráyas. sB.). pIāváyati (B. pruṣ¬ ṇávat. INT. prothánt . próthati . budhāná. pi. PT. PS. : PR. 1NF. L : PR.). ŚB. pipriyé . pánīphaṇat. ­prúthya. 1NJ. bādhitá. : PR.) . pruṣánt. bódhāti .). búdhyasva. bādháyati. bī́ b hatsate. PT.) . Cs. prīṇánt .). Ao. piprīhí . GD. búdhyamāna. prītvā́ (B. psá devour. PT. s. bódhat . GD. I v : PR. Ao. : PR.prī please. buhudhāná. I . bíbādhiṣate (B. 1NF. ápsīyata (B. FT. badhyáte . FT. pupIuvé (B. : ápipIavam (B. pruṣ sprinkle. pIávati (B. badhnā́tu . P. ­bádhe. ábadhnīta (3. 1Pv. PT. –bā́dhya. ­te (B. a: INJ. I X . bodhí (2. P. sB.). bā́badhāna . I X . babándha . PT. PT. cs.) . pīu float. V. bā́ d hate. ­psā́ya (B. bubodhas. pipráyasva . pruṣitá. badhnánti . PP. prīṇā́ t i. píprīṣati. prīṇāná. : iPF. ábadhnāt . PPF. búhodhati. PP. pIutá. ápiprayam. proṣiṣyánt. badhnītā́m (3. s. pipriyāṇá.). ábudhran. L P.). GD. I . Ps. –pIūya (K. IPv. Ā. 1Pv. PP.). áprīṇāt. 3. 1PF. babādhé. Ds. pópruthat. 1Pv. i s : 1NJ. s : ápraiṣīt (B.). pruṣṇánt (B. ­bádhya (B. s. búdhyadhvam. bedhúr. : PT. FT. : PR. PT. Ao. bhantsyáti. piávate. PP. baddhvā́ya (B. sB. root: Ā. pipráyat . s : áploṣṭa (B. ápiprayan. ábu¬ dhram. badhnā́ m i . prītá.) . PP. bā́dhe.). pl. P. GD. IV.) . badhnīmás. GD. PT. sB. bad¬ badhāná. 1NT. VI. badhnáte (3. PP.) . psātá. próthamāna. Ds. prīṇīté . : PR. pruṣṇuté . búdhyema . Ā. badhāná. GD. PF.). búbodhatha. budh wake.). : PR. badh oppress. I I . Ao. 1NT. PP.). phāṇáyati. bubudhé. s. psā́tI. P. oP. baddhá. : IPv. I X . popIúyáte (B.). Ā. hāhadhe (3.

bhasáthas. bhakṣīṣṭá. brūtám . PT. 1PF. brávātha (Av. brūhí and brūtā́ t . oP.). sB. I I . Ā.). Ā. r e d . brávā­ vahai. P. brūmás. is : 1NJ. bruvītá. r e d . babhā́ j a. 1NJ. . bodháyati. PRe. bhaj divide. Ps. 1NF.) . bhakṣyáte (B. iPv.) . bhaṅdhí. : ábūbudhat . bhak­ ṣyáti. IPF. bruvánti . bruvāṇá. brávāmahai . bhajyáte. brávasi and brávas. bárhīs. ­te (B. bábhasat. PF. : PR. : PR. bhakṣáyate (B. bhā́ n ti . PP. ábhutsi. : bhā́si. PP. bhánati . ábruvan. bápsat. bhánanti . bodháyate (B. brávan . barháya. ábravīt . Ao. is :ŚB. PT. ábravīs. I I . brávīṣi. r e d .). Ps. : PR. brūté a n d bruvé . INJ. FT. cs. ábrūtām. sn. iPv. bruvā́ t e . bhas devour. 1Pv. bápsathas . bhákṣat . bhakṣīmáhi . ábravīta. 3. bhaktvā́ y a . brūyā́ t am . brávīti . Av.) . bhejiré. bábhasti. babárha . bhakṣ eat: Ao. brávaite . : PR.). P. Ā. I . Ao. : PR. 3. bhctsyáti(B. I. brávīmi. brávāma. bhanákti . bhā́k (2. P. brávat .budhánta. I . FT. bhāsyáti (B.) .). v I L P. PT.). bhajyáte . I . Ps. I . bhan speak. ­bhajya (B. hóbudhiti (B. 1NT. Ā. bruvánt . bhánanta.). hṛ́ ṃ hati. bṛh make big. FT. Ā. Gn. bhánanta. sn.). bruvé. PP. : ábabhakṣat (B. bhañjánt. buddhá. bhásat. brūyā́ t . brūtá and brávītana.). : ábī­ bhajur (B. PT. bha­ náktu . v I . ­budhya (B. s : Ā. I I . brū say. bhak­ ṣīyá. cs. ps. bruváte . ábhakṣi. s : ábhāk a n d ábhākṣīt . brávāṇi and brávā. bhājáyati . bhákṣi ( = IPv.). bhájati. I I I .). s. ­te. bhā shine. : PR.). bruvántu . iPv. P. cs. brávītu . barbṛhi. bhejāná. bhejé. Ps. PT. bhaktá. bhakṣītá . ­búóhe. ábhakta . V I . bhājyáte. bhā́tI. ­te (B. bhejā́te .bódhiṣat.). ábhutsmahi. GD. : 1NJ. brūṣé. 1PF. s. : PR. babháktha (B. PT. ábhanas (for ábhanak. bárhīt. bhaktvā́ . oP. bruvīmáhi. bhāhí . babháñja. bápsati . 2. bhakṣáyati. cs. INT. babṛhāṇá. bhā́ti . PP. bṛháti. ábravam. ábodhi. : PR. bárbṛhat. P. bhañj break. Ao. s. : PR. ábhutsata. sB.

­bhujya (B. bhuṅkté . 3. bhíkṣanta . ábhaiṣma. ábhet (3. ábhedi (B. bhuránta . bībhiṣathās. 1Pv.). bibhés. : PR. járbhurīti. bibhītána . s. 1PF. Ā.) . PT. bhuj– yáte (B. PPF. a : OP. 1pv. s. s. 1pv. bhés (TS. GD. : PR. PF. bhî fear.). PT. bhetsyáte (B.) . a : oP. bhidánt . s : 1NJ. bhinátti . IPF. : 1NJ. bibhéti. habhutha and babhuvitha. 1. babhuva. bhujá (TS.bhikṣ beg. járbhur– āṇa. ábhaiṣur . 1NJ. Ao. P F . : PR. bhiyáse. root : sB. I I I . babhúváthur. ábībhayur (Kh. bibhés . bhójase. : PR. hībhiṣas. bibhyᬠtnr . Ds.) . : PR. bhidyáte (B. bhindhí.). PF. oP. VII. bhujá (VS. 1NT. bhavati . . bibhéda. V I . bubhujriré. bhuñjáte and bhuñj¬ até .: bībhayat . bibhīyā́ t . bhuj enjoy. 2. P. bhéttavái (B.). bhójam. s : bhaiṣīs (Av. PF. bhur quiver. bubhujé . Cs. s. bhinádas. bhittvā́ . bhindāná. bíbhitsati. ábubhojīs. ábhindan. bhunájāmahai . 1Pv. hibhikṣé (B. bháyāte . bhujé . ps. 3. FT. V I . bhináttu. bhītá. bhíkṣamāṇa. bháyate . bibhidúr. bubhujmáhe. ábhayanta . oP. bhík¬ ṣeta . Ā. ábhinat (3. bibhayaṃ cakāra. bhinát (2. bhema . PT. 1Pv. bíbhyati. sB. PT.). or. bhiyásāna (Av). bhédati . bháyatām (3. : 1NJ. bhidéyam . PT.) . Ao. 1PF. PP. hibhīvā́ṃs .) . . sB.). I. babhúvúr. I . INJ. I. Ps. bhú be. bhuj bend. bháyamāna. bhét (2. sB. PT. bhurántu .). 1NF. GD. I . bhind¬ ánti . red.). ábibhet. 1Pv. Ā. 1NJ.) .) . bhinátsi.) .) . PT. bhiy¬ āná. AO. r o o t : ábhedam. bhuját . bibhītá. Co. 3. oP. PT. bhinádat . s ) . s. járbhurat. 1NJ. bhid split. Ac. bhitthā́ s . bhurámāṇa. 1NJ. vH. babhuva. PT. also bībhāya) . babhūvimá. bhinát (2.) . s. bhindyā́ t . bhuñjatī́. PP. ­bhídya. bhéttnm (B. : PR. babhuvátur.). bhíkṣate . AO. root : INJ. Cs.) . sB. bhávate (B. PER. bibháya (1. 1NF. bíbhyat . babhuvá. bhindánt . bibhyúr . ábībhayanta.). 1NF. bhojáyati. bhujéma. bhinttá . s. bhójate . bibhā́ya (B. bhinádmi. PP. bhinná. PT. P. PF. bhīṣáyate (B.). ) . PT. bhét (2. ábheṣyat (B.

­bhuya. IPF. 1NT. 1pv. s. i P v . jabhártha. ábhārṣṭam . rNJ. PT. ájabhartana. ­bhṛtya. maṃh. Ao. ps. ^ 1Pv.) . ábhúta and ábhútana.babhūyā́ s . oP. -bhṛṣṭa . bháradhyai . I . .). pp. bhraṃś full. 3. bhūyā́ m a . sB. bhraṣṭá. babhūvā́ṃs. PT. 1NF. 1pv. sB. a : bhúvas. bibhṛthás. PP. iṣ : ábhāriṣam. PPF. s : ábhārṣam. 3. bhriyáte . bhráṃśat. PP. bhávya a n d bhāvyá . a : 1NJ. bibhṛtā́ m . 3. bhúvat . bhūma. híbharat . 1NF. bháribhrat. 1Pv. máhe (3. bhari­ ṣyáti . es. babhré . GDv. jarbhṛtás . ­te. búbhūrṣati (B. PRC bhūyā́ s am. P R C bhrājyā́ s am. jabhrúr . máheta . bhári­ bhrati (3.) . bíbharmi. I . Ā. bibhṛyā́t . bhavitā́ (B. bhūyā́ s . PT. babhrāṇá . bhū́ t . PT. bhár– maṇe. : PR. bíbhartu . bhartā́ (B. bhūtá and bhūtána . bíbhrati . jabhárat. bhrāśáyant. Ao. bibhṛhí. bhúvam. ábhūvan . bhā́ri . bíbharāṇi. bhṛtá. PP. s. Ā. ábhutam. bhrā́ j ate. māmahanta . bhúṣáṇi . jabhriré . bóbhavīti. bhūyāt . bhū́ s . bhárati. ­bhvé . máhema. op. PT. ábhūma. : PR. bhūtá. Ao. ábhūt. bí­ bharṣi. bhraj chine. jabhā́ r a . bhūyā́ s ta . bibhṛtás . bhávitum (B. bibhṛthá. bhútvī́ . : ábū­ bhuvas. jabhré . bíbharti . māmahantam . bhuvé. r o o t : ábhrāṭ.) . red. ábhraji. 3. oP. : PR. L : PR. bhāváyati. bhūtám . máṃhatam . Ao. IPF. PT. GD. máṃhate . co. jabhṛṣé. 1NT. bhraśat. ba­ bhā́ra (B. bhúvat. root : ábhuvam. bhriyāte . babhūyā́ t . bhúvas. māmahé (1.) . bhúvan. FT. r o o t : P R C bhriyā́ s am . Ao. bhṛtám. p1). bhrajamana. s n . bhártavái . PT. 1Pv. ­bhúve. bhūtvā́ . bhúvāni.). 1NJ. PF. ábibhar. s n . bhā́r .) . 1NJ. I . bibhrat . bibhṛtā́ (TS. bhávitos (B. bodhí (for bhūdhí). GD. sB. bhártave. 1NJ. bhártum . Ds. ábhus. mah be great.). Ā. sB. Ps.). os. ámaṃhata. mamahasva. PT. bhárṣat . bibhṛmási and bibhṛmás. FT. sn. AG. : PR. mamábas . bú­ bhuṣatI. bhútas. babhū́ t u . ábhār. bhūyā́ s ma. bhuthás. Ds. bhaviṣyáti. bháribharat. I I I . ábhariṣyat. bhṛ bear. máṃhamāna. bhávītva. bhūyā́s . ábhutam . bhūtu .

sB. sB. ­májjya. PT. s. P. : májjati. ámatta (3. pk) . manth stir. mányate. ­mā́dya.). mahé. ámaṃsta . root : ámata . . madá­ yati . is : ámanthiṣṭām (3. PT. PP. manvaté . manmáhe. 1pv. IX. mátsati and mátsat. PPF. mamádas. mahitá (B. ­te. OP.) . mamā́ t ha . 1 n a n v ā n á . PF.).).). A. s : ámatsur . ámatsata (3. GD. Ā .). 1Pv.) . 1NF.) . maháye. pp. s : Ā . Ao. I v Ā . mathitá. mattá. máṃsthās. 1PF. ámīmadanta.). madyámāna . mathyáte .: PR. ámanvata (3. ámathiṣata (B. 1NF. mathitvā́ ( B.) . ps. mamattána. mamnā́ t e .) . mathnītá. máṃsase. PT. s.). 1naditá. mamandhI.) . : PR. manthiṣyáti (B.). man think.) . methiré (B. mathnīté (B.). mamsīmáhi. FT. 1pv. manvé . PPF. máṃsate and máṃsatai (TS. FT. i s : ámādiṣur. PT. manvītá .). sB. máthati (AV. I . mamaddhí. ­máthya (B. mamádat . sn.). I v P. PT. mathnā́ m i . 1NF.) . 1nátsi ( = 1Pv. mādáyāte . : manutā́ m (3. pk) . ma­ matsi. : PR. mat­ sata (3. ámanuta (3. I . 1NJ. máthīs. maṃsīṣṭhā́s. pp. sB. maṃsīṣṭá.) . root : sB. mamádan . mathiṣyáti. math. mādayádhyai. mánāmahe. mādáyadhve and mādáyādhvai.). ­te (B. ámaṃsātām . manávai. root: 1pv. mamā́da . : PR. 1NJ. manvata (3. maṃsta and māṃsta (Av. mādáyaite. iNF. methúr (B. s. INJ. P. mad be exhilarated. máṃsai. manávate . I I I .māmahāná. mené (B. : PR. mathnánt . Ā . máṃsante . red. root : op.). majjyā́t (B. ) . AO. majj sink.) . : PR. iPF. OP. ps. mamáttu. s. manāná. I I . AO. ­te .) . AO. CP. mathnántu . máthīt. majjáyati (B. v I I L Ā . pl. 1NJ. máthat . mādáyāse. ámanmahi. L mánthati. ama­ madur. INJ. mā́ d yati (B. mādáyati. maṅkṣyáti. Gn. mánthitavái . GDv. ­te . 1Pv. mánanta . mamnā́ t he. ­te . Cs. masīyá. mátsva . maháyati. máthitos (B. mádati. 1 n á d i t o s (B. Cs.). : PR. PF. Ā . maṃháyam . sB. P. PP. ámaman (3. pk). maháyant . ámath­ nāt . ámaṃsata .: ámīmadas. mamanyā́ t . du. maháyamāna. PF. mátsatha. Cs. ­te (B.

