14 views

Uploaded by Anonymous HWb1Zi5V

- quantum mechanics
- 36386595-Complete-Solutions-to-the-Physics-GRE-PGRE9277.pdf
- Physical Interpretation of Schrodinger's equation
- laser without inversion
- january2012-part1p.pdf
- Squid
- Heisenberg's Uncertainity Principle
- Dirac-Sea
- QPhandout1(2014)
- QFT_MscTheory
- 316s_answer12.pdf
- ps07sol
- P345 F2017 HW6 Solutions
- Chem 373- Particle in a 1-D Box
- Phys115A2014Fall-Discussion1
- fliessbach1976.pdf
- (Ppt) PEPS, Matrix Product Operators and the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz 복사본
- Notes Quantum 7
- Tight binding approximation
- A Method to Calculate Correlation for Density Functional Theory on a Quantum Processor

You are on page 1of 5

This week the Python exercises relate to PH2210, the lecture course in Quantum Mechanics. Using Pythons numerical integration and plotting features the exercises below should

reinforce the concepts of orthogonality and completeness of the normalised wavefunctions.

New Python syntax that will be needed will be introduced in the first lecture of the week:

1

# syntax

#s c i p y . i n t e g r a t e . quad ( func , a , b , a r g s =() )

11

#

#

#

#

f u n c : f u n c t i o n A Python f u n c t i o n o r method t o i n t e g r a t e .

a : Lower l i m i t o f i n t e g r a t i o n ( u s e numpy . i n f f o r i n f i n i t y ) .

b : Upper l i m i t o f i n t e g r a t i o n ( u s e numpy . i n f f o r +i n f i n i t y ) .

a r g s : t u p l e , o p t i o n a l e x t r a arguments t o p a s s

d e f f u n c ( x , n , w) :

r e t u r n nx w

i p r o d , e r r = quad ( func , 0 , 1 , a r g s =(2 ,3) )

16

p r i n t v a l u e = %.3 f % i p r o d , # t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i n t e g r a l o f 2 x 3

between x=0 and x=1

p r i n t e r r o r= {} . format ( e r r ) # t h e n u m e r i c a l u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e i n t e g r a l

#E v a l u a t i n g i n t e g r a l g i v e s 0 . 5 x 4

p r i n t Exact s o l u t i o n = {} . format ( 0 . 5 1 . 0 4 . )

quadsyntax.py

1

from s c i p y . s p e c i a l import h e r m i t e

# This s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n r e t u r n s t h e nth h e r m i t e p o l y n o m i a l h n ( x ) , o r t h o g o n a l

o v e r ( i n f , i n f ) with w e i g t h i n g f u n c t i o n ( exp(x 2 )

s c i p y . s p e c i a l . h e r m i t e ( n ) # r e t u r n s t h e nth p o l y n o m i a l

polynomial c l a s s

# Read t h e poly1d h e l p f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n , but X42x3+4x 0.1 x+7 would

be r e t u r n e d a s

# poly1d [ 1 , 2, 4 , 0.1 , 7 ] , with c o e f f i c e i n t s g i v e n i n d e c r e a s i n g power o f x

hermitesyntax.py

The 1D infinite square well is described by the potential: V = 0 for 0 < x < L, and

= E, in lectures you have obtained the following

V = otherwise. Solving the TISE, H

1

r

nx

2

n (x) =

sin

L

L

(1)

~2 k 2

~2 n2 2

=

(2)

2m

2m L2

We are going to demonstrate various properties of the square well; to numerically calculate

the different integrals (orthogonalities, expectation values, etc.) you will need to set L = 1.

En =

1. Plot separately 3 (x), 4 (x) and the product 3 (x) 4 (x). Show that you would

expect the latter to integrate to zero.

2. Integrate the product 3 (x) 4 (x) between 0 and L to show that 3 and 4 are

orthogonal.

3. Choose four different values of n and m to demonstrate that the wavefunctions are

orthogonal and normalised:

Z L

m

(x) n (x) dx = n,m

0

RL

4. Show that the expectation value hxi = 0 n (x) xn (x) dx = L/2 for states with

quantum number n = 4, 7, and 9.

p

5. Calculate hx2 i and x = hx2 i hxi2 for n = 4, 7, and 100.

6. Demonstrate that as n large, x L/ 12. How does this result compare to the

classical result?

