You are on page 1of 76

Table of Isotopes (A=263-272

)
CD ROM Edition

by Richard B. Firestone
Virginia S. Shirley Editor
S.Y. Frank Chu CD-ROM Editor
Coral M. Baglin and Jean Zipkin Assistant Editors
To see brief instructions for Acrobat Reader please click on this green square
To see README for Table of Isotopes please click on this green square

† This work was supported by the Director, Office of Energy Research, Office
of High Energy and Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Physics Division of the
US Department of Energy under contract DE-AC03-76SF00098,
subcontract LBL no. 4573810.

Version 1.0
March, 1996

Throughout the document green indicates hyperlinked objects.
Instructions for using Tool bar (below menu):
click the icon to activate unless otherwise noted
Bookmarks

{
Hand
Zoom In

Magnifies page view

Displays first page of document
Displays previous page

Next Page

Displays next page

Last Page

Displays last page of document
Displays previous page view

Go Forward

Returns from Go Back

Actual Size

Sets page view to 100%

Fit Width to Window
Find

Shows current magnification.
Click to Select magnification.

Scrolls through window

First Page

Fit Page to Window

Displays page number.
Click to display Go to Page dialog box.

( ): Click to show (hide) bookmarks.
: Double click to open.

Reduces page view

Go Back

Changes width of bookmark area

Displays bookmarks

Zoom Out

Previous Page

Instruction for using Status bar:

Displays whole page
Displays width of page
Find words

Keyboard shortcuts for Macintosh (or for Windows):
• Esc key (same key for Windows)
result: Interrupts display of page
• Combined key stroke
(Mac only)
result: Interrupts find process
• When in

or

, click with Option key (for windows

Ctrl key) pressed, reverse the zooming effect

To open the on-line guide type

for Mac

or function key F1 for Windows .

Table of Isotopes CD- ROM Edition
(Version 1.0, March 1996)
The CD-ROM edition of the Table of Isotopes is an AdobeTM ACROBAT
document. On- line help for ACROBAT is provided. The CD-ROM may be
navigated by activating bookmarks on the side bar with the mouse. The
bookmarks access an extensive index to the book. The index has hypertext links
to the main body of the book, and additional links, within the book, provide easy
access to related material. All hypertext links are indicated by green text.
Bookmark and Index Summary
Chart of Nuclides — The chart is divided into 7 sections. Each section is
comprised of separate parts for ground states and isomers. The isotope
boxes on the chart have hypertext links to either an isomer, if an asterisk is
present on the lower right of the box, or to the level table for that nucleus.
Summary Schemes — The 271 summary mass- chain decay schemes
accessed by this index contain hyptertext links to the level table for each
isotope. Additional links on the summary schemes access summary
schemes for A ± 1 and A ± 4.
Reaction and Decay Daughter Index — Bookmarks are divided into groups
of 10 mass chains with secondary bookmarks for every mass number.
They access an index containing hypertext links to the summary schemes,
level tables, decay scheme drawings, and nuclear band drawings for each
mass chain.

Other Hypertext Links Level Tables — The isotope name at the beginning of the level table is linked to the corresponding decay drawing. Band Drawings — The isotope names are linked to the level tables. Daughter isotopes are linked to the following band drawing. or to the level tables. Appendix Index — The appendices to the Table of Isotopes are accessed through this index. They access an index containing hypertext links to the decay drawings and radiation tables for all radioactive parents. if one exists.Decay Parent Index — Bookmarks are divided into groups of 10 mass chains with secondary bookmarks for every mass number. . Radiation Tables — The radiation table titles are linked to the corresponding decay scheme drawings. References are linked to the complete reference abstracts. Reference Index — Complete reference abstracts can be accessed by this index of hypertext links to first reference key number on each page of the references. Decay Drawings — The parent isotopes are linked to the corresponding radiation tables.

with supporting software for producing the Nuclear Data Sheets. He stated that “the 7th edition of the Table of Isotopes will be the last in the series. under the direction of the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory. He was one of the first to use word processing techniques.6 . Glenn Seaborg and colleagues published the Table of 2 3.” While the 7th edition of the Table of Isotopes was being prepared. Mike made one mistake in the last edition.S. evaluate it. Bruce Ewbank and his colleagues at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were developing the first comprehensive nuclear structure database. Radionuclides in 1940. Under Sol Pearlstein's direction an international network of nuclear data evaluators was established under the auspices of the IAEA. Mike Lederer pioneered the use of computers to facilitate the publication of the Table of Isotopes.8 7th (1978) editions . Remarkable historical events paralleled the publication of those editions as the Table of Isotopes helped pave our entry into the nuclear age. and 1958. in 1941. the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF).” It didn't stabilize and. in 1944. data compilation was evolving into a specialized discipline. Data grew at a remarkable rate despite the prediction of an editor. that “the rate at which such radioactivities are discovered may be reduced very considerably and the table would itself become stable. Pennsylvania. and it was a challenge even for the large data community to process this information into the ENSDF file and publish it in the . to form the U.4.” However. and the 7th edition of the Table of Isotopes was an early example of “desktop publishing. 1953. Brookhaven had led similar efforts to advance the compilation of neutron cross section data. renamed the Table of Isotopes. Some contents of the book were even deleted from publication for several years until the discovery of plutonium could be declassified. Nuclear Data Network (USNDN).5. Nuclear structure and decay data continued expanding at an enormous rate.Preface It has been 60 years since Giorgio Fea published the first compilation of known 1 radionuclides called the Tabelle Riassuntive E Bibliografia delle Trasmutazioni Artificiali in Nuovo Cimento. when Mike Lederer took the helm for the 6th (1967) and 7. and publish it in a convenient form. The enormous growth of nuclear data required the development of special expertise to sort through the information. and later editions 1948. The Berkeley and Oak Ridge efforts were joined together with groups at Idaho Falls and U.

Dick Helmer provided prepublication data for the appendix on γ-ray . a new book emphasizing radioactive decay data. and Sigurd Hofmann helped to review and supply up-to-date heavyelement data. Her editing standards were extremely high and accounted for the scarcity of mistakes in the 6th and 7th editions and in the Table of Radioactive Isotopes. Edgardo Browne and I were 9 able to use the ENSDF database to prepare the Table of Radioactive Isotopes . Balraj Singh also contributed significantly to the development of this edition and evaluated most of the superdeformed band data. The editors. I could sense that she was looking over my shoulder to make sure that we did it right. In particular Virginia Shirley. Virginia passed away shortly before we completed this book and is sorely missed. Peter Endt. In 1986. There have been over 100 nuclear data evaluators whose efforts have directly or indirectly contributed to the book. Peter Ekström provided a great deal of advice and criticism throughout the project.Nuclear Data Sheets. deserve considerable credit for maintaining the quality of ENSDF and guiding the evaluators through the evaluation and review process. In 1991 the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Basic Nuclear Data Compilations. but many more participated in numerous previous compilations over the past 60 years. chaired by Jolie Cizewski. That effort merged the strengths of an international evaluation program with the publication tradition of the Table of Isotopes. Some of them are listed on the summary mass chain decay schemes. requested that we prepare an 8th edition of the Table of Isotopes. I regret that she did not see the final product but.000 references are cited in this edition. Ron Tilley and Jean Blachot updated and reviewed much of the data for A<45. Special thanks go to Mulki Bhat for rallying evaluators to update their mass chains in time for this edition. I owe an enormous debt of gratitude to my predecessors at Berkeley who began the Table of Isotopes and taught me the importance of quality in both the content and presentation of this book. Nearly 24. Murray Martin and Jagdish Tuli. and this book would not be possible without the research efforts of thousands of scientists. Few other scientific fields have developed such an extensive and efficient data program. Georges Audi made a special effort to complete his mass evaluation in time for this book. Glenn Seaborg. represented the soul of this effort for over 25 years. as I completed the final editing. Darleane Hoffman. my editor.

we have solved the problem of an ever-expanding database.000 pages of information. but instead the beginning of a new era. and Lam Wong who kept us up and running. 30 (1940). J. Finally. Reviews of Modern Physics 12. G. Nuovo Cimento 6. .T. and Janis Dairiki saw to it that we were provided with the critical resources and support necessary to complete this project. Darleane Hoffman continued those efforts. in particular. Livingood and G. Our technology now allows us to update the book automatically from the underlying databases. provided advice. Particular thanks go to Eric Beals. Seaborg. 2. for helping us solve many computer and software problems. 3. Many evaluators reviewed their contributions to this edition and provided us with additional. Jørgen Randrup helped develop and present the original proposals for the 8th edition. Seaborg. We have developed this CD-ROM edition of the book to provide considerably more data in a compact format. I gratefully acknowledge the support and encouragement of the U. 1 (1944). and encouragement. director of the Nuclear Science Division.S. This time we can state that the 8th edition of the Table of Isotopes will not be the last in this series! We look forward with enthusiasm to preparing the next edition. This book would not be possible without the broad support of my colleagues at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. G. Reviews of Modern Physics 16. Firestone Berkeley. support. under the direction of Stu Loken. Marty Gelbaum. Fea. Stan Whetstone and Dick Meyer. The 8th edition of the Table of Isotopes is not the end of this series. California August. Many LBNL scientists provided useful suggestions and reviewed various parts of the book.J. Department of Energy and.energy and intensity standards. We look forward to publishing the Table of Isotopes in this CD-ROM format on a much more frequent schedule than was possible for the book. With space for nearly 100. Special thanks go to the Information and Computer Science Division. updated data.T. 1995 ____________________________ 1. 1 (1935). Richard B. Cindy Hertzer. James Symons.

Hollander. Seaborg. 7. New York (1967). Buyrn. 585 (1948).B. 7th edition. Shirley. New York (1986). Seaborg and I. 585 (1958). Browne. Table of Radioactive Isotopes. . and G. John Wiley and Sons. Tuli.M. L. and A. 8. J.M. Lederer. Reviews of Modern Physics 30. Hollander. Perlman.T. New York (1978).A. Browne. and V. Shirley. Reviews of Modern Physics 20. Table of Isotopes. J. 5. A. C. Table of Isotopes.T. I. and G.K. C. R. Perlman. 6. E.M. and I. 9.B. G.T.E. R. John Wiley and Sons. Hollander. Strominger.M.M.J. Perlman. Dairiki.4. E. Seaborg. Reviews of Modern Physics 25.S. D. Jardine.S. Firestone. J. 469 (1953). J.M. Lederer. V. Shihab-Eldin. J. John Wiley and Sons. Doebler.

The information in this edition was based primarily on evaluation efforts by the members of the U. maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory. from Raghavan .S. and those for heavier nuclei (45≤ A ≤ 266) were published in Nuclear Data Sheets. at this time. the reader is encouraged to consult the ENSDF file or the primary evaluation publications (referenced on the mass chain summary drawings). most 4 spontaneous fission probabilities are from Hoffman et al. Nuclear Data Network and the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Working Group. For more detailed information. In addition to the ENSDF file. none existed in the ENSDF file. as in the previous edition but. This edition provides greater coverage of nuclear structure properties than previous editions. and information on fission isomers and superdeformed nuclear band structure has been expanded to include information 6 from Firestone and Singh . we have introduced high-spin nuclear band drawings. Nuclear mass and Q-value data were taken from the Audi et al. These data are also available in the Evaluated 1 Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) .Introduction to the CD-ROM I. when necessary. The reaction level schemes of the 7th edition have been superseded by the more extensive level tables. Adopted data for all known nuclear levels and their de-excitation modes are given. emphasizing information of particular . In place of reaction level schemes. Complete decay data tables are also presented. data from several other compilations have been incorporated. data evaluated from various literature sources have been combined in a single data set. prepublication version. General Information The 8th edition of the Table of Isotopes contains nuclear structure and decay data for over 3100 isotopes and isomers with 1≤ A ≤ 272. Some of the data have been selectively updated by the author from recent literature and/or extensively edited to provide uniform and concise presentation. here. 1993 2 3 mass table . In most instances. we used an updated. The evaluations for 267≤ A ≤ 272 were prepared by the author because. the most recently published evaluation was used but. for some mass chains. . Nuclear moment data have 5 been updated. neutron cross-section data are from Mughabghab et al. The detailed evaluations for light mass nuclei (A≤44) were published in Nuclear Physics A. and the source references given in the tabular data. We have used the ENSDF file as the starting point for this edition of the Table of Isotopes.