ámāyi. miṣánt. mímikṣatam.). Ds. PP. mandáyati . miṣ wink. mimāte . ámandiṣātām (3. I . minván . mémyat. PF. 1Pv. 1NJ. mīyámāna. III. PT. ­mitya (B. FT. méthāmasi . méhati .). mándiṣṭa (3. Ao. PT. mā́na (TS. minván. mithánt. GD. mamā́te .I. mimī¬ mahe. ámandiṣur . maniṣyé . P.). Ā. mandi¬ ṣīmáhi (VS. cs. root : iPv.) . GD.) . mimikṣiré. Ps. : PR. cs. PP. mimītám. : PT. PT. māhí . mímāna. PP. mimikṣáthur. mānáyet. mitá. mimate. 1pv. 1Pv. sn. minómi. P. PP. maṃ¬ syáte (B.). 1nímāti .). oP. matá. mīmayat. Ā. méthete. mī́māṃsate (AV. PP. s. is : ámandīt. 1NF. PPP. méghamāna. PT. mīmāṃsitá (AV. māsvá . I I I . GD. mi fix.). 1PF. 3. 1NT. s : ámāsi .). mand exhilarate. L : PR. I . P. Ao. s n . mamánda . mimétha. ṃimīṣva . mántos (B. Ps. mimanti. 1. 1nīyáte. mimikṣvá. 2. miś mix : Ds.). Ā. mándati. mikṣ mix : PP. mímikṣa . mamúr . Gnv. mamandat . PT. ámamandur. mā́ t avái. mimītām . mimikṣátur . 1NF. PP. Ao. ŚB. mimikṣé . ­mái. v l . PP. P . mimyúr. PT. m imite .). mā measure. root : mandúr . mimīyāt. INF. : PR. mandāná . minótu. ­mé. 1nántave.). mimaya . is : ámīmāṃsiṣṭhās (B. méya (AV. Ā. oP. mitá. minávāma . mandhvam (B. es. v l . mitvā́ . mith alternate. minóti . mekṣáyati (B. miṣánti . PT. mithitá. ámīmet. mamé (1. ámimīthās. : PR. mimā́ y a. mandádhyai. sB. mimīhí. ámimīta. mih shed water.) . : PR. du. PT. Ao. mā́sātai (AV. PP. oP. INF. v.maṃsīrata . . mimāthām . mime. mānáyati. : PR. mamiré . 1NF. mamátur .mamandúṣī. miṣáti . 1Pv.). 1NF. 1Pv. mímikṣati . ­matya (B. méhant . mántavái.) . PPF. mā bellow. mímikṣatām. -misas. ­te. PF.). –ti (B. 1nandayádhyai . mímātu . ­1nā́ya. : PR. mimīyās. 1PP.) .

m i n á n t . m u ñ c á t i . Ā.). 1Pv. mus steal. muṣṇā́ t i . m u ñ c ā t . AO. ­muta . m ó d a t e . modiṣīṣṭhās. m i n ī t (Av. á m u k ṣ i . m u h be dazed. m u c ī ṣ ṭ a . á m u ṣ ṇ ā t . m u m ó h a (B. Ao. PRC. 1NJ. Ā. m u g d h á . meṣi. ­ m í y a m .). 1NJ.). m ú m u k ṣ a m ā ṇ a . sa : ámikṣat (B. mókṣate (B.). Ā. mī́ v ati . PT. Cs. m ú m o c a t i . m i n á n t i . m u k ṣ ī y a . L P. m u ṣ ṇ á n t . m u c á s . m u ñ c á t ā m . ­te (B. mī́ y ate . m ī y á t e .).). muktvā́ (B. sB. PT. ­te . PP. 1Pv. m ó c i . mucā́ t i . is : PRo. mueā́ t e . m u m u k t á m . m ū ḍ h á (AV. : PR. á m u k t h ā s . m é m y ā n a . : PR. pp.). s : 1NJ. ámoci . á m u g d h v a m . Ds. á m u c a t . INT. á m u ñ c a t . root : oP.). á m o d i . PP. m u ñ c á t u . sB.) : minan . PT. 2. meṣṭhās. m ī y e t a (B. minā́ m i. GD. m u c á t . I . 1NP. 1NF. PT. m ī t á . PT. meṣṭa. INJ. muc release. m o h á y a t i . m u m u e m á h e . Ā. m ú h y a t I . V I . m ī v push. PF. : PR. 1NF. m i n ī m á s i . a : m u c á s . P. mī́ v ant. : á m ú m u h a t . mauk (VS. : PR.) . 1PF. m u ñ e á n t . is : 1NJ. ­múṣya. m u ñ c ā s i . m i n ā n á . minā́ m a . m u h é . mu­ m u g d h í . Ao. 1né1nihat (B.). ­ m ú c y a . m ú m o c a t . Ps. m u c y á t e . móṣīs. Ā. 1PF. GD.) . Ps. móṣatha. PP. m u d ī m á h i . : PR. AO. muṣé. á m u ṣ ṇ ī t a m . PP.) . m ī ḍ h á . 1NF. m e h á y a t i . m ú e y ā t a i ( A v ) . AG. mokṣyáti. minat . . I X . iNJ. mohiṣyáti (B. mohayitvā́ . á m i n ā s . m i damage. ^ : á m a u k (B. oP. mī́ v ya (B. 1Pv. mī́ y ase. mimā́ y a . I v Ā.mcdáyati. mumueat . I v P. cs. m ī m a y a (AV. muñcá– m ā n a . PP.). Ps. pl. muṣitá.).) . : PR. Ds. Ā. sB. red. m u m u c ā n á . á m i n a n t a . PT. PPF.). : PR. m u m ó c a t a m . FT. INF. m u d be merry.). Ā. Cs. á m u m u k t a m . 1PP. minā́ t i . m ī v i t á (B. 1NP. Ao. PP. I X . m u d é . P. PP. m u m ó d a . m i h é . ­te. : PR. m u e á . INT. ­míye. mekṣyáti.AO. sn. m u m u c r é . I v . á m u k t a m . ­te (B. mukṣata (3. PT. root : á m o k . m u k t á .) . á m u ñ c a t a . PT. m é t o s (B. m u m ó c a t a . a : á m u h a t (B.). á m i n ā t . m ú c ­ yase . múmodayiṣati(B. PP. sB. du. mumucas . m ú ­ m u k ṣ a t i . á m ā y i (B. Ao. Ao. GD.) .) . Ā. FT. L Ā. GD. m u c á d h v a m . : PR. oP. á m u s ­ ṇ ā s . m u m ó k t u . m o k t u m (B.

oP. sB.) . Cs. mareáyāt. Ao. PT. –te. marmṛjata. mriyáte . mṛ crush. mur­ iyá . mármṛjat. mṛṣṭá. INF. mṛtvā́ (B. mṛdh neglect. márāmahe . mṛktá. 1Pv. GD. PP. P. sB. mṛdyáte (B. I . iPF. 1Pv. 1Pv. iPF. 1PF. v I . mardiṣyáte (B. mṛḍáte (B. Gnv. mṛkṣīṣṭá. es. mūr­ yáte (B. inṛṇájāni (B. marmṛjmá. PP. s : PRC. marmṛjyámāna . mṛṣṭvā́ . PT. ámūrehat. mṛjmáhe. P. : ámīmṛṇan.). PT. Ā. mṛ die. P. FT. : PR.). ámṛṇat. márjya. māmṛjúr . mṛdhā́ t i. mṛṇá.) . Ao.). ámṛkṣāma . márdhiṣat . es. : 1Pv. sB. mṛjāná . : P-^. PP. mṛḍ be gracious. : oP. mṛkṣvá . 2. mṛkṣatam . sB. r e d .). marjáyati. mṛtá. mamrúr . 1Pv.). mūrṇá (Av. mamā́ r ja. I X . mṛṇ crush. mā́ r ṣṭi . 1Pv. markṣyáte (B. Ā. ­te (B. : ámīmṛjanta (B. māmṛjītá. is : sB. mamā́ra .) . i ṣ : ámārjīt (B. Ā. mardhiṣṭam. red. I . PF. root : ámṛta . PT.). márāma . mṛjé.). márati.). sB. mṛñjáta (3. mṛñjyā́t (B. mṛjánti. sa : ámṛkṣat . mṛḍḍhvám . mṛṇát . mármṛjanta. māráyati.) .). mūrtá (B. : PR. PT. 1 . mūrcháyati (B. oP. Ps. mṛḍáyati. PRC. mṛdyā́sam (B.). cs.). PF. mṛṇánt. I . 1NJ. mármṛjāna a n d marmṛjāná .). ámṛkṣanta . : PR. Ps.). mṛṣṭá (3. 1nar1nartu. v I . mṛthā́s . mā́ r ṣṭu . ­mṛ́jya. PP. mamṛḍyúr.).). marmṛjyáte. Ā. mṛdhyā́s . GD. v I I . : PR. mṛḍáti . root : op. GD. marisyáti ( A v ) .). red. marīmṛj­ yáte (B. 1Pv. 1PF. ­mṛ́dya (B. root : mṛṇyúr (K. 1NJ. mṛj wipe. mamṛvā́ ṃ s. : PR. mṛd crush: Ao. márate .) . márdhati. 1nṛḷá and mṛḍátāt (Av. s : ámārkṣīt (B. Ps. márditos (B. PF. mármṛjat. cs. mṛditá.). . I I . oP. mraṣṭā́ (B. Ao. PP. s.). 1NT. INJ. mṛḷátu. múr thicken. mṛṇīhí . mṛddhá. PP. márdh¬ īs . pl. v L P. mamṛjé and māmṛjé .) . 1NF. mrakṣyáte (B. mṛḷā́ti and mṛḷā́t . : 1PF. márati . mṛṇáti .) . 1nṛc injure : Ao. : ámīmarat (B. ámṛjata. márai.múrch. FT. ps. mṛjyáte. 1NT. Ao. PP.) . marc­ áyati . ­mṛ́jas (B. mārjáyati.).) . mārjitvā́ (B.

s: áyākṣīt . 1Pv. Ds. P. Ps. –te. sB. mīmṛṣas . du. CS. a : INJ. mimikṣúr . GD. Cs. 1Pv. -te. yā́ṭ (2. Cs. yájāti. –mrade (B. PP. ­te. yátamāna. iNF. 2. yatiṣyáte (B. 1 n a r ī m ṛ ś y á t e (B. ­te. Ao.). Cs. Ā. 1nIā́yati (B.).). mamárṣa. yattá. 1NP. ­mṛ́śe.). íyakṣant . sB. 1nṛśáti.). yājáyati (B. Ā. yátema . ījé (1. yetiré. Ā. medátām (3. PP. Cs. P. a: ámrucat (B.). ījā́the ījiré. GD. áyajat. Ā. : áyīyajat (B. íyakṣati. root : ámyak . yakṣyáti (B.). Sa: ámṛkṣat..). yájati. yátasva . Ā. I.). ­mṛ́ṣe. 1Pv. mlāná (B. mármṛśat . s : áyās. yájadhyai. yákṣate . Fr. INT. Ps. s. íyakṣān . PT. . i s : iNJ. sa : 1Pv. mlā relax.mṛś touch.). IND. yákṣat . yatāná and yátāna .) . P P . 1NF. : iPv. PR. PP. Ao. yáṣṭum. yájant . médyantu. yájeta. red. pl. mṛkṣas. Ao. s. yátant . iṣṭvā́ . I v . yat stretch. s. FT. Ao. mimikṣiré. mṛṣánta . : PR. PT. áyaṣṭa (3. PP. root : PT. mṛ́ṣyate. du. root: IPv. 1 n y á k ṣ a . : PR. mróeati . yájatu. mradi¬ ṣyáti. Ā. PP. yajádhyai (TS.) . oP. Ā. yaṣṭā́ (B. 3. iPP. V I . yātáyati. mlócati (B. 1nrádate . s.). : iNJ. PP. yáṣṭave.).). mumlóca (B. myakṣ be situated. ­te . PP. mradáyati. oP. : i P v . yákṣatām . áyajanta. du. mruktá (B.) . I. marśáyati (B. : PR. v l . I v . PP. yak¬ satām (3. root : INJ.) .) . marṣiṣṭhās. mlātá. PP. yejé (3. GD. s. : 1Pv. 3. yátati. yátemahi . yákṣatas. iṣṭá. 1NF. mṛṣṭhās .) . yakṣīyá .). yátaite (3. 1nṛkṣata (2. s. mimyákṣa . PT. mrócant. ījāná. I . yákṣva. áyā́ ṭ . íyakṣamāṇa. mrúca. yájamāna. 1NJ. ámyakṣi. P. ­te . yaj sacrifice.). māmṛśúr . mamṛśé (B. medáyati. ­mṛ́śya. 1NF. yátatam . iNJ. yátan¬ tām .). Cs.). PF. yájantām. mruc. mṛṣṭá. mrad crush. Ao. I v : PR.) .) . sn. mṛṣ not heed. I. i s : áyatiṣṭa (B. L P. sB. yákṣi (1. yātyáte (B. PT. FT. ­te .). : PR. oP.). . mluktá.: PR. mluc set. red. med be fut. ­yátya (B. mráda.). PT. sn. yakṣyáte . mIāpáyati. Ao.

A. yáuti. yásyati. yācitá. PRC. yā́tu .) . 1NF. sB. PT. yayama .). PT. yasitá (B. I I I . yātvā́ (B. Ps. yācitvā́ and yā́cya (B. Ā . Ds. oP. : PR. áyaṃsata . yuyávat. PT. sB. i ṣ : yámiṣṭa (3. GD. 1. yā́siṣat . yā́tavái (B. 1pv. áyāmi (B. : 1Pv. i s : áyācīt . yámati and yámat.). yántave. yáman. yayáthur . sB.). yamáyati (B. : PR. áyāsiṣur . yaṃsénya. GD. –yátya. 1Pv.L yuyo­ .) . Ds.) . yātá. . yāc ask. yávan . 1Pv. yāciṣat . FT. yemátur . op. I I . yāsyāti. áyāsur . yeṣam ^ sis : áyāsiṣam. yaṃsi . PT. yayá.). yámas. yācitum. I . yáṃsatas . yamet . yácha and yáchatāt. yā́ n ti. yóyuvat ( A v ) . yámate . : PR. áyās. yáyastu. 1PF. áyāciṣṭa (B. PER. 1NF. sB. P. ­yái. : PR. sB. yāyā́ m . yemúr . yastá . áyān (3. PT. –yā́ya (B. Ipv. FT. yáchatu. y u t é . yayā́ce (B. FT. I v . yóyuvana. yoyuvé . áyātam . PF. yáṃsan . es. yā́ntu . ) . Ao. yamīmáhi . yemiré .). Ā. s : áyāṃsam. yáchāt . yā go. ­te . áyātana. A. GD. yā́tave.) . 1NF.). s. yāsiṣṭam . 1NT. yā́nt. yāpáyati (B. yāsiṣīṣṭhās . PP. yuyuvé. PF. PP. yuvāná. áyamur. yatá . áyāṃsi (B. yutā. Ā .) . áya¬ chat . yācáyati. yámam . yā́cati. yāhí. PP. áyaṃsta . 1NT. P.). yu unite.) . yántum (B. ­te. PP. I I I . a : oP. yáṃyamīti. yā́ t i. ­te. yíyaṃsati (B. PP. yanta and yantana . s. yas be heated. yemā́te . áyāsiṣṭām . Ā . yā́ c iṣāmahe.). yātá and yātána. yáchet. yāciṣyáte. 1N. yáehati.). yu separate. sB. áyur (B. sB. áyāsīt . yamyáte . yāmáyati. PRC yamyas (3.) . s. Ao. yemá. yemᬠthur. s. áyāt .). yamasāná . yúyūṣati. 1PF. 1NJ.). yaṃsyáti (B. Ā . yuváti. áyāma. PP. yutā́m (3. yāsiṣṭa. yayā́ t ha. áyāsiṣṭa. s. root : yamam. A. Ā . yantam . GDv. yayántha. yayúr . Ā. yemé (3. yuvita (B. : PR.) . I . áyachathās. oP. yuyóti. yandhí . yemāná. yemimá. yáṃsat . 2. ­yuya. Cs. 1Pv. : PR. Ao. V I . sB. yámitavái. cs. yayáu . yā́sat . 1NJ. I L P. Ao. yámase. Ā . yáṃsate . yayi­ vaṃs.) . yātám . s : áyāsam . PP. F T .yam stretch out. pT.

y u d h á y e . ­te (B. . Ao. root : sB. yújata and áyujran . sB. oP. yúyā́ t ām (B. yótsi ( = iPv. Ps. yuktvā́ y a. Ao. P. yunáktu . yuktá. yuktvā́ . yódhīs .).du. yuyópa . yujyā́tam . s. PP. áyukthās. yóktum (B. 1NJ.thā́s.) . ­te . red. FT. áyoyavīt. L P. : PR. GDV. A.) . yokṣyáte . yuyójate (3. iPv. root : A. yuñjáte . yuṅgdhvám . yóṣatas . sB.: PR. yupitá. sB. yuṅkté . yuñjā́ t hām . yuyujmá . P. áyuji. yódhanti (AV. yutá. yúdhyant . yuñjáta (3. yuṅdhí. PT.) .). du. : iPv. yṇjyáte . Cs. áyujmahi.). yāváyati . FT. yunájan. yuyodhi. Ao. yūṣam (Av. s: yóṣati a n d yóṣat . Ā. sB. yuddhá. yúyutsati. yotsyáti.).) . yúehantu . yuñjánti .). : PR. is : 1NJ. áyudhyas. áyāvi . PT. yopáyati. Ā. yunájat. 1NF. yāvīs. du. yuyopimá. yúchant. 1NF. yuṅkṣvá. áyukṣātām (3. GD. yudhé. yúdhya . iPF. s. PP.). yódhi . yuyuyā́ t ām. yukṣvá . Ao. PRC. yup obstruct : PP. yuṅtā́m . Ao. 1Pv. yuñjántu . yukta (3. PT. áyoji . yáus (2.) . Ds. du. s. áyuñjata (3. is : áyodhīt . I I . 1NJ. PT. oP. áyunak and ā́yunak . IV. oP. Ā. áyudhyat. yúyā́s (3. PT. pl. 2. Ps. yúdhyamāna . yauṣṭa. yuyutám and yuyótam . yuyudhā́ t e (3. yunájate (3.) . yúdnyati. yávanta . INF. pl. yóji . . V I L : yunákti .) .). s.) . yúdhyai. yokṣyáti (B. yuyujāná. yótos. yodháyati. ā́yuñjan . Ao. 3. : áyú­ yupan (B. Ā. yodhiṣṭam. yoṣṭhās (B. s. yauṣma. yaváyati.) . root : sB. PT. red. yuyója . yóyuvat . 1NT. PP. yójate . IPv. 1Pv. s. 1PF. yuj join. áyug­ dhvam. yoktā́ (B. áyukta . yauṣṭam .). A. PP. Ā. 1NJ. yujé . A. yauṣur . yúdham. yuyótu. ­yuddhvī́ . yuyudhúr . 1NJ. yunákta.) . 1Pv. yudh fight. yuñjánt .). Cs. ­te. yuyujé . : á y u k ṣ i . áyukṣata (3. sB. yótavái .). yujāná . yodhāná . PP. pl. yoyāva. yódhiṣat .). yuyā́ t (B. PT. Cs. yuyota. 1PF. yuyóta and yuyótana. 1NJ. yujyāva. yójam . PP. 1Pv. yuyujré. yuñjāná . yótave. : 1NJ. 1NT. IV.) . I . yoyup­ yáte (B. yuyódha . yódhya. GD. PF. yódhat . yúehati . yudhénya. y ú y o t .

