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Forest Ecology and Management 72 ( 1995) 13-20

Natural production of wild edible mushrooms in the southwestern
rural territory of Mexico City, Mexico
Marisela C. Zamora-Martinez*, Cecilia Nieto de Pascual-Pola
Centro National de Investigacidn Disciplinaria en Conservacidn y Mejoramiento de Ecosistemas Forestales, Institute National
de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias, Ave. Progreso No. 5, Coyoachn, 041 IO Mkxico, D. F., Mkxico

Accepted14July 1994

Wild edible mushroomsare important as dietary products in the rural communities of Mexico, and provide
additional income during the rainy season.The present study wascarried out during the summersof 1990and
1991 in two Christmastree stand plots near the town of Topilejo, in Distrito Federal, Mexico, to determine the
natural production of wild edible mushrooms.The relationshipsbetweenproduction, dasometricand soil characteristics were established;the best emergencecame under open canopy.
Keywords: Mushrooms;
Wild ediblemushrooms;

1. Introduction

Non-woody forest resources have been used
since the pre-Hispanic period, one of the most
appreciated being fungi as they are complementary of rural diets of people who live near or in
forests. They also provide additional income
during the production period. These natural
products fulfil ornamental, medical, ceremonial,
insecticide, handicraft and fuel purposes.
In several states of the central part of Mexico
(Puebla, Hidalgo, Estado de Mexico and Distrito Federal), interest is focused on these products due to their real and potential value. For example, in a small rural area near Mexico City,
Reygadas ( 1991) identified 52 species,with 97
popular names; of these, Russula brevipes
(‘trompa’) and Tricholoma magnivelare (‘hong0
* Corresponding

blanco de ocote’) are very appreciated in national and international markets.
There are a few quantitative studies about the
productivity of fiuctiferous bodies in situ and
their relationships with their tree stands. Sanchez ( 1982) calculated the production of R.
brwipes in a Pinus spp. plantation; Vi&u-real and
Guzmdn ( 1985, 1986a,b) made a serial assessment in the forests of Cofre de Perote, Veracruz,
Mexico. Bandala et al. ( 1991) continued their
experiments in mixed evergreen cloudy forests.
Moreno ( 1990) examined production of fungi in
two vegetation conditions in the Estado de Mexico. Alvarado et al. ( 1992) did the same in
The present study had the following objectives: ( 1) to make a quantitative assessmentof
the natural productivity of wild edible mushrooms in a 2 year period; (2) to determine the
stational distribution of wild edible mushrooms;

0378-l127/95/$09.500 1995ElsevierScience B.V. All rights reserved

I4 M.5) 13-20 east. Pinus ayacahyuite and Pinus pseudostrobus forests as well as mixed forests of Abies rehgiosa.. Zamora-Martinez. Nieto de Pascual-Poia / Forest Ecology and Managernertt (3 ) to identify the environmental factors that affect wild edible mushroom production.C. 2. To the South. mild-cold with average temperature between 10 and 12‘C. Quercus spp. at 3700 m. It is the orographic limit south of the Valley of Mexico Basin. The study area lies in Sierra de1Ajusco. and 1250 mm annual precipitation. it neighbors Morelos State. 1). The sampling lots are in the Arroyo El Zorrillo Basin in a former Christmas tree plantation of Abies religiosa. fore Id .) to a smaller extent. Pinus maximartinezii and Pinus cembroides. and to the North- “ARROYO EL ZORRILLO’ the East and West. 1. The climate is subhumid. 1987).T(199. Alnus jorullensis spp. Estado de Mexico State. jorullensis and grasslands (Muhlenbergia spp. Mexico City (Nieto de Pascual. which is the mountain chain that surrounds Distrito Federal at the Southwest (Fig. BASIN DISTRITO FEDERAL Pine Plr forest foreat Broedfeclf Grassland Of Fig. Location of the Arroyo El Zorrillo Basin within the Distrito Federal. C. Pinus patula. Vegetation consists of Pinus montezumae. Study area Mexico City belongs to Distrito Federal. and is located in the Central part of Mexico.