The data are organized by mass number (A) and sub-ordered by atomic number (Z). p. spin and parity assignments and ground state decay branchings. These are followed by an alphabetically coded list of the decay modes and reactions known or expected to populate the isotope. dipole and quadrupole moments. and several new appendices have been added. proton and neutron separation energies. . and neutron capture cross sections. decay Q-values. Radioactive decay data tables for the isotope and its isomers follow each adopted levels table. These provide tables of transition energies. or of particular historical interest (e. relative intensities. isospin. Organization of the 8th Edition CD-ROM The 8th edition CD-ROM is an Adobe Acrobat document. and mixing ratio. The tables contain general nuclear properties including natural isotopic abundance. The table continues with an energy-ordered list of level data and γ-ray deexcitation information. Isomers are defined as excited states with half-lives either greater than 1 ms. The appendices from the 7th edition have been updated and expanded in this edition. The decay scheme and band structure drawings for each isotope. or other particles emitted in decay. decay modes and branching intensities. multipolarity. adopted from decay and reaction measurements. n.g.. decay energies. and cross-indexing to the populating reactions and decays in which the level is observed. with their associated 67 character reference codes from the Nuclear Science Reference file (NSR). For each mass chain there is an abbreviated summary decay scheme drawing (skeleton scheme) summarizing the ground state and isomeric state(s) half-lives. also ordered by increasing atomic number (Z). The data listed for the γ rays include energy. and absolute intensity normalizations for emitted γ rays. The isotopes covered include those whose existence has been determined only in nuclear reactions. Adopted level data include spin and parity. as yet. The skeleton scheme is followed by the tabular listings for all isotopes. II. multipolarities. unobserved. relative photon intensity normalized to 100 for the most intense photon branch from a given level. mixing ratios. relative intensities and absolute intensity normalizations for α. and the proton and neutron separation energies for all known isotopes and isomers of that mass. follow the tables. ordered by increasing atomic number (Z). half-life. shape isomers). comparable to the ground-state half-life. but whose decay is. mass excess.importance in high-spin physics. and tables of energies.

and 4.5 calc. Level energies are quoted relative to a constant offset (x. 37. Some for 37. not 0. and transitions to adjacent bands (arrow only) are shown. General Features of the 8th Edition A.7−0. Values derived from systematics are indicated either in parentheses.2 22 stands −4 for (4..3 2 × 10 numbers are indicated as approximate (≈0.2. B. Additional γ rays deexciting the decay levels from the adopted levels table which were not observed in decay are shown in red on the drawings. e.g.7+1. III.5. Uncertainties: Uncertainties are indicated by smaller italic numbers following any value. Ground state energies are normally written as 0. spin. half-life.Decay scheme drawings are presented separtately for each decay mode feeding each daughter isotope. They represent the uncertainty in the least significant digit(s). Beta or alpha decay feedings to daughter levels are shown with their associated reduced transition probabilities (logft or HF). except for quantized values such as spin. calculated values are shown. There. multipolarities. as 1. Some γ-ray energies are given as X or > 0 when the transition is known to exist but its energy is not known. with their energies rounded to the nearest keV. Energies: All energies are given in keV. and transition energies in boldface italic type. < 0. 1576. or as 123 syst. and decay energy. e. Such drawings show each parent’s level energy. and relative branching intensities from the decay table. z.06). bands are drawn side by side and given a short band name if available. etc.) as x or 0+y. Data from ENSDF for which limits were expressed as ≤ or ≥ have had those limits converted to < or >. In-band γ rays. parity. y.2)×10−4. 15. (123). Levels identified as having associated collective or high-spin structure are shown in nuclear band drawings.717 5 for 15.0. The existence of additional transition(s) that are not shown is indicated by an arrowhead on the level. For example.2±2. respectively.15) or as a limit (>10..5+z. when their relationship to the ground state is unknown. Systematic level energies are given in parentheses. . Level energies are shown in boldface type.3±0. . All γ rays from the levels populated by decay are shown with their energies...g.

Logft values were recalculated. reference codes were unavailable from NSR at the time of publication. These values are presented on the decay scheme drawings in parentheses.C. Cross-indexing of levels to populating reactions and decays was taken from ENSDF. and the 5 addition of missing or incomplete nuclear moments from the compilation of Raghavan . If the last two characters are numeric. and 8 Treiner . Updating was primarily limited to the addition of newly discovered isotopes. the reference is from a primary source (except for some pre-1969 publications) and. the second two characters are the first two letters of the first author’s last name. when available. de-exciting transition energies and . decay Q-values. the reference is from a secondary source such as a report. These codes follow the general form YYAu%% where the first two characters indicate the reference year. and compared with the ENSDF file values for inconsistencies. Values extrapolated from systematics are indicated by enclosing them in parentheses and rounding them based on the systematic uncertainty. In a few cases. and the last two characters are arbitrary sequence characters. otherwise. Swiatecki. it was assigned on the basis of energy differences.1 unit. Decay parent information was compared with relevant adopted daughter level information. Data evaluation: Data were generally taken directly from the ENSDF file with only minor adjustments to achieve uniform presentation. level spins and parities. Myers. Isotopes whose masses have not yet been tabulated are displayed on the summary mass chain schemes at their approximate masses estimated from the calculations of Möller. or private communication. and discrepancies were reconciled. Masses: Mass excesses. and proton or neutron separation energies 2 shown in the tables and figures are from the evaluation of Audi and Wapstra . are used. The reference codes are translated into short citations at the end of the main tables. Decay energies and proton/neutron separation energies were updated to values 2 provided by Audi and Wapstra . if they are alphabetic. so temporary alphabetic sequence numbers were assigned irrespective of whether the source was a primary or secondary one. conference proceedings. more complete nuclear band data. maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Reference Codes: 7 Standard reference codes from the Nuclear Science Reference file (NSR). E. rounded to the nearest 0. D.

Transition final level assignments are not generally available in ENSDF. The evaluator(s) of the most recent evaluation are indicated on the mass-chain skeleton scheme and may also be contacted for additional information. reaction l-transfer values. when necessary.multipolarities. The reader is encouraged to refer to the original Nuclear Physics A or Nuclear Data Sheets publication or the ENSDF file for more detailed information. Systematic multipolarities generally are not shown unless they have been used to infer the mixing ratio. . and band assignments. If a revision date is indicated. an unpublished evaluation which is either a continuous evaluation or a prepublication mass-chain evaluation has been used. so they were deduced from the transition energy with the requirement that transition multipolarity be consistent with initial and final level spin and parity values. to give 100 for the most intense photon branch from each level. Adopted levels in the tabular data have been extended to include all levels in the decay scheme drawings whether or not the evaluator adopted them. In many instances we have updated selected portions of the mass chains beyond the date indicated on the summary mass-chain decay scheme. F. This will be evident from the post-evaluation date references included in the tabular data. Mass-chain Reference: The mass-chain evaluation citations are given in a box on the summary masschain decay scheme. Adopted γ-ray intensities have been renormalized. The most recent primary reference and subsequent update (if any) are indicated.

They are derived from a least-squares fit to measured Q-values for decay and nuclear reactions and data on mass doublets. α. Energies of isomeric states are printed above the right hand side of the line. percentage branchings are given when known. atomic number. they have been interpolated or extrapolated from the least-squares fit. and isotope symbol appear below each ground-state line. to < 25 units in the most significant digit(s). Detailed Description of the Tables and Drawings A. When several decay processes compete. Spin and parity assignments are printed above the lines on the left side. p. based on experimental or systematic uncertainties. EC (EC+β+). and bb decay modes are given for each isotope. Their vertical positions are unrelated to the energy scale. labeled with the decay mode. (Systematic uncertainties were also derived from the least-squares fit. Beta-delayed particle emission is indicated by light lines if only a few discrete levels are populated by the beta decay. QEC is given for all EC+β+ processes. Half-lives are printed in large type next to the isotope or isomer lines. Proton or neutron separation energies are plotted as dashed lines near their actual energies. Q-values for β−. plotted near the energy region of delayed particle emission. or by a cross-hatched band. All Q-values represent the actual mass difference (in units of keV) between 2 neutral atoms. The values are rounded. Decay of an isotope is indicated by an arrow. Alpha-decay parents are shown at the top of the mass-chain decay scheme. when many levels are populated. Systematic values are indicated in parentheses. and they are taken from Audi and Wapstra .IV. Mass-chain Decay Schemes: The ground-state of each nucleus is represented by a heavy line whose vertical position represents the mass of the nucleus relative to the lightest (most beta-stable) isobar. The mass. but they are not shown here.) . The positions of these lines only approximate the actual energy to allow room for labels. directly above their respective daughters. Qa values are also given for α-decay parents. The square-root energy scale is plotted to the left of the scheme. Dashed lines represent probable isotopes or isomers. Isomeric states are represented by heavy lines plotted above the ground state.

Sn: Neutron separation energy (MN − MN−1 − Mn) in units of keV. Systematic values are given in parentheses. σ α (n capture cross section for alpha particle emission). Immediately below the label are quantities of general interest described as follows. in units of keV. and σr for reactor neutrons. Systematic values are given in parentheses. When more than one level from a given parent may populate the isotope. Qx: Decay energy for decay mode x = β−. or p decay in units of keV. Sp: Proton separation energy (MZ − MZ−1 − Mp) in units of keV. the neutron capture cross section). Systematic values are given in parentheses. Systematic values are given in parentheses. σo for 2200 m/sec neutrons. and the decay modes have been supplemented to include populating decays where explicit feeding of specific final levels is not known. A complete list of reference codes used by the evaluator follows each populating reaction or decay mode. if those parent levels . Tabulated Data: General Isotopic Information: Each block of data for an isotope is headed by the isotope label. σabs(“free” neutron scattering cross section) and σ f (capture cross section for fission). α. Populating reactions and decay modes: A list of reactions and decay modes known to populate this isotope. %: Natural isotopic abundance (atom percent basis) for elements as they occur on earth. sometimes without references. The values are those adopted by the International Union of Pure 9 and Applied Chemistry . The reaction list is obtained primarily from the compiled datasets. EC (EC+β+). the decay modes specify the identifying half-life. All values refer to masses of neutral atoms. Decay modes. have been added here and the reader is referred to the parent isotope tables for references.γ). σ p (n capture cross section for proton emission). Cross sections σ are those for thermal neutrons. Designation of “from” or “to” is followed by the energy of the capture or product nuclear state. ∆ : Mass excess (≡ M−A) on the unified mass scale (∆12C≡0).B. : Neutron cross sections: these include values for σ γ (≡σ(n.

keV. Isospin T or Tz may also be given. then the level is presumed to be a doublet. ps=picosecond (10−12 s). ms=millisecond (10−3 s). m=minute. the energy is relative to an unknown excitation energy. and levels with energy in parentheses are systematic. p. and as=attosecond (10−18 s). t1/2: Level half-life (mean-life × ln2). . Decay modes: Percentage branchings are given for modes denoted by the following symbols: β− β+ EC negatron (electron) emission positron emission orbital electron capture . Conventional units are employed: y=year. Multiple possible values may be indicated. ns=nanosecond (10−9 s). If followed by +x. In cases. Spins and/or parities in parentheses are based on less definite information. . the decay modes are identified by the parent level energy or spin and parity values.have identical half-lives. where the spin is presented as J+x and x is a definite spin value. +y. fs=femtosecond (10−15 s). Adopted level data: The following information about adopted levels is presented. or MeV). µ s=microsecond (10−6 s). +z. Each entry on this list is preceded by a character which is used to cross-reference this entry to each level populated by the specified reaction or decay. s=second. Levels whose energy is followed by (?) have questionable existence. . or some other alphabetic constant. is the partial decay mode) is given (in eV. x is the increment in spin relative to some unknown spin value J. d=day. If the values are separated by “and”. E: Energy in keV. Jπ : Nuclear spin (angular momentum) in units of h and parity. γ. h=hour. In some instances level width Γ or partial width Γ x (where x=n. Cross-Reference codes: Character list indexing the level to the reactions and decay modes which populate it.

the “g-factor”. . the first value listed in Raghavan’s table is the recommended value and that one is reported here. 2n. 14C emission of 14C nucleus 20Ne emission of 20Ne nucleus In general. it is always accompanied by EC decay. may be shown instead. . this indicates that the percentage is unknown. α. In these tables the undivided percentage branching for both modes %EC+%β+ is given when both modes are possible. . If the percentage branching is from theory or systematics.α IT alpha-particle emission isomeric transition (γ ray or conversion electron emission from an excited state) SF spontaneous fission p proton emission n neutron emission − − β β double negatron emission ECEC double orbital electron capture ECx electron capture delayed emission of x=p. g. − β x negatron delayed emission of x=n. the value is indicated as syst. If the percentage is given as “=?”. SF(often denoted as ECDF). If several values have been measured. . In cases where the spin is unknown. the magnetic dipole moment µ=gJ. and not that the decay mode is uncertain. When β+ emission is energetically possible. α.1 %) based on theory. decay modes are shown when they have been observed or inferred from experiment or when they are expected to be significant (> 0. . . both values are presented separated by the word “or”. If the measurement led to two possible interpretations. Nuclear moments: The magnetic dipole (µ) and electric quadrupole moment (Q) are taken from the 5 compilation of Raghavan unless the evaluator incorporated a newer value. . Adopted γ -ray data: The following information on adopted γ rays depopulating the level are presented.

respectively. or total transition. and octupole (O. the multipolarities are given in square brackets. when more than one mixing ratio (δ) may be inferred from the data. and follows the 10 phase convention of Krane and Steffen . The sign of the mixing ratio (δ) is given explicitly when known. Multipolarity and mixing ratio (δ ): The transition multipolarities and mixing ratio are given when available. conversion electron. and one or more values in the list may be negligible or nonexistent. For transitions of the general form E(M)λ1+M(E)λ2 (λ2=λ1+1). In some cases. †γ . Transitions with (?) following their energies have uncertain placements. If the mixing ratio is inferred from systematic multipolarities. quadrupole (Q. λ=1). multiple values are separated by the word “or”. Quantities for Superdeformation: The following quantities are provided for superdeformed band levels only: Rotational Frequency hω = [Eγ((J+2)→J)+Eγ(J→(J−2))]/4 MeV Kinetic Moment of Inertia (1) 2 I (J) = (2J−1)h /[Eγ(J→(J−2))] MeV−1 Dynamic Moment of Inertia (2) 2 I (J) = 4h /[Eγ((J+2)→J)−Eγ(J→(J−2))] MeV−1 Decay γ -ray data: . Photon intensities are given whenever available.E: Energy of the deexciting transition in keV. The transition intensities are usually normalized to 100 for the most intense γ ray emitted from the level. The multipolarities are shown as magnetic (Mλ) or electric (Eλ) 2λ-multipole transitions. as expressed in earlier editions of the Table of Isotopes. Multipolarities separated by commas represent the list of plausible values not excluded by experiment. Multipolarities in parentheses are determined from weaker evidence. the ratio of the two multipolarity component intensities is δ2=M(E)λ2/E(M)λ1 The percentage of the second (λ2) component. preceded by γabc where abc=energy of the level populated by that transition. λ =3) transitions. and as dipole (D. is %E(M)λ2=100×δ2/(1+δ2). and electron intensities are typically given only for E0 transitions. λ=2). and values reported as M1(+E2) generally infer that the contribution of the second multipolarity is minor.†e+γ : Relative intensity of photon. †e.