PT.) . s.) . rīradhata . 1NT. ráṇyati. P. : rátsi ( = 1Pv.).). árāraṇur. I . ­ t i (B. áraṃhas. ram rejoice. PF. Ds. P. 1PF. : PR. Pad dig. 1NJ. Ao. raktá (B. rádhya. PP. Ā . ráṇyasi. IV. Ā . PP. raṃsyáte . s. ráṇa. cs. is : 1NJ. : PR.). rakṣáyate (B. rā­ rakṣāṇá. áraṃhata (3. ráda . : PR. sB. oP. PP. 1Pv. rambh graṣp. yéṣant.) . ráṇyathas. : sB. rápema.). sB. root: 1Pv. rákṣati.). randh make subject.) . rārabhé . es. rádantu. AG. rádat. raṃsiṣam. ráṃhamāṇa. red. PP. 1PF. rápati . rámate. rabh.). s. Cs. raṃháyati. PP. : PR. Cs. ran rejoice. árajyata. raditá. es. PT. ratá (B. PT. rārandhi. rārahāṇá. raṃh hasten. Ao. rārán (3. I . rajáyati. rīradhā . 1NJ. ­te. raddhá. PT. rap chatter. rápśante. ratvā́ (B. rarapśé. sB. PPF. L Ā . rádhāma . rarabhmá . ráṇanta .) . FT. 1NJ. árabdha . ráṇyanti. Ā .). randháyāsi. rádhyatu. rīramāma . rarā́ d a. áraṃsta (3. s. rápat .yeṣ be heated. sis : INJ. : árīramat . rīradhas. Ā .). rabdhá. es. PT. rāradhúr. ramáyati and rāmáyati.) . IX. rā́ r apīti. : PR. áramṇāt. INJ. a: sB. L : PR.). P. s : Ā . P. raṇáyati. rīraman . PP. ­te. . L P. L : PR.). rakṣitá. rípsate (B. rīradhat . Ao. rārántu. 1NJ. PP. rádant. : 1Pv. is : árakṣīt . ráṃhate .: PR. randhí ( = randdhí) . raps be full. 1NP. ráṇati . 1PF. rarā́ ṇ atā (2. PP. : 1PF. Ao. 1Pv. rārajītI. rakṣ proteet. I I . I . s. rambháyati. cs. 1Pv. rīradhatam . rádati. IV. rákṣiṣas. árapat. 1NJ. red. INJ. radh. raṃsthā́s . GD. yéṣati. 1NF. árākṣīt (B. raj eolour. pl. ­te (B. rebhiré . –rábhe. rāranta (2. : rápśate. áraṃsata (3. rarákṣa . I . rabhasāná. iṣ : árāṇiṣur . ráṇiṣṭana. rábhate. rántos (B. ­rábhya. áradat. ­rábham .: PR.). I . rāráṇat . sB. rebhāṇá. PF. áramṇas. PT. 1NJ. pl. A. rádham . rāráṇas. pl. s : 3. PP. ­te . 1NJ. rádantām (3. I v P. randháyati . PT. rāráṇa (1. rákṣiṣat. PP. PP.). GD. pl. : 1PF. rádat . rándhīs. 1NT.

2. 1NJ. riripúr. PT. rébhanti . riṇák (3. PT. s. réṣat. rā́ṣṭi . riṇák (3. rā give. Ao. riktám . rādhnóti (B. s. rī́yamāṇa. is : iNJ. Ps. riṣṭá. Ao. riktā. PP. I L P. I . red. s : ā́raik (3.) . V. rādh succeed. rī́yate . riricé . Cp. : PR. rāj rule. op. : 1Pv. Ā. 1NJ. rātsyáti. V I L P. rātá. áreci . : sB. rekṣyáte (B.). ríṣyet . riṇīté . du. ririkvā́ ṃ s .) . Ā.) .). iPF. riptá.). Ā. rarivā́ ṃ s . I . PT. is : árājiṣu. s. rā́ d hya. r i ṣ be hurt. sB. PRC. IL : PR. árādhi .) . 1Pv. ric leave. rarāthām (3. red. s. iNF. P. : PR. PPF. PT. rī́ y ante. rāsantām (3.) .). riṇácāva . Ao. áricyata . áriṇak (2. pl. rébhant. rā bark.). PT. PP. rājáyati (B. P. s. rikthā́ s . riśántām . rárate . FT. riś tear. iNJ. rirīhi . rādhāma . Ā. rā́ya . PP. rādhyā́ s am . rā́ṭ. P. : árīradhat (B. m . recáyati (B. ríṣyema. GDv. V I .r. 1PF. ṛā́ s va. ricyáte . rasi (=iPv. PP. irádhyai. Ā. riṇán . riṇāná. oP. Ps. iNJ. : PR. FT. : PR. rā́yasi . riricyā́ t . riṇánt . rariṣé . 1PF.). s : árātsīs . rarimá . lip. rā́sat .). : PR.). rā́sate (3. ririkṣé. Ps. rāddhvā́ (B. root : árādhvam . riṇáte . : PR. PP. Ā. : PR. rarāsva ( A v ) . sB. ­te. du. sn. PP. sB. riricāná. : PR. rárāṇa. áriṇāt . rip smear : PF. Cs. Ao. rāsatām (3. PT. 1Pv. root : 1NJ. I v . réṣāt . riṇā́ s . rāddhá . I X . sB. rāté (B. ríṣyati . rā́ d hyatām . árāsata (3. F. P.) . s: árāsma. . 1NF. Ao. riṇā́ t i. riricā́ t he . PT. . riṇákti . I. 1Pv. riricáthur . rarāthe . GD. iPv. riréca . rā́ d hyamāna. ribhyáte.1. rādhiṣi (1. PP. s. riśánt. PP. IV. rébhati . : PR. ribh sing. Cs. 1Pv.) . rarīdhvam . ­rādhya (B). ririeyā́ m . rā́jati. riricré .).) . riṇā́s . rādhyā́ s ma . riśā́mahe . riṇīthás. Cs.) . root : árādh­ am (B. Ā. r i ṇ á n t i . rarāṇá. : PR. s. PT.). r i flow. áriṇītam . iPv. ríṣyās. rādhat and rādhati . rasan. PT. rarā́ d ha.) . 1PF. rādháyati. ríṣyāti and ríṣyāt .) . PP. Ao. I v . rirébha. : árīricat (B. Ao. IV. rājáse. s. árikṣi . rā́ y ant. áriṇīta.). árirecīt. rébhat. Ā. oP. pl. raré (1. rāsāthām (2. rāsīyá.

). 1. riṣṭá. rundhí ( = runddhí) . Cp. rīriṣes.). rujáti.) and rociṣīyá (B. a : árudhat . is : árāvīt . IPF. Ds. Ā . rurucúr . Ao. PT. rurudhré.) . rueiṣīyá (AV.) .) . 1NT. PP. PP.). ruvánti. árundhata (3. A0. rīḍhá. is : Ā . lih. rundhām ( = runddhām. rúndham (B. róruvāṇa (B. PF. ruváti. P. GD. Ds.). ruṇádhāmahai . ruj break. PP. PT. rucitá (B. I I . PP. du. ruródhitha . pl. L rudh obst^uet. I I .). sB. 3. rerihyáte . FT. Ā . ároravīt. rocáyati. B. PP. rihánti . róddhos (B. rócate. GD. –rúdham. reṣáyati . V I I . IPF. rúrutsate (B. rudánti .. rundhate (3.) . . s. rurucanta. árautsīt (B. rurucé (3.) .) and rihāṇá. : PR. a : árudat. s : áraut . riṣāma.). 1NT. s. 3. ríṣant and rī́ṣant . : árūrucat . r e d . ­rúdhya.) . root : árodham . PP. Ao. rudh¬ ánt .). : PR. rueé. Ps. ruktvā́ (B. rírikṣati. PP. es. rugṇá. 1NT. 1NF. rurukvā́ ṃ s. A. PT. red. rīriṣat . ru break : Ao. red.). riṣé .) . rihāṇa (vS. Ps. rérihāṇa. rihánt . rīriṣata (2.) ráuti . árūrueata (3.). róravīti . s. PT. r u v á t . PT. árudh¬ ma .). rurucāná. PT. árodīt (B. 2. INF. róruvat .) . r ó k . 1NJ. ruddhá. oP. : 1NJ. sB. 1NF. pl. root: 1NJ. riṣayádhyai. Ao.) . rīriṣas. áruddha (B. PT. 1NT. 1NJ. réḍhi . pl. róditi . PT. is : rā́viṣam. rurója. ṛudhát . árutsi (B. rórucāna. V I . Ao. PT.). Ā . ru cry. PP. Ā .). rīriṣīṣṭa and ririṣīṣṭa (3. r u v á . I . : PR. ruc shine. PP. ­ródham (B. ririhvā́ ṃ s. cs. P. ­rúje. iPF.). Ā. root : PT. rotsyáti. 1NF. rucāná . riṣātha and riṣāthana . 1Pv. : PR.a : áriṣan . I . rudánt. s. riṣás. rundhāná . árudhan . rodáyati. s. oP. ruruviré (B. (B. pl. I I . rutá. es. ­te (B. ároci. PP. Ā . ruṇáddhi . Ao. oP. rudhyáte . PT^ róruvat. : PR.). r u n d h é ( — runddhé) . rérihat . árociṣṭa (3. sB. árāviṣur. PRC.).: PR. 1Pv. PT.). riháte and rihaté . ródāt (Kh. ­rújya (B.ruṇádhmi. rud weep. ­te (B. P. : árūrujatam (2. rurójitha. INF. PP. rutá. rurueyā́ s . ruvánt. PT. ruróca . Ā . ri h lick. 1NJ.) .

r u h á t a m .). PP. r u h é m a . l a m b h á y a t i . lebhiré . ­ r ú h a m . cs. PP. ­te (B. līná. r é j a t . Ao. l i l é k h a (B. r ó d h a t . Cs.). : PR. PT. rūḍhvā́ . á r u h a n . GD. : á r ú r u p a t . P F . ruhā́ v a . l á b h a t e . red. réjati.). 1PF. PT. Ā. r é j a m ā n a . Cs. l i l y é (B. r ó h i ṣ y a i (TS.). P. lelā́ y ati. GD. AO. I . r u r ó h a . ­ l á b h y a (B. l i p t á .) . PP. árukṣāma.) .). VI. : PR. 1NT. lilépa. l u p y á t e . PP. 1Pv. lap prate. i s : 1NJ.). 1NT. l u m p é t . s a : r u k ṣ á s . P. r o p á y a t i (B. ns. l u b d h á (B. l a b h y á t e (B. Iapiṣyáti (B. Ā.). P. ­te (B. ruham. FT.). á r u h ā m a . árejanta. l i m p á t i . ­te (B.) . : á l ú l u b h a t (B. op.) : Ā. álapsata. . P. Iā́ l apīti. r o h á y a t i . r u p i t á . l i p y á t e (B. lī cling. pp.) . Cs. : PR. –lípya (B. r u r ó h i t h a . I o b h á y a t i . GD. s (B. l i k h scratch. AG. I á p a n t . r u r u h ú r . Cs. pl. PP.).) . r u h á . sB.) . l e h á y a t i . Ds. AG. 1NJ. lipsate (B.). l o p á y a t i . r ú h a t . Ds. r u p break. PF. r ú h ā ṇ a . r u ḍ h á .). : PR. GD. : PR. red. PP.). r u h ascend. l á y a n t ā m . á l a b d h a . lédhi(B.) . árejetām (3. r é j a n t a (3.). árukṣat. Ao. a : á r u h a m . á r u h a s . l a p á y a t i (B. ­lúpya. FT. r o p á y a t i (B. s : áleṣṭa (B. s : á l i p s a t a (3. I . l á p a t i . PF.) . : á l ī l i k h a t (B. : PR.2. 1NF. pp. du. : PR. l ú b h y a t I . l í p s a t e . r ó ḍ h u m (B. ­layāṃ cakre. r ó d h a t i . l i l y ú r . FT. Ps.). INJ. Cs. l u b h desire. lúlobha­ y i ṣ a t i (B. Iapsyáti. oP. Cs. r o k ṣ y á t i (B. ­ l í k h y a (B. ­te (B. I . : PR. INT. ­te. l e b h ā n á .) . r ú r u k ṣ a t i . : PR. I . r ó h a t i . ­te. VI. PT. Cs.). lahdhvā́ .). lelihitá(B. l i l i p ú r (B. root : PT. Ao. Iapitá. r ú p y a t i (B. –rúhya. : PR. l a b d h á . I v P. : PR. Cs. red. PP. r u d h grow.). P. l u p t á . PP. I . GD. rej tremble. lihlick.). rejáyati.). PP. l á y a t e . lelā́ y a. I ā p á y a t i . 1NJ. 1Pv. pp. l é k h î s . AC. l u p break. Ps. PP.). pl. l i k h á t i . l i p smear. labh take. I I . IV. ps.). l u m p á t i . l i k h i t á .). : PR.). ­te (B.).). á r u h a t . ­te (B. v l . l i p s y á t e (B. Ps. I .

vátema . 1PF. vádāma. vac speak. vocéya . úcāná. vājáyate . -úcya (B. váñcati.) . -te (B. -udya (B. vavákṣitha. : PR. vócati and vócati . vocata. vaksyáti . root : PRC ucyā́sam (B.). vocéyur .) . P. : PR. red. es. vádhet . vócāvahai.). 1unā́ti. sB. vājáyant. 1Pv.) . P.). vacyáte. váktave . iṣ : á- . PT. vóce. Ds. vádha. PF. FT. vājáya .). Ā. red. PF.). váktos (B. ávadan . : ávocat . P. váditum (B. vadh slay. 1pv. Ā. vádheyam. ávādiran (AV. root : PRC udyā́sam (B. sB. 1Pv. Ā. vádadhvam . vócam. ávaksyat (B. va¬ vakṣátur . ávāci. PT. ^o. vaj be strong . 1pv.). vaktā́ (B. vádet. PT. IPv. vádeta. uciṣé . vakṣáyati. vádāni. Ā. vā́diṣas . pp. vádatṇ. Ā. v. vádasva . ūdimá . vājáyāmas.) . 1NF. es. es. vadhyā́t (B. vádat . 0P. AO. P. Ā. udyáte . váda.) . vavakṣé . -te (B. PP. -masi . ūcimá. vocéyam. pp. vā́Cya. vócā. vavadītu. uvā́ca and vavā́ca. Ao. : ávīvatan. Ā. vívakti . vócāma .) : váditos (B. : PR. vádāti . Ā. vavakṣúr .). vātáyati. ávavacīt. vavadat. Ā. 1NT. 1NT. I . vadhyā́sam . ávādiṣur . : PR. op. vācáyati (B. cs. Ā. ūcúr. ps. : PR. Ds. vádati. FT. voCatu . PT. vadyáte (B. vócét. uváktha. vavákṣa . vocatam . vavákṣat. údé ( eut (B. op. vā́diṣur. lūná. víVakṣati. ipv. uditá. Ps. 1NJ. vátant. vócanta. -te (B. 1NJ. uktvā́ (B.).). Ā. Ps. GD. vadáyati. I I I . Iunóti. váktum (B. vádant. AO. vāvakré. PPF. : op. uktá.). vádāthas . I . sB.) . vívaktana. cs. vádān . co.). GD. vā́vadīti. vívadiṣati (B. vívakmi. Vad speak. vavakṣiré.). AO. I . -te . PP. vádasi and vádās. vbeétam. 1NJ.). vocatāt. ps. iṣ : ávādiṣam .) . vócas. P. 1PF. vócasi. PT. root : PRC. vocéma. vócan. voeémahi . vadiṣyáti . Vakṣ inerease (=2. vócat. 1NF. vañc move crookedly. I X . ucyáte. vat apprehend. op. ukṣ) : PF. I . –vā́ce . vāvadyáte (B.). vocés. strengthen : PR. ávadanta. GDv. : PR.

vanósi. PT.). op. Ā. vanóti . ávamīt. 1pv. pl. vanditá. váṃsate . : PR. 1NF. : PR. 1NJ. 1pv.). P T. Ao.). vápati. vádhīt. úpiṣé. vivaṣṭu. úpáṭhur . Ā. Ā. PT. sB. PP. s: ávāpsīt (B. GDv. Ā. PP. Ā. 1NJ. sB. PT. váśāma . 1PF.). Ā. AO. P F. PT. Ā. vanvátām .). upyáte . vavánda . I . vákṣi. vavandé . ^ vā́pi . vanvan . op. s. sB. sB. vanés. PP. Ao. sB. 1PF. Ps. : PR. vā¬ vandhí . váśanti . vánāva . vanávase . vavandimá . V I I I . PP. vavákṣi. ­vantave. Ds. sn. ávanvata. ávanvan . váṣṭi . AO. INF.). váṣṭu . Ā. váśmi. vanéma.). A. vánate . vavandiré. PF. válgant. vāvaśāná. uptá. P. uśánt . Ā. du. vanata . vándya. vanuṣvá. váṃsāma . vavanmá . vanávat . : sB. váṃ¬ sat . váman.). Ao. uvā́ma (B. vanā́ t i . vívāsāt. vanutā́ m . vániṣanta. vanvánt .). vadh¬ iṣṭa and vadhiṣṭana (2.^ : PR.).vadhiṣam and vádhīm. uśāná. vaś desire. válganti. 1P v. vanuyama . ávamat (B. Vap strew. vanuté . ūpé (3. 1NJ. ávadhiṣma. : PR.). ­úpya. vavné . vandádhyai. vaṃsiṣīyá. vanvé. Cs. PF. vāvaśé . vapsyáti (B. PF. vadhiṣṭhās . vadhiṣṭam (2. ávalgata (2. valg leap. Ao. iNJ. 1NJ. ávanos . L Ā. P. vándate. vándi. uśánti . vánāmahai . vanáti and vánati . uśmási and śmási. vānáyantu. I . vāvā́na . pl. I I . 1Pv. Ps. vanase. vivaṣṭi. váśat . váṃsi . iṣ : ^oP. GD. vániṣat. vánatam . i s : sn. ávadhīt and vádhīt . vavanvā́ṃs. vanémahi . . Ā. vaṃsi¬ máhi and vasīmáhi. vāpáyati (B. Ā. 1PF. vanvántu . FT. op. vadhiṣur . root : váṃsva . vádhīs. vand greet. PP. s : ávān (B. –vāta. 1PF. Ā.). s. : PR. vanuthás . vaniṣīṣṭá. P. Ā. : PR. vanudhvám. Cs. PRC. van win. I I I . V I . sB. and I . ­te. vanatām (3. vāvánat . IPv. L : PR. Ā. vāvántha. vanvāná . 1pv. ávadhīs. vánās . vandiṣīmáhi.váḍhiṣas. vam vomit. vāvaśúr. vāntá (B. vanas . sis : oP. ávaśat. vanta (=vananta). vívāsati . I I .