Around 52% of the taxa can be collected during most of the rainy season (Table 2 ) .5) 13-20 15 diversity Twenty-nine different species were collected and identified in the two sampling plots. Nieto de Pascual-Pola /Forest Ecology and Management 3. The total number of the collected species are equivalent to 40% of all the wild edible species reported for the study area (Guispert et al. where trees are 22 m on average. phenology of the observed speciescorresponds to the following categories: 21%to early short (June-July). followed by R. montezumae stand. while the former is smaller and less fleshy. Russula aff. C. Amanita rubescens and Amanita aff. a fact that suggestsa former forest land use. of this production was estimated in regard to average price in the national market present at the time when the study was conducted.83 kg ha. The identified fungi were given to the Herbario National Forestal (National Forest Herbarium) aspart of the scientific collection. 1986a. They belong to 13 families and 20 genus (Table 1). The production for the 1991 season was perceptibly lower than in 1990. Reygadas. Sampling was performed at one session per week. 13. Cifuentes et al. and dbh at 1. According to Villarreal and Guzman ( 1985. Moser. canopy cover.‘. most of the fungi found must have an important role in the nutrient cycle due to their decomposing properties. in spite of being large and of fleshy consistency.. Zamora-Martinez. 24% humicole habits and 3% have lignicole habits. alutaceae. alutaceae was the only species collected in one plot. Thirteen new species were collected during this period too.8% to the short half-season (JulySeptember). with annual average temperature and total precipitation. 1978. 4. the economic value of the fiuctiferous bodies emerging. Mushroom biomass was related with dasometric measurements. pH and organic matter).1. brevipes with 19. 27. 72% of the identitied taxa have terrestrial habits. 1991) . Boletus aestivalis recorded the highest biomass per collection ( 1. C.12 m high were planted. 10% to the late long (August-October ). 1962. Basidiocarp 72 (199. Also. 27. 1991) and with the support of the herbarium samples from the Herbario de la Escuela National de Ciencias Biol6gicas de1 Instituto Politecnico National (Biological Sciences National School Herbarium at the Politechnological National Institute) and the Herbario de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (Science School Herbarium at the National Autonomous University of Mexico). a fact that might result from annual variations in temperature and rainfall. 1984.15cm in diameter). The total production per hectare of each identified fungal specieswas calculated from the total amount and the weight from the fructiferous bodies from the 800 m* sample. re-collection of edible fungal speciesand of soil ( 1 kg O-30 cm deep). Fungal species biomass was estimated through the fresh weight of the fiuctiferous bodies with the aid of a granatarious balance. edaphic characteristics (humidity content. The latter has vigorous and large fleshy individuals ( 12. The collected fungi were determined macrostopically and microscopically. Basidiocarp production During the 1990 season Lactarius deliciosus was the most abundant specieswith total weight of 25. 1979. gemmata are outstanding in relation to biomass .98 kg ha-‘. Methods 4. through dasometric measuring (total height.30 m high). from these.6% to early long (JulyOctober). Thus.b). 4. Guzman. from May to October during the rainy season until the last fructiferous bodies emerge. a fact that implies higher carpophore production to yield high biomass values.6% to the late short (September-October ) . within which R. aff.2.. they belong to a P. through a dichotomic taxonomy key (Singer.M.2 kg). Results Basidiomycete production assessmentwas estimated in two experimental sampling plots (20 x 20 m2) where Christmas trees 1. through re-collection of the edible fungal species.