If the decay scheme is sufficiently complex. are indicated by (u). In some cases the decay is indicated as from multiple parents when the data are from a mixed source. . In each part. their intensities and their multipolarities and mixing ratios. is the emitted particle and yy is the normalization factor defined as for decay γ rays (see above). Decay-scheme drawings: Nuclear levels populated by radioactive decay are shown on a detailed decay scheme drawing. and additional adopted levels fed by the adopted transitions but not observed in decay. Decay particle data: Tables of particle emission energies and intensities from decay are headed by the generic title “x from parent(t1/2) x decay <for Ix% multiply by yy>” where x= α. are shown on the decay scheme. C. A decay scheme for each parent decay mode summarizes the daughter level structure as observed in the decay of that parent isotope or isomeric state. Additional transitions observed in reaction experiments and included in the adopted levels table are excluded from this list. A complete list of γ rays expected from decay can be inferred from the decay scheme drawings (see discussion below). Particles are listed in energy order and preceded by xabc where abc is the energy of the level populated in the daughter. not shown in the adopted γ-ray tables. All levels populated in radioactive decay. the adopted transitions from these levels. Unplaced γ-ray transitions. the lower energy levels are omitted from the drawing unless they are fed from above.Tables of γ-ray energies and intensities from decay are headed by the generic title “γ (daughter) from parent(t1/2) xx decay <for Iγ% multiply by yy>” where xx is the mode of decay and yy is the factor required to normalize the γ-ray intensity to units of “per 100 decays of the parent”. The following is a description of those properties shown on decay scheme drawings.…. it is drawn in several parts divided into regions of level excitation energy populated by the parent. n. The γ-ray list typically includes measured values for transitions observed in decay experiments whose energies may vary from their adopted values in the level table. See the discussion under adopted γ-ray data for a discussion of these quantities.p. following the energy. The title is followed by an energy-ordered list of transitions.

The inner scale of the level drawing has a finer minimum level separation while the outer scale is coarser to allow room for labels. Particle emission from excited states is indicated by a decay arrow on the left or right side of the level and labeled by the particle decay mode. from the adopted levels tables. These energies are taken from the adopted levels tables. The levels are plotted on a linear energy scale as close to their relative energies as possible. however. energy. Multipolarity of the γ ray follows the energy on the label. When delayed particle emission is known to populate specific levels in the particle decay daughter. Uncertain levels or transitions are indicated by dashed lines. Half-lives. also in bold type. Particle decay branchings may be shown on the particle transition lines and final state feedings may be shown on horizontal feeding arrows pointing to the final states. An asterisk following the energy denotes a multiply placed γ ray. are located near the right end of a level. in bold type. A group of unresolved levels. follow the intensities. γ -ray energies (keV). The intensity. parities. Spins. . the relevant levels for that nucleus and the associated particle transitions to those levels are shown in greater detail. Heavy lines denote ground states and isomeric states.Levels are represented as horizontal lines and transitions by vertical arrows. Ground state and isomeric state half-lives are given in larger type than other half-lives. are located near the level at various positions as determined by layout considerations. Level energies (keV). and isospin assignments. These values are from the adopted levels tables. such as might be populated in delayed particle emission. a minimum separation is imposed to facilitate legibility. and multipolarity are from the adopted γ-ray tables. are located near the left end of a level. Relative intensities of γ rays are located immediately above the transition arrow. in bold type. may be presented as a broad band of lines.

Nuclear structure drawings: Decay schemes for families of levels with common collective properties. For unique-forbidden transitions. A vertical decay arrow points from the parent line to horizontal transition feeding lines (if any) pointing to levels populated in the daughter. Among the common band names used here are: GS band The band built on the ground state . these values are typically the evaluator’s values without revision following the incorporation of the 1993 mass table. The existence of other transitions that could not be drawn is indicated by an arrowhead drawn to the right of the level near the energy. The parent half-life. In some cases. In-band transition arrows are plotted in a compact semi-stack plot with energies. Transitions between adjacent bands are indicated by diagonal arrows but are unlabeled. the transition feeding line is shown bracketed to more than one final level indicating the feeding is the sum to both levels. rounded to the nearest keV. If the parent is drawn to scale. and these are indicated by a † preceding the value. decay mode. high-spin structures. Log ft values for β decay are given in italics to the right of the intensity. and α or EC+β+ parents to the right. and labeled by spin and parity on the left and energy on the right. the uniqueness order is given as a superscript to the log ft. Dotted transition feeding lines indicate that the population of this level is uncertain. with levels drawn at a position nearly proportional to the energy. In some cases. Due to layout considerations. and decay Q-value are given. D. energy. or structures of importance in high-spin physics have been drawn. Otherwise. A band label is drawn beneath each band when that band has been given a definitive name in the literature. α-decay hindrance factors are also given in italics following the α intensity.Parent isotopes are located in the upper corners of the decay scheme: β− parents to the left. For each nucleus the bands or structures are plotted side by side. relative intensities are given. some bands may be plotted at a false position relative to other bands. spin and parity assignment. a halfbullet on the parent decay arrow marks the energy (Q-value) of the parent on the same internal scale as the levels. a scale break (≈) is drawn through the decay arrow. drawn at the end of the arrow. Level feedings from α or β decay are usually given on the transition feeding lines in transitions per 100 decays (%) of the parent.

1 (1993). Nucl. D. S. Neutron Cross Sections. Brookhaven National Laboratory. Since band labels are somewhat subjective. Hamilton.M. T. P.Yrast band β band γ band Octupole band K[NnzΛ] πh11/2 or νh11/2 SD band α=+1/2. A565. private communication (1993). on behalf of the International Network for Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluation. Holden. LBL-33001 (1992).R.B.E. Singh. and labeling has evolved over time. Raghavan. Data Nucl. Data Tables 42.H. 189 (1989).C. New York (1981). Spontaneous Fission. and M. an electronic data base containing evaluated nuclear structure and radioactive decay data. Table of Superdeformed Nuclear Bands and Fission Isomers. Wapstra. Divadeenam. Lane. these labels should be considered only as rough descriptions of the more complex nuclear physics underlying their descriptions. Phys. Audi and A. References 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). LBL-35916 (1994). Mughabghab. R. At. and N. M. Academic Press. The file is maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). Firestone and B.F. G. . α=−1/2 3 QP Sequence of levels corresponding to the lowest energy for each spin The band built on the first excited 0+ state The band built on the first excited 2+ state The band based on an octupole vibration Nilsson configuration Band based on configuration derived from the proton (π) or neutron (ν) shell model configuration h11/2 Superdeformed band Favored or unfavored signature band Three quasiparticle band Sometimes the band label is a compound of more than one of the above forms indicating specific multiparticle configurations or core-particle excitations. Hoffman.

J. an electronic database containing nuclear structure references with keyword abstracts. C2. 8) P.J. Treiner. 149 (1993).7) Nuclear Science Reference File (NSR). Mass Spectrom. 10) K. De Bièvre and P.P. Taylor. Swiatecki. Data Tables 39.D. Data Nucl. Rev.S. 123. 225 (1988). Int.D. Phys. 724 (1970). Möller. . Steffen. on behalf of the International Network for Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Evaluation. Krane and R. Ion Phys. W. and J. The file is maintained by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). At. W. Brookhaven National Laboratory.M. Myers. 9) P.

Chart of Nuclides Z=105-111 Summary Scheme Index A=263 A=264 A=265 A=266 A=267 A=268 A=269 A=271 A=272 24 .

07 264 Hs Level Table A=265 Summary Scheme 265 Sg Level Table 265 Hs Level Table Level Table A=268 Summary Scheme 268 Mt Level Table 272 111(1.5 ms) α Decay A=269 Summary Scheme 269 110 Level Table A=271 Summary Scheme 271 110 Level Table A=272 Summary Scheme 272 111 Level Table A=266 Summary Scheme 266 Sg Level Table 266 Mt Level Table 25 .Reaction and Decay Daughter Index A=263 Summary Scheme A=267 Summary Scheme 263 Ha 267 Hs Level Table Level Table 263 Sg 267 110 Level Table ms) α Decay 263 Ns Level Table 263 Hs Level Table 267 110(~3 µs) α Decay 267 Hs(60 A=264 Summary Scheme 264 Ns Level Table s) α Decay 268 Mt(0.

85 s) α Decay Table(α) 271 110 Decay (0.17 ms) α Decay Table(α) 26 .9 ms) α Decay Table(α) 266 Sg Decay (20 s) α Decay Table(α) 266 Mt Decay (3.6 ms) α Decay Table(α) (0.07 s) α Decay Drawing 269 110 Decay (0.1 ms) α Decay Table(α) (1.44 s) α Decay Table(α) 264 Hs Decay (~0.8 s) α Decay Table(α) 264 Ns Decay (0.31 s) α Decay Table(α) (0.06 s) α Decay Table(α) (1.1 ms) α Decay Drawing 272 111 Decay (1.5 ms) α Decay Table(α) (1.07 s) α Decay Table(α) (0.Decay Parent Index 263 Ha Decay (27 s) α Decay Table(α) 263 Sg Decay (0.5 ms) α Decay Drawing 265 Sg Decay (20 s) α Decay Table(α) 265 Hs Decay (~1.4 ms) α Decay Table(α) 267 Hs Decay (60 ms) α Decay Table(α) (60 ms) α Decay Drawing 267 110 Decay (~3 µs) α Decay Table(α) (~3 µs) α Decay Drawing 268 Mt Decay (0.

List of First Reference in Each Page 74Gh04 82Mu15 84Og03 87Mu15 92Kr01 27 .

Appendix Index Properties of the Elements 1. Elemental Abundances Physical Constants Atomic Data: Internal Conversion Coefficients (Z≥100) Nuclear Structure (Nilsson Diagrams) N ≥ 126 Z ≥ 82 28 . Periodic Table 2. Properties of the Elements 3.

4 ms Hs264 α [271] 11272 111 10269 110 Mt266 Ns262 EC..6 s Hs 2 8 18 32 32 15 2 2 8 18 32 32 16 2 2 8 18 32 32 17 2 Sg263 0.sf..Table of Isotopes (1996) 111 Z=105-111 110 109 108 107 106 105 2 8 18 32 32 11 2 Ha [262] Ha255 1.sf.sf Ha256 2..sf Ha258 EC.8 ms 0+ α Ns264 0.4 s Ha259 * [268] 0...8 s α..α.5 ms Mt268 3.α..sf. 154 Mt Hs263 [267] α...8 ms Sg260 3. 152 11.4 s α Sg262 α.sf Ha257 1.α.6 ms 0+ α..23 s 1.5 ms α α * Sg261 10271 0.sf α 70 ms α 0. EC.sf 156 Ha262 34 s EC.sf.sf. EC.48 s (1/2+) α.sf 150 2 8 18 32 32 13 2 2 8 18 32 32 12 2 Ns260 Ns [264] Sg [263] 2 8 18 32 32 14 2 α Sg259 0.. Ha263 26 m α 158 Decay Q-value Range Q(??) Q(β−)>0 Q(β−)-SN>0 Q(β−)>0 + Q(EC)>0 Stable to Beta Decay Q(EC)>0 Q(EC)-SP>0 Q(P)>0 Naturally Abundant .3 ms Hs265 102 ms α.3 s Ns261 4...α.6 s α.08 ms 0+ [272] 1..8 s α.sf Ha261 1.sf Ha260 α 1.α..52 s α Hs267 35 ms 1.

31 s 3000 ~70% Sp (2400) 2000 SF 0+y 0+x 263 106Sg (1000) α 263 107Ns 6000 5000 α Qα(10200) 0.~3 µs 60 ms 24000 20000 267 108Hs A=263 267 110110 α NDS 59.8 s α α ~30% 1000 QEC(3100) 500 Qα(9690) 100 0 27 s 57% SF 263 105Ha Evaluator: M. Schmorak α 43% QEC(2400) Qα(9030) 30 .R. 624(1990) Sn 16000 (7900) 263 108Hs 12000 10000 8000 Sn (7200) Sn (6200) Sp (3300) Sp 4000 0.

27−7 s. %SF=57 15.263 105 Ha ∆ : (107390) Sn: (7200) Sp: (2400) QEC: (2400) Qα : (9030) Populating Reactions and Decay Modes 249 Bk(18O. 31 . %α=43 15 α from 263Ha (27 s) α decay < for I α% multiply by 0.4n) (87GrZN. 92Kr01) Levels: +10 0.43 15 > α5508355 27 (†≈100).

4n) (74Gh04. %SF≈70. 76BeZY. [B ]. %α≈30 +16 0+y. 79Dr07) 267 249 Levels: 0+x.31 s) α decay : 263 α09248 20 . %α=? 54+y 30.8 s) α decay < for I α% multiply by ≈0. 0. [A ]. [A ] 135+y 30.263 106 Sg ∆ : (110500) Sn: (6200) Sp: (3300) QEC: (3100) Qα : (9690) Populating Reactions and Decay Modes A B Hs α decay (95HoHB) Cf(18O. α from 263Sg (0. 32 . [A ] α from Sg (0. 0.8 2 s. α4939060 40 (†≈90).30 > α3009250 40 (†≈10).31−8 s.

