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REPORT OF PRESENTATION
SIR FAROOQ AHMAD
MOHSIN ASAF (BSTE-06) BILAL AHMAD (BSTE-06) SYED USMAN GILANI (BSTE-06)
ANTENNA AND ITS PARAMETERS
What is an antenna?
An antenna is a metallic conductor system capable of radiating and receiving electromagnetic waves. Physically, an antenna is an arrangement of conductors that generate a radiating electromagnetic field in response to an applied alternating voltage and the associated alternating electric current, or can be placed in an electromagnetic field so that the field will induce an alternating current in the antenna and a voltage between its terminals. All antennas radiate some energy in all directions in free space but careful construction results in substantial transmission of energy in a preferred direction and negligible energy radiated in other directions. By adding additional elements (such as rods, loops or plates) and carefully arranging their length, spacing, and orientation, an antenna with desired directional properties can be created. An antenna array is two or more simple antennas combined to produce a specific directional radiation pattern. In common usage an array is composed of active elements, such as a linear array of parallel dipoles fed as a "broadside array". A slightly different feed method could cause this same array of dipoles to radiate as an "end-fire array". Antenna arrays may be built up from any basic antenna type, such as dipoles, loops or slots. The directionality of the array is due to the spatial relationships and the electrical feed relationships between individual antennas. Usually all of the elements are active (electrically fed) as in the log-periodic dipole array which offers modest gain and broad bandwidth and is traditionally used for television reception. Alternatively, a superficially similar dipole array, the Yagi-Uda Antenna (often abbreviated to "Yagi"), has only one active dipole element in a chain of parasitic dipole elements, and a very different performance with high gain over a narrow bandwidth. An active element is electrically connected to the antenna terminals leading to the receiver or transmitter, as opposed to a parasitic element that modifies the antenna pattern without being connected directly. The active element(s) couple energy between the electromagnetic wave and the antenna terminals, thus any functioning antenna has at least one active element.
Impedance: As an electro-magnetic wave travels through the different parts of the antenna system (radio, feed line, antenna, free space) it may encounter differences in impedance (E/H, V/I, etc). At each interface, depending on the impedance match, some fraction of the wave's energy will reflect back to the source, forming a standing wave in the feed line. The ratio of maximum power to minimum power in the wave can be measured and is called the standing wave ratio (SWR). A SWR of 1:1 is ideal. A SWR of 1.5:1 is considered to be marginally acceptable in low power applications where power loss is more critical, although an SWR as high as 6:1 may still be usable with the right equipment. Minimizing impedance differences at each interface (impedance matching) will reduce SWR and maximize power transfer through each part of the antenna system. Complex impedance of an antenna is related to the electrical length of the antenna at the wavelength in use. The impedance of an antenna can be matched to the feed line and radio by adjusting the impedance of the feed line, using the feed line as an impedance transformer. More commonly, the impedance is adjusted at the load (see below) with an antenna tuner, a balun, a matching transformer, matching networks composed of inductors and capacitors, or matching sections such as the gamma match.
GAIN: Saving of energy is called the gain of an antenna. Gain depends upon Beam Width G =4 π / Θφ Beam width = Θ = / גּl Maximum amount of energy which our antenna can send in the desired direction is called Gain or Directive gain.
DIRECTIVE GAIN: It is referred to the ratio of the power density radiated in a particular direction to the power density radiated to the same point by a reference antenna (isotropic antenna), assuming both antennas radiate the same power level. Dir(gain)= P/Pref P = power density at some point with a given antenna (W/m2) Pref = power density at the same point with a reference antenna (W/m2)
BEAMWIDTH: Beam width is the angular separation of the half-power points of the radiated pattern. When there 50% energy present this is called 3-db beam width. We consider the beam width in 3-Dimensions.The 1st dimension is for horizontal beamwidth, 2nd is for vertical beam width and 3rd is for the length of beam width.
Bandwidth: The bandwidth of an antenna is the range of frequencies over which it is effective, usually centered on the resonant frequency. The bandwidth of an antenna may be increased by several techniques, including using thicker wires, replacing wires with cages to simulate a thicker wire, tapering antenna components (like in a feed horn), and combining multiple antennas into a single assembly and allowing the natural impedance to select the correct antenna. Small antennas are usually preferred for convenience, but there is a fundamental limit relating bandwidth, size and efficiency.