) Fr. & Br. ) Q&let Lycoperdaceae Lycoperdon perlatum Pers. Pezizales Helvellaceae Helvella crispa Stop. Cortinariaceae Hebeloma fastibile (Pers. ) Fr. Russuia aff. Laccaria laccata (Stop. in general terms. Aphyllophorales Clavariaceae Ciavuiina rugosa (Fr. gemmata (Fr.’ of edible wild mushrooms per month can be collected.’ Ramariajlava (Fr. Helvella elastica Fr. Grev. which means that I3 kg ha. ex Fr. ex Fr. ex Schw. queletii Fr. C. ) Gill. ex Fr. The estimated average production for the 2 years was 64.C. ) B. ) Schulze? Laccaria amethystina (Bolt. Kuhn & Romagnesi)a Boletaceae Bole&s aestivalis Paulet ex Fr. Helvella lacunosa Afz. Collybia cot&ens (Pers.” Terricole Humicole Lignicole X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X x X X X X X X X X X X “Not ever recorded as mycorrhizal.) Kumm. ) Pets. Russula brevipes Peck Russula aff. values (Table’ 3 ). the number of carpophores was low. Amanita rubescens (Pets. ) Schroet. ex Fr. Suillus brevipes (Peck) 0. ex Fr. ) ex Pers. Tricholoma ustaloides Romagn. alutacea (Pers. ex Fr. ex Hook. ) Sing. ex Fr. ex Fr. ) Sing.3 kg ha-‘. Amanita aff. Tricholomataceae Clitocybe sp. ) Vittadini Bolbitiaceae Agrocybe verbacti (Fr. ) Gray Lactarius scrobiculatus (Stop. Hohenbuhefia petaloides (Bull. Russulaceae Lactarius deliciosus ( L. ex Fr. This is a good utility that might . Zamora-Martinez. ex Fr.16 M.) Murr. Lyophyllum decastes (Fr. ) Romagnesi (Sensu Lange. ) S.F. ex Fr. Amanita fulva (Schaeff. Macropodia sp. Kuntze Coprinaceae Psathyrella spadicea (Schaeff. Nieto de Pascual-Pola /Forest Ecology and Management 72 (1995) 13-20 Table 1 Edible wild fungi species collected from two Christmas tree stands Species Agaricales Amanitaceae Amanita caesarea (Stop. Gray Amanita vaginata (Bull. ex Fr. ex Fr. ) Kumm.

respectively. For example. while the study area in Distrito Federal is subject to human activity.b) and of Bandala et al. As in every productive process.there is a long chain of intermediaries from collection to marketing of fungi. there are a good number of edible wild mushroom speciesthat are unknown in the local popular cuisine. ( 1991) who worked in a pine-fir forest at the Cofre de Perote in the Mexican state of Veracruz. Nieto de Pascual-Pola /Forest Ecology and Management 72 (1995) 13-20 17 Table 2 Phenology of the edible wild mushrooms in two Christmas tree stands Species Agrocybe verbacti Amanita caesarea Amanita fulva Amanita aff. a collector covers over 11. a great effort must be made to obtain reasonable profit. which varied from 453 (1983 season) to 135 kg ha-’ ( 1990 season) with a top production of 747 kg ha-’ ( 1984 season). gave apparently. Zamora-Martinez. However. 1986a. Morchella elata and Lyophyllum decastes reach US$l 1 and US$5 per kilogram.C. C.M.3 ha during an 8. higher values. Even if these data might suggesta stimulating situation. This fact is favorable for preserv- ing the diversity of this natural resource as it is thus not thoroughly exploited. such as sheep grazing. 1991) . Collybia confluens Hebeloma fastibile Helvella crispa Helvella elastica Helvella lacunosa Hohenbuhelia petaloides Laccaria amethystina Laccaria laccata Lactarius deliciosus Lactarius scrobiculatus Lycoperdon perlatum Lyophyllum decastes Macropodia sp. these prices give an estimated income per collector during the season in the study area of US$ 1000 (Reygadas. a condition that over-prices the product. Psathyrella spadicea Ramaria Java Russula aff. Comparison of the estimated edible wild mushroom production per hectare from the studied area with the results of Villarreal and Guzman (1985. gemmata Amanita rubescens Amanita vaginata Boletus aestivalis Clavulina rugosa Clitocybe sp. alutacea Russula brevipes Russula aff. queletii Suillus brevipes Tricholoma ustaloides June July August X X X X X X X X X X X X X X September October X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X come from the great species variety (Table I ) and their high commercial value. Thus. continuous cropland . Agrocybe verbacti and Laccaria amethystina. such as Hohenbuhe- X X X X X X lia petaloides. The observed differences might come from the well-preserved vegetation in the case of Veracruz.12 h period to pick around 6 kg day-‘.