263 107 Ns ∆ : (114900) Sn: (7900) Sp: (1000) QEC: (4400) Qα : (10200) 33 .

84Og02. 84Og03) 267 209 Levels: 0+x. [A ] 34 .263 108 Hs Populating Reactions and Decay Modes A B 110 α decay (95GhZZ) Bi(55Mn.n) (84DeZO.

8 s 0+y 0+x 263 106Sg 35 .31 s 0.60 ms 0+x 267 ≈ 108Hs Qα=10030 135+y 54+y 0.

~3 µs 0+x 267 110110≈ Qα=11800 0+x 263 108Hs 36 .

10000

0.07 s

268
109Mt

8000

A=264

α

NDS 57, 624(1989)

6000
5000
4000
3000

0.44 s

264
107Ns

α

Sp

(2300)

2000

1000
500

Evaluator: M.R. Schmorak
100

0

0+
<1.5%

SF

0

264
108Hs

~0.85 ms

α ~100%

QEC(3500)
Qα10800

37

264
107 Ns
∆ : (116400) Sn: (6600) Sp: (1400)
QEC: (5300) Qα : (10100)

Populating Reactions and Decay Modes
Mt α decay (95HoHB)

268

Levels:
+60
0+x, 0.44−16
s, %α=?
145+x 30
α from

Ns (0.44 s) α decay

264

α3339619 20 ,
α4799475 20 .

38

264
108 Hs
∆ : 119800 300 Sp: (2300)
QEC: (3500) Qα : 10800 300

Populating Reactions and Decay Modes
207

Pb(58Fe,n) (84Og02, 84Og03, 86Mu10,
87Mu15, 95HoHB)

Levels:
0, 0+, ≈ 0.85 ms, %α≈100, %SF<1.5
α from 264Hs (≈0.85 s) α decay < for I α%
multiply by ≈1.0 >
α010430 20 (†100).

39

07 s 0 268 ≈ 109Mt Qα=10395 145+x 0.0.44 s 0+x 264 107Ns 40 .

R.6 ms 0. Schmorak 5000 4000 0+y <9% 3000 SF 2000 265 107Ns 1000 0+x 265 108Hs α ~1. 626(1990) Sn (6300) α Sp (2000) 8000 6000 Evaluator: M.17 ms 12000 269 110110 A=265 10000 NDS 59.0.9 ms α ~100% QEC(4800) Qα(10820) 500 100 0 ~20 s <50% SF 265 106Sg α >50% 41 .

42 . %α>50. [ 20 s calc]. %SF<50 α from 265Sg (20 s) α decay < for I α% multiply by >0.5n) (95SeAA) Levels: 0+x.265 106 Sg ∆ : (113100) Sn: (6100) Sp: (3800) QEC: (2400) Qα : (9200) Populating Reactions and Decay Modes 248 Cm(22Ne.50 > α ?≈8800 (†≈100).

≈ 1.265 108 Hs ∆ : (121600) Sn: (6300) Sp: (2000) QEC: (4800) Qα : (10820) Populating Reactions and Decay Modes A B 110 α decay (95HoHA) Pb(58Fe. 43 . 84Og02. 87Mu15) 269 208 Levels: +9 0+x. %SF<9 α from 265Hs (≈1.n) (84DeZO.9 ms) α decay 265 α?10570 20 . [B ]. 0.9−3 ms. [A ].6 ms) α decay < for I α% multiply by ≈1. α from Hs (0. %α≈100.6 ms. %α=? 0+y.0 > α30010310 20 (†≈100). 84Og03.

5% NDS 57. Schmorak 6000 266 108Hs 5000 266 107Ns 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 100 0 0+ <50% SF ~20 s 266 106Sg α >50% 44 .Sp 16000 12000 (500) 3.4 ms A=266 <5. 624(1989) SF 10000 266 109Mt α ~100% QEC(6700) Qα(11280) 8000 Evaluator: M.R.

4n) (95SeAA) Levels: 0. %α>50. 45 .50 > α 08630 50 (†≈100). 0+. [ 20 s calc].266 106 Sg ∆ : (114000) Sn: (7100) Sp: (4000) QEC: (1000) Qα : (9100) Populating Reactions and Decay Modes 248 Cm(22Ne. %SF<50 α from 266Sg (20 s) α decay < for I α% multiply by >0.

88Mu15.5 α from 266Mt (3.266 109 Mt ∆ : (128400) Sp: (500) QEC: (6700) Qα : (11280) Populating Reactions and Decay Modes 209 Bi(58Fe. 84Og03. %SF<5.4 ms) α decay < for I α% multiply by ≈1. 46 . 84Mu07.4−13 ms. %α≈100. 89Mu16) Levels: +61 0. 3.n) (82Mu15.0 > α12011000 30 (†≈100).

Firestone α 47 .B.1 ms ~3 µs 271 110110 α 267 110110 α 8000 6000 5000 α 267 109Mt 4000 3000 2000 A=267 1000 GSI-94 500 100 0 60 ms 267 108Hs Evaluator: R.06 s 1.12000 10000 0.

1 ms) (95HoHB) 271 110 α decay (0.06 s) (95HoHB) 271 Levels: +30 0+x. 60−15 ms. α135+y9749 20 .267 108 Hs Populating Reactions and Decay Modes A B 110 α decay (1. α54+y9829 20 . 48 . %α=? 58+x 30. [A ] α from Hs (60 ms) α decay : 267 α0+y9882 20 . [A ].

n) (95GhAA) Levels: 0+x (?). %α=? α from 110 (≈3 µs) α decay : 267 α 0+x11600 .267 110 110 Populating Reactions and Decay Modes 209 Bi(59Co. ≈ 3 µs. 49 .

1 ms 0+x 271 ≈ 110110 Qα=10900 58+x 60 ms 0+x 267 108Hs 50 .1.

10000 8000 1.07 s 268 109Mt α 51 .5 ms 272 111111 α 6000 A=268 GSI-94 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Evaluator: R. Firestone 500 100 0 0.B.

52 .268 109 Mt Populating Reactions and Decay Modes 111 α decay (95HoHB) 272 Levels: +10 0. %α=? 0+x α from Mt (0. 0.07 s) α decay : 268 α0+x10240 20 .07−3 s. α145+x10097 20 .

07 s 0 268 109Mt 53 .1.5 ms 0 272 ≈ 111111 Qα=10980 0+x 0.

17 ms 269 110110 α 54 .B.10000 8000 A=269 GSI-94 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Evaluator: R. Firestone 500 100 0 0.

269 110 110 Populating Reactions and Decay Modes 208 Pb(62Ni.n) (95HoHA) Levels: +16 0.17−6 ms.17 ms) α decay : 269 α?11112 20 . 55 . %α=? α from 110 (0. 0.

1 ms α 56 .B. Firestone 500 100 0 0+y 0+x 271 110110 α 0.10000 8000 A=271 GSI-94 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Evaluator: R.06 s 1.

06 s) α decay : 271 α?10709 20 . 57 . 0. α from 110 (1.271 110 110 Populating Reactions and Decay Modes 208 Pb(64Ni. %α=? 0+y.n) (95HoHB) Levels: +6 0+x.06−3 α from 110 (0.1−3 ms. α58+x10681 20 .1 ms) α decay : 271 α0+x10738 20 . %α=? +27 s. 1.

B. Firestone 500 100 0 1.5 ms 272 111111 α 58 .10000 8000 A=272 GSI-94 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Evaluator: R.

272 111 111 Populating Reactions and Decay Modes 209 Bi(64Ni.n) (95HoHB) Levels: +20 0. 1. 59 .5−5 ms. %α=? α from 111 (1.5 ms) α decay : 272 α0+x10820 20 .

. R. 249Cf(18O. R. Hensley. Kosyakov. M. 255. Nitschke.Reference Codes The six-character reference codes in the tabular level data are taken almost exclusively from the Nuclear Structure Reference (NSR) file. Fiz. G. R. J. 591 (1979). V. D. A. Alonso. C. deduced dependence T1/2 (SF) on neutron number.4n)]. 258Lr. Radioactivity: 262105 (SF). Seaborg. Sagaidak. M. 76BeZY X-Ray Identification and Decay Properties of Isotopes of Lawrencium C. J. 256Lr [from (10B. D. and the last two characters are an arbitrary sequence code. S. 33. W. Buklanov. Nucl. V. P. Ghiorso. R. 60 . Gulbekyan. Radioactivity: 263106. 249 Cf(11B. 29. Phys. C. Rykov. Bemis. T. Hulet. p. R. L. the second two characters are the first two letters in the first author’s last name. J. Tarrant. G. Erin. Kharitonov. A. N.4n)]. T1/2. E. J. Lobanov. T. P. measured T1/2. Tretyakova. P. Y. 5n). Phys.4n). G. Hahn. Brookhaven National Laboratory. Druin. Alonso. 263106 (SF) [from 249Bk(18O. Y. measured Eα. 1490 (1974). K. ORNL-5111. G. Yad. 58 (1976). maintained at the National Nuclear Data Center. Jr. Silva. R. 74Gh04 Element 106 79Dr07 Spontaneous Fission of the Heavy Isotopes of Nielsbohrium (Z = 105) and Element 106 A. Lett. J. Radioactivity: 257. V. 29. A. Iα. E. these are unavailable in NSR at present. 1149 (1979). Hunt. The first two characters indicate the publication year. Sov. Dittner. E. B. T1/2. Nurmia. Rev. N. measured Eα. F. Lougheed. L. G. Bochev. The references not taken from the NSR file are followed by an asterisk. V.

Schmidt.xn)264108. Armbruster. I. Hofmann. Rykhlyuk.95.xn)257104/256104/ 255104. I. Radioactivity: 266109 [from 209Bi(58Fe. Munzenberg. Munzenberg. F. Hessberger. Hofmann. H. 209 Nuclear Reactions: Bi(58Fe.xn). 84DeZO Experiments on the Synthesis of Element 108 A.82Mu15 Observation of One Correlated α-Decay in the Reaction 58Fe on 209Bi → 267109 84Mu07 Evidence for Element 109 from One Correlated Decay Sequence following the Fusion of 58Fe with 209Bi G. Yu. 208Pb(58Fe. Yu. K. Schneider. E=4. W. -C. Poppensieker. W. 208Pb(54Cr. E not given. Yu. Activation technique. Reisdorf. Iα. M. D. V. Z.X)]. Schmidt. 209 Bi(55Mn. measured α-decay probability. Plotko. deduced stability against SF-decay. SF-decay.5 MeV/ nucleon. Hessberger. Kh. Vermeulen. Phys. Korotkin. 264108 deduced considerable α-decay probability. JINR-P7-84-233 (1984). xn)261106/260106/259106. K. R. V. 208Pb(55Mn. Ts. Vermeulen. 5. deduced α-decay chain correlation followed by 258104 fission. deduced evidence for 255104. Evaporation residue implantation technique. Schneider. Bruchertseifer.15 MeV/nucleon]. P. K. E=5. F. Eα. E=5. Shirokovsky. V. Constantinescu. S. P. Poppensieker. P. S. M. V. -H.05. A.45 MeV/nucleon. K. Ts. Schneider. Iα.5 MeV/nucleon. Hussonnois. measured Eα. E=4.95-5. time correlated α-spectra. 5. Sahm. -H. R. time correlated α-spectra. Utyonkov. Kharitonov. W. Phys. A309. S. Phys. deduced evidence for 266109. 263 265 209 Radioactivity: 108. Evaporation residue implantation technique. J.n).X). Schott. Schneider. 265108. H. 145 (1984).15 MeV/nucleon. V. Y. Z. Reisdorf. Demin. E=5. -C. Nuclear Reactions: 208Pb(50Ti. F. X). 108(α) [from Bi. 61 .5 MeV/nucleon. Nuclear Reactions: 209Bi. G. Agarwal. O. K. C. D. Yu. Sahm. V. high stability against SF decay. SF-decay. 257104. P. measured σ(fragment) vs mass. G. G. 208 55 Pb( Mn. Korotkin. 263108. H. 89 (1982). A319. E=5. A. αα-coin. Armbruster.95-5. K. M. Nuclear Reactions: 209Bi(58Fe.15 MeV/nucleon]. J. G. H. V. Demin. measured Eα. P. 207Pb(58Fe. Subbotin. S.X).xn)265108/264108. K. Radioactivity: 266109(SF) [from 209Bi(58Fe. C. Kharitonov. measured Eα. F. -J. 84Og02 On the Stability of the Nuclei of Element 108 with A = 263-265 Yu. 215 (1984). Shirokovsky. E=5.n). W. E=5. Z. O. Tretyakova. Oganessian. Yu. P. Esteves.15 MeV/ nucleon. Bruchertseifer. measured cold fusion product yields. Tretyakova. measured evaporation residue production σ. E=4. W. Utenkov. Constantinescu.5 MeV/nucleon. P. Oganesyan. W. S. deduced evidence for compound nucleus 266 109. S.X). Yussonua. H. (58Fe. A315. P.