An initial wavefunction in the well is given by

x 3 11 x 2 4 x

A(x) =

+

.

L

7 L

7 L

1. Plot A(x) and confirm that it satisfies the boundary conditions at x = 0 and L.

3. The eigenfunctions for the square well n (x) form a complete set. That is, any function f (x) defined in the same region of space and satisfying the same boundary conRL

P

ditions can be expressed as f (x) = n cn n (x), where cn = 0 n (x) f (x) dx. Taking

f (x) = A(x) and using the wavefunctions n defined above, write a program to calculate the coefficients cn . Show that c1 = 0.353298, c2 = 0.927407, c3 = 0.0130851,

c4 = 0.115926, c5 = 0.00282638, c6 = 0.0343484, and that higher coefficients are much

smaller.

4. Show that

i=

X

|ci |2 = 1.

i=1

5. Show that

i=

X

|ci |2 i2 = 3.849.

i=1

Therefore show that the expectation value for the energy is hEi = 3.849E0 , where E0

is the energy of the ground state.

The wavefunctions in a parabolic potential,

1

1

V (x) = kx2 = m 2 x2

2

2

are given by:

x2

Hn (x/a)

e 2a2 ,

n (x) = p

2n n! a2

where

qHn (x) are the Hermite polynomials encountered in PH2130 and a is a length given by

~

a = m

. The energy of the nth quantum state is En = (n + 12 )~. Note that for the QHO

the ground state is n = 0, whereas in the infinite square well it is n = 1.

1. In Python write the code to generate the Hermite polynomials for arbitrary n. Generate

the normalised wavefunctions tabulated below for n = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4; you will need to

take a=1.

n

n (x)

2

0

1

2

3

4

x2

1

2a

e

4

2

a

2

2 (x/a) x 2

2a

1 (x) =

e

4

a2

2

[4(x/a)2 2] x 2

2a

2 (x) = 22

e

4

a2

2

[8(x/a)3 12(x/a)] x 2

2a

3 (x) =

e

4

4 3 a2

2

[16(x/a)4 48(x/a)2 +12] x 2

2a

4 (x) =

e

4

8 6 a2

0 (x) =

Z

m

(x) n (x) dx = n,m .

Write a simple program to check this integral for the five states above. You will not

be able to integrate to , and you will have to make approximations.

3. Plot the wavefunction n (x) and the probability densities pn (x) = |n (x)|2 for n = 0

to 10, see Figure 1. For clarity the individual traces need to be vertically offset in an

appropriate manner.

Figure 1: The wave functions n (x) and probability densities pn (x) = |n (x)|2 for the lowest energy

states in a quantum harmonic oscillator

RL

4. Demonstrate that the expectation value for the displacement, hxi = L n (x) x n (x) dx,

is zero for a selection of quantum numbers n.

p

5. Calculate hx2 i and x = hx2 i hxi2 for n = 4, 7, and 10. Hence deduce for general

n that hx2 i = 2n+1

. Hence show that the uncertainty in position for the state n (x) is

2

q

x = 2n+1

.

2

6. In a classical description of oscillations in a harmonic potential, x =x0 sin(t), the

average amplitude is hxi = 0 and the rms amplitude is x = x0 / 2. Assuming

that the

classical and quantum calculations yield the same result for x, show that

x0 = 2n + 1.

4

7. Plot the quantum probability densities pn (x) = |n (x)|2 for large n (try 10, 30 and

50). On the same graph, plot the classical probability density pcl (x) derived in lectures

(see below). Comment on your results.