1986).2 0. dark.’ ) .3 2.6 4.’ 1991 equivalent values in kg ha-’ Lactarius deliciosus Russula brevipes Boletus aestivalis Lyophyllum decastes Hebeloma fastibile Helvella lacunosa RussuIa aff.12 m ).1 0. When reviewing production of fungi in regard to rainfall and monthly average temperature from the two sampled plots (Fig. From a global viewpoint. Pritchett. since they generally emerge when rainfall precipitation is over 100 mm (Moreno.3 I 0. 2)) it is evident that biomass increases rapidly until it reaches its top 72 (1995) 13-20 value in July (58.1 0. varying texture from loam to sandy-loam. Maximum fungal production coincides with a slight decrement in rainfall ( 14.2 0.18 M.3 1.3 0. 1990)) since in the successional process in the symbiotic relationship between mycelium and root. montezumae) present in the sampling plots.94 kg ha-’ in October.1 0. because the trees are young and lower than 2 m (average height. too. queletti Collybia co&ens Amanita caesarea Suillus brevipes Psathyrella spadicea Helvella crispa Helvella elastica Amanita vaginata Tricholoma ustaloides Amanita jiilva Lycoperdon perlatum Clitocybe sp. These data resulted from two soil samples collected at O-30 cm deep. since they belong to a 2 year plantation.9 m and average dbh 43.7).4 - opening for forage oats.13 cm. organic matter 7. these fungi actually developed under an open canopy. which stimulates the outcome of greater fructification.2 0. alutacea 26 19.2 0.2 0.3 kg ha. 1971. The soil in both plots is classified as andosol of volcanic origin.2 0.5 0.8 0. Nieto de Pascual-Pola / Fores& Ecology and Management Table 3 Annual yield of edible wild mushrooms from the two Christmas tree stands - Species 1990 equivalent values in kg ha. In general terms.5 7 0. C. however. their dasometric components were important too. 2). Finally. humidity conditions remain favorable for the development of the fructiferous bodies.6 0. high organic matter percentage and acid pH are properties that stimulate the development of fungi and their decomposing function over other microorganisms. low density. 1990).2 Total 16.1 0.1 0. the data show average cover of 6. compared with that obtained in different forests from the central part of Mexico (Moreno.7 kg ha-’ in a pine forest at Santa Catarina de1 Monte in the Mexican state of Estado de Mexico during one rainy season. In regard to the dasometric values of the adult trees (P. it is interesting to point out that the .5 0 0 0. average total height this case.9 0. Hohenbuhelia petaloides RamariaJIava Laccaria laccata Russula aff. C. a fact that stimulates the macromycete production as featuring elements of this process. such as bacteria and actinomycetes (Gaucher.5 1. the increase in the number of fructiferous bodies occurs in most rainy months.6 1 0.3 0. acid (pH 5. the young trees have a more intense mycorrhizal activity of the roots of adult trees.3 9.37%. soil extraction and wild edible mushrooms collection itself. after which it decreases rapidly to a low of 11. Moreno ( 1990) reported 35. Agrocybe verbacti Lactarius scrobiculatus Laccaria amethystina Amanita a& gemmata Amanita rubescens Clavulina rugosa Macropodia sp.12 m2.38 mm) during the heaviest rainy months (Fig. and total nitrogen 0.3 0.1 0 0.3 52.6 0.49 kg ha-’ ).05%. in which the relative humidity rises with a resulting up-swing of the soil organic matter decomposition rates. might explain the estimated great production of fructiferous bodies in the study area (64.3 0. This. bulk density 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 30.3 addition to the climatic differences between these two regions (Santa Catarina and Sierra de1Ajusco) .6 0.7 0. Zamora-Martinez. Sandy-loam texture.8 16.1 0. 1.8 2.2 0.69.