M. 266109. (54Cr.5 MeV/nucleon]. yields. Nuclear Reactions: 207Pb(58Fe. Hoffman. Bi(55Mn. 261. fission fragment numbers.nα). Tretyakova. (50Ti. 263108. B. Hessberger.3n). Ts. D. (58Fe.4 MeV/nucleon. 208Pb(48Ti. Radioactivity: 263105(α) [from 249Bk(18O. (49Ti.X). (50Ti. measured Eα. E. -H.n).3n).2n). deduced Qα. (50Ti. K. Reisdorf. Radioactivity: 257104.xn). 113 (1984). K. n). (54Cr. G. K. E=5. T1/2. Phys. E=5. 2n). 208Pb(58Fe. Demin. E. Lee. Leino.n). LBL22820. 258105. Estevez. measured α-. E=5. 208 Pb(54Cr.45 MeV/nucleon. deduced evidence for 264108 production σ lower limit. 208Pb(55Mn. 50Ti. A324. E=5. 260106. (48Ti. 256104.n). 86Mu10 Evidence for Isotope 264 108. 207 209 Pb(58Fe. -J. Schmidt. MeV/nucleon.04 MeV/nucleon]. 265108. n). 264. Folger. Berthes. (49Ti. Oganessian. the Heaviest Known Even-Even G. Shirokovsky. Gregorich. Munzenberg. D. E=5.3 MeV/nucleon. Korotkin. G. P. 255104. 208 Pb(50Ti. V. Radioactivity: 264108(α) [from 207Pb(58Fe. α-. E=5. Hanelt. H. Hussonnois.n).n).α). 62 .3n). 259106 deduced αdecay preponderance.np). deduced residuals production σ. 263. 260. decay T1/ 2.53 MeV/nucleon. 209Bi(49. 254. 87GrZN Possible Detection of New Isotope 263-105 K. n). P. Iα. deduced residuals production σ.X)]. Hofmann.X)264108. Leres. 2np). 209Bi(54Cr.n). 264 108. 256Lr. Gollerthan.5 (58Fe. I. (55Mn. p. (50Ti.np). A. n). K. F. E=5. W. I. Summerer. Quint. (48Ti. S. J. Nuclear Reactions: 208Pb(50Ti. Yu. Bruchertseifer. 2n). O. Acta 37. 209Bi(55Mn. 489 (1986). P. Schott.2n). (50Ti. S.n). fission fragment numbers. mass excess. Utyonkov. 252No [from Pb. Poppensieker. n). M. 208Pb(49Ti. R. 209 Bi(50Ti. 261106. E=5.4 MeV/nucleon. 209Bi(58Fe. T1/2. αα-correlation. 266 109. Constantinescu. n). E. C. Zychor. measured decay characteristics.2n).84Og03 Experimental Studies of the Formation and Radioactive Decay of Isotopes with Z = 104-109 Yu.55 MeV/nucleon. Yu. U. Iα following fusion evaporation residue decay. measured Eα. (49Ti. Radiochim. 262107. E=5. Kharitonov. (59Co.γ). V.xn). measured Eα.xn). measured Eα. E 5-5. 54 (1987). S.04 MeV/ nucleon.45 MeV/nucleon. H. E=5. Z. 259Lr(α) [from 263105(α-decay)]. H. 265108. P. 259106. Armbruster.

. 239. P. 207 208 Nuclear Reactions: . compiled experimental. Reisdorf. E=5. E. 253. Zychor. I. T. Schott. Fm. Other data discussed. A330. Munzenberg. . . 249 250 251 252 254 255 256 257 . W. decay features. compiled partial αdecay T1/2. 89Mu16 Heavy Element Production and Limits to Fusion G. 246. K. 49 (1987). Compilation: 237. S. Schwab. Iα. 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 . decay characteristics. 245. H. Folger. W. F. 265108. Quint. Z. 245. Nucl. F. Phys. K. Cf.n). 263106. Y. Hessberger. Hofmann. 244 245 246 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 . Hingmann. Z. 247. B. 257104. Keller. . 244. 265108 deduced α-decay T1/ 2. measured α(evaporation residue)(θ). Ninov. 435 (1988). 261106. deduced evidence for 264 108. 240. 243. 255. A328. . Radioactivity: 264108. No. Summerer. measured α-spectra. Leino. Hanelt. Morawek. R. P. Summerer. Cm. H. E=4. Poppensieker. . .17 MeV/nucleon. . Pb(58Fe. A502. . 265108. . M. W. . . . . Fujita. A. 256 257 259 . K. Gollerthan. 251. Hessberger.X). U. 63 . V. 266109 deduced T1/2. theoretical mass differences. 238. . Leino. 246Pu.04 MeV/nucleon. .88 MeV/nucleon. Munzenberg. 242. 260106. Phys. 88Mu15 New Results on Element 109 G. 571c (1989). A. Turler. Armbruster. Poppensieker. 248. 262107 production. 208Pb(58Fe. .X). H. 254. Iα. U. P. 259 106. Reisdorf. Armbruster. 242. E=5. Folger. . 265108(α) [from 207. . measured Eα. E. . S. 264108 deduced α-decay T1/ 2. theoretical mass differences. 261104. Quint.04 MeV/nucleon]. 241. 243. E. . H. Nuclear Reactions: 209Bi(56Fe. measured Eα. Schott. Berthes.n). . energy. D. B. Munzenberg. Gollerthan. P. K. . 255104. Q(α). E=5. -J. M. Schmidt. -H. Hanelt. A. 252. J. K. Ackermann. Hofmann.87Mu15 Observation of the Isotopes 264108 and 265108 G. -J. deduced 261107. experimental. Nuclear Reactions: 209Bi(54Cr. 259104. . 256104. E. G. Phys.

U. Lee. deduced α/SF branching ratios. J. (α. Nuclear Reactions: 249Bk(18O. A. J. E. W. A. Scherer. (SF) [from 249Bk(18O. B. C. Rev. Zimmermann. M. H. Schimpf. measured Eα. 95SeAA Priv. Kadkhodayan. Iα. W. K. A350. Czerwinski. E=93 MeV]. 95GhAA Nucl. Nurmia.92Kr01 New Nuclide 263Ha J. 64 . N. Kratz. Jost. G. Bruchle. Eα. R. Hoffman. measured T1/2. Phys. K. 277 (1995) (not abstracted). V. E=93 MeV. αα-correlations. D. D. Phys. 95HoHB Z. 861 (1995) (not abstracted). comm. Gober. Iα. H. 281 (1995) (not abstracted). 1064 (1992). deduced evidence for 263104. M. E.α)-correlations. Weber. M. (α)(SF-decay fragment)-. D. 4n). Kovacz. M. Phys. A583. P. Seaborg (1995) (not abstracted) Radioactivity: 263104(α). T. Gaggeler. Hannink. Rapid chemical separation. C45.4n). J. 95HoHA Z. 95GhZZ Reference unavailable. A350. Phys. K. Gregorich. Schadel. Turler.

16×10 -9% Meitnerium 2 8 18 32 32 15 2 Mt109 [268] Gd64 2 8 18 32 25 9 2 Cm96 1314° 3264° +3 157. Editor.62° 2562° Cu29 63.P.94 8.04° 143.546 1.93421 1.61 3.04° 16.23 2.60° 2072° +3 114.93032 2.9% 13 (IIIA) 14 (IVA) 15 (VA) 16 (VIA) 17 (VIIA) +2 22.03×10 -7% 2 8 18 18 6 F9 -1 32.00674 0.34×10-10% Seaborgium 2 8 18 32 32 12 2 [263] Promethium 2 8 18 23 8 2 1042° Neptunium 2 8 18 32 22 9 2 [98] Re75 Np93 644° +3+4+5+6 [237] 3186° 5596° +4+6+7 186.90765 5.000161% Rhodium Rh45 Americium 2 8 18 32 25 8 2 1495° 2927° +2+3 2 8 18 16 1 Osmium 3033° 5012° Co27 11 (IB) Nickel 58.7° 0 35.000277% Gallium 65.224 3.760 1.845 0.002602 8.36° Kr36-153.3×10 -9% 2 8 18 18 3 Mercury 1064. boiling point (B.08×10-10% Nobelium 2 8 18 32 32 8 2 No102 +2+3 [259] 827° Lutetium 1663° 3393° +3 174.74° 83. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry.93° 2602° +2+4 118.000017% Bromine Tellurium Bismuth 327.R. CRC Press.90638 2.981539 0.90543 1.286×10 -9% Californium 2 8 18 32 28 8 2 Cf98 +3 [251] 900° Holmium 1472° 2694° +3 164.93805 0.21° 444. Oxford.25×10 -8% 2 8 18 18 5 Sb51 2 8 18 32 18 5 Bi83 Lead 630.000044% 1246° +2+3+4+7 Technetium 2 2623° Mo42 4639° 188 Tc43 +6 95.31×10 -8% 842° 1484° +2 At.28° 0 79.States EZ K19 63.4×10 -9% Element-110 2 8 18 32 32 16 2 110110 2 8 18 27 8 2 Tb65 [271] Terbium 1359° 3221° +3 158. For elements that are not naturally abundant.62 7.3×10 -9% 13 2 Tungsten 2 8 18 32 12 2 W74 3422° 5555° +6 183.033% Silicon 69. 4.).8×10 -6% Lanthanum 727° 1897° 1668° 3287° +2+3+4 2 8 18 18 9 2 28.07° 767° +2 112.23×10-10% Ytterbium 2 32 8 2 Mendelevium 2 8 18 32 31 8 2 Md101 827° +2+3 [258] 824° 1194° +2+3 173.78° 2162° Ga31 C6 Nitrogen +2+4-4 26.3×10 -6% Ruthenium 2 8 18 15 1 Samarium 2 Cobalt 55.72° 883° 9.0% Lithium 2 1 180.60 1.7×10 -8% Barium 2 8 3 4 (IVB) 5 (VB) 6 (VIB) 7 (VIIB) 8 (VIII) Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese 2 8 9 2 Sc21 1541° 2830° +3 2 8 10 2 44.62° -188. (1995).9961 0. The melting point (M.23×10 -7% Cadmium 961.411 5.0381 1.04 8.15° 277° 721° P15 938. 27(1985).80 1.00350% Calcium 39.989768 0.000329% Krypton -7. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53.0000123% 2 8 18 32 18 8 1 Boron Key to Table 650° Mg12 1090° 4.51×10 -8% Ti22 Zr40 +4 91.3833 6.2° He2 -268. 2. E.84 4.076×10 -9% Curium 1345° +3 [247] Zinc +2+3 2 8 18 1 Pd46 2 8 18 32 16 2 Pt78 1554.7×10-10% Neon 2 8 Se34 +4+6-2 221° 2 685° 8 1493° 18 7 Te52 449.59 1. Lide.0×10-10% Ge32 2 6 44.90×10-10% Erbium 2 8 18 30 8 2 Er68 2 8 18 32 30 8 2 Fm100 Einsteinium 2 8 18 32 29 8 2 Es99 +3 [252] 860° 1529° 2862° +3 167. (1990).58° 0 131.28×10 -9% Ta73 2 8 18 32 32 11 2 Ha105 3017° 5458° +5 180.00794 91.197×10-10% Lawrencium 2 8 18 32 32 9 2 Lr103 1627° +3 [260] The new IUPAC Group format numbers the groups from 1 to 18.5×10 -9% +2+4 195.217 2.9994 0.72×10 -8% Ac89‡ 3198° 188 Rf104 † Lanthanides 2 8 18 19 9 2 Ce58 ‡ Actinides 2 8 18 32 18 10 2 Th90 Francium Fr87 +1 [223] 27° +2 137.96 2.4678 2.5° -34.3050 0.8682 1.69×10-10% Ns107 [264] 1072° 1790° +2+3 150. Grevesse.710 1.70×10 -9% Uranium 2 8 18 32 21 9 2 U92 1135° 4131° +3+4+5+6 238.01×10 -9% +2+4 207.12×10 -7% Yttrium 2 8 18 9 2 Y39 1526° 3336° +3 88. Sublimation and critical temperatures are indicated by s and t. 75th edition.J.° C.18° 2856° +1+3 196.000199% Rubidium 2 8 18 8 1 Ca20 Carbon +3 24. 63(5).42 4.70×10 -9% Thorium 1750° 4788° +4 232.38° 759° +1 2 8 8 2 Rb37 2 8 18 18 8 1 Cs55 39.58×10 -9% 2 8 18 32 18 2 8 Tl Hg80 356. the mass number of the longest-lived isotope is given in brackets.24 2.11×10 -6% Silver 2 8 18 18 1 Platinum 1768.29 1.92159 2.75×10-11% Hahnium [262] Praseodymium Neodymium 2 8 18 21 8 2 Pr59 931° 3510° +3 140.60° 1041° 2 8 7 271.25° 2833° +2+4 As33 +3+5-3 2 8 6 Tin 817t° 2 614s° 8 1400° 18 6 2 8 18 32 18 4 Pb82 2 8 18 31 8 2 Tm69 1946° 188 Yb70 231.44×10-10% 2 8 18 22 8 2 Protactinium 2 8 18 32 20 9 2 Pa91 1572° +5+4 231. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.93° -267.00294% Nielsbohrium 24 8 2 [145] 2157° 4265° +4+6+7 Pm61 3000° 188 Sm62 +3 2 Rhenium 2 8 18 32 13 2 2 8 18 32 32 13 2 Sg106 2 54.5×10 -8% Radon 2 8 18 32 18 8 Rn86 -71° -61.18° H1 +1-1 0 1.12° -129.9×10 -8% Aluminum Scandium Strontium 2 8 18 8 2 2075° 4000° B5 +3 3 (IIIB) 40.066 0.49 5.44° 671° 2 4 10.9×10 -9% Astatine [210] -157.115 3.811 6.9° 2963° +2+4 106.° Ox. and critical point temperatures are given in °Celsius.90447 2.965 3.95° -118.948 0.76° 2204° 156.75° Xe54-108.2° 2 58.4° 8 546° 18 18 +1+5+7-1 8 126.9415 9. Chemical and Engineering News.904 3.973762 0. Blackwells Scientific Publications.2 1.P.941 1.90550 1.39 4.90585 1.34° -252.40° 1564° +3+5 208. 197 (1989).02×10-10% 32 32 10 2 +4 [261] Nb41 2477° 4744° +3+5 92.9984032 2.Weight Abundance% Sr38 2 8 18 18 8 2 Ba56 2 8 18 32 18 8 2 Ra88 Cesium 777° 1382° +2 87.96654 6.5×10 -7% Iodine 2 8 18 18 7 -189.867 7.7° 104° 0 [222] Element-111 2 8 18 32 32 17 2 111111 [272] Dysprosium 2 8 18 28 8 2 Dy66 1411° 2561° +3 162. The abundances are based on meteorite and solar wind data.011 0. 65 .31° 688° +1 85.26 8.25 1.36 8.03×10 -8% S16 115.12×10 -9% +3+4 192.20×10 -9% Hassium [267] Europium 2 8 18 25 8 2 Eu63 822° 1596° +2+3 151.94×10-11% Cr24 1907° 2671° +2+3+6 2 8 13 2 51.078% Sulfur 30.92534 1.98037 4.0983 0.85° -122.51° 988° +4+6-2 127.0855 0.97×10-10% Berkelium 2 8 18 32 27 8 2 Bk97 1050° +3+4 [247] +1+2 2 8 18 2 Al13 Ag47 2 8 18 32 18 1 Au79 Zn30 419.07 6.012182 2.18×10-10% Fermium 1527° +3 [257] Thulium 1545° +3 168.8° 8 315° 18 8 I53 2 8 18 32 18 7 At85 0 Xenon 113.96° 302° -111.0102% Phosphorus 28.57×10 -8% Po84 2 8 18 32 9 2 Lu71 254° +2+4 [209] -101.00326% Germanium Indium Cd48 2 5 +2+4-4 +3 2 8 18 18 2 4492t° 3825s° 12.5° 1342° Li3 2 2 +1 Sodium Group Beryllium Element Be4 K L M N O P Q 1287° 2471° Na11 97.38×10 -9% Magnesium 2 8 2 +1 2 3 M.P.000034% Arsenic 2 8 18 5 O8 Fluorine -2 +3+5-3 72. Leigh.4527 0.0289 2.1×10-10% -38.207 1.00° -195.0×10-10% 2 8 18 4 2 8 5 304° 1473° +1+3 204.63° 1587° +3+5-3 121.4° 3825° 1084.P.21×10 -9% 1855° 4409° V23 50.8° +1+5+7-1 Cl17 20.09×10-10% 2 32 10 2 2233° 4603° +4 178.83° +1+2 200.46° 1749° -219.000031% 2 8 18 13 1 9 (VIII) 10 (VIII) Iron Mn25 2061° 148 Fe26 Molybdenum Tantalum 2 8 18 32 11 2 Rutherfordium 2 1910° 3407° +2+3+4+5 Niobium 2 8 18 12 1 Hafnium 2 8 18 32 18 9 2 +1 132.11×10 -9% In49 29.70×10 -6% Palladium Gadolinium 2 8 18 25 9 2 1455° 2913° Ni28 2 8 18 18 0 Iridium 2446° 4428° 12 (IIB) Copper 58.Periodic Table for the Table of Isotopes (1995) 1 (IA) 18 (VIIIA) Hydrogen 1 Helium 2 -259.86×10 -7% 2 8 1 -272.1×10 -9% +3+4 190.50 1.9479 6. REFERENCES 1.9×10 -7% Thallium 2 32 18 3 1414° 3265° Si14 -210.327 1.87° -240.0112% Argon 2 8 8 Br35 +1+5-1 39. Anders and N.9055 1.P.723 1.56° 15.08 4.6934 0.42×10-10% Plutonium 2 8 18 32 24 8 2 Pu94 640° 3228° +3+4+5+6 [244] 1538° 2861° +2+3 2 8 15 2 Ru44 2 8 18 32 14 2 Os76 2 8 18 32 32 14 2 Hs108 2334° 4150° +3 101.02° 18.).7° 2 184.79° -146.08° -228.° B.955910 1.967 1.79° -182.818 6.000187% Potassium 2 8 8 1 2 (IIA) +2 6.6×10 -7% Zirconium 2 8 18 10 2 La57† 3455° 188 Hf72 920° 2 8 11 2 47.03588 2 8 13 1 Nd60 1016° 3066° +3 144.45×10 -9% Actinium 700° +2 [226] 1051° +3 [227] Cerium 799° 3424° +3+4 140.94° ±1±2±3+4+5 N7 Oxygen 14. Abundances of the Elements: Meteoritic and Solar.078 0.93320 7.22° -63.1×10 -8% 2 8 18 18 4 -218.7×10 -6% Chlorine 78.35° Ar18-185.46×10 -8% Radium +3 138.59° Ne10-246.32° 2519° 2 8 4 +1 107. G.8×10 -8% Polonium 2 8 18 32 18 6 -248.17×10-10% Am95 1176° +3+4+5+6 [243] 2 8 16 2 2 8 18 32 15 2 Ir77 1964° 3695° +3 102.73° 81 1477° 18 2 8 18 29 8 2 Ho67 Gold 321. The numbering system used by the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) is given in parentheses.1797 0.00168% Selenium Antimony Sn50 2 7 +4+6-2 74. 3.53° 907° +2 2 8 18 3 660. D.

