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Uptime Institute

Tier Standard for Data Centers
Facts vs. Myths and Misconceptions
Presented by

Kenneth (“Ken”) Brill, Founder
Uptime Institute
kgb@uptimeinstitute.com

Agenda
 Introduction to Tiers
 Benefits and misconceptions
 Impact of IT availability trends on required
facility Tier level
 Certifications
 Training
 More Tier information

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© 2011 Uptime Institute

Uptime Institute Is the ONLY Authority
for Tier Standard Certification

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© 2011 Uptime Institute

2010 4 © 2011 Uptime Institute .Uptime’s International Tier Standard Has Two Parts  Topology     Tier I Tier II Tier III Tier IV  Operational Sustainability (new 2010)  Gold  Silver  Bronze  Chronology  Topology introduced in 1996 with update in 2008  Operational Sustainability introduced July.

75% 99.0 hours 30-36” 150 12-15 kV Some + human error 1.6 hours 30-36” 150+ 12-15 kV Fire+ EPO + human error 0.8 hours 99.480 Many + human error 28.67% 99.98% 99.This Table Was Eliminated in 2008 to Reduce Confusion & Misconceptions Building Type Staffing Usable for critical load Initial build-out UPS output watts/ft² (typ) Ultimate UPS output watts/ft² (typical) Class A uninterruptible cooling Support space to raised floor ratio Raised floor height (typical) Floor loading lbs/ft² (typical) Utility voltage (typical) Single points-of-failure Annual site caused IT downtime (actual field data) Representative site availability Months to implement Year first deployed 5 TIER I Tenant None TIER II Tenant 1 Shift TIER III Standalone 1+ Shifts 100%N 20-30 100%N 40-50 90%N 40-60 TIER IV Standalone 24 by Forever 90%N 50-80 20-30 40-50 100-150 150+ No No Maybe Yes 20% 30% 80-90+% 100+% 12” 85 208.480 Many + human error 22.99% 3 1965 3 to 6 1970 15 to 20 1985 15 to 20 1995 © 2011 Uptime Institute .8 hours 18” 100 208.

All Drawings Have Been Eliminated 6 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Tier III..6.Common Myths & Misconceptions         Two utility sources are required for Tier IV Tier III has no single points-of-failure Fault Tolerance of Tier III is higher than Tier II Site location can preclude a topology rating MTBF calculation determines Tier Tier is determined by equipment count Tier III+. have meaning Tier IV eliminates human error 7 © 2011 Uptime Institute . etc.

6. have meaning Tier IV eliminates human error 8 © 2011 Uptime Institute .Common Myths & Misconceptions         Two utility sources are required for Tier IV Tier III has no single points-of-failure Fault Tolerance of Tier III is higher than Tier II Site location can preclude a Tier rating MTBF calculation determines Tier Tier is determined by equipment count Tier III+. etc. Tier 111.

Data Center Site Infrastructure Tier Standard: Topology 9 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

2011 10 © 2011 Uptime Institute .Tier Topology Certifications  Tier IV – Fault Tolerance  Constructed facility  5 Complete  0 In-progress  Design documents  14 Complete  3 In-progress  Tier III – Concurrent Maintenance  Constructed facility  10 Complete  8 In-progress  Design documents  33 Complete  23 In-progress As of March 1.

Data Center Site Infrastructure Tier Standard: Operational Sustainability 11 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

UK  Others are in progress 12 © 2011 Uptime Institute .Site Certification: Topology + Operational Sustainability  Tier III Gold Certifications awarded  UnitedHealth Care. Target Technology Center Elk River. Next Technology Center  Target Corporation. MN  Target Corporation. Target Technology Center Brooklyn Park. London North Data Centre London. MN  Fujitsu Services.

minimize risks.Uptime’s Tier Standard System  Provides an unbiased review of a single site or a comparison of two sites or a portfolio of sites  Assists owners in maximizing the life-cycle value of their investment  Assists purchasers of third-party services in quantifying what they are getting  Encourages operations to maximize uptime. and achieve efficiency  Incents and measures processes optimizing energy efficiency  Quantifies site infrastructure management effectiveness 13 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Tier Standard Does NOT Compete With or Replace Other Standards & Codes  Tier Standard exclusions:  Construction and building codes  Environmental regulations  Safety policies and practices  Security (physical and data)  Personnel policies  Energy efficiency  International Standards Organization® (ISO ®) 14 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Tier Standard Was Developed By and For “Owners” with “Skin in the Game”            15 BMO Financial Group Boeing Delta Airlines Fidelity Investments Fujitsu Services GE HSBC Johnson and Johnson JP Morgan Chase Kaiser Permanente Lowe’s  Morgan Stanley  Nationwide Mutual Insurance  Progressive Insurance  Saudi ARAMCO  Social Security Administration  State Farm Insurance  Target  United Health  US Bank  VISA © 2011 Uptime Institute .