v á y a n t . ó t u m . ps. v ā h i .) . INJ. IPF. v á y a t e (B. vā́ m i. ū y á t e (B. P. uhyáte. vāháyati (B. IPF. ó t a v á i . vas wear.1. L : PR. v ā s á y a t i . vās¬ ayiṣyáte. v a s ī m a h i . voḷhā́ m . á v ā k ṣ u r . vā́ y anti. v ā s y á t e (B. v á s t ā m (3.). vāsáyati. ūháthur. s. F T .). ū ṣ i m á . IPF. : 1pv. uhītá. voḍhā́ (B. es. Ps. vā́ n ti . u c h á . Ds. P. PT. s.) . uṣṭá. v ā v a s ā n á . vak¬ ṣyáti . P F . u v ú r . PT. ū ṣ ú ṣ ī (TS. pl. vas dwell. : PR. vákṣas. P. vā́ t i . ­te .). iṣ : ávasiṣṭa (3. v á s a t a (3.) .). : PR. v ā s á y a t i . v á s ā t h ā m (TS. ūhúr. vanī¬ vāhyáte (B. root: oP. vóḍhave. váhati. du. ūhᬠtur . Vah earry. Ā . I I . á v ā t .). AG. sis : ávāsīt (B. v á s t a (3. –vā́he . ūḍhvā́ (B. á v a y a n .) . Ipv. PT. PF.). GD. v á s ā n a .) . v á k ṣ a t i and vákṣat .). uṣitvā́ (B. v a ñ c h desire. I . vákṣan . v a v á u (B. es. 1. váhadhyai.).). FT. vajayá desire booty.). ūṣivā́ ṃ s .) . PF. IPF. 1Pv. úhiṣé . á u e h a s á u c h a t . : ávīvasat . v o ḷ h á m (2.). I v . : PR. es. vā́ y atas . ū ṣ ú r . PT. v í v a t s a t i (B. v ā v a s ā n á . : PR. v ó ḍ h u m . v á s t a v e . vákṣatas . PT.). vākṣīt. uch. Ao.). v ā p á y a t i .) . v a y i ṣ y á t i . s : á v ā t (3. ávasta. 1NJ. vā́ ñ chantu. v ó ḍ h a v á i (B. ó t a v e . Ā. uchā́ t . u e h á t a . 2. ūhiré. u t á . v I . Ao. á v a s r a n . 1Pv.).áti . uvā́ha . pT. s: ávāṭ. uchā́ n . 1NT. PP. v ā blow. 1NJ.). u c h é t . v ā t á s . v ā v a s é . cs. u c h á t .). H . va weave. s. ū ṣ á t u r . vā́ n t .). 1NF. pp. PT. 3. ú h ā n a . u ṣ á (2. I v : PR. v á s ā t h e . PT. Ā . INF. u c h á n t u . PT.) . s. Go. ­vāsāṃ cakre (B. Ps. PER. L : PR. Ipv. á v a s t h ā s . v á s t e . 3. á v a y a t . v á y a t i .) . GD. den. root : v á s ā n a . r o o t : ā́vas (2.). P. PP. 1pv. op. u e h á n t . vas shine. vákṣathas. pl. PP. vā́ t u . pp. red. Ā . vā́ t ave (Av. . vā́ y ati . vásiṣva. Ao. vā́ ṭ . v a t s y á t i (B. sB. : PR. s. 2. voḍhvám . ūḍhá. ­úṣya (B. u c h á t u . ­te . PP. ­ ú h y a . á v a t s y a t (B. I. pl. v á s a t e (B. uvā́ s a. Ao. sB. cs. v á y a t a .) . FT. FT.). oP. vājayánt. v á y a . ­te. v á s a t i . 1NF. s : ávātsīs. v á s a t e (3.

vidām akran (B. V é V i j ā n a . 1PF. vidré . vivikvā́ṃs. FT. véttave . vidas. A. a : ávidam. véttu . vidyā́m. P.). s n . P F . Cs. vāśáyati. vīvijas. PP. áv^dāma.) .). 3. vividré a n d vividriré. vejáyati (B. Ā . viñcánti . P. vívidiṣati (B. vidét. viktá (B. : 1NJ. vidyā́tam. vidyúr .). vidāthas. pr. PT. IV.) . viditvā́. vmcánt . iṣ: Ā. vijánte . ávidas. AC. vidám. -vídya (B. vittá. s. vidant .vaś bellow.). iNP. AO. i s : ávedit(B. FT. vévidāma. vidmáne. viddhí and vittā́t.) .). viddhí . Ā . : PR. V e V i j y á t e . op. vetsyáti. Ac. vidmás . A. AO. vidmá. ávāśiṣṭhās (B. Ā. s. G n v . ávīvaśan .). A.). 1NF. védas. ávidat. PT^vijámāna . PER. vivitsé. PT. ns. VaVaśiré and VaVaśré . PT. r e d . vijántām . vidyáte. vidáta(3. 1Pv. PPF. vidvā́ṃs.).). PP. GD. vidā́ t . iNJ. pp. PT. viktá. vévidat. A. I I .). ávāvaśanta. PT. vi– vidúr. vividáthur . GD. vidán. vidúr . V I . I I . Cs. V I . vindáti. PT. AO. vā́śati. Ps. vidát. ávīvaśanta. viditá. vidā́yya. I . vidánta. P. vidáthur . védati and védat. vā́¬ vaśat. vittám. vivéda .) . ávije. Ds. 1pv vidátam. P.) . s. vidyā́t. PRC. ávedam.). vidéyam. véditum (B. ávet and vét . Cs. vinná. viktá. : ávīvaśat . vidéya. PP.). vividé. IPv. véda (1. 1NT. ávidan. -te. vidé (3. ávedi. Ā . ávitsi. red. vediṣyáti. INT. veditā́ (B. sB.). : PR. s : Ā . vidás. vitsé.). ávidanta. vidām (AV. vedáyati. vid know. vidé. 1. PP.). vidyā́ma. v ā ́ ś y a t e .). : PR. ávavaśītām (3. VaVaśāná. –te. OP. 1PF. sB. . PT. vidré . vídāna and vidaná. áVinak. Ps. véditos (B:). vévidana. vicyáte . ávidur (B. ­te (B. 1PF. vic sifu V I I . ps. PT. : PR. vináktu . vivéditha. vidā́ṃ cakāra (B. véttos (B. videṣṭa (AV. vividat . PT. du. PF. 1Pv. védathas. ­te (B. I l l . vid flnd. 1Pv. védi. vittvā́. vidá. iNT.). vívekṣi. 3. véttha . sB. vidéma. vidmáhe (B. vij tremble. PER. vikthā́s. root : 1NJ. vividvā́ṃs. ­ 2. A. : PR. vivijré. vívitsati (B. PP. : PR. vidātha. : PR.

sB. ávyan. vidhánt . várante. PR. rcot : PT. : PR.). vītá. várate. CS. vekṣyáti. vīḷáyasi . : PR. sn. viṣṭá. viviśré. du. PT. VéVeṣmi. ViViśivā́ ṃ s (TS. úrṇuté . urṇuthás. viś enter. várathas .). Ā. vip tremble. 1^ : ávepiṣṭa (B. INJ. veśáyati. PT. IPF. I. veviṣyāt . váyati . –víśya. ps. viṣ be active. viśáti. víveṣṭí . pp. . urṇóti . ViViṣúr. Ā. OP. I . : 1pv. I. v I . III. 1pv. veṣṭáyati. víveṣas . : sB. 1NT. ūr¬ ṇótu . Ā. PF. 1NF. vidhémahi . : sn. op. iṣ: 1NJ. vīhí. 1pv. INF. ávṛṇvata (3. vidhán . Ā. ávepanta.) . vṛṇvé . : PR. -te. vivā́ y a. vīthás . ps. FT.) . urṇutá. ṅrṇómi.). 3. viviṣṭás .). PT. vyāná. vevīyáte. áurṇot. –Víṣe. várāte. sB. sB. PF. -te. váranta.). véveti .Vidh worship. P. ūrṇvāná . iNJ. vṛṇváte and vṛṇ– Vaté. : PR. ve kṣyáti (B. red.). P. V. ávidhat. PT. es. vivéśitha .). s. viviḍḍhí . vyánt. 1PF.) . ViVéṣa . ūrṇuṣvá . ávives and vivés (2.v i ś i v ā ́ ṃ s (Av. véṣṭavái (B. : PT. VṛṇVánt. vītám .^ vivéśa (1. vyánti . s. pp. vidhā́ti . úrṇuvánt . víhí and vītā́t. INT. Ao. . 1PF. ávṛṇos. Ā. AO. áviśran . Vivés (3. : PR. ūrṇuhí and urṇú. vīḷáyasva. áviveśīs. 1. vīyáte. véviṣat . vṛ cover. áurṇos. vepáyati. véṣat. vidhát . ávikṣata (3 pl. i ṣ : Véṣíṣas. véṣi. viviṣ¬ más . v I . I I . vī enjoy. PPF. urṇutás . pl. áVeṣan. viviśyā́ s . PF. cs. ūrṇuṣé.). vṛṇóti . vés . urṇot . pp. PT. Ā. PT. Véṣant. s. PF. vīḷitá. 1pv. vyántu. FT.^ 1PF. ávṛṇot. vépate . 1PF. véti . 1NF. –viśam . -Víṣya. veṣṭ wrap. GD.). viviśúr and (once) viveśur. s : ávikṣmahi.) .). vétu . vipáyati. : vémi. Vītáye. : ávīvipat . AO. OP. PT. vidhánta . root : Ā. vīḍ make strong : es. AO. -te (B. pp. áViVeṣīs. IPv. IPF. viṣṭitá. Vidhéma . várethe. ViṣṭVī́. I. -te (B. vipaná . sa: áVÌkṣat (B. véṣṭatam (3. GD. Véśīt. vivipré. vivyé. vívekṣi. 1PF.). véviṣāṇa. VeViṣyáte (B. 1NJ.). vépamāna . viṣṭ. Ā. PPF. ūrṇuvántu . viṣṭá. pp. 1NJ. viṣyáte (B.

). vartsyáti . Ā . vṛñjáse. vurītá (3. root : ávart . s : ávṛṣi . sB. 3. s. PT. vṛñjáte . 2. : PR. ávṛkṣmahi . ávran . ávṛṇí. vṛṇákṣi. várk . vavṛtyā́ t . INF. vavṛktám (2. vṛṇáktu . VaVṛVāṃs. várṣathas . vavṛjúr . ­vṛ́ j e. Ā . váranta . vāráyati. varjáyat1. vṛtá.) . várjati .) . ŚB. vṛṇé. oP. –vṛ́jya. pl. PT. várjate .) . ávavṛtran .) . 1pv. vṛktvī́ .). ávīvarata (3. vavarjúṣ­ī . sa : ávṛkṣam. Ā . vṛṇīdhvám. iNJ. pp. ávartsyat (B. ávṛjan .). ávṛta . 3. vṛṇátām . vártave. ávṛta . GD. vártat . Vṛttá. 1NT. s. vṛṇáte . ávṛṇīdhvam (AV. vṛdhí . PT. AO. vṛṅkṣvá. Ā . 1PF. Ao. várat . ­te . op. 1NJ. 2. PF. Ā . vṛṇītá (3. vṛṅdhí. vavṛtvāṃs. oP.). vṛjyáte. s : sB. ávṛṇīta . váreṇya. sB. PP. 1NJ. Ā . VaVré. vṛñjā́te . ­Vṛ́ t e. PF. Ao. vṛṅkté . du.) . Ā . varīvarjáyant ( A v ) . PP. ávṛṇīmahi. vavṛtúr. vṛjyām . vṛṇītá . vavṛmáhe. ­Vṛ́tya. FT.). vṛjyā́ma . root: vám ( = váram). Ā . variṣyáte (B.). vavártati. Cs. Co. : 1PF.). s: A. Ao. vṛjyā́s (3. Ps. sB. varta ( = vartta.) . vṛkṣi . 1NF. vṛjádhyai. vṛṇákti . 1Pv. root : várk (2. Vṛtturn. vavṛttána (2. vṛṇīṣvá . vívṛkṣate (B. PP. : vártate. vāvṛjé . FT. ávṛṇak (2.). s : ávārkṣīs (B. Ā . vṛṇāná . vṛtá.). GDv. Cs. ávṛḍhvam (B. Cs. red. ávāri . vár (2. FT. varkṣyáti. vavṛṣé . ávavṛtranta. 3. vrán . ávṛñjan. oP. vṛṇīsé.) . vavṛj¬ yúr . I X .I X . du. PRC. ­vṛ́tya. : PR. vṛtvī́ . Ā . vavártaand vāvárta. Ā . PPF. vṛtvā́ . iṣ : ávārīt (B. vívārayiṣate (B. ) . a: ávṛtat√red. vavártat and vavṛtat. OP. Ds. Ds. ŚB. s.) . s. vavártha. A. vṛñjánti . vartam . ávṛk (AV.). vāvṛté. GD. V I I . (á­)varjuṣī ( A v ) . vṛṇīmáhe. Vavṛtyā́m. Vṛktá. s. I .). s. 1Pv.). ávṛtran . ­Vṛ́tas (B. varktam (2. PPF. váras. pl. PT. ávṛkta . AO. vavrúr. 1Pv.) . vraṇá . vṛtvā́ y a . Várīvṛjat . Ā . ávarīvar. s. Cs. vavā́ra . . : ávīvaran . ávṛ¬ ṣata. ávāvarīt. vṛṅktá. iPF. s. I. 3. 1NJ. : ávīvṛtat . 1Pv. 1Pv. s. vṛṇjé. vavṛtyā́s. PF. GD. ps. ­te (B. vṛṇīté . PP. vṛñjántu .^ 1pv. ā́var and vár (2. PT. vartitā (B.). vṛṇájan . vṛj twist. PT.) . 1NF. root : ávri. vṛtá (3.). varta . PP. Ā. vṛ choose. ávṛtsata. urāṇá . INT. vārya . 1NJ.

). vṛdhāma. vénas . iNJ. pl. PPF. vṛṣṭvī́ . vénatam (2. vṛṣ rain. Ā.). vāvṛdhā́ t e . PP. PT. PP. vṛháta . s. vavárha. : PR. ­te . PP. i P v . vṛddhá. Ps. s : ávarṣīs. vivyacanta. varṣiṣyáti (B. IV. vivyácat. vṛdháse .). vṛdhāná . vṛdhé . P. ­várṣṭos (B. várṣati . vyáthate. red. 1NF. varīvṛt– yáte (B. I . vāvṛṣāṇá.).). vṛhyáte (B. ven long. vāvṛdhāti . Ds. vavárdha . ávarṣīt. vartayádhyai. ­vṛ́hya. P F . vyáthiṣat . P F . ­te . I I I . 1NT. GDv. vyáyeyam . PT. 1pv. áv1vyacur. PP. ávīvṛdhan . vyatháyati. vívyatsati (B. PT. vāvṛdhúr . 0 P .). 1Pv.) .) . du. vyáyati. GD. Ā. várṣant. vídhyati. Ac. várhi . ávṛhas. : PR.vartáyati. vividhvā́ ṃ s. ávarīvar (3. ávenat.) . PP. vṛṣṭá. 1PF. ­vídhe. Cs. vyáthiṣṭhās . 1NT. vāvṛdhāná. Ao. Vāvṛdhanta. a : ávṛdham. ^D.). INF. –vṛhas.). Ao.) . vṛṣṭvā́ (B. Ā. du. vāvṛdhate . Ā. vyathitá. iPF. 1NJ. PT. : PR. : PR. Cs. vyādháyati (B. vraṣṭā́(MS. op.). várṣantu . i ṣ : oP. ávṛdhan . ipv.) . Ao.) . L P. PPF. s. áviviktām (3. oP. vṛhéva . Cs. ávṛdhat . vivyādha (B. vyā envelope. vāvṛdhádhyai (PP. vyac extend.) . Ā. : PR. red. Ds. ávarīvur (3. : PR. iNJ. s a : ávṛkṣat (B. 1NJ. vāvṛdhénya. pl. s : vyā́tsīs (B. s : PT. vivyak (3. : PR^Vivikṭás (3. IV. vivyáktha. I . : PR.) . V I .). vyáthiṣmahi. ­te.) . 1NF. 1NF.) . Cs. PT. PP. vṛhátam . 1Pv. vṛhá a n d vṛḥátāt . PF. vṛh tear. vṛdh grow. Ao. vṛdhasāná .) . vṛháti . Va– vṛdhátur. P. I . várvarti ( = várvartti) and varīvarti ( = varīvartti) . V I . 1Pv. varṣáyati.) .). vṛḍhá (B. INF. Ao. : vṛṣásva . vyadh pierce.). viddhá. : vivyathas (B. ávivyak. 1PF. : ávīvi'dhat . du. P. ­te (B. vartyáte (B.). vardhá­ yati. vyathayīs (AV. P. Ā. vāvṛ́ ṣ asva . ^B. ávīvṛdhadhvam. Ps. Ao. vṛṣéthām (2. 1PF. FT. vívṛtsati . vāvṛdhīthā́ s . is : sB. Pp. vyath waver. vāvṛdhvā́ ṃ s . . várvṛtati (3. PT. vṛdhánt . vénatí . ávīvṛdhanta . du. vardhiṣīmáhi. ­te. vṛhát . vāvṛdhásva .). vāvṛdhé. vivyā́ca. vénant. Ā. várdhati. vyathiṣyai (B.