00 -195.S. ionization potentials.710orthorhombic 17 Cl Chlorine 35.3050 6 1.56 13.4.15 277 721 10.568 22 Ti Titanium 47.9415 1 6.040 8 O Oxygen 15. 2 E.026amorphous 6 C Carbon 12.5 1342 5.86 1495 2927 7. melting and boiling points.968 0.423 0.002602 2 0.030 11 Na Sodium 22. "Earth’s Crust Geochemistry". R.62 2562 7.912 1455 2913 7.341 0.9961 6 7.767 0.04 143.304 2 He Helium 4.434 0.3.811 5 2.97 97.70 660.0983 1 0.59 -246.5 The concentrations of the less abundant elements may vary with location by several orders of magnitude.113 0.444 29 Cu Copper 63. Values in parentheses are the mass numbers for the longest lived isotopes of some of the radioactive elements.385 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh 1 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.152 0.87 -240.2 -268. 5 A. Bodek et al.08 -228.012182 3 1.618 0.360 0.3296 1414 3265 8.392 3.62 -188.760 0.60 1041 10. Anders and N.5 -34.R.598 14. Boca Raton.449 25 Mn Manganese 54.141 -218.93 -267.12 -129. in the Encyclopedia of Geochemistry and Environmental Sciences.m.0708 -259. R.00794 7 0.479 18 Ar Argon 39.845 2 7.139 1. Grevesse.523 23 V Vanadium 50.807 -210.260 0.546 3 8.647 21 Sc Scandium 44.18 13.74 650 1090 7.449 27 Co Cobalt 58.50 -219. Specific heats are given for the elements at 25°C. D. or.769white 16 S Sulfur 32.640 0.96 24. 197 (1989).37 2075 4000 8. densities for the gaseous elements are for the liquids at their boiling points.955910 9 2. editor. and are based on meteorite and solar wind data.4527 9 1.709graphite 7 N Nitrogen 14.534 1.023 13 Al Aluminum 26. The solar system elemental abundances (atomic %) in Table 2 are from the compilation of Anders and Grevesse2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53. The elemental abundances in the earth’s crust and in the sea represent the median values of reported measurements. unless otherwise indicated by a superscript temperature (in °C).0 1910 3407 6. Boca Raton.7 21.u.298 1. 75th edition. FL (1989). PROPERTIES OF THE ELEMENTS Table 1 lists atomic weights. editor.323 1.00674 7 0. in the cases of thorium and protactinium.8 12.93805 1 7.396 -189. Atomic weights apply to elements as they exist naturally on earth.986 0. critical points.489 24 Cr Chromium 51. CRC Press.565 1.078 4 1. to the isotopes which have the longest half-lives.825 5 B Boron 10. Data were taken from the 75th edition of the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics1.421 28 Ni Nickel 58. editor. specific heats.35 -185.897 14 Si Silicon 28.79 -182.3 1246 2061 7.85 -122.99 1541 2830 6. 3 CRC Practical Handbook of Physical Properties of Rocks and Minerals.875 1538 2861 7.067 115.989768 6 0.941 2 0.124901 -272.95 -118.918 9 F Fluorine 18.02 17.902 0. Yaroshevsky.981539 5 2.933 1084.W.94 14.1797 6 1. Carmichael.746 0.56 -101.705 15 P Phosphorus 30. densities. Table 1.267015° 4492t 3825s 11.34 -252.21 444.28 15.757 20 Ca Calcium 40.011 1 2.867 1 4. Lide.881 0.534 180.582 4 Be Beryllium 9.587 5. Chemical Properties iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Atomic Density Melting Boiling Critical Ionization Specific point point point potential heat Z El Name Weight (g/cm3) (a.228 12 Mg Magnesium 24.973762 4 1. Densities for solids and liquids are given at 25°C.9994 3 1.B.646 1.948 1 1. CRC Press.A.32 2519 5.A-2 APPENDIX A.5 1668 3287 6.0855 3 2. Fairbridge.89 63. Pergamon Press.72 883 5.82 44.204 -248.54 842 1484 6.6934 2 8.15 1907 2671 6.93320 1 8. Van Nostrand.487 0. FL (1995). New York (1969).193 3 Li Lithium 6.85 1287 2471 9.066 6 2.) (°C) (°C) (°C) (eV) (J/g K) iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 1 H Hydrogen 1.520 19 K Potassium 39. 4 I. Ronov and A.561 0.828 0.824 10 Ne Neon 20.1. 66 .726 0.79 -146. New York (1988). Environmental Inorganic Chemistry.38 759 4.9984032 9 1.479 26 Fe Iron 55.

786 0.77626° 817t 614s 1400 9.25 3 7.129 83 Bi Bismuth 208.07 2 12.539 0.73 1477 10.31 156.953 -111.197 63 Eu Europium 151.24 822 1596 5.965 9 5.814 0.96 3 4.238 45 Rh Rhodium 102.576 0.98 0.108 0.451 0.212 0.52 1072 1790 5.80 1 2.49 2 13.710 7 7.90447 3 4.154 72 Hf Hafnium 178.51 988 9.7 0.644 0.228white 26° 51 Sb Antimony 121.36 -153.93421 3 9.144 73 Ta Tantalum 180.301 39 Y Yttrium 88.80926° 221 685 1493 9.994 0.90765 3 6.26 3 9.177 0.7 184.337 0.232 449.76 2204 5.501 961.36 3 7.190 61 Pm Promethium [145] 7.122 84 Po Polonium [209] 9.321 35 Br Bromine 79.01 1016 3066 5.15 920 3455 5.361 0.92159 2 5.329 34 Se Selenium 78.08 3 21.243 46 Pd Palladium 106.53 39.2 58.0 1554.64 0.55 62 Sm Samarium 150.5 2446 4428 9.417 0.224 2 6.278 41 Nb Niobium 92.90 1314 3264 6.40 1564 7.8 315 11.60 3 6.91 29.388 30 Zn Zinc 65.46 1749 7.233 26° 50 Sn Tin 118.3833 2 11.226 0.93 2602 7.760 1 6.5336 -38.52 1855 4409 6.155 71 Lu Lutetium 174.62 727 1897 5.23 3 22.130 77 Ir Iridium 192.84 1663 3393 5.5 3033 5012 8.94 1 10.723 1 5.39 2 31 Ga Gallium 69.32 1545 1946 6.53 907 9.226 36 Kr Krypton 83.47 1526 3336 6.63 1587 8.129 82 Pb Lead 207.9 2963 8.327 7 3.89 0.62 1 2.685 630.010 0.07 1529 2862 6.1 0.999 0.31 688 4.426 0.438 0.129 80 Hg Mercury 200.92534 3 8.160 70 Yb Ytterbium 173.132 75 Re Rhenium 186.04 16.1 2334 4150 7.55 1411 2561 5.265 42 Mo Molybdenum 95.165 68 Er Erbium 167.022 0.22 -63.217 3 22.525 0.4 546 10.26 1042 3000 5.298 40 Zr Zirconium 91.248 37 Rb Rubidium 85.092 0.8 3186 5596 7.320 33 As Arsenic 74.342 327.289 0.9320° 113.207 1 20.363 38 Sr Strontium 87.130 0.244 47 Ag Silver 107.8682 2 10.287 231.04 3 6.4678 3 1.) (°C) (°C) (°C) (eV) (J/g K) iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 7.894 0.A-3 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Atomic Density Melting Boiling Critical Ionization Specific 3 Z El Name Weight (g/cm ) point point point potential heat (a.28 44 Ru Ruthenium 101.900 0.752 0.251 43 Tc Technetium [98] 11 2157 4265 7.168 69 Tm Thulium 168.90550 3 12.78 2162 7.108 0.57 2477 4744 6.217 0.4 1964 3695 7.939 0.64 777 1382 5.815 0.158 55 Cs Cesium 132.115 4 8.235 48 Cd Cadmium 112.204 57 La Lanthanum 138.670 0.9055 2 6.182 64 Gd Gadolinium 157.000 0.242 56 Ba Barium 137.202 53 I Iodine 126.75 -108.140 74 W Tungsten 183.25 2833 7.90 824 1194 6.904 1 3.967 1 9.807 271.98037 3 9.50 3 8.182 66 Dy Dysprosium 162.236 65 Tb Terbium 158.417 85 At Astatine [210] 302 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 67 .9479 1 16.133 79 Au Gold 196.u.864 0.634 0.4 3017 5458 7.11 -7.411 8 8.759 0.371 32 Ge Germanium 72.59 2 13.84 1 19.695 0.74 14.23 1359 3221 5.58 12.464 0.44 671 3.24 3 7.418 -157.137 76 Os Osmium 190.577 0.140 81 Tl Thallium 204.46 1768.2 2623 4639 7.90543 5 1.0 0.344 0.131 78 Pt Platinum 195.323 938.459 0.282 1064.88 0.207 52 Te Tellurium 127.825 0.60 2072 5.818 3 7.193 60 Nd Neodymium 144.90585 2 4.18 2856 9.93032 3 8.m.173 67 Ho Holmium 164.16 799 3424 5.394 0.90638 2 8.32 254 8.69 321.254 0.96654 3 19.134 419.3 3422 5555 7.29 2 2.184 0.150 0.07 767 8.4 3825 9.8 304 1473 6.195 58 Ce Cerium 140.83 356.232 49 In Indium 114.77 931 3510 5.192 59 Pr Praseodymium 140.145 54 Xe Xenon 131.80 1472 2694 6.61 2 5.2 1 11.42 1 12.93 28.3 2233 4603 6.