POLARIZATION: The polarization of an antenna is the orientation of the electric field (Eplane) of the radio wave with respect to the Earth's surface and is determined by the physical structure of the antenna and by its orientation. It has nothing in common with antenna directionality terms: "horizontal", "vertical" and "circular". Thus, a simple straight wire antenna will have one polarization when mounted vertically, and a different polarization when mounted horizontally. "Electromagnetic wave polarization filters" are structures which can be employed to act directly on the electromagnetic wave to filter out wave energy of an undesired polarization and to pass wave energy of a desired polarization. Reflections generally affect polarization. For radio waves the most important reflector is the ionosphere - signals which reflect from it will have their polarization changed unpredictably. For signals which are reflected by the ionosphere, polarization cannot be relied upon. For line-of-sight communications for which polarization can be relied upon, it can make a large difference in signal quality to have the transmitter and receiver using the same polarization; many tens of dB difference is commonly seen and this is more than enough to make the difference between reasonable communication and a broken link. Polarization is largely predictable from antenna construction but, especially in directional antennas, the polarization of side lobes can be quite different from that of the main propagation lobe. For radio antennas, polarization corresponds to the orientation of the radiating element in an antenna. A vertical omni directional Wifi antenna will have vertical polarization (the most common type). An exception is a class of elongated waveguide antennas in which vertically placed antennas are horizontally polarized. Many commercial antennas are marked as to the polarization of their emitted signals. Polarization is the sum of the E-plane orientations over time projected onto an imaginary plane perpendicular to the direction of motion of the radio wave. In the most general case, polarization is elliptical (the projection is oblong), meaning that the antenna varies over time in the polarization of the radio waves it is emitting. Two special cases are linear polarization (the ellipse collapses into a line) and circular polarization (in which the ellipse varies maximally). In linear polarization the antenna compels the electric field of the emitted radio wave to a particular orientation. Depending on the orientation of the antenna mounting, the usual linear cases are horizontal and vertical
polarization. In circular polarization, the antenna continuously varies the electric field of the radio wave through all possible values of its orientation with regard to the Earth's surface. Circular polarizations, like elliptical ones, are classified as right-hand polarized or left-hand polarized using a "thumb in the direction of the propagation" rule. Optical researchers use the same rule of thumb, but pointing it in the direction of the emitter, not in the direction of propagation, and so are opposite to radio engineers' use. In practice, regardless of confusing terminology, it is important that linearly polarized antennas be matched, lest the received signal strength be greatly reduced. So horizontal should be used with horizontal and vertical with vertical. Intermediate matching will lose some signal strength, but not as much as a complete mismatch. Transmitters mounted on vehicles with large motional freedom commonly use circularly polarized antennas so that there will never be a complete mismatch with signals from other sources. In the case of radar, this is often reflections from rain drops.
ANTENNA APERTURE (Aa): It is defined as the area of an antenna which is responsible for transmitting and receiving energy. It is the primary parameter which tells about the performance of antenna. It is always lesser than that of the actual area of an antenna.
Antenna effective area: In telecommunications, antenna effective area or effective aperture is the functionally equivalent area from which an antenna directed toward the source of the received signal gathers or absorbs the energy of an incident electromagnetic wave. Note 1: Antenna effective area is usually expressed in square meters. Note 2: In the case of parabolic and horn-parabolic antennas, the antenna effective area is about 0.35 to 0.55 of the geometric area of the antenna aperture.
Where P0 is the power absorbed by the antenna in watts, and P is the power density incident on the antenna in watts per square meter. It is assumed that the antenna is terminated with a matched load to absorb the maximum power.
Relationship to antenna gain:
The effective area is related to the antenna gain by
Where G is the antenna gain (not in decibels) and λ is the wavelength. Note that G is the antenna gain with respect to the isotropic radiator. This formula can be derived as a consequence of electromagnetic reciprocity which relates the transmit properties of an antenna to the receiving properties. It may not hold if the antenna is made with certain non-reciprocal materials. Like the antenna gain, the effective area varies with direction. If no direction is specified, the direction that produces the maximum gain and maximum effective area is assumed.
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