á v y a y a m .). v ṛ ś c á t u . v. Iv. ś a p t á (B. śam.). pp. pi. ś í m y a n t u . Ps. śaṃs praise. PER. ś a d prevail : PF. Ao. śaśaṃsé (B. GD. áśaknuVan. śepiṣé. PT. á v y a t a (3. ś á k a s . be ^uiet. GD. śekimá. śaśā́ka .). ś á p a t a s (3. v r a j á y a t i (B. Ā .). śaśámate (3. ś e k ú r . FT. PF. pp. v ṛ ś c á n t . śaśā́ d a (B. pp. 1NF. L : PR. -te. 2. 2. v l v y ā n á . śaknáVāma. śeká. FT. ś a ś a d ú r . Ā . Ds. : PR. red.). ś í m y a t i . áśamiṣṭa. 1.v y á y a s v a .pb). pl.). AO. śáṃsiṣas. is : ávrājīt (B. P1 F. ś á p a n t . ­vī́ y a (B. ś a k ṣ y á t i . VI. GDv. śíkṣatí. i s : áśaṃsiṣam. cs. es.). (B.).) and v y á t a . á v y a t a (2. ś í m y a n t .). Ao. AO. ś a k n ó m i . ś á ṃ s i . s ā p á y a t i . Ac. ś a s y á t e . 1NJ.) . śaśáṃsa (B.root: IPv. v ṛ ś c á t i . I. ś a s t á . pl. śáṃsya . ś a m í t á (B. śap curse. áśamiṣṭhas. sB. ś a k é m a . śastá(2. ś a k n u v á n t i . a: á ś a m a t (B. OP. ­te. ś a k n ó t i . IV. pp. 1PF. á ś a p a t a (2. PF. PF. v y á y a n t . AO. 1NJ. PT. sB. OP.). śastvā́ (B. v ī y á t e (B.: áśīśamat. saśā́ p a.).). PT.) . P. du. P.) : PR.). ś a p t a (2.). s. GD. á ś a k a t . pp. PT. A. ś i m labour. v ṛ ś c á s . v r a ś c cut up.) . vavrā́ j a. ś e d ú r (B. AO. ś a ś a d m á h e .). is : Ā . ś a k be able. INJ. ś a k t á m . P. ś a k a n . ś a k é y a m . śaśā́ m a (B. 1pv. PT. PF. á ś a ṃ s ī t . sB. ávyay^at. ś a ś a m ā n á . ś á p a t i .). ś e m ú r (B. : PR.: ś á m y a t i (B. PP. śáṃsiṣat. śagdhí. vītá. : PR. GD. -śáse. v i v y a t h ú r . v i v y é .) .). śaṃsiṣyáti (B. vṛścā́ t . śáktaVe. ps. P F . vraj proceed.) . sB. PF. vrájant. a: á v y a t .). á ś a k a n .). śakyā́ m . vrajitá (B. P P . FT. -te. ś á k a t . IPF. PP. v r á j a t a (2. vṛktvī́ . PT. śadfall: PF.). ­vyayā́ ṃ cakara (B. root : ŚB. śáṃsati. vrajiṣyáti (B.). vṛṣṭvā́ . ś a m . I. s a m á y a t i . s. 1pv. á v ṛ ś c a t and vṛścát. pl. śā́ m yati.). AO. -te (B. 1NF. ś ā ś a d r é . rs. a: á ś a k a m .). 1. v ṛ k ṇ á . śáṃsiṣam. 1P F. śā́ ś adāna. FT. v ṛ ś c y á t e . P. 3. ś ā n t á . s. śaṃstavya (B. PT. sB. es. PF. PT. : 1Pv. s: 1NJ. śepó (1. ś á p a t e (Av. : vṛścá. Iv.). ś a ś a m é . ś a t s y á t i .). . ­vrájya (B.

śudh. PT. ś í ś ī h í .: i ṣ : 1NJ.) . 1NT. P T. ś ú d h y a t i (B. ś ā s m á h e .). áśikṣatam. Ā . ^ ś í ś ā t i . śéṣi. 1PF. (B. ś í k ṣ ā t . ś U c á y a n t . ś i ś i ṣ é (B. ś i ṣ ṭ á . á ś ā y - atam . ś i ś ī m á s í . ś i ś ī t á (2. ś a y i t ā ́ s e (B. P T . sB. a : P s. I N F . I.).śiśīta (3. s. śāstána. : PR. P . śa^ā́ s a. ś a y á d h y a i . P . ś i n á ṣ ṭ i (B. ś ā ́ s a t . ś u m b h beautify. ś á y a n t e .). śūśucan. ś í k ṣ ā s . ś á y ā t e (3. PP. ś u m b h ā ́ t i . A. ś ā s t é . P F . ) ^ d | ^ ^ u ś u g d h í . ś u ś u k v ā ́ ṃ s . ś é m a h e . ś u m b h á t i . -te PP. P T. I I I . Cs. ś a ś ā s ú r . purify. op. ś í k ṣ a t i . s. ś i t á . Cs. śuc gleam. ś á y ī t a (3. ś á y a d h v e . ś a s s i . ś é t ā m and ś á y ā m ( A v ) . 1NF. 1P F. ś í k ṣ an t . 1NJ.).ś i ṣ y a (B. ś o d h á y a t i (B. ś í ś a t u . á ś e r a n . s r ^ ^ . : P R. 1PF. P T . ś á y ā n a . : PR.).). á ś o c i . ŚB. ś í k ṣ – amāṇa. śíśāna. ś í k ṣ a t u . 1NJ.). s : sB. śUcádhyai. A0. 1Pv. 1pv. ś í k ṣ a t . ś i ṣ á n t . á ś a y i ṣ t h ā s .s ā shaken.). -śíṣya(B. ś u m b h á . Ā . śucánt. p l . ) . śúndhata pp.). FT.: PR. s. ś é ṣ a n . f . ś u ś u c ā n á . red. : P R. ś a ś ā d h í . Ā. I. ś i k ṣ ( = Ds. ś á y a t e . : PR. ś u n d h á y a t i . ś i ś ā s . . -te. GD. IPV. ś ú m b h a t e . : PR. i ṣ : A. s. 3. -śaśāná. i P v . śiśyé (B. root : sB. á ś a y a t . PT. ś í k ṣ e y a m . PP. F T . -śā́ y a. VII. oP . leave. PT. ś i ṣ y á t e . ) . PT. . a: á ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ T . ś í ś ā m i . PF. -te. ^ GD. ś ó – ś U c a n . śuśueas. PT. śumbhántu. śiśy1ré (B ) . śasátu . śucámāna. of ś a k ) be helpful: PR. (3. 1pv. ś ú m b h a m ā n a . ś í k ṣ a t a m . -te (B. s. ś u d d h á . A. ś ó b h a t e . s . I. ś u ś u c ī t á PF. Ā . sB. ś a s a n . ś u b h . ś e k ṣ y á t i . ś í ṣ a t . śiṣ iP F . á ś i k ṣ a s . PF. . ś i ṣ ṭ á . śáye (3. P. ś a s á t e . Ā .). I . áśāsata a : Ā . ś ó b h a m a n a . : PR. s B . PT. s i s ī t e . á ś ā s a m . GD. áśiśāt. ś i ṣ ā m a h i . ś ó c a t i . Ā. ś a y i ṣ y á t i . v l . Ā . ś ú n d h a t i . Ao. d u . ś o c á y a t i . pl. Ā . ś a ś a y ā n á . ś ó ś U c a n a . or.). ś a d h í . PT. Ao. ś ā s order. pl.) . ś u ś ó c a (3. śiṣas. : PR. śumbháta. 1NJ.) . ś é ṣ e . áśayata (3. I L : ś a s m i . PT. ś í k ṣ ā n . 1pv. PP . I I . 1PF. ś ó ś U c a t . śā́sana. 1Pv. ś a s a s . ś é r e and ś é r a t e . ś ó ś U c a n t a . ś í k ṣ a . 1NJ. ś á y ī y a . Ps. śaśā́s . ś í k ṣ e m a . ś ó c ī s .) . ś i ś ī t ā ́ m . ś i ś ī t á m . śundh (2. Ao. Ā .). Ao. Iv P. ś ī lie.

PT. śumbhámāna. Ao. root : P T. śubhāná ; śúmbhāna ;
red.: áśūśubhan; áśūśubhanta (B.). PP. śumbhitá;
śubhitá (B.). 1NF. śubhé ; śobháse ; śúbham. es.
śubháyati, -te ; śobháyati.
śuṣ dry, I v . P. : P R. śúṣyati ; 1Pv. śúṣya, śúṣyatu ;
śúṣyantu. GD. -śúṣya (B.). cs. śoṣáyati.
śū, śvā swell, I v . P.: PR. PT. śváyant. P F . śūśuvúr; A.
śūśuvé ; sB. śūśuvat ; śūśávāma ; OP . śuśuyā́ma ; PT.
. śuśuvā́ ṃ s ; Ā . śū́ ś uvāna. Ao. a : áśvat (B.) ; s : PT.
śavasāná. 1NF. śūṣáṇi; śváyitum (B.).
śṛdh be defiant, I . : P R. śárdhati ; śárdhate (B.) ; 1NJ. śárdhat;
1Pv. śárdha; PT. śárdhant. es. śardháyati.
śṝ crush, I X . : P R. śṛṇā́mi, śṛṇā́si, śṛṇā́ti ; śṛṇīmási ; 1Pv.
śṛṇīhí, śṛṇātu ; śṛṇītám ; sṛṇántu ; P T. śṛṇāná. 1P P .
áśṛṇāt. PP. śaśré. Ao. i ṣ : áśarīt. F T . śariṣyáte (B.).
Ps. śīryáte ; Ao. śāri ; PP. śīrṇá ; -śīrta. GD. -śīrya (B.),
1NF. śárītos.
śnathpieree, I I . P. : sn. śnáthat ; iPv. śnathihi. Ao. red. :
śiśnatham, áśiśnat a n d śiśnáthat ; iNJ. śiśnathas ; is :
1Pv. śnathiṣṭam ; śnathiṣṭana.
PP. śnathitá. 1NF.
-śnáthas. CS. śnatháyati, -te.
śyā coagulate, I v : PR. śyā́yati (B.). PS. śīyáte (B.) ; PP.
śītá ; śīná. Cs. śyāyáyati (B.).
śrath slaekeṇ, I X . : P R. śrathnīté ; PT. śrathnāná. 1pp.
śrathnās ; áśrathnan. pp. śaśrathé. Ao. red. : śiśráthas, śiśráthat; ipv. śiśrathantu. p 1 ^ ^ ^ t á . c s .
śratháyati, -te.
śram be weary, I v . P. : PR. śrā́ m yati. P F . ^ | ^ ^ u r ; PT.
śaśramāṇá. Ao. a: áśramat ; INJ. śramat; iṣ : A.
áśrami sthās ; 1NJ. śramisma. pp. śrāntá. GD. –śrámya

śra (śrī, śṛ) boil, I X . : P R. śrīṇánti ; śrīṇīṣé ; 1pv. śrīṇīhí ;
śrīṇītá and śrīṇītána ; P T. śrīṇánt ; Ā . śrīṇāná. 1PF. Ā .
áśrīṇīta (3. s.), pp. śrātá; śṛtá. c s . śrapáyati; ps.
śrapyáte (B.) ; AG. áśiśrapat (B.).
śri resort, I . : PR. śráyati ; -te. pp. 1. śiśráya, 3. śiśrā́ y a;

Ā. ś i ś r i y é ; op. ś i ś r ī t á ( 3 . s.) ; PT. śiśriyāṇá. P P F. á ś i ś r e t ;
Ao. r o o t : áśres, á ś r e t ; á ś r i y a n ; red. :
áśiśriyat; s : áśrait ( A v ) .
F T . ś r a y i ṣ y á t i , -te (B.).
Ps. ś r ī y á t e (B.) ; PP. ś r i t á ; A o . áśrāyi. 1NF. ś r á y i t a v á i
(B.), Cs. ś r ā p á y a t i (VS.).
śriṣ claṣp, I . : s B . ś r é ṣ ā m a .
Ao. a : 1NJ. śriṣát. INF.
śrī mix, I X . : PR. ś r ī ṇ ā t i ; ś r ī ṇ ī t é . PP . śrītá.
ś r u hear, V. : PR. śṛṇórni, ś ṛ ṇ ó t i ; ś ṛ ṇ v á n t i ; Ā. ś ṛ ṇ v i ṣ é ,
ś ṛ ṇ u t é a n d ś ṛ ṇ v é ; ś ṛ ṇ v i r é ; sn. ś ṛ ṇ á v a s , ś ṛ ṇ á v a t ;
ś ṛ ṇ á v ā m a , ś ṛ ṇ á v a n ; oP. śṛṇuyā́ t ; śṛṇuyā́ m a ; 1Pv.
śṛṇudhí, śṛṇuhí a n d śṛṇū, śṛṇótu; ś ṛ ṇ u t á m ; śṛṇutá
a n d śṛṇóta, ś ṛ ṇ ó t a n a , ś ṛ ṇ v á n t u ; ś ṛ ṇ u ṣ v á ; P T. ś ṛ ṇ v á n t ;
iPF. áśṛṇavam, áśṛṇos ; á ś ṛ ṇ v a n . P P . 1. ś u ś r á v a , 3.
śuśrā́ v a; Ā. ś u ś r u v é (3. s.) ; sn. ś u ś r a v a t ; oP. śuśrū–
yā́s ; śuśrūyā́ t am ; PT. śuśruvā́ ṃ s.
PPP. á ś u ś r a v u r ;
Ā. á ś u ś r a v i (1. s.). Ao. r o o t : á ś r a v a ṃ , á ś r o t ; á ś r a v a n
( A v ) ; sn. ś r á v a t ; ś r á v a t h a s , ś r á v a t a s ; PRC. śrūyā́ s am,
śrūyā́ s (3. s.) ; iPv. ś r u d h i , ś r ó t u ; ś r u t á m ; ś r u t á a n d
śróta, ś r u v á n t u ; a : iNJ. ś r ú v a t ; r e d . : á ś u ś r a v a t ;
á ś u ś r u v a t (B.) ; s : á ś r a u ṣ ī t (B.), FT. ś r o ṣ y á t i (B.). P s.
ś r ú y á t e ; A o . áśrāvi, śrā́ v i ; PP. ś r u t á ; GDv. ś r ú t y a ;
śravā́yya. GD. śrutvā́; -śrútya. Cs. śraváyati, śrāvá¬
yati. Ds. śúśrúṣate.
ś r u ṣ hear, I.. : 1NJ. śróṣan ; 1Pv. śróṣantu ; P T. śróṣamaṇa.
Ā. : iPv. śváñcasva ; PT. ś v á ñ c a m ā n a . PP.
Ā. sB. ś ^ v a c á i . C s . ś v a ñ c á y a s .
śvas blow, I L : PR. śvásiti ; Ā. ś u ṣ é ; 1Pv. śvasihí ; PT.
ś v a s á n t and ś u ṣ á n t ; Ā. ś u ṣ ā ṇ á ; 1PF. áśvasīt (B.). I . :
PR. śVásati, -te (Av.). PP. śVasitá (B.). 1NF. -śvásas.
Cs. śVāsáyati. 1NT. PT. śā́ ś Vasat.
śvit be bright : A o . r o o t : á ś v i t a n ; PT. ś v i t ā n á ; r e d . : áśiś v i t a t ; s: áśvait.
ṣṭhīv spew, I. P. : PR. ṣṭhī́ v ati. 1PF. á ṣ ṭ h ī v a n . PF. t i ṣ ṭ h é v a
(B.). PP. ṣ ṭ h y ū t á (B.),

sagh be eoual to, V. P. : IPF. ásaghnos. Ao. root : sn.
sághat ; PRC saghyā́sam (B.).
sac accompany, I . Ā . PR. sácate. I l l . : PR. síṣakṣi ; síṣakti;
sáścati (3. pl.); 1NJ. Ā . saśeata (3. pl.); IPv. siṣaktu;
siṣakta ; P T. sáścat and saścát. I . : PR. sáścasi ; A.
sáśce (1. s . ) ; 1NJ. sáśCat; 1Pv. sáścata (2. pl.) ; 1PF.
ásaścatam (2. du.). PF. saścimá, saścúr ; A. saściré ;
seciré (Av.) ; PT. saścivā́ṃs. AO. root : 1pv. sákṣva ;
PT. sacaná ; s : Ā . ásakṣata (3. pl.) ; sB. sákṣat ; 1NJ.
sakṣata (3. pl.) ; OP. sakṣīmáhi.
1NF. sacádhyai ;
saj, sañj, hang, I . P. : PR. sájati. 1PF. ásajat. PF. sasáñja
(B.) ; sejúr (B.), AO. s : Ā . ásakta. ps. sajyáte (B.) ; AO.
ásañji (B.) ; pp. saktá. GD. ­sajya (B.). 1NF. sáṅktos
(B.), Ds. sísaṅkṣati (B.).
sad sit, I . P. : PR. sī́dati ; sB. sī́dāti ; 1NJ. sī́dan ; OP.
sī́dema ; Ipv. sī́datu ; PT. sī́dant.
1PF. ásīdat. P F .
sasáttha, sasā́ d a; sedáthur, sedátur; sedimá, sedá,
sedúr; Ā . sediré; op. sasadyā́ t ; PT. sedúṣ­. AO. a:
ásadat ; ásadan ; 1NJ. sádas, sádat ; op. sádema ; 1pv
sáda, sádatu ; sádatam, sádatām ; sádata, sádantu ;
A. sádantam ; PT. sádant ; red. : ásīṣadan ; s : sB.
sátsat. FT. satsyáti (B.), ps. sadyáte (B.) ; AO. ásādi,
sā́di ; pp. sattá ; sanná (AV.) ; GDv. sádya. GD. –sádya.
1NF. ­sáde ; ­sádam ; sáttum (B.). es. sādáyati, –te ;
ps. sadyáte (B.).
san gain, V I I I . P. : PR. sanóti ; sn. sanávāni­ sanávat ;
sanávatha ; op. sanuyā́m ; sanuyā́ m a ; 1pv. sanuhí,
sanótu ; sanVántu. IPF. ásanos, ásanot ; ásanvan. P F .
sasā́na ; PT. sasavā́ ṃ s. AO. a : ásanam, ásanat ; ásan­
āma, ásanan ; 1NJ. sánam, sánat; OP. sanéyam, sanét;
IPV. sána ; PT. sánant ; is : ásāniṣam ; sB. sániṣat ; Ā .
sániṣamahe, sániṣanta ; 1PV. Sániṣantu. FT. Saniṣyáti.
PP. sātá. GDv. sánitva. 1NF. sanáye; sātáye. Ds.
siṣāsati. INT. Ā . saniṣṇata (3. pl.).