See Standard for additional details and exclusions. incorrectly installed dual-corded IT equipment.anticipates a single. single-corded IT equipment. rules violations. mechanical or electrical system or equipment event and subsequent consequential impact(s)* * Excludes EPO (North America only).applies to Each and Every component and path on a planned basis* Tier IV Fault Tolerance .Tier Standard Topology Definitions Tier I Tier II Tier III Basic Capacity Redundant Components Concurrent Maintenance . fire. sabotage. and/or mistakes. 16 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Tier Standard Topology Ratings Are Vendor and Solution Agnostic  Encourages innovative engineering  Allows for client equipment preferences  Not a proscriptive checklist. design menu. or a recipe 17 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Today and Future  Do you expect prime time and/or availability requirements to go up or down in the future?  Is your compensation tied to an Availability Service Level Agreement?  Is planned and unplanned Facilities downtime included or excluded from your SLA?  Do you have a financially enforceable SLA with your Facility provider (internal or external) that reflects IT’s commitments to users? 18 © 2011 Uptime Institute .Availability Trends .

i..e. all IT hardware dependent upon  UPS power  Critical power distribution  Cooling backbones  Some capacity units (Tier II) MAY be maintained without impacting IT (but often with considerable risk of unplanned downtime) 19 © 2011 Uptime Institute .Tier I & II Sites Require IT Downtime  Tier I and II sites require total shutdown of all IT hardware during facility maintenance.

Single Power Path Utility Generator Battery THREE POWER PATHS ONE POWER PATH COMPUTER HARDWARE 20 SINGLE POINTS–OF–FAILURE • UPS system level failure • Major circuit breakers (2-20) • Minor circuit breakers (20-500) • Plugs and receptacles (21-505) • Electrical connections (258-6180) • Human error • False EPO © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Dual Power Path Utility Generator Battery Utility Generator Battery THREE POWER PATHS TWO POWER PATHS COMPUTER HARDWARE 1 2 3 4 5 21 SINGLE POINTS–OF–FAILURE • Go to UPS failure • Human error •False EPO •A/B circuiting errors © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Planned or Unplanned Site Downtime Can Trigger a Corporate Heart Attack! 10.000s Customers/Users 100s Network Nodes 100s Applications 10s to 100s Operating System 10s to 100s Hardware 1 22 Site © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Fault Tolerance Is Justified By Eliminating Unplanned User Downtime 23 Site Restoration = ¼ to 1hr Hardware Restore = ½ to 1hr Software Restore = ¾ to 2hr Telecom Restore = 0 to ¾hr TOTAL OUTAGE = 1½ to 4¾hr © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Concurrent Maintainability Is Justified by Eliminating Planned User Downtime  Tier I sites require 2 total shut downs per year  2 x 14 hours = 28 hours of IT downtime per year  Plus the impact of any unplanned failures  Tier II sites require 3 total shut downs every two years  3 x 14 hours/2 = 21 hours of IT downtime per year  Plus the impact of any unplanned failures  Tier III and Tier IV sites do NOT require planned shut downs* *Be aware that many “self proclaimed” Tier III Concurrently Maintainable) and Tier IV (Fault Tolerant) sites are not! 24 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Tier Standard: Topology Requirements Are Deceptively Simple      Active capacity components Distribution paths Compartmentalization Concurrent Maintainability Fault Tolerance 25 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

Continuous Duty Engines Ambient Temperature 26 Tier I Tier II N N+1 1 1 No No No No No No © 2011 Uptime Institute Tier III N+1 1 active.Topology Requirements by Tier Level Active Capacity Components to Support IT Load Distribution Paths Compartmentalization Concurrent Maintainability Fault Tolerance (1 event) Continuous Cooling. 1 inactive No Yes No Load Yes Tier IV N after any failure 2 active Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Worst .

the misconceptions that lead to needless cost and complexity 27 © 2011 Uptime Institute . in technical detail. three-day curriculum with concluding test  Exclusively for professional or chartered engineers responsible for infrastructure center design  Focuses on practical application of Tier topology  Examples drawn from real-life designs submitted for Design Certification  Addresses.Accredited Tier Designer (ATD)  Intense.