1

pcl (x) = p 2

x0 x2

- quantum mechanicsUploaded bysoumendra ghorai
- 36386595-Complete-Solutions-to-the-Physics-GRE-PGRE9277.pdfUploaded byAbdul Quader
- Physical Interpretation of Schrodinger's equationUploaded byRahmatullah
- laser without inversionUploaded byΘωμάς Σατζουκιδης
- january2012-part1p.pdfUploaded bypusa123
- SquidUploaded byMushfique Hussain
- Heisenberg's Uncertainity PrincipleUploaded bySuhas Bharadwaj
- Dirac-SeaUploaded byHerge Haddock
- QPhandout1(2014)Uploaded byJames Kung
- QFT_MscTheoryUploaded byBasilis Kazazius
- 316s_answer12.pdfUploaded byjisteele
- ps07solUploaded byasmaiqbalcheema
- P345 F2017 HW6 SolutionsUploaded byhuughiej
- Chem 373- Particle in a 1-D BoxUploaded byNuansak3
- Phys115A2014Fall-Discussion1Uploaded bylantea1
- fliessbach1976.pdfUploaded byBabuu Babu
- (Ppt) PEPS, Matrix Product Operators and the Algebraic Bethe Ansatz 복사본Uploaded bySeongsoo Choi
- Notes Quantum 7Uploaded byIgnacio Magaña
- Tight binding approximationUploaded bysayan
- A Method to Calculate Correlation for Density Functional Theory on a Quantum ProcessorUploaded byivi
- M203_2003answersUploaded bypigcowdog
- GATE ECE 1992 (Www.egate.ws)Uploaded byAnonymous JnvCyu85
- 9701180v2[1]Uploaded byBayer Mitrovic
- Lab Report M4Uploaded byessaid
- KNR3183 Tutorial 2 Modelling in the Time Domain_15QUESTIONSUploaded byLing Sieng Yew Alan
- Dobrushin, Warstat - Completely Analytic Interactions With Infinite ValuesUploaded byGiamaico
- Fourier Transform PairsUploaded bySwati
- Variation On The AI EquationUploaded byIan Beardsley
- SVDUploaded byKok Wei Khong
- The Smallest Possible Heat EngineUploaded byllaneroxsolitar

- Deconstructivism.pptxUploaded byJohn Irvin Norberto
- Theory of IO, Sungjun Cho- ResumeUploaded byHandy Praharja
- Training Handbook on Training Programmes Under SHG BLRevised 2013-14FinalUploaded bymkshri_in
- 1st Law of TermodynamicUploaded byKhairul Amir
- PFGIF Version 2.07 Químicos 3MUploaded byTutu Guri
- Verigy MX SignalUploaded byJason Shi
- Determining the Layers of the EarthUploaded byJamie Bagundol
- Dunbar Shultz 2007 Social EvolutionUploaded byImmanuel Greene
- Excerpt From "Toward A More Perfect University" By Jonathan Cole.Uploaded byOnPointRadio
- Antenna Array (Electromagnetic) -The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byMd Irshad Alam
- 9780415889544_previewUploaded byElmejri Hatem
- McKinsey Quarterly Q3 2014Uploaded bykaltsturm
- MintzbergUploaded bydelhadani
- Cyclic Redundancy CheckUploaded byKiran Kumar
- KAUFMAN,J. Identifying and Assessing Creativity...2012 (60-73)Uploaded bya_l_y_n
- PC STR.corrLst52 Steel Moment FrameUploaded byLionel Garcia
- Ug Cbcs Reg13Uploaded bysheglinal
- FormulationUploaded byKunja Bihari Padhi
- whole life wild card artifactUploaded byapi-296513376
- Pengaruh pH Pd HidrolisisUploaded byapi-3706974
- How to Talk So Kids Will Listen and Listen So Kids Will Talk (excerpt)Uploaded bySimon and Schuster
- The Unnaturalistic Enthymeme FigurationUploaded bymartinacebal
- openvmsUploaded byBala Shashidhar
- NetBackup Encryption and Key Management Solutions.pdfUploaded byPhuc Hoang
- DICE_ the Cube That Changes Everything Chapter 123 Online for Free - ManganelUploaded byHari Kurniawan
- Rubric Surreal CollageUploaded bydjmunson
- NanoDrop 1000 User Manual (Micro Spectrometer)Uploaded byalrobles
- Aj 34219223Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- EK4241_chap002Uploaded byNarto
- PhilipBegel_resumeV2.pdfUploaded byPhylis