sap serve, I . : PR. sápati, ­te. PP. sepúr. Ao. red. : 1NJ.
saparyá honour, den. : PR. saparyáti ; sn. saparyā́ t ; oP.
saparyéma; 1Pv. saparyá; PT. saparyánt. 1PF. ásap­
aryan. AO. ásaparyait (AV.). Guv. saparyéṇya.
sas sleep, I I . P. : PR. sásti ; sastás ; 1Pv. sāstu ; sastā́m ;
sasántu ; PT. sasánt ; 1PF. ásastana. I l l . P. : PR.
sásasti and sasásti.
sah prevail, I. : PR. sáhate ; PT. sáhant and sā́hant ; Ā . sáh­
amana. PP. sāsā́ha ; Ā . sasāhiṣé, sasāhé ; sB. sāsáhas,
sāsáhat ; OP. sāsahyā́t ; sāsahyā́ m a ; PRC. Ā . sāsahīṣṭhā́ s ;
PT. sasahvā́ms and sāhvā́ m s ; A. sāsahāná and sehāná.
AO. root : OP. sahyas ; sāhyama ; PRC. sahyas (3. s.) ; PT.
sahāná; s: ásākṣi and sākṣi ; sakṣmahi (B.) ; sB. sák­
ṣati and sákṣat; sā́ k ṣāma; Ā . sā́kṣate; oP. sākṣīyá;
1Pv. sā́kṣva ; PT. sákṣant ; Ā . sahasaná ; is : ásahiṣṭa ;
oP. sahiṣīváhi; sahiṣīmáhi and sāhiṣīmáhi. FT. sak­
ṣyáte (B.). PP. sāḍhá. GD. ­sáhya. iNF. sáhadhyai ;
­sáham (B.). Ds. sī́kṣati, ­te.
sā bind, v l . : PR. syáti, ­te ; 1Pv. syá, syátu ; syátam,
syátām ; Ā . syásva ; syádhvam. 1PF. ásyat. Ac. root :
ásāt ; sB. sā́t ; oP. sīmáhi ; 1Pv. sāhi ; a : oP. sét (VS.).
PP. sitá. GD. ­sā́ya. 1NF. ­sái ; satum (B.),
sādh succeed, I. : PR. sā́ d hati, ­te. AO. red. : sB. sīṣadhāti ;
sīṣadhāma; 1NJ. sīṣadhas. Cs. sādháyati.
si bind, IX. P. : PR. sinā́ti ; sinīthás ; 1Pv. sinā́ t u. P F .
siṣā́ya ; 1NJ. siṣet. AC. root : 1Pv. sitám. 1NF. sétave.
sic pour, V I . : PR. sificáti, ­te. PP. siṣéca ; siṣicátur ;
sisieúr ; sisioé. AO. a : ásicat ; ásican ; sB. sicamahe.
FT. sekṣyáti (B.). Ps. sicyáte ; AO. áseci (B.) ; PP. siktá.
GD. siktVā́ (B.) ; -Śicya. 1NF. séktavái (B.).
1. sidh repel, I. P.: PR. sédhati. PP. siṣédha. Ao. i s :
ásedhîs. PP. siddhá (B.). GD. ­sídhya. INF. séddhurn
(B.). INT. PT. séṣidhat.
2. sidh succeed, I v P. : PR. sídhyati. PP. siddhá (B.).
sīv sew, IV. : PR. 1Pv. sī́vyatu ; Ā . sī́vyadhvam ; PT.
sī́ v yant. PP. syutá. GD. –sī́vya.

su press, V. : PR. sunóti ; sunutás ; sunuthá, sunvánti ;
Ā. sunvé ; sunviré ; sB. sunávat ; sunávāma ; Ā. su­
návai ; 1Pv. sunú, sunótu ; sunutá and sunóta, sunó–
tana; Ā. sunudhvám; PT. sunvánt; sunvāná. PF.
suṣā́va ; suṣumá ; PT. suṣuvā́ ṃ s; suṣvāṇá. PPF. ásu­
ṣavur and ásuṣuvur (B.). AO. root : 1Pv. sótu ; sutám ;
sóta, sótana ; PT. suvāná, svāná. FT. saviṣyáti (B.) ;
sotā́ (B.). Ps. sūyáte ; AO. ásāvi; PP. sutá; GDv.
sótva. GD. –sútya (B.), 1NF. sótave; sótos.
su generate, impel, V I . P. : PR. suváti ; sB. suvā́ti ; 1Pv.
suvá, suvátāt, suvátu ; suvātām ; suvántu ; PT. suvánt ;
1PF. ásuvat. I I . Ā. : PR. súve, su.te ; súvāte (3. du.) ;
súvate (3. pl.) ; INJ. suta (3. s.) ; PT. suvāná ; IPF. ásūta.
PF. sasuva ; suṣuvé. PPF. ásuṣot (MS.) ; ásuṣavur (B.).
AO. is : ásāvīt ; ásāviṣur ; sn. sāviṣat ; 1NJ. sāvīs. FT.
soṣyáti, ­te (B.); PT. sū́ṣyant. Ps. sūyáte; PP. sútá.
GD. sūtvā (B.) ; ­sûtya (B.). INF. sutave, sū́tavái ; sávi­
tave. INT. sósavīti.

sūd put in order : PF. suṣūdimá ; sn. súṣūdas, súṣūdat and
súṣūdati ; súṣūdatha ; IPv. suṣūdáta (2. pl.). Ao. red. :
ásūṣudanta. Cs. sūdáyati, ­te ; sB. sūdáyāti.
sṛ flow, I I I . : PR. sisarṣi, sísarti ; Ā. sísrate (3. pl.) ; 1Pv.
sisṛtám; Ā. sísratām (3. pb), PT. sísrat. PP. sasā́ r a;
sasṛvá(Ṛ.) ; sasrúr ; Ā. sasré ; sasrā́the ; PT. sasṛvā́ṃs ;
sasrāṇá. AG. a : ásaram, ásaras, ásarat ; ásaran ; I P v .
sára ; s : sB. sárṣat. FT. sariṣyáti. Ps. AO. ásāri (B.) ;
PP. sṛtá (B.), GD. sṛtvā́ (B.) ; sṛ́tya (B.), INF. sártave,
sártavái. cs. sāráyati, ­te. Ds. sísīrṣati (B.). I N T .
sarsré (3. s.) ; PT. sársrāṇa.
sṛj emit, V I . : PR. sṛjáti, ­te. PF. sasárja; Ā. sasṛjé;
sasṛjmáhe, sasṛjriré ; oP. sasṛjyāt ; PT. sasṛjāná. PPP.
ásasṛgram (3. pl.). AO. root : ásṛgran, ásṛgram ; PT.
sṛjāná ; s: srā́s (2. s., AV.), ásrāk (3. s.), ásrāṭ (B.);
ásrāṣṭam (2. du.) ; Ā. ásṛkṣi, ásṛṣṭa ; ásṛkṣmahi, ásṛk­
ṣata; sB. srákṣat ; 1NJ. srāṣṭam; Ā. sṛkṣāthām (2. du.).
FT. srakṣyáti (B.). Ps. sṛjyáte ; AO. ásarji ; PP. sṛṣṭá.

GD. sṛṣṭvā ; ­sṛ́jya (B.). Cs. sarjáyati, ­te (B.). Ds.
sisṛkṣati, ­te (B.).
sṛp creep, I . P.: PR. sárpati. PP. sasárpa (B.). Ao. a:
ásṛpat; 1NJ. sṛpat; s: Ā. ásṛpta (B.). FT. srapsyáti
(B.) and sarpsyáti (B.). PP. sṛptá(B.), GD. sṛptvā́ (B.) ;
1NF. sṛ́pas (B.). Ds. sísṛpsati. INT. sarī–
sṛpyáte (B.).
sev attend upon, I . Ā. : PR. séve, sévate ; 1Pv. sévasva.
skand leap, I . P. : PR. skándati ; sB. skándāt ; IPv. skánda ;
PT. skándant ; 1PF. áskandat. PP. easkánda. Ao. root :
skán (3. s.); s: áskān (B.) and áskāntsīt (B.), FT.
skantsyáti (B.). PP. skanná. GD. ­skándya (B.) and
–skádya (B.). 1NF. ­skáde, ­skádas. Cs. skandáyati.
1NT. sn. caniṣkadat ; iPF. kániṣkan (3. s.).
skabh or skambh prop, I X . : PR. skabhnā́ t i ; PT. skabh­
nánt ; Ā. skabhāna (B.). PP. cāskámbha ; skambhátur;
skambhúr; PT. caskabhāná. PP. skabhitá. GD. skabh­
itvī́. 1NF. –skábhe.
sku tear, I I . P. : PR. skáuti (B.). V. P. : PR. skunótI.
Ps. skúyáte ; PP. skutá. INT. coṣkúyáte.
stan thunder, I L P. : 1Pv. stanihi ; INJ. stán (3. s.). I . P.:
IPv. stána. Ao. i s : ástānīt. Cs. stanáyati. INT. 1Pv
stabh or stambh prop, I X . : stabhnā́ 1 ni ; IPv. stabhāná ;
1PF. ástabhnās, ástabhnāt. PP. tastámbha ; tastabhúr ;
PT. tastabhvāṃs ; tastabhāná. PPF. tastámbhat. Ao. s :
ástāmpsīt (B.) ; iṣ : ástambhīt, stámbhīt. PP. stabhitá ;
stabdhá (B.). GD. stabdhvā́ , ­stábhya (B.).
stu praise, I I . : PR. stáumi ( A v ) ; stóṣi, stáuti (Av.) ;
stumási, stuvánti ; Ā. stūṣé ; sn. stávat ; stávama,
stávatha; A. stávai; 1NJ. stáut; oP. Ā. stuvītá; stuv¬
īmáhi ; 1Pv. stuhi, stáutu ; PT. stuvánt ; stuvaná,
stávāna and stavāná ; 1PF. ástaut. I . Ā. : stávate and
stáve (3. s.) ; 1NJ. stávanta; oP. stáveta ; PT. stávamana.
PF. tuṣṭā́va ; tuṣṭuvúr; Ā. tuṣṭuvé; sB. tusṭávat ; PT.
tuṣṭuvā́ ṃ s; tuṣṭuvāná. PPF. átuṣṭavam. Ao.s: ástau­

ṣīt (B.) ; Ā . á s t o ṣ i , ástoṣṭa ; ástoḍhvam, ástoṣata ;
ŚB. s t ó ṣ ā ṇ i , stóṣat ; stóṣama ; 1NJ. stóṣam ; i ṣ : á s t a v ī t
(B.). FT. stoṣyáti, ­te (B.) ; staviṣyáti, ­te. ce. ástoṣyat.
ps. s t u y á t e ; AO. ástāvi ; PP. s t u t á ; GDv. stuṣéyya.
GD. s t u t v ā ́ ; ­ s t ú t y a (B.).
1NF. s t a v á d h y a i , s t ó t a v e ;
s t ó t u m (B.), es. s t ā v á y a t i (B.),
stubh praise, I . P. : PR. s t ó b h a t i ; I p v . s t ó b h a t a , stóbh–
antu ; PT. s t ó b h a n t . I I . Ā . : PT. s t u b h ā n á . pp. s t u h d h á
(B.), Cs. s t o b h á y a t i .
stṛ strew, I X . : PR. stṛṇā́ m i ; stṛṇīthána, stṛṇánti ; Ā .
s t ṛ ṇ ī t é ; 1NJ. s t ṛ ṇ ī m á h i ; Ipv. stṛṇīhí.; stṛṇītám (2. du.);
s t ṛ ṇ ī t á ; Ā . stṛṇītā́ m (3. s.) ; PT. s t ṛ ṇ á n t ; s t ṛ ṇ ā n á ; 1PF.
á s t ṛ ṇ ā t ; ástṛṇan.
V. : PR. s t ṛ ṇ ó ṣ i ; s t ṛ ṇ u t é . P F .
tastā́ r a (B.) ; t a s t a r ú r (B.) ; Ā . t i s t i r é (3. s.) ; t a s t r i r é ;
PT. tistiraṇá.
AO. root : á s t a r ; A. ástṛta (B.) ; s n .
s t á r a t e ; s t á r ā m a h e ; 1NJ. star (2. s.) ; s : á s t ṛ ṣ i (B.) ;
op. stṛṣīyá ; i ṣ : á s t a r ī s . FT. stariṣyáti, ­te (B.), ps.
s t r i y á t e (B.) ; AO. á s t a r i ; pp. stṛtá ; s t ī r ṇ á . G n .
stīrtvā́ (B.) ; ­stī́ r ya (B.). 1NF. ­stire, s t ṛ ṇ ī ṣ á ṇ i ; stárī–
tave (Av) ; s t á r t a v e (B.), s t á r t a v á i (B.) ; stáritavái(B.),
–starītavái (B.). Ds. tístīrṣate (B.) ; t ú s t ū r ṣ a t e (B.).
stha stand, I . : PR. tíṣṭhati, ­te. PF. t a s t h á u ; t a s t h á t h u r ,
t a s t h á t u r ; t a s t h i m á , t a s t h ú r ; Ā . t a s t h é , tasthiṣé,
t a s t h é ; t a s t h i r é ; PT. tasthivā́ ṃ s ; t a s t h ā n á . AO. root :
á s t h ā m , á s t h ā s , á s t h ā t ; á s t h ā m a , sthata, á s t h u r ; Ā .
á s t h i t h ā s , á s t h i t a ; á s t h i r a n ; sn. sthā́ s , sthā́ t i and sthā́ t ;
sthā́ t as ; 1NJ. sthā́ m , sthā́ t ; s t h ú r ; op. stheyā́ m a ; 1pv.
s t h ā t a m (2. du.); sthata; PT. sthā́ n t; a: ā́sthat (AV.);
s: á s t h i ṣ i (B.); ásthiṣata (3. p l . ) ; 1NJ. stheṣam (VS.).
FT. s t h ā s y á t i . ps. s t h ī y á t e (B.); pp. s t h i t á . GD. ­sthā́ y a.
1NF. sthā́ t um (B.) ; sthā́ t os (B.). es. s t h ā p á y a t i , ­te ;
AO. átiṣṭhipam, átiṣṭhipas, á t i ṣ ṭ h i p a t ; 1NJ. tiṣṭhipat.
Ds. t í ṣ ṭ h ā s a t i (B.).
s n ā bathe, I I . P.: PR. snā́ t i; 1Pv. snahi; PT. snā́ n t. pp.
snātá. GDv. snā́ t va. GD. snātvā́ ; –snā́ y a. 1NF. snā́ t um
(B.). Cs. s n ā p á y a t i ; ­te (B.) ; s n a p á y a t i (AV.),

s p a ś see : PF. p a s p a ś é ; PT. p a s p a ś a n á . AG. root : áspaṣṭa
(3. s.). PP. spaṣṭá. Cs. s p a ś á y a t e .
spṛ win, v : PR. spṛṇvaté ; s B . spṛṇávama ; 1Pv. spṛṇuhi.
PF. paspā́ r a (B.). AC. root : á s p a r (2. s.) ; sB. s p á r a t ;
INJ. s p á r (2. s.) ; 1pv. spṛdhí ; s : áspārṣam. pp. spṛtá.
GD. spṛtvā́ . 1NF. spárase.
spṛdh contend, I. Ā . : PR. s p á r d h a t e ; PT. s p ā r d h a m a n a .
PF. Ā . paspṛdhā́ t e (3. du.) ; paspṛdhré ; PT. paspṛdhāná.
PPF. á p a s p ṛ d h e t h ā m (2. du.).
AG. root : Ā . á s p ṛ d h ­
ran ; PT. spṛdhāná. GD. ­spṛ́ d hya. INF. s p á r d h i t u m .
spṛś touch, v l . : PR. spṛśáti, -te. PF. sB. p a s p á r ś a t . AO.
red.: sB. pispṛśati; 1NJ. p i s p ṛ ś a s ; s : á s p r a k ṣ a m (B.) ;
s a : áspṛkṣat. pp. spṛṣṭá. GD. spṛṣṭvā (B.); –spṛ́ ś ya
(B.). 1NF. ­spṛ́ ś e; spṛ́ ś as (B.). es. s p a r ś á y a t i (B.), ­te.
spṛh be eager : Cs. spṛháyanti ; op. spṛháyet. iPF. áspṛh–
ayam. GDv. spṛhayā́ y ya.
sphur jerk, v l . : PR. s p h u r á t i ; Ā . s p h u r á t e (B.) ; sB.
s p h u r ā ́ n ; I N J . s p h u r á t ; Ipv. s p h u r á ; s p h u r á t a m (2.
du.) ; PT. s p h u r á n t .
1PF. á s p h u r a t . Ao. i ṣ : s p h a r ī s
sphurj rumble, I. P. : PR. sphurjati. Cs. s p h ú r j á y a t i .
smi smile, I. : PR. s m á y a t e ; 1NJ. s m á y a n t a ; PT. s m á y a ­
mana. PF. siṣmiyé ; PT. siṣmiyāṇá.
smṛ remember, I. : PR. s m á r a t i , ­te. Ps. s m a r y á t e (B.) ;
Pp. smṛtá.
syand move on, L A. : PR. s y á n d a t e . PF. s i ṣ y a d ú r ; A.
siṣyadé. AO. red. . ásiṣyadat ; ásiṣyadanta ; s . á s y ā n
(3. s.), F T . s y a n t s y á t i (B.). p s . AC. s y á n d i (B.); PP.
s y a n n á . GD. syanttvā́ (B.) ; syattvā́ (B.), –syadya (B.).
INF. ­ s y á d e ; s y á n t t u m (B.) ; Cs. s y a n d á y a t i (B.) ; INF.
s y a n d a y á d h y a i . 1NT. PT. sániṣyadat.
sras, sraṃs fall, I. A. : PR. sráṃsate (B.). PF. sasraṃsúr
AO. root: ásrat (VS.); a: OP. srasema; red.:
ásisrasan ; is : ásraṃsiṣata (B.).
pp. s r a s t á . GD.
­sraṃsya (B.), INF. ­srásas. Cs. sraṃsáyatI.
sridh blunder, I. P. : PR. s r é d h a t i ; 1pv. s r é d h a t a ; PT.

