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green public

procurement
in sweden

ISBN: 978-91-620-8417-2
www.naturvardsverket.se

se ISBN 978-91-620-8417-2 © Naturvårdsverket 2009 Print: CM Gruppen AB Edition: 600 copies Design and illustration: AB Typoform Photos: cover: Roine Mangusson/Naturbild. p. p. p. 8 Per Magnus Persson. p.se Internet: www. 1 Tero Niemi/Naturbild. 7 Mattias Lundblad/ Nordic photos. p.Title: Green Public Procurement in Sweden Orders Phone: + 46 (0)8-505 933 40 Fax: + 46 (0)8-505 933 99 E-mail: natur@cm. 9 Nicho Södling/Johner. 10 Stefan Berg/Johner. p. p. Sweden Internet: www. 5 Jonas Ingerstedt/Johner. p. 11 Bertil Hagberg/Scanpix .naturvardsverket.se/bokhandeln The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Phone: + 46 (0)8-698 10 00 Address: Naturvårdsverket. SE-106 48 Stockholm.naturvardsverket. 6 Anna Emilia/Johner.

Green public procurement has been used as an instrument of Swedish environmental policy for over ten years. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for monitoring and developing the instrument. The IPCC has shown that greenhouse gas emissions are changing the conditions for human life and impacting biodiversity. and is primarily aimed at those engaged in developing environmental policy instruments. . This has been found to be difficult to achieve using traditional instruments.Green public procurement – a powerful tool We face great challenges in the environmental and climate field. This brochure describes the experience we have gained. We now know how we can encourage public organisations to assume greater environmental responsibility in their procurement processes. since they stimulate the market for sustainable goods and services. When public procurement processes involve environmental standards. they act as a powerful tool in our efforts to achieve the Swedish environmental and climate objectives. Much of the impact on the environment and climate is due to our production and consumption of goods and services.

Seldom Around 60 per cent of public organisations say that they always or usually specify environmental requirements in their public procurement processes. and 52 per cent say that the 23 % staff responsible for procurement have undersometimes gone training in green procurement. The Swedish action plan establishes that ”Green public procurement is a market-based and powerful controlling tool in the work of guiding society towards long-term andDosustainable consumption and therefore you specify environmental requirements when procuring? production. specify environmental requirements to a greater Do you follow-up your procurement process extent than other organisations. with targets for their environmental performance. from an environmental viewpoint? 82 per cent say they have2an % environmen9% Always tal policy for procurement. the objective that the propor2007 40 procurement 31 8 11 tion of17green public should have increased by 2010. This figure has remained fairly constant over the last five years. Only 30 % 11 per cent say they follow up completed Seldom 14 % Don’t know 2% No answer Never Do you specify environmental requirements when procuring? Do you have an evironmental policy for procurement? 100 Yes No 80 60 2009 13 45 2007 17 40 0 20 0 15 2004 40 2004 2007 2009 20 33 8 1 10 % 31 Not well defined 15 % 46 Partly not well defined 40 Always Often Seldom Never 8 11 22 % No environmental 7 3 criteria 27 60 80 100 % Sometimes 53 % Environmental criteria Do you have an evironmental policy for procurement? 2 100 80 Yes No .” action plan contains an analysis of the 2009The 13 45 33 8 1 current situation. and a number of measures 15 46 27 7 3 2004 that must be taken if we are to achieve our 0 20 40 60 80 100 objectives. 55 per cent have 20 % Most times Never objectives for environmental consideration in procurement. and with trained staff. Public bodies with an environmental policy for procurement. % Public procurement in Sweden has an annual Always Often turnover of approximately EUR Sometimes 50 billion.Sixty per cent specify environmental requirements The Swedish Government has been encouraging public bodies to assume greater environmental responsibility in their procurement processes for just over ten years.