. Reunion Cientifica Forestal y Agropecuaria. Murrieta. Acknowledgements The authors wish to express their gratitude to the Instituto National de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias for its support for this study (catalog number 1. and Cifuentes. Pue. In: Memoria de la IIIa.J. pp.199 1). Gaucher.. Estudio comparative de1 saber traditional de 10s hongos en dos comunidades de la Sierra de1 Ajusco.. 4 13 pp. since 29 different taxa were identified in 800 m2. Mic. 199 1. 1984. M. Tlaxcala.. Evaluation de la production de hongos comestibles silvestres en San Juan Tetla. Limusa. and Zamora-Martinez. Mexico. Campo Experimental Coyoacln. The collection of wild edible mushrooms reports complementary profits to the rural families during the rainy season. Guispert. and Capello.3.. G.M. thanks are due to Alvarado. 19: 253-273. D. alucinantes y destructores de la madera. ( 1990. F. Production de 10s hongos comestibles en ios bosques de Veracruz. Mexico City. 182-l 9 1.3 kg ha. Bandala. G. Mexico. 24 pp. 197 1. since the great majority of these species are mycorrhizal.. Perez-Ramirez.. Mexico. Spain. V.C. 2.. Mexico City.R. Unpublished. G. Temn.. M. Distrito Federal. G. who kindly reviewed this paper before its publication and made valuable suggestions..G. L. Total fungal production in relation to average monthly temperature and rainfall precipitation edible mushroom production of 64. Mexico.M. Ciclo 1992. Nieto de Pascual-Pola /Forest Ecology and Management 72 (199-F) 13-20 19 lC 250 J F M A M J J A S 0 N D” MONTHS - PRECIPITATION 0 PRODUCTION STAND A -+- TEMPERATURE m PRODUCTION STAND B Fig. Guia de colecta y conservation de macromicertos. Marcio A... M. Cifuentes. Universidad National Aut6noma de Mexico. 199 1.J. . Nahuz and David Zavala Zavala. Tratado de pedologia agricola. Barcelona. Facultad de Ciencias. Ediciones Omega. C. Manzola-Cruz. B. Guzmkt. Zamora-Martinez. 452 pp.. 1979. Bol. 0. is high. Sot. Guzman.’ is between the 50 and 350 kg ha-’ estimated interval by Wasterlund and Ingeliig ( 1981) asthe potentially attainable production in a good year for the emergence of fructiferous bodies.MC. B. Mex. References 4. J.G. 1992. Also. Identification de 10s hongos comestibles venenosos. Nava. L.27). and acts as an alternative for global forest exploitation. Villegas. IV Congreso National de Micologla: 69. Mexico.R. Mexico City. Instituto National de Investigaciones Forestales y Agropecuarias. The collection of wild edible mushrooms must be made carefully under forest management programs based upon their ecologic conditions. Conclusions The wild edible mushroom diversity in Topilejo. and Tapia.

A. and Guzman. 26-30 October 1982. Colegio de Postgraduados. Reygadas. Suelos forestales. G.. Mexico. L. L. M. Estudio etnomicologico de la Subcuenca Arroyo El Zorrillo. 1990. 1986b. I. 3: 269294. Facultad de Ciencias...C. Mexico. Mexico. Rev.. 144 pp. Roger Phillips Publisher. Pritchett..20 A4.. and Guzman. 9-l 3 pp. Tesis. Nieto de Pascual. Production de 10s hongos comestibles silvestres en 10sbosques de Mexico II. Evaluation de la produccidn de hongos comestibles (Russula brevipes) en una plantation de pinos en Michoacan. Mex. P. Limusa. and Guzman. Sociedad Mexicana de Micologia.. For. 1986. R. Singer. Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico. Villarreal. 86 pp. R. Con- 72 (1995) 13-20 greso National de Micologia. Sanchez. Villarreal. Ver. T. Mexico. Production de 10s hongos comestibles silvestres en 10sbosques de Mexico I. Villarreal..F. 535 pp. Biotica. Moser. G. Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico. Manage. C. Xalapa. Nieto de Pascual-Pola /Forest Ecology and Management Moreno. Wasterlund. UK. 1982. 1: 51-90. 634 pp. and IngelBg. Mex. 1978. C. In: Memorias de1 ler. W.L.C. Z. 1986a.. Rev. Keys to Agaricus and Boleti.C. Los hongos comestibles: un componente de la productividad de1 bosque en Santa Catarina de1 Monte.F. propiedades. The Agaricales in modern taxonomy.. Mexico. Tesis. Fruit body production of larger fungi in some young Swedish forest with special reference to logging waste. conservacion y mejoramiento. D. Weinheim. Mexico City. Production de 10s hongos comestibles silvestres en 10s bosques de Mexico III. Zamora-Martinez. 1991. 1985. Montecillos Chapingo. 1987. 11: 271-280.. Mexico. 198 1. L.. 9 15 pp. 1962. Mic.. Mic. Mexico City. Facultad de Ciencias. Tesis. Ecol.. Second Edition.G. 2: 259-277. . Mexico City. Mexico. London. 199 pp.. Analisis estructural de las comunidades forestales de la Sierra de1 Ajusco. Germany. G.