srédhant. iPF. ásredhan. Ao. a: iN.T. sridhat ; PT.
sru flow, I . : PR. srávati. PP. susrā́va ; susruvúr ; 1NJ.
susrot. PPF. ásusrot. Ao. is : ásrāvīs (B.). PP. srutá.
1NF. srávitave ; srávitavái. Cs. srāváyati ; ­te (B.).
svaj embrace, I . : PR. svájate; sB. svájāte, svájātai (Av.) ;
INJ. svájat ; 1Pv. svájasva ; svájadhvam. PP. sasvajé ;
sasvajāte (3. du.) ; PT. sasvajāná. PPF. ásasvajat. PP.
svaktá (B.). 1NF. ­sváje.
svad, svād sweeten, I . : PR. svádati, ­te ; Ā . svādate ; ŚB.
svádāti ; 1Pv. sváda ; svádantu ; Ā . svádasva. AG. red. :
INJ. siṣvadaI. PP. svāttá. INF. ­súde. Cs. svadáyati,
­te ; PP. svaditá.
svan sound : Ao. is : ásvanīt ; INJ. svanīt. Cs. svanáyati ;
PP. svanitá. INT. sn. saniṣvaṇat.
svap sleep, I I . P. : PR. 1Pv. sváptu ; PT. svapánt. I . P. : PR.
svápati. PP. suṣupúr ; 1NJ. suṣupthās (B.) ; PT. suṣup­
vā́ṃs ; suṣupāṇá. Ao. red. : siṣvapas and siṣvap (2. s.).
FT. svapsyáti (B.) ; svapiṣyā́mi. PP. suptá. GD. suptvā́ .
1NF. sváptum (B.). Cs. svāpáyatI.
svar sound, I . P. : PR. svárati. PF. 1NJ. sasvár (3. s.). Ao.
s : ásvār (3. s.) ; ásvārṣṭām (3. du.) ; is : ásvārīs (B.).
1NF. sváritos (B.). Cs. svaráyati.
svid sweat, L Ā . : PR. svédate. PP. PT. siṣvidāná. Pp.
svinná. Cs. svedáyati (B.).
han strike, I L : PR. hánmi, háṃsi, hánti ; hathás, hatás ;
hanmás, hathá, ghnánti ; sB. hánas, hánati and hánat ;
hánāva ; hánāma ; hánātha (Av.), hánan ; 1NJ. hán
(3. s.); op. hanyā́ t , hanyā́ m a; 1pv. jahí, hántu ; hatám,
hatā́m ; hatá and hantana, ghnántu ; PT. ghnánt. I . :
PR. jíghnate ; ­ t i (B.). PF. jaghántha, jaghā́na ; jaghná­
t h u r ; jaghnimá, jaghnúr; Ā . jaghné (B.); sB. jaghán­
at ; PT. jaghanvā́ ṃ s ; jaghnivā́ ṃ s (B.). Ao. i ṣ : áhānīt
(B.). FT. haniṣyáti ; ­te (B.). Ps. hanyáte ; PP. hatá ;
GDv. hántva. GD. hatvā́, hatvī́ ; hatvā́ya ; –hátya.
1NF. hántave, hántavái; ^ántum. Cs. ghātáyati (B.).

Ds. jíghāṃsati; AO. ájighāṃsīs (B.). 1NT. jáṅghanti;
sB. jaṅghánāni, jaṅghanas, jaṅghanat ; jaṅghanāva ;
A. jaṅghananta ; ipv. jaṅghanīhi ; PT. jáṅghanat ;
har be gratified, I v . : PR. háryati ; sB. háryāsi and háryās ;
ipv. hárya ; PT. háryant. 1PF. áharyat ; Ā . áharyathās.
1. hā leave, I I I . P. : PR. jáhāmi, jáhāsi, jáhāti; jáhati;
sB. jáhāni ; jáhāma ; oP. jahyā́ t ; jahyúr ; iPv. jahītāt,
jáhātu ; jahītam ; jahīta ; PT. jáhat. iPF. ajahāt ;
ájahātana, ájahur. PF. jahā́ ; jahátur; jahúr. Ao.
root : áhāt (B.) ; s : ahās (3. s.) ; Ā . áhāsi, áhāsthās ;
iNJ. hā́sīs ; sis : 1NJ. hāsiṣṭam, hāsiṣṭām ; hāsiṣṭa,
hāsiṣur. FT. hāsyáti ; hāsyáte (B.). Ps. hīyáte ; Ao.
áhāyi ; PP. hīná ; hāna (B.) ; jahitá. GD. hitvā́, hitvī́,
hitvā́ y a; ­hā́ya (B.). 1NF. hā́tum (B.). cs. Ao.jīhipas.
2. hā go forth, I I I . Ā . : PR. jihīte ; jíhāte ; jíhate ; 1NJ.
jíhīta; 1Pv. jihīṣva, jihītām (3. s.) ; jihāthām (2. du.) ;
jihatām (3. pl.) ; PT. jíhāna. iPF. A ájihīta ; ájihata.
PP. jahiré. Ao. red.: jījananta; s: Ā . áhāsata (3. pl.);
iNJ. hāsthās. FT. hāsyáte (B.). PP. hāná (B.). GD.
–hāya. 1NF. hā́tum. es. hāpáyati. Ds. jíhīṣate.
hi impel, v : PR. hinómi, hinóṣi, hinóti ; hinmás ­ and
hinmási, hinvánti; Ā . hinvé (1. 3.); hinváte and
hinviré ; sB. hinávā ; 1NJ. hinván ; 1Pv. hinuhí, hinutā́ t ,
hinú ; hinótam ; hinutá, hinóta and hinótana, hinv¬
ántu ; PT. hinvánt ; hinvāná ; 1PF. áhinvan. PP.
jighā́ya (B.) ; jighyúr (B.). Ao. root: áhema, áhetana,
áhyan ; 1Pv. heta ; PT. hiyāná ; a : áhyam ; s : áhait
(3. s., Av.) ; áhaiṣīt (B.) ; Ā . áheṣata (3. ph), PP. hitá.
GDv. hétva. 1NF. ­hyé.
hiṃs injure, v I L : hinásti ; híṃsanti ; A. híṃste (Av.) ;
1Pv. hinástu. ; oP. hiṃsyā́t (B.) ; PT. híṃsāna ; 1PF.
áhinat (3. s., B.). I. : PR. híṃsati, ­te (B.), PP. jihiṃs¬
imá. PPF. jíhiṃsīs. AG. is : 1NJ. hiṃsiṣam, hiṃsīs,
hiṃsīt ; hiṃsiṣṭam (2. du.) ; hiṃsiṣṭa, hiṃsiṣur. FT.
hiṃsiṣyáti, ­te (B.). Ps. hiṃsyáte ; PP. hiṃsitá ; GDv.

jihī́ ḷ a (1.) . –te . pl. op. PT. PT. iPF. hávya. ájuhvata. huvé (1. áhvāma . on. huvéya .) . hárant.) . : ájīhiḍat . hárati. hára . iPF. ŚB. op. ipv.) . FT. s. Ao. hāráyati. : PT. A o . : PR. juhavā́ ṃ cakāra (B. jihīḷé . s : áharṣam.). 3. juhúré . áhuv­ anta. juhvé . heḷáyant. hīḍamana (B. jóhavīti.). 1NJ. hutá.). áhar (3.).). hóma . hoṣyáti. PT. 1PF. I . jahré (B. h u sacrifice. hṛ take. hárema . juhómi. : PR. per. johavītu . hiṃsitvā́. PT. hīḍiṣātām (TA. haráse . V I .). juhvé.) . huté . áhvat . A O .).). áhuve . r o o t : áhṛthas (B. : PR. h á r a t . juhutá a n d juhóta. a : áhvam. PP. G D . hṛtvā́ (B. h ū y á t e . hṛtá. PT. Ā. jóhavīmi. ájohavur. A. I I I .) . juhótu. A o . áhariṣyat (B. Ds. Ā. juhviré (B. hávītave. áharat. hṛṇīthā́ s . jihīḷāná. hárāma. ­te (B. I I . : PR^ juhúmási a n d juhumás.). IPv. juhudhvám . áhūmahi .). áhṛṣata(3. s: Ā. j u h u r é . Ā.). 1PF.). iNJ. pp. Ā.). jíhiṃsiṣati (B. ­hū́ya (B.) . Ā. jíhīrṣati. A. húmáhe.). Ā. jīhīḍa (Av. I . Co. hṛṇīṣé. r e d . PF. : PR. hṛṇaná. 2. hartā́ (B. júhvat . juhvé. ipv. hártum (B. 1NF. Cs. juhuyā́ m a. op. hártos (B. hariṣyáti. jnhumás. . júhvati . huyáte . hutvā́ (B. jahā́ r a. PT.). áhvi . ájohavīt . hártavái (B.hiṃsitavyā. híṃsitum (B. r o o t : Ā. huvā́ m ahe . háran . FT. juhótana . hṛṇīté . áhvanta . hávate .) . 1NJ. Ao. júhúṣati (B. 1. sB. 1NT. áhúṣata (3. s. s : áhauṣīt (B. juhudhi (B. s. pl. juhuviré (B. huvádhyai. I X . hṛ be angry. GDV. Ā. I I I . hótum (B. hárata. hótos (B. PP. hélant . háret .) . : PR. hótavái.) . GD. juhóti . h ú call. n s . juhuté . ­te (B. hávamana. áhve . jahrúr . hriyáte . háraṇi. I . júhvāna . PF.).). 1NF.). Ā. hṛṇītā́m (3. GD. iNF. Ps. PP. iNF. Ds. hávanta . hīḍ be hostile.juhávāma. ájuhavur. jihīḷiré. huvát . johuvanta . juhā́ v a . : PR. júhvate.).).). híṃs­ itos (B.) . ­hṛ́tya. sB. áhāvi . huvánt . ps. Cs. h u t á . héḷamāna .). Ā. jahártha (B. Ā. Ā. PF. iNJ. huvéma . PP. i s : A. PT. Ps. hárantu . hīḍitá.juhuyā́ t .

h v á y a t u . h á r ṣ a s v a . I . F r . h v á y a t i . h n u t á . s. hruṇā́ t i.). : PR: j í h r e t i . du. jāhṛṣāṇá. h v á r a t e . 1NJ. á h v a y a n t a . h v ṛ be crooked.) . I X . sB. h v á y i t a v á i (B. h v ā call. red. -te (B. h v á y a m a h a i . á h v ā s ī t (B. h n u t á s . : j i h v a r a s . j i h v a r a t a m (2. INJ. h v á y e t h ā m (2. 1pv. : PR. -te. op. : sB. pp. h v ā r á y a t i .) . . h v á y a s v a . á h v a y a t . Pp. h r u t á . pp. s : 1NJ. Ao. h á r ṣ a t e . hvā́ r (2. h v á y a . jarhṛṣanta . h v á y e t a m (3. h r ī be ashamed. j u h ū r t h a s . j u h u r a s . Ā . root : pT. h v a r ṣ ī t . : PR. du. h n u v é . h v á y a n t u .). I . Ā . I V . járhṛsaṇa. : PR. 1NF.). harṣᬠyati. sB. h v á y a n t ā m . j i h v a r a s . I l l . I I . h v á y i t u m (B. h á r ṣ a n t .). h r ī t á (B.h ṛ ṣ be exeited. 1PF. PF. A . h v a y i ṣ y á t i . hárṣamāṇa. PT. i ṣ : h v ā r i ṣ u r . .) . Cs. PT.h r a y ā ṇ a . pr. GDV. I I I . Cs. Ao. AC. PT. h v á y e . P . imav^­ra. pp.) . hṛṣitá. 1NT. : PR. j u h u r a n t a . h n u hide. j u h u r ā ṇ á . P . h v ṛ t á . du. 1pv. : PR.). h v á y a m ā n a . Ā . PT.

Nearly all metres have a general iambic rhythm inasmuch as they show a preference for the even syllables (second. I n every metre the rhythm of the latter part of the verse (the last four or five syllables). Such verses consist of eight. Except the two metres Āryā and Vaitālīya which are measured by morae This seems to have been the only metrical prineipl. 1 1. eleven. The verse is further more or less regulated by a quantitative rhythm (unaffected by the musical accent) in which short and long syllables alternate.e in the Indo¬ Iranian period. or (much less commonly) five syllables. itself. twelve. but the foot (pāda) or quarter in the sense of the verse or line which is a constituent of the stanza. A figurative sense (derived from foot ­­– qnarter of a quadruped) applicable because the typical stanza has four lines. there being no quanti­ tative restriction i n any part of if. verses of eleven and twelve syllables are characterized not only by their cadence. 2 3 4 . and so on) in a verse being long rather than short. while verses of five and eight syllables have no such metrical pause. fourth. called the cadence. because in the Avesta the character of a verse depends solely on the number of syllables i t contains. is more rigidly regulated than that of the earlier part. The main principle governing vedic metre (the source of all later Indian versification) is measurement by number of syllables. The metrical unit here is not the foot in the sense of Greek prosody.APPENDIX I I vEDIC METRE. but by a caesura after the fourth or the fifth syllable. 2 3 4 1 Called chándas i n the RV.

The following general rules of prosody are to be noted. The spelling of a few words regularly misrepresents their metrical value . g. . The quantity of the first and last syllables of a verse is indifferent.vEDIC METRE 437 verses combine to form a stanza or ṛc. o and o are also pronounced é and ó before á. and 72 syllables . and of such words as dā́sa. 3. The stanzas of common occurrence in the RV. both within a word and in sandhi. 4. ā́ indra for éndra. vidátheṣu añján for vidátheṣv añján. Initial a when dropped after o and o must nearly always be restored. The palatal aspirate oh and the cerebral aspirate ḷh (ḍh) count as double consonants. When a final long vowel is the result of Sandhi. 2 3 1 There are also several longer stanzas formed by adding more verses and consisting of 52. and e (as jyá–iṣṭha for jyéṣṭha) or ai (as á-ichas for áichas) must often be pronounced as equivalent to two short syllables. range. The semivowels y and v. have often to be pro¬ nounced as i and u . súar for svār . A vowel becomes long by position if followed by two consonants. remain long before vowels. 64. a.No infringement of this rule occurs in any metre of theRV. o when Pragṛhya (25.but the comparatively rare Dvipadā Viraj (4 ^ 5). 68. 9. The long vowel of the gen. ending am. śura. ví índrah for vī̀ndraḥ . One vowel is shortened before another . m:ṛḷaya as mṝḷaya. One or both of these consonants may belong to the following word. 26). and either two or three stanzas may further be combined to form a strophe. u. pi.’ A stanza may consist of a combination of metrically identical or of metrically different verses . the unit of the hymn. 8. g. e. and suvāná nearly always as svāná. but all these are rare : only two stanzas of 68 and one of 72 are found 1n the RV. however. it also remains long . I. The end of a verse regularly coincides with the end of a word because each verse in a stanza is independent of the rest in structure. ^. tásmā adāt for tásmai adāt. ví uṣā́ḥ for vy uṣā́ḥ. by increments of four syllables. 6. from twenty syllables (4 x 5) to forty­eight (4 x 12) syllables in length. 3 The vowels ī. ávatu ūtáye for ávatutáye . thus pāvaká must always be pro¬ nounced as pavāká. Contracted vowels (especially ī and u) must often be restored . siā́ma for syā́ma . 56. e. 2. in which three exceptions are met with. . ca agnáye for cāgnáye . 7. which generally consists of not less than three or more than fifteen such units. 5. 60.

probably i n imitation of the hemistich of the Anuṣṭubh and the Triṣṭubh . I n the cadence the rhythm is typically iambic. 1 2 3. A. that is. The Avesta has a parallel stanza of 3 ^ 8 syllables. four. of such as are formed of verses which are all metrically identical. the first and third syllables being almost always short. g. g. nearly one­fourth of that saṃhitā being composed i n i t . Thus the prevailing scheme of the whole verse i s – ­ ­ ­ ­ ^ ­ ­ ^ ­ ­ . agním īḷe | bhujā́ ṃ yávi | stham and vayáṃ tád as | ya sáṃbhṛtaṃ | vásu. The first two Pādas of the Gāyatrī are treated as a hemistich i n the saṃhitā text. There are also here a very few instances of one or even two syllables too many . The Gāyatrī stanza consists of three octosyllabic verses. Verse of eight syllables. yet i t has entirely disappeared i n Classical sanskrit. Even after every admissible vowel restoration a good many verses of this type exhibit the anomaly (which cannot be removed without doing violence to the text) of having one syllable too few . a. the third is almost invariably long. but there is no reason to believe that i n the original text the second verse was more sharply divided from the third than from the first. I n the opening the first and third syllable are indifferent. The vedic hymns consist chiefly of simple stanzas. 2. This occurs about as often i n the first verse of Gāyatrīs as i n the second and third combined. 3 1 Next to the Triṣṭubh this is the commonest metre i n the RV. while the second and fourth are preferably long. táṃ tuā vayáṃ pito. five. Simple Stanzas. ^ Different stanzas are formed by com­ bining three. while the second is usually long (though it is not infrequently short also). This is a dimeter verse consisting of two equal members of four syllables each. 3 By far the commonest variation from the normal type is that i n which the second syllable of the cadence is short ( ^ ^ ^ ^ ) . or six identical verses.. When the second is short. 2 . e.I . e. e.g. The following is an account of the various types of verse and of the different simple stanzas formed by them. ^ – ­ ^ a. the opening and the cadence.