A Worldwide Growing Community of ATD Professionals Australia Belgium Brazil Canada China Costa Rica Czech Republic Egypt England France Greece India Hong Kong Kenya Luxembourg Mexico Malaysia 2 1 5 3 2 7 1 1 6 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 Netherlands Russia Saudi Arabia Slovakia Spain South Africa Taiwan Thailand Turkey United Emirates United States Venezuela As of September 31. 2010 28 © 2011 Uptime Institute 1 15 2 1 3 1 6 1 1 3 30 1 .

60%. in-office. 85%. Principallevel review of 30%.Site Certification Process: Tier Certified Design Documents  Uptime. 100% design document package  Topology deficiencies and potential design enhancements  Conference call with owner and design team to discuss deficiencies report  Compliance review of revised drawings  Award letter and foil 29 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

foil.Site Certification Process: Tier Certified Constructed Facility  On-site inspection by Uptime team during commissioning  Identify discrepancies between certified design drawings and as-built construction  Observe delivered functionality  Topology deficiencies and other enhancements  Conference call with owner team  Award letter. and plaque 30 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

31 © 2011 Uptime Institute .Tier Standard: Operational Sustainability (New – 2010)  Operational Sustainability is defined as the behaviors and risks beyond design Topology that impact the ability of a data center to meet business objectives over the long term.

Abnormal Incident Reports (AIRs) By: Root Cause 2009 Failures (Previous Years) 2009 (Previous Incidents Years) Manufacturer 5 19% (25%) 211 52% (43%) Design 1 4% (3%) 20 5% (5%) External Environment - 0% (14%) 10 2% (4%) Installation 4 15% (7%) 25 6% (7%) Operations 16 62% (51%) 144 35% (41%) 100% (100%) 410 Total Root Cause 32 26 © 2011 Uptime Institute 100% (100%) .

“Gold” Operational Sustainability Behaviors Prevent 70% of AIRs Failures  Failures are never the result of one factor  Between 5 and 10 things (typically 7) contribute to a failure  Management is the leading cause (4 out of 7)  A failure will consistently occur every time the 7 things line up  Swiss cheese or dominos analogy 33 © 2011 Uptime Institute .

and management  Building characteristics (limited ability to improve)     Features Infrastructure Operating conditions Pre-operational  Site location (limited ability to eliminate or even mitigate)  Natural disasters  Man-made disasters  Utility robustness and redundancy 34 © 2011 Uptime Institute . coordination.Operational Sustainability: Categories  Management & operations (immediate ability to improve)     Staffing and organization Maintenance Training Planning.

2011 35 © 2011 Uptime Institute . for nonengineers)  Includes both Topology and Sustainability concepts  ATS accredited individuals now in 12 countries As of March 1.Accredited Tier Specialist (ATS) (New 2010)  Intense three-day curriculum with concluding test  For data center professionals (i.e..

and recoverability CapEx and OpEx effectiveness Life-cycle (resale) value     Operational Sustainability practices often have greater impact on actual IT availability than Topology 36 © 2011 Uptime Institute .Conclusions  Tier Standards for Data Centers  Topology + Operational Sustainability  For owner/operators and buyers of hosting services  Together. duration. assure life-cycle business value Downtime frequency.

htm  Tier Myths and Misconceptions at http://professionalservices.htm  Certified sites or certifications in process at http://professionalservices.org/content/view/302/281/#TierClassification  Tier Standard: Operational Sustainability at http://uptimeinstitute.com/tiercert.htm 37 © 2011 Uptime Institute .org/content/view/302/281/#Operation al-Sustainability  Current world-wide listing of ATD engineers at http://atd.uptimeinstitute.com/schedule.uptimeinstitute.uptimeinstitute.More Information  Tier Standard: Topology at http://uptimeinstitute.com/myths.uptimeinstitute.com/award_list.htm  Upcoming ATD and ATS seminars at http://atd.

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