02 97 Bk Berkelium [247] 14b 1050 6.094 87 Fr Francium [223] 27 88 Ra Radium [226] 5 700 5.6920° 1176 5.17 89 Ac Actinium [227] 10.65 103 Lr Lawrencium [260] 1627 104 Rf Rutherfordium [261] 105 Ha Hahnium [262] 106 Sg Seaborgium [263] 107 Ns Nielsbohrium [264] 108 Hs Hassium [267] 109 Mt Meitnerium [268] 110 ?? Element-110 [271] 111 ?? Element-111 [272] iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii a Calculated b Estimated t Critical temperature s Sublimation temperature 68 .50 101 Md Mendelevium [258] 827 6.0381 1 11.72 1750 4788 6.) (°C) (°C) (°C) (eV) (J/g K) iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 86 Rn Radon [222] 4.4 -71 -61.08 0.2520° 644 6.58 102 No Nobelium [259] 827 6.m.30 99 Es Einsteinium [252] 860 6.194 0.84 640 3228 6.51a 1345 6.37a 1572 5.0289 1 ≈18.u.23 98 Cf Californium [251] 900 6.7 104 10.03588 2 15.279 1051 3198 5.749 0.06 95 Am Americium [243] 13.A-4 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Atomic Density Melting Boiling Critical Ionization Specific 3 Z El Name Weight (g/cm ) point point point potential heat (a.113 91 Pa Protactinium 231.95 1135 4131 6.89 92 U Uranium 238.993 96 Cm Curium [247] 13.116 93 Np Neptunium [237] 20.266 94 Pu Plutonium [244] 19.42 100 Fm Fermium [257] 1527 6.07a 90 Th Thorium 232.

94×104 -10 63 Eu 3.7 0.17×10 5 2.5 -9 53 I 2.5×10-7 17 Cl 1.00326 14 2.23×104 0.2×10-4 -8 56 Ba 1.9×10-5 36 Kr 1.82×105 2.75×10 12 2.33×10 1290 58 Ce 3.076×10-9 15 6.05 4.86×10 17 20 0.7×10-8 6 370 7.5 0.5 5×10-5 -9 78 Pt 4.0085 2×10-5 38 Sr 7.000277 10 8.8×10-6 15 P 3.9×10 7 10 4.0 1.1×10-5 3 950 2×10-4 -10 71 Lu 1.0 23 47 Ag 1.57×105 -8 -5 54 Xe 1.44×10 13 9.2 7×10-7 19 K 1.4×10-4 -8 6 C 0.5 2.000187 13 2.52 1.23×10-5 9 2.2 -9 60 Nd 2.3×10-9 5 1.6×10-7 5 120 0.2 8.09×10 6 9.7×10-7 23 V 9.06 8 O 0.45 64 Gd 1.11×10-6 18 70 0.1×10-7 21 Sc 1.97×10 4 1.0049 76 Os 2.013 11 Na 0.A-5 Table 2.8 1.5×10 44 Ru 6.1×10-8 3 1.12×10-7 10 22 6×10-7 -10 67 Ho 2.0102 19 0.51×10-8 9 33 1.3×10-7 18 Ar 0.5×10-14 39 Y 1.06 61 Pm 16 S 0.8×10-8 7 2.08×10 13 3.0×10 6 0.2 0.075 4×10-5 1 H 91.45×10 3 39 3.005 1.001 -6 91 Pa 1.63×104 0.15×104 412 -9 66 Dy 1.6×10-4 -10 74 W 4.033 200 28 52 Te 1.001 68 Er 8.08×105 0.70×10-9 6 66.21×10 7 3 3×10-4 10 Ne 0.18×10-10 11 3.61×105 8.20×10-9 14 0.85 1.25 1×10-4 29 Cu 1.002 -10 59 Pr 5.45 0.1×10 9 0.9 5 0.2×10-7 25 Mn 3. Elemental Abundances iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Solar Abundance in the Earth’s Solar Abundance in the Earth’s Z El System Crust Sea Z El System Crust Sea (%) (mg/kg) (mg/L) (%) (mg/kg) (mg/L) iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 1400 1.44 51 Sb 1.9 84 Po 2×10-10 1.57×10 16 0.4×10-6 4 12 Mg 0.0 7×10-6 27 Co 7.3 -10 81 Tl 6.72×10-8 24 165 3×10-5 86 Rn 4×10-13 6×10-16 -9 41 Nb 2.0×10 4 0.23×10 3 0.1×10-9 3 0.7×10-5 3 145 1.70×10 4 41.2 1.01×10 18 0.05 2×10-4 80 Hg 1.197×10 16 0.0112 16 0.5×10-4 -10 -4 75 Re 1.002 72 Hf 5.078 8 4.16×10 13 0.3×10 3 0.02×10-10 10 3.5×10 3 3×10 5×10-5 9 F 2.18 49 In 6.8 0.12×10-9 9 0.11×10-9 13 0.3 4×10-6 -8 -9 5 B 6.94×10-11 25 2.4×10-7 14 Si 0.42×10-10 11 7.286×10 18 5.005 33 As 2.7×10 4 0.09×104 399 -10 65 Tb 1.7×10-6 4 585 1.2×10-6 13 Al 0.08×104 -9 57 La 1.03×10 8 14 3×10-5 37 Rb 2.001 7 N 0.5 1.15 1.02 -9 -6 -8 4 Be 2.38×10 23 2.2 2.5 8.5×10-7 3 1×10-4 2.25×10 12 2.9×10-7 4 1.000329 20 3.3×10-5 85 At 40 Zr 3.12 -10 83 Bi 4.6 1×10-6 45 Rh 1.9×10-11 43 Tc -10 89 Ac 5.008 7×10 48 Cd 5.2 9.0032 hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh 69 .5×10-7 26 Fe 0.000199 14 4.4×10-5 3 1050 0.004 4×10-6 34 Se 2.0 2×10-6 28 Ni 0.3 -9 55 Cs 1.1×10-4 -8 82 Pb 1.58×10-9 5 -6 -9 2 He 8.0037 -10 79 Au 6.34×10 22 1.01 88 Ra 9×10-7 8.00294 8 5.001 7×10-7 -10 90 Th 1.001 32 Ge 3.4×10-5 3 102 3×10-4 -10 70 Yb 8.46×10 9 425 0.0015 31 Ga 1.3×10-6 5 25 2×10-5 -11 73 Ta 6.03×10-7 13 0.4×10 5×10-11 -9 46 Pd 4.085 3×10-5 35 Br 3.70×10-6 19 60 2.3 2.8 5.69×10 16 7×10 4×10-6 30 Zn 4.2×10-7 22 Ti 7.9×10 6 0.23×10-7 8 19 3×10-5 -9 77 Ir 2.5×10 3 0.6×10 50 Sn 1.0025 -10 69 Tm 1.7×10-7 24 Cr 4.31×10-8 15 90 0.4×10-7 20 Ca 0.90×10 7 1.015 92 U 2.4×10 3 0.4 67.25 0.000161 8 84 5.28×10 3 20 1×10-5 87 Fr 42 Mo 8.1×10-4 -7 -10 3 Li 1.00168 22 350 905 62 Sm 8.8×10-6 4 5650 0.00350 13 2.2 6.36×104 1.

803 206 8(15)×10 esu c c −19 0. Cohen and B.758 819 62(53)×10 coulomb g 0.27 ciiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii c c Bohr magneton c −15 −1 − µB = eh /2mec 5. Today. 2 B.089 c c − /2m c µN = eh 3.835 976 7(14)×1014 cycles s−1 v−1 c Josephson frequency-voltage ratio c c Faraday constant 0.741 774 9(22)×10 erg cm s 0.103 089 37(19)×10−14 cm 0.N.582 122 0(20)×10−22 MeV s c electron charge magnitude c −10 0. October. Rev.30 = 6.613 39(57) MeV/c2 0.109 389 7(54)×10 g 0.670 51(19)×10−5 erg s−1 cm−2 K−4 34 c c 2 −5 2 −1 3. Phys.665 246 16(18) barn 0. Cohen.30 ciiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii c c c GN 6.10(19) cm3 mol−1 c Stefan-Boltzmann constant c − 3c2 σ = π2k4/60h 5. ideal gas at STP R c 8.817 940 92(38) fm 0. 1983. Mod.861 593 23(35)×10 cm 0.617 385(73)×10−5 eV K−1 c c c molar volume.045 nucleus c c − 2 = m c2α2/2 hcR∞ = mee4/2h 13.4 = 8.089 c c λp = − h /mpc 2.30 c F 9.4 c molar gas constant.389 379 66(23) GeV mbarn 0.60 h =h/2π 1.30.602 177 33(49)×10 coulomb c c − hc 197.30 p c proton cyclotron frequency/field c 3 −1 −1 ωcycl /B = e/mpc 9.135 669 2(12)×10−15 joule s coulomb−1 c quantum of magnetic flux c 0. 0.30 e 4.648 530 9(29)×104 coulomb mol−1 ic iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiic −c c fine-structure constant c α = e2/h 1/137. 46(8) Part 2.30 c c 8 −1 = 1.R. Technol.014 c c 1875. g 980.997 924 58×1010 cm s-1 0 c speed of light in vacuum c 0.152 451 66(28)×10−18 MeV gauss−1 0.59 conversion constant (h c) ciiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii c c c 2 −28 me 0.2.529 177 249(24)×10 cm 0.30 = 1. Phys. PHYSICAL CONSTANTS1. 0.N.089 c proton Compton wavelength c c neutron Compton wavelength c λn = − h /mnc 2.59 ciiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiic c electron charge to mass ratio c e/me 5. Taylor.788 382 63(52)×10 MeV gauss 0.30.30 c conversion constant c 2 2 − 0. 1121 (1987).59 c c = 1. J. Inst. Taylor.089 c Bohr radius (m c 2 2 −2 −8 − = ∞) α∞ = h /mee = re α 0. Stand.626 075 5(40)×10−27 erg s c Planck constant c − c Planck constant. BG9 (1993). 45° lat. equation Value Uncert.660 540 2(10)×10−24 g 0.30. 70 . 0.5 k 1.13 re = e2/mec2 c electron Compton wavelength c −1 −11 − λe = h /mec = re α 3.565 63(28) MeV/c = 1. 3 E. 0. reduced c 0.272 808 6(16)×1017 esu g−1 0.59 c neutron mass c 2 −24 mn 939.30 md c deuteron mass c c atomic mass unit (amu) c (mass C12 atom)/12 = (1 g)/NA 931.672 59(85)×10−8 cm3g−1 s−2 128 c gravitational constant c c grav.578 830 9(29)×10 radian s gauss 0. acceleration.30 2e/h 4.272 31(28) MeV/c2 = 1.494 32(28) MeV/c2 = 1. sea level.4 ciiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiic hhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh 1 E.380 658(12)×10−16 erg K−1 c Boltzmann constant c 8. 497 (1990).59 c electron mass c c proton mass c mp 938.089 c nuclear magneton c p e c electron cyclotron frequency/field c ωcycl /B = e/mec 1.758 819 62(53)×107 radian s−1 gauss−1 0.674 928 6(10)×10 g 0.166 39(2)×10−5 GeV−2 20 GF/(h ciiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiic c Avogadro number c NA 6.008 664 904(14) amu 0.022 136 7(36)×1023 mol−1 0.R.30. 4 Defined at the Confe´ rence Ge´ne´rale des Poids et Mesures.30 c c 0.R.510 999 06(15) MeV/c = 9. 95.15 K)/( atmosphere) 22 414.672 623 1(10)×10−24 g 0. (ppm) c c c 4 c 2.59 c c 8. 59. Taylor and E.60 2πhc c first radiation constant c second radiation constant hc/k 1.N.605 698 1(40) eV 0.438 769(12) cm K 8. ideal gas at STP c 8.4 NAk(273.30 h/e 4.B-1 APPENDIX B. Res.327 053(59) MeV fm 0.30 c Rydberg energy c e 2 c Thomson cross section c σT = 8πre /3 0.314 510(70)×107 erg mol−1 K−1 8.665 cm s−2 0 c − c)3 c Fermi coupling constant c 1. Natl. Cohen and B.035 989 5(61) 0.045 c classical electron radius c 2.054 572 66(63)×10−27 erg s c c 0.100 194 45(19)×10−14 cm 0.60 h 6.3 iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ciiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii Quantity Symbol.