keśī́ viṣá I sya pā́ t reṇa || yád rudréṇā́ | pibat sahá || 4 5 1 The only long series of such trochaic Gāyatrīs occurs i n R v viii. e. there begins a tendency to differentiate the first from the second verse of an Anuṣṭubh hemistich by making the end of the former trochaic.. Where the iambic cadence i n the first verse has entirely dis­ appeared. The scheme of the whole hemistich according to this innovation then is : ^: — ^ — | ^ — — || ^ — ^ — | ^ — ^ ^ | | e . 1­39. I n the latest hymns of the RV. which taken together contain about two­thirds of the total number of examples i n the RV. 2.). g . divided into two hemistichs . i t is already very nearly equalled by the next commonest (23 per cent. e. but i n the p o s t . tuáṃ no ag I ne máhobhiḥ | ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ — ^ | pāhí víśva I syā árāteḥ |– ^ – — | — ^ — | utá dviṣó I mártiasya ||^­–^—|—­^—–^|| 1 2 3 b. g.) of all varieties. The Avesta has a parallel stanza of 4 ^ 8 syllables. The Anuṣṭubh stanza consists of four octosyllabic verses. 3 The frequency of this metre is about one­third that of Gāyatrī i n the RV. Although i n these hymns the iambic cadence of the first verse is still the most frequent (25 per cent. This is the regular type of the Anuṣṭubh i n the A v . which is identical w i t h the normal and characteristic cadence of the first verse i n the epic A n u ṣ ṭ u b h (śloka). ā́ yás te sar | pirāsute | |^ ^ — | ágne śám ás I t i dhā́yase | | — — | ^ — ^ — || áiṣu dyumnám I utá śrávaḥ ^ ­ ­ ­ ^ ^ ­ ^ ^ | ā́ eittáṃ már I tieṣu dhāḥ || ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ | — ^ ­­ || a.agním H e I puróhitam ^ ­ ^ ­ ­ | ^ ­ ^ ^ | ya^ñásya de | vám ṛtvijam ^ – – ^ – | ^ – ^ ^ | hótaraṃ ra | tnadhā́ t amam | | — — — — | ^ — ^ ^ | | a.v e d i c period i t has become the predominant metre. The trochaic Gāyatrī is commonest i n Maṇḍalas i and viii. 2 4 5 . g. while the cadence of the latter becomes more strictly iambic. A comparatively rare but sufficiently definite variety of Gāyatrī differs from the normal type by having a decided trochaic rhythm in the cadence. while the iambic rhythm of the opening is more pronounced than usual .

The following is an example of a Paṅkti stanza :­– itthā́ hí sóma ín máde | brahmā́ cakā́ra várdhanam |^ śáviṣṭha vajrinn ójasā | pṛthivyā́ níḥ śaśā áhim | árcann ánu svarā́jiam || d. still more rarely i n the later hymns. The former is called Mahāpaṅkti (48). in i .g. The fourth syllable here is sometimes short : the fifth is then always long. being ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ­ ^ or ^ — ­­ — ­^. viif. the latter Sakvarī (56). This is indicated by the fact that in hymns consisting entirely of Paṅktis the fifth verse of every stanza is (except in i . long i n the old hymns of the RV. The only irregularity here is that the first syllable of the cadence may be short when i t coincides with the end of a word. This appears to have been the original position of the caesura because the parallel verse of the A vesta has i t there and never after the fifth syllable. and hardly ever i n B. 1­3). Identical with the opening of the octosyllabic verse. 80).1 c. I n about fifty stanzas of the RV.g. 2 3 4 5 .. x. B. generally by adding a refrain of two verses to an Anuṣṭubh (e. verses of eleven syllables differ from those of eight in consisting of three members (the opening. which follows either the fourth or the fifth syllable. Thus the scheme of 2 3 0 1 The A vesta has a parallel stanza of 5 ^: 8 syllables. and the cadence). the break. '^ The first of these two syllables is sometimes. g. but rarely. They also contrast with the latter in two other respects : their cadence is trochaic (— ^ — ­­) and they have a caesura.’ The rhythm of the break between the caesura and the cadence is regularly ^ ^ — or ^ | . 4. I n origin it seems to be an extension of the Anusṭubh by the addition of a fifth verse. 47) or to a Paṅkti (e. the number of octosyllabic verses is increased to six and in about twenty others to seven. 81) regularly a refrain (e. The rhythm of the syllables preceding the caesura is prevailingly iambic. 133. The Paṅkti stanza consists of five octosyllabic verses divided into two hemistichs of two^ and of three verses respectively.

ráthebhir yata. Fairly frequent are also Triṣṭubh stanzas of five verses divided into two hemistichs of two and three verses respectively. tám īṃ giro. v i . e. tá ū sú no. The Avesta has a parallel stanza of 4^11 syllables with caesura after the fourth syllable. 6 1 This anomaly also appears in the metre of later vedic texts and of Pali poetry. About two­fifths of the RV. tā́ no vidvā́ ṃ sa. A few Triṣṭubh stanzas of only two verses (dvipadā) occur (e. jána I yo ná pátnīḥ (10). Apart from corruptions or only seeming irregularities (removable by restoration of vowels) several verses of this type have one syllable too many or too f e w . They are always of isolated occurrence.g. bhúva | nasya gópāḥ | pibantu sómam. Much commoner are those of three verses (virāj). 2 3 4 5 6 . are composed i n this metre. i i i . I f i t is not a repetition i t is treated i n the saṃhita text as a separate verse (as v.. 11) and is called an ekapadā by the metricians. aditi I tvé turā́ s aḥ | imáṃ yajñáṃ. e. 20 . consists of four verses of eleven syllables ^ divided into two hemistichs. g.g. mánma vo | oetam a d y á (12). [. 25). (13). ṛṣṭi | mádbhir áśva I parṇaiṇ. the first two of which (as i n the Gāyatrī stanza) are treated i n the saṃhita text as a hemistich . The following are hemistichs of each type : (a) anāgāstvé. The extra syllable i n such cases is perhaps due to the verse being inadvertently continued after a fifth syllable caesura as i f i t were a fourth syllable caesura. but never form­ ing an entire hymn. [ ^ ^ ] yó dvijanma (9) . Occasionally two syllables are wanting after the caesura or the verse is too long by a trochee added at the end . 17). vii. the whole of some hymns is composed in this three­line metre (e.the whole normal verse of eleven syllables is : ^ ) ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^r ( ^ ^ ­ ^ ^ ^ ­ ­ ^ ­ ^ a. 1 2 3 5. The Triṣṭubh stanza. The deficiency of a syllable in such cases may have been partly due to the similarity of the decasyllabic Dvipadā virāj (8) with which Triṣṭubh verses not infrequently interchange.g. áva I se nó adyá || 4 a. These are accounted Atijagatī (52) or Śakvarī stanzas by the ancient metricians when the fifth verse is a repetition of the fourth. 63. ayáṃ sá hóta. da­ dhatu | śróṣamāṇāḥ || (b) asmā́kaṃ santu. ma I hó yajatraḥ (9) . the commonest in the RV. 4 l . appearing generally at the end of (Triṣṭubh) hymns.

i t seems likely that the iambic influence of the Gayatrī led to the creation of the Jagatī. There is an eleven syllable variety of the Jagatī verse which is sufficiently definite i n type to form entire stanzas i n two hymns of the RV. As the Gāyatrī verse is never normally found i n combination with the Triṣṭubh. That is. C. consists of four verses of twelve syllables divided into two hemistichs.g. the third in order of frequency in the RV. píbā sómam. The Jagatī stanza. The rhythm of the last five syllables is therefore — ^ — ­­. [. and occasionally two.. because though a verse of 12 syllables occurs in the Avesta. ^ ^ ­ ^ ­ ^ ­­^ a. 7. ——. but often with the Jagatī verse. — ^ :^ | The following hemistich is an example : abhraprúṣo ná.6. vada | tā gaṇaśri¬ yaḥ (11) . vijanúṣaḥ || 8. i t is there differently divided (7­^­5). several examples occur of this type of verse (like the Triṣṭubh) having one. mā́ no mártāya. D. 77. The verse of five syllables resembles the last five syllables of the Triṣṭubh verse in rhythm.^ ^ ] c I nā́ śatakrato (10). sá dṛḷhé cit. I t has a caesura after both the fifth and the seventh syllable. w i t h which i t could form a homogeneous combination. 78).. (x. e. The added syllable being the only point of difference. ródasī ā́. ásam | aṣṭakāviaḥ || a. abhí tṛ | ṇatti vā́jam ár | vatā (14) . pruṣā vásu | havíṣmanto ná‚ yajñā́. The verse of twelve syllables is probably an extension of the Triṣṭubh verse by one syllable which gives the trochaic cadence of the latter an iambic character. ripáve vājinīvasu (13) . vṛṣabhó I dódhato vadháḥ | gambhīrá ṛṣvó. its scheme being ^ ­– ­­­ ^ . syllables too many or too few . its commonest form being ^ — ^ — –­. vācā́. its first syllable is less often long than short 2 3 . the scheme of the whole verse is : 1 2 (^) ^ ^ ^ I ^ --^ ^ ^ (b) ^ ­– ^ – ^. The following hemistich gives an example of each of the two types of verse : ananudó. and the one next fo it in frequency ^^ ^ ^ ^ I ^ 1 I t is probably not Indo­Iranian.

vii. maruto I vāvasanā́ ḥ || b. M i x e d Stanzas. I I I . is unaccented. 9. Owing to the identity of the cadence a Dvipadā hemistich not infrequently interchanges in the same stanza with a Triṣṭubh verse . e.1 The D v i p a d ā Virāj stanza consists of four such verses 2 divided into two hemistichs . not much more than a hundred times. e. the first two of which are treated as a hemistich : 1 This stanza is somewhat rare. 34 and 56. ágne t á m adyá I áśvaṃ n á stómaiḥ | k r á t u ṃ ná b h a d r á m | hṛdispṛ́ ś am. The verb is accented because i n the saṃhitā text i t is treated as the first word of a separate verse. 3 4 5 priyā́ vo nā́ m a I huve t u r ā ́ ṇ ā m | ā́ y á t t ṛ p á n . g. e. Cp. occurring i n the RV. 19 b). These three verses are treated as a hemistich in the saṃhitā text. This interchange occurs especially i n RV. The mixture of Dvipada hemistichs with Triṣṭubh verses led to an entire hymn (iv. g. 4 3 3 7 . This is because the end of the first and the third verse i n this metre has a tendency to be treated like a caesura rather than a division of the stanza. g. p á r i p r á dhanva | í n d r ā y a soma | s v a d ú r mitrā́ y a I p ū ṣ ṇ é b h á g ā y a || a. though the first word of the verse (App. 3 W i t h this metre compare the defective Triṣṭubh verse of ten syllables (4 a). ṛdhiā́ | m ā 7 ta ó h a i ḥ || II. 10) being composed in a peculiar metre consisting of three pentasyllable verses 6 followed by a Triṣṭubh . The otherwise universal rule that the end of a verse must coincide w i t h the end of a word is three times ignored i n this metre (at the end of the first and third verses). note 2. The only different verses normally used in combination to form a stanza are the Gāyatrī and the Jagat1. Stanzas of 23 syllables consisting of three verses. The principal metres thus formed are the following : a. H ere the verb.

jánāso agniṃ.g. Kakubh : 8 12 8 . ágne vā́ja I sya gómataḥ | ī́sānaḥ sa | haso yaho || asmé dhehi. e. g. apsú antár. Purauṣṇih : 12 8 8 . g. g. jātave | do máhi śrávaḥ || 2. a. g. and two verses respectively in the Saṃhitā text. Stanzas of CO syllables consisting of six Gāyatri verses and one Jagatī : Atiśakvarī 8 8 8. Stanzas of 40 syllables consisting of four verses divided into two hemistichs : Satobṛhatī 12 8 12 8 . 2 1 2 These are the composition of a very few individual poets. úpa da | sat kádā caná | asmád rātiḥ | kádā caná || c.1. e. Stanzas of 3e syllables consisting of four verses divided into two hemistichs : Bṛhatī 8 8 12 8 . e. two. There are besides two much longer mixed stanzas of seven verses. e. amṛ́tam | apsú bheṣajám | apām utá | práśastaye ^ dévā bhava I ta vājínaḥ || 3. . ádhā hi in | dra girvaṇaḥ | úpa tvā kāmān. g. śácībhir nah | śaeīvasū | dévā náktaṃ | daśasyatam || mā́ vāṃ rātír. sumá | nā ihā́vitā́ | bhávā vaje | ṣu santīa || 10. dadhi | re sahovṛ́dham | havíṣmanto | vidhema te || sá tváṃ no adyá. maháḥ | sasṛjmáhe ^ udéva yán | ta udábhiḥ | b. 12 8 . e. 8 8.’ each of which is split up into three divisions of three. e. Only about ten examples of this metre occur in the RV. U ṣ ṇ i h : 88 12.

2. ^ RV. . RV. ix. magha | van suvīriam | máthīr ugró I ná śávasā || 1 a. 35.^ 3. sáca | nāḥ sucetúnā | mahó rāyáḥ | sucetúnā || máhi śavi | ṣṭha nas kṛdhi | saṃcákṣe bhu I jé asiái || máhi stOtṛ́ b hyo. This practice probably arose from the interchange of entire Triṣṭubh and Jagatī stanzas i n the same hymn bringing about a similar mixture within a single stanza. 12 8) . which are pure Anustubh and Tristubh respectively. 12 8 8). x.. Except stanzas 7 and 15. 88) in one entire hymn (RV. 110. ­varu I ṇā gávāśiraḥ I sómāḥ śukrā́ I gávāśiraḥ || b. RV. ^. sá no nédiṣṭnaṃ. 12 8 . 44 syllables (12 12. Stanzas of 68 syllables consisting of four Gāyatrī and three Jagatī verses : Atyaṣṭi 12 12 8. •• 2 5 7 3 4 . There are stanzas of this kind containing 20 syllables (12 8) . 22). 29. 8 8. 2 3 5 4 6 7 1 This is the only comparatively common long metre (of more than 48 syllables) i n the RV. ^ RV. Triṣṭubh verses are quite often interspersed in Jagatī stanzas. 12) . •• . A n occasional licence is the combination of a Triṣṭubh with a Gayatrī verse i n the same stanza. v i i i . but never i n such a way as to form a fixed type of stanza or to make it doubtful whether a hymn is a Jagatī one. 40 syllables (12 12. s7.suṣumā́ yā | tam ádribhiḥ | góśrītā mat | sara imé | sómāso mat | sarā́ imé || ā́ rājānā | divispṛśā | asmatrā́ gan | tam úpa naḥ ^| imé vāṃ mitrā. 52 syllables (12 12. Besides the above mixed metres various other but isolated combinations of Gāyatrī and Jagatī verses occur i n the RV. 93. 32 syllables (12 8. viiI. 8 8) . x. g. 3 I^v. This combination appears as a regular mixed stanza (11 8. dádṛś | āna ā bhara | ágne devébhiḥ. 1. chiefly i n single hymns.. e. But the intrusion of JagatI verses i n a Tristubh hymn is exceptional i n the R v „ though very common i n the ĀV. and later. The combination of a Triṣṭubh verse with a Dvipada viraj hemistich has already been noted (8 a). where more than 80 Atyasti stanzas occur.

This doubly mixed strophic metre. A hymn consisting of several triplets often concludes with an additional stanza in a different metre. a no áśva | vad aśvina | Vartír yāsiṣṭaṃ. occurring only slightly more than fifty times in the RV. a. but all the commoner metres are to some extent thus employed except the Gāyatrī. I t is formed by the combination of a Kakubh with a Satobṛhatī stanza : 8 12. I t is a typical practice to conclude a hymn composed i n one metre w i t h a stanza i n another. B. the R v containing about 250 such strophes. while Triṣṭubh triplets are rare. A Triṣṭubh stanza at the end of a Jagatī hymn is the commonest . 11. snvī́ r yaṃ | suṣṭhú variam | ánadhṛṣṭaṃ | rakṣasvínā || asmínn ā́ vām. The Barhata Pragatha is a common strophe. occurring nearly two hundred times in the R V I t is formed by the combination of a Brhatī with a SatobrhatI stanza : 8 8.I I I . is of two main types : 1. madhu | patamā nara || gómad dasra I híraṇyavat || suprāvargáṃ. The Kākubha Pragātha is much the less common kind of strophe. Two er three stanzas are often found strophically combined in the RV. 12 8 + 12 8. 12 8 . āyā́ne | vajinīvasú | víśva vamā́ | ni dhīmahi || 2. Strophic Stanzas. Gāyatrī triplets are the com­ monest . Two mixed stanzas in different metres are often com­ bined. called Pragātha. less usual are Uṣṇih. Three simple stanzas (called tṛea) in the same metre are often thus connected. Bṛhatī. g.. which is never used in this way. A. or Paṅkti triplets . g. forming couplets or triplets. 8 + 12 8. . a final Anuṣṭubh stanza i n Gāyatrī hymns is much less usual . e. e. 12 8 .

Of these two types there are many variations occurring i n individual hymns. chiefly by the addition of one (8). sá di | ví priyó nárā | pātáṃ gaurā́v I ivériṇe || píbataṃ gharmáṃ. 96. two (12 8). .dyumnī́ vāṃ | stómo aśv1na I krívir ná sé I ka ā́ gatam || mádhvaḥ sutásya. 1­3) even four verses (12 12 8 8). mádhu | mantam aśvina | ā́ barhíḥ sī | dataṃ narā || tā́ mandasānā́ . three (12 8 8). or once (vii. mánu | ṣo duroṇá