2007 (10 per cent) included poorly specified require2004 2007 2009 ments that had no impact. Of these. These results reveal a need for knowledge about how environmental requirements should be formulated in a ­procurement procedure. 2009 13 2007 Do you follow-up your procurement process from an environmental viewpoint? Do you follow-up your procurement process 2 % viewpoint? from an environmental 9% Always 20 % 2 % Most times 9% Never Always 20 % Most times Never 23 % sometimes 23 % 30 % sometimes Seldom 14 % 30 % Don’t know Seldom 2% 14 % No answer Don’t know 2% No answer Do you have an evironmental policy for procurement? Do 100you have an evironmental policy for procurement? 100 80 80 60 40 20 0 Yes No Yes facts Procurement processes No reviewed. In order to take 150 2004 20 46 40 6027 80 7 3 100 % to a environmental factors into consideration 0 20 40 60 80 100 greater extent. 45 33 that the 8 lack 1 Questionnaires reveal of 17 40 31 8 11 knowledge and experience of how to specify 2007 17 40 31 8 11 15 environmental 46 27 is the 7greatest 3 requirements 2004 obstacle to green procurement.Do you specify environmental requirements when procuring? Do you specify environmental processes requirements from when procuring? procurement an environmental 2009 13 45 33 8 1 viewpoint. The Swedish Environmental 60 Protection Agency (EPA) commissioned a review 40 of 270 Swedish procurement processes in relevant product areas in 2007. 210 20 (78 per cent) involved environmental require0 whereas 272009 procurement processes 2004 ments. need help % in formuAlways Oftenpurchasers Sometimes lating environmental requirements. 10 % Not well defined 10 % 15 %well defined Not Partly not 15 defined % well Partly not well defined 22 % No environmental 22 %criteria No environmental criteria 53 % Environmental criteria 53 % Environmental criteria 3 . They also Seldom Always OftenNever Sometimes desire access to tools for green procurement and Never Seldom information on best practice.

These purchasers must be motivated to specify environmental ­requirements. The Government can exercise control in the form of legislation and motivate purchasers via information and dialogue. Continuous follow-up Green procurement processes must be followed up in order to know how the instrument is developing. The Government can therefore offer training and practical guidance on green procurement. Improve skills Specifying environmental requirements demands skill. The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducts regular questionnaire surveys and qualitative audits of procurement processes. The following measures are particularly important: Involve decision makers It is important that politicians and other central and local decision makers are involved in the process of assuring green procurement. both in procurement and in the 4 environmental field. . The Government can supply a simple tool in the form of predetermined procurement criteria produced by central government.The key to success There are thousands of purchasers in the public sector in Sweden. The political will and management support are essential to success. and to be able to propose new measures. Offer an efficient and simple purchasing tool The greatest impact will be achieved if everyone specifies the same environmental standards to be met by suppliers. but circumstances must also ­enable them to do so.

the Government arranges information campaigns and conferences for local and regional decision makers. This presupposes that a management decision has been taken. The proportion of procurement processes where environmental requirements are specified. and the value of procurement Involve local and regional decision makers 5 . Control of government agencies Officials of local and regional organisations must have a mandate and resources to be able to specify environmental requirements in procurement processes. processes are reported to the Government once a year. Government agencies in Sweden with a significant environmental impact have been instructed to implement and develop environmental management systems and to carry out green procurement. These agencies are also bound by an ordinance under which they may only purchase green cars. To achieve this. The Government can exercise control in the form of legislation and motivate purchasers via information and dialogue.Involve decision makers A successful central or local green procurement procedure requires both political will and management support.

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Suppliers also need help in the procurement process. The Environmental Management Council has developed two online courses. available free on the website. The help desk is a­ vailable free of charge. so that more people succeed in specifying effective environmental requirements. www. facts The Swedish Environmental Management Council is a limited liability company owned jointly by the Swedish State. The Council gives impetus to green public procurement by providing environmental criteria. Help desk Many purchasers want advice on how environmental requirements should be specified. networks and information on best practice are some ways of making expertise in the field available to those who need it. and to arrange its own training programmes. telephone advisory services.Improve the skill of purchasers Questionnaire responses have revealed that a lack of knowledge among purchasers is the greatest obstacle to green procurement.msr. trade and industry. The service is also valuable for the Environmental Management Council. It provides concrete and practical advice to purchasers.se/en 7 . Training Studies show that public bodies that have trained their staff have made most progress in greening procurement. The Environmental Management Council is therefore taking steps to integrate environmental training in standard procurement training courses. Training. expertise and information. since it helps to identify questions and issues of importance to purchasers and suppliers. Online courses are another way of making training available to more people. The Swedish Environmental Management Council offers a help desk via telephone or e-mail. municipalities and county councils.