141 592 653 589 793 238 c 1 coulomb = 2. = 1.261 633 light year c 1 newton = 10 dyne c c 1 joule = 107 erg c 1 astro.577 215 664 901 532 861 c c 1 in = 2.782 662 70(54)×10 g c c 1 cal = 4.15 K c 1A c ° = 10−8 cm 1 sidereal year = 3.718 281 828 459 045 235 c 1 tesla = 104 gauss c c 1 atm.997 924 58×109 esu c e = 2.602 177 33(49)×10−12 erg c 1 curie = 3.155 814 98×107 s c c 1 tropical year 3.013 25×106 dyne/cm2 c γ = 0.7×1010 disintegration /s c c 2 −33 1 rad = 100 erg/ g of tissue c 1 eV/c = 1.495 978 706 6(2)×1013 cm c 1 eV = 1.54 cm c 0° C = 273.184 joule c 1 roentgen = 1 esu/ 0.001293 g of air ciiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiic 71 . unit = 1.460 528×1017 cm c c 5 1 parsec = 3.B-2 Physical Constants (continued) iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ciiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii c Useful constants and conversion factors c c c π= 3.155 692 52×107 s c 1 fm = 10−13 cm c c 1 barn = 10−24 cm2 c 1 light year = 9.

keV 103 10-2 101 F-32 102 E. keV 103 72 .1012 1013 1011 1012 Z=100 Total 1010 Z=100 Total 1011 109 1010 108 109 107 108 106 107 105 106 104 105 103 104 102 103 101 102 100 101 10-1 E4 100 M4 M3 M2 E3 E2 10-2 10-1 M1 E1 10-3 101 102 E.

5 1/2[981] 3/2[981] 3/2[862] 1] 1j15/2 622 5/2 [ 1] 77 [74 [6 3/2 2[ 7/2 [604] 7/2[743] [87 − ω) Es.3 1/2[510] 512] 3/2 [ 0.0 −0.1 0.0 2] [75 2 [871] 3/ 7/2 ] 31 [64 0] [77 1/2 880] 1/2 [ ] 43 [6 3/2 3/2 1/2 0] 3p1/2 1/2[990] [62 1/2[871] 2] 5/2 3 [6 3] 74 ] 1] [50 2 64 2 1/ 2[ 2[ 3/ 1/2 [51 −0.3/ 1/2 [ /2 [8 26 [7 ] 34 ]1 3/2 [70 7] 13 11/2[835] 1/2[970] 3/2[611] 1/ 7/ 2 3] 7/2 [60 4] 9/2[615] 1/2 [9 1/2 1] 71 3] 1/2 [ 74 6] 2[ [76 9/2[844] 04 9/2 0] 3d5/2 3/2 [ 622] [62 0] 1/2 9/2 [6 15 ] 1/2 9/2 [ 1] 1i11/2 3/2[622] 1] [50 1] [60 6] [50 3/2 50 3] ] 5/2 [6 22] 5/2 7/ [86 1] 2] 1] 50 6] 2[ 1/ 60 /2 [ 11 [7 03 ] 01 [5 [5 ] 3/2 15 5/2 1] [6 2 [75 5/2 [65 ] 1] 50 9/2 ] 0] 1/2 2[ 3/ −0. 73 . N ≥ 126 (ε4 = ε22 /6). Nilsson diagram for neutrons.0 2] 2h11/2 5] 9/2 73 ] 2[ 7/2[734] 1/2[611] 2[ 871 9/ 1/2[981] 3/2[851] 5/2[853] 9/2[604] 7/2[723] 1/2[860] 7/2[604] 3/2[862] 15/2[707] 5/2[602] 1/2[730] 5/2[732] 3/2[602] 1/2[600] 7/2[853] 1/2[750] 3/2[871] 5/2[862] 1/2[880] 15/2[817] 1/2[600] 9/2[714] 1/2[761] 1/2[611] 11/2[835] 3/2[602] 11/2[705] H-11 0.5 0.4 0.2 9/2[734] 3/2[741] 126 1/2 7. (h ] 5/2[732] 3/2 1/ 5/2[752] 0] [64 1/2 4] [73 9/2 7/2[613] 3/2[501] 1] 3/2 [622] 5/2[503] 871] 1/2 /2 [ 1/2[501] 1/2[10100] 3/2[851] [74 5 2g7/2 11 90] 2] 5/ 08] 73 0] 60 [ /2 3/2[972] 5/2[972] 1/2[851] 3/2[732] 5/2[853] 2[ [85 4s1/2 5/21/2 [620] [60 2] 2 [8 4] 7 /2 3d3/2 ] 11 [6 17/ 5/2[613] 84 [72 2 3/ 8.6 ε2 Figure 9.p.3 11/2[615] 7/2 [ [7 13/ 2 1/2 16 ] 3] [6 1 13 /2 633 ] 2g9/2 761 [ 5/2 [ 2] 7/2 ] 624 1] 5/2 [75 [76 3] 3 [6 1/2 [ 3/2 [60 5/2 4] 9/2 2] / 1/2[620] 7/2[853] 5/2[743] [86 7 2[ 7/2 5/2 7/2 [624] 25 11 1/2[860] 9/2[505] [74 734] ] ] 7.2 0.1 0.

2 [86 [75 1] 0.5/2[613] 9/2[604] 3/2[981] 1/2[730] 3/2[851] 3/2[732] 7/2[604] 5/2[602] 1/2[990] 3/2[862] 1/2[860] 1/2[730] 9/2[844] 3/2[602] 1/2[600] 7/2[853] 1/2[750] 5/2[862] 1/2[880] 1/2[600] 3/2[871] 11/2[835] 9/2[714] 1/2[611] 11/2[705] H-12 2] [75 73 4] 4] 7/2 1i11/2 6] 60 ] 3] ] 05 [5 ] 03 [5 2[ 50 [5 03 1] ] 9/2 1] 50 2[ 1/ 3/ 7/2[743] 1/2[631] 9/2[624] 7/2 /2 13 50 ] [7 16 5/2 2] 11 /2 0 0] 2] 0. Nilsson diagram for neutrons. N ≥ 126 (ε4 = − ε22 /6).1 3/2[512] 1/2[510] 61] 50 0.0 0 1/2 [10 1 02 2] [6 [60 1] 74 3/2 5/2 9/2 1/2[730] 50 13 /2 2[ 5/ [ 1/2 2h11/2 5] [72 3/2[732] 3/2[611] 71] 1/2 [8 2] 7/2 [734] [8 26 ] 3/2 0.4 0.1 ] 15 2 1/ 5/2 3/2 2] [75 5/2 1] 3 [6 1] [76 ] 770 1/2 [ 3] 1/2 [10 1 ] [63 3/2 6] [750 80] 5/2 2 3/ ] 07] 1/2 1/2 [8 1] ] 1] 42 65 [6 1/2 [ 1] [50 0 51 [60 2] [76 2 3/ 1/2 [ 1/2 3p1/2 860] 5/2[622] 3/2[741] 2g9/2 126 3/2[862] 71] 1/2 [8 3] [75 ] [624 0] [64 7/2 74 5/2 3/2 1/2 ] 33 1/2 [ 624 7/2 [ 2[ 15/ 2 [7 1] 5/2[743] 1/2[741] 7/ −0.0 −0. 74 .5 0. (h 871 3/2 [ 2 9/ 3] 2 5/ 5/2[503] 4] 1j15/2 5/2 [61 1] [74 3/2 2] [86 5/2 1] 3d5/2 3/2[1091] 1/2[1091] 2[ 6] 71 /2 [ 2] 11 7 [76 7/2[743] 3] 61 [ /2 [75 1/2 70 ] 640] 74 3] 3/2 [622] [7 3/2[972] 1/2[970] 3/2[851] 2[ 2g7/2 1/2 9/2[844] 7/ 08] 2 [8 5/ 3/2 17/ [6 3/2 [611] 5/2[752] [61 1/ / 15 [60 73 7/ 2[ ] 2 07] [81 7 2 [7 13/ 2 5/ 72] 0] 0] 5] 9/2 71] ] 02 1/2 [62 9/2[615] 5/2[853] 1/2[851] 1/2 [8 4s1/2 1/2 [ 5/2 [9 ] 3d3/2 8.2 /2 [ 1/2[620] ] 7.p.0 [6 1 1/2[981] 3/2[981] 1/2 [7 2[ 3/ −0.3 0.6 ε2 Figure 10.3 13 3/2[501] 3/2[622] 0 [6 9/2 [734 ] 622 5/2 [ ] 5 ] [72 [613 /2 11 7/2 [6 2[ ] 16 [7 /2 13 ] − ω) Es.5 7.

0 0.2 0.3 −0.3/2[752] 1/2[631] 7/2[503] 7/2[743] 1/2[770] 3/2[761] 3/2[501] 11/2[725] H-15 ] 04 5/2 [ [6 15 ] [7 16 ] 13 /2 6] /2 [ 60 ] 7/2 1/2 0 [64 ] 06] 2 [6 13/ 0] [64 2] 2f7/2 2] 5/2 [51 ] 624 7/2 1i13/2 4] [51 1] 9/2 [ [65 1/2 [541] 3/2[402] 7/2[743] 512] 5/2 [ 9/2[624] 1/2 − ω) Es.4 0.6 ε2 Figure 13.3 0.5 0.p. Z ≥ 82 (ε4 = ε22 /6).2 −0. Nilsson diagram for protons. 75 .0 [51 2] 3/2 [51 0 [75 510] 2] 3/2 0] 1/2 [51 1/2 [ ] 5/2 521 3/2[512] [ 50 9/ 2 3p3/2 1 /2 1/2 [ 1/2[510] 7/2[624] 50 3] [6 ] 52 [7 5/2 42] [6 3/2 9/2 ] 3/2 [532 2] [75 ] 0 [63 3] [52 1] 2[ 5/ 5/2[402] ] 15 [6 /2 11 2[ 51 1] [54 4] 1/2 1] [65 2] 7/ 60 6] ] 04 [4 7/2 9/2 50 5] 11 /2 [ 5/2 4] 2] [51 5/ 2[ 9/2 40 2d3/2 41] 2] 1] [64 2] 0] 0] [41 [53 [55 [40 [4 1/2 3/2 3] 0] 6.5 −0.1 0. (h 7/2[633] 7/2[514] [50 11 9/2 5/2 ] 3/2 [521 5] 61 [ /2 5] [66 1/2[530] 5/2 [ 0] 1] 1/2 512] [77 [65 1/2 114 3/2 3/2[752] ] 761 1/2 [ 3] 707 ] ] 31 1] 15/ 2[ 1 [87 [6 2[ 3] 74 2[ 7/ 3] 63 5/ [52 [50 ] 2] 0] 3/2 1/2 3] 5/2 9/2[734] 3/2 [88 11 [86 3/2[512] 2f5/2 1/2 7.0 63 [66 ] 3s1/2 1] 1/2 [50 [65 5] /2 [ 3/2[642] 7/ 3/2 13 1] 1] 53 3/2 2[ [52 3] 00 3/2 [5 [76 [65 3/ 5/2 82 1/2 7/2[404] 1/2[521] 2[ 2 1/ 1/2 0] [77 1/2 [5 3/2 2] 1/2 64 7/2 1h9/2 03] 5/2 3/2 [64 7/2 3] 5/2 [52 1/2 6.1 0.

3 0.0 ] 1/2 [5 2] 3/2 43 5/2 1] 3/2[512] 3/2[871] [5 0 5/2 [6 15 ] /2 [7 16 ] 13 3p3/2 [52 [7 1/2 9/2 3/2 1/2 ] 52 [7 5/2 42] [6 3] 7/2 1/2[880] 7/2[503] 3/2[631] 1/2[651] 3/2[761] 1/2[770] 3/2[501] 9/2[604] 11/2[725] H-16 ] 3] 11/ 3] 06] 2 [6 5/2 ] 15 [50 [6 /2 9/2 11 ] [512] 624] 9/2 [ 14 2 [5 7/ 1i13/2 ] 7/2[633] 24] 9/2 [6 ] 512 5/2 [ 1/ 2] 7/2 1] 1] 0] 80] 2] [64 1/2 [8 [52 5/2 [5 5] [50 9/2 2] 53 1/2 4] 2[ 51 82 3/2[642] 13/ 2 [6 06] 1/2[761] 651] 1] 1/2 [ [54 7/ 5/2[402] 3/2[521] 1] [65 60] 3/2 1/2 [6 2[ 11 23] 3/ 5] 61 [ /2 3/2[871] 3] 64 2[ 1h9/2 52 [63 1/2 3/2 5/ 3] 5/2 [52 ] 3 0 5 7/2 [ 1/2[400] 3/2[402] 2[ 3/2 [53 6.2 0] [53 550] 3/2 [541 ] [41 1] 2] [40 0] [66 1/2 1/2 [ [6 3/2 1/2 6.2 42 −0.0 0.0 5/2 3s1/2 1/2 1/2 [7 1 761 3/2 [ 0] 40 [ /2 0.1 0. (h [50 7/2 2 [6 06] 15/ 2 [7 07] 1] 52 3/2 [ 1/2 5/2 [50 4] 40 7/ 2[ 5] 50 11 /2 [ ] 70] ] −0. Nilsson diagram for protons.5 1/2 [990 2f7/2 2] 0] [75 4 5/2 1/2 [6 2] 871] [64 61] 5/2 ] 3/2 [521 1/2 [7 0] 5] [66 13/ 1/2 3/2[752] 7/2[743] 3/2 [ 1] [5 5/2 1] [76 3/2 0] [77 1/2 [65 7/2[514] 12] 114 1/2 [530] − ω) Es. Z ≥ 82 (ε4 = − ε22 /6).3 4] 40 2 ] [51 5/ 9/2 2[ 2d3/2 −0.4 1/2[411] 0.p.1 0. 76 .[6 1] 75 1 /2 [ ] 2 [86 5/2 1] 2f5/2 3 [6 3/2[512] [51 [63 10] 3/2 33 0] 7.6 ε2 Figure 14.5 0.