or do not know how it should be used. The Environmental Management Council supplies the help desk and support. and how purchasers can determine that the criteria have been met. the criteria must include proposals for how the environmental criteria can be verified by suppliers. The requirements will only work if they are supported both by purchasers and by suppliers. available free of charge. background information and explanatory notes. 8 . The best way of achieving this is for the Government to offer a simple tool with suitable environmental criteria. there must be suppliers that meet the requirements. • Help desk It is important to allocate ­resources so that users receive answers to their questions about the environmental criteria.An efficient and simple purchasing tool The impact will be greatest when all public bodies specify the same environmental requirements in their procurement processes. secondly. The proposals are being drafted as part of an extensive quality assurance process involving representatives from the public and private sector. Firstly. The Environmental Management Council is drafting procurement criteria for a large number of products purchased in the public sector. Those not using the tool say this is mainly because they are not aware of its existence. facts Half of Swedish public bodies say they use the Environmental Management Council criteria to green their procurement. Important lessons learned from this process are: • Support It is important that the environmental criteria produced have the support of purchasers and suppliers alike. the requirements must drive the market for green products. These comprise proposed requirements. so that they work in public procurement. criteria and contract terms. • Verification and follow-up If an instrument is to be credible.

Its key tasks are to present proposals for environmental policy and legislation to the Swedish Government and ensure that environmental policy decisions are implemented.continuous follow-up The Swedish EPA has been monitoring the greening of public procurement since 2001 by means of qualitative and quantitative studies. and how they have been expressed. The results of the studies are used as a basis for developing new measures and updating the Swedish action plan. To ensure a high response level. created in 1967. Questionnaires every three years Every three years a questionnaire survey is carried out among those responsible for procurement in central government. without too much detail. some 300 procurement processes in various product areas are audited every three years. www.se 9 . facts The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.swedishepa. is the national agency for environmental protection and nature conservation. Quality audit In addition. the questionnaires are of a general nature. which gives us an idea of the requirements specified in procurement processes. The response level is usually around 80 per cent. The results show whether environmental requirements have been specified. municipalities and county councils.

there is an additional potential energy saving of 16. government agencies have reduced their annual energy consumption by 3.750 MWh. The personal computer contract is the largest single framework agreement. By informing individuals placing orders under the framework agreement of the most energy-efficient options. In addition.Best practice 1: Central procurement of computers Swedish State procurement processes are coordinated in the form of framework agreements in areas where government agencies share large purchasing volumes. 10 . emissions of brominated and chlorinated flame retardants have fallen by approximately 26 tonnes.100 MWh a year. worth around 250 million Euro each year. The procurement process for the framework agreement includes requirements regarding energy performance and chemicals in components. Thanks to the environmental requirements in the central computer procurement process.

Petrol or diesel driven automobiles may emit no more than 120 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre. Green cars must also be used by those ordering taxis or hire cars.Best practice 2: Green cars Since 1 February 2009 all automobiles purchased or leased by Swedish government agencies must be green cars. as defined. Furthermore many municipalities. This measure has given a boost to the green car market in Sweden. In addition. light commercial vehicles may emit a maximum of 230 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre. This requirement has been laid down in an ordinance. agencies must ensure that the cars use renewable fuels to the greatest possible extent. county councils and companies aim to purchase green cars. 11 . Purchases of vehicles and fuels are reported to the Government once a year.

footwear and passenger cars 12 . pharmaceuticals. passenger cars.000 km²). iron and steel Most important imported goods: Electronic and telecom equipment. machinery. machinery. foodstuffs.3 million inhabitants Language: Swedish Form of government: Constitutional monarchy. the third largest country in Western Europe Forests: 53% Mountains: 11% Cultivated land: 8% Lakes and rivers: 9% Stockholm Capital: Stockholm Stockholm Population: 9. crude oil. textile products. with 349 members in one chamber Most important export goods: Electronic and telecom equipment.Facts about Sweden Area: 174. parliamentary democracy Parliament: The Riksdag.000 sq mi (450. paper.

Title: Green Public Procurement in Sweden Orders Phone: + 46 (0)8-505 933 40 Fax: + 46 (0)8-505 933 99 E-mail: natur@cm. SE-106 48 Stockholm. p. 1 Tero Niemi/Naturbild.se/bokhandeln The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Phone: + 46 (0)8-698 10 00 Address: Naturvårdsverket. p. 5 Jonas Ingerstedt/Johner.se Internet: www. 11 Bertil Hagberg/Scanpix . 6 Anna Emilia/Johner. p.naturvardsverket. 9 Nicho Södling/Johner. 10 Stefan Berg/Johner. p.se ISBN 978-91-620-8417-2 © Naturvårdsverket 2009 Print: CM Gruppen AB Edition: 600 copies Design and illustration: AB Typoform Photos: cover: Roine Mangusson/Naturbild. p.naturvardsverket. p. p. 7 Mattias Lundblad/ Nordic photos. Sweden Internet: www. p. 8 Per Magnus Persson.

se .green public procurement in sweden ISBN: 978-91-620-8417-2 www.naturvardsverket.