c Anthony Peirce.
Introductory lecture notes on Partial Differential Equations 
Not to be copied, used, or revised without explicit written permission from the copyright owner.
In this lecture we consider the Fourier Expansions for Even and Odd functions, which give rise to cosine and sine half
range Fourier Expansions. If we are only given values of a function f (x) over half of the range [0, L], we can define two
different extensions of f to the full range [L, L], which yield distinct Fourier Expansions. The even extension gives rise
to a half range cosine series, while the odd extension gives rise to a half range sine series.
Key Concepts: Even and Odd Functions; Half Range Fourier Expansions; Even and Odd Extensions
14.1 Even and Odd Functions
ZL
Z0
f (x) dx =
ZL
f (x) dx +
ZL
=
f (x) dx
(14.1)
f (x) + f (x) dx
(14.2)
RL
f (x) dx f even
(14.3)
f odd.
Notes: Let E(x) represent an even function and O(x) an odd function.
(1) If f (x) = E(x) O(x) then f (x) = E(x)O(x) = E(x)O(x) = f (x) f is odd.
(2) E1 (x) E2 (x) even.
(3) O1 (x) O2 (x) even.
(4) Any function can be expressed as a sum of an even part and an odd part:
1
1
f (x) =
f (x) + f (x) + f (x) f (x) .
2
{z
} 2
{z
}
even part
odd part
(14.4)
2
Check: Let E(x) =
1
1
f (x) + f (x) . Then E(x) = f (x) + f (x) = E(x) even. Similarly let
2
2
1
f (x) f (x)
2
1
O(x) = f (x) f (x) = O(x) odd.
2
O(x) =
(14.5)
(14.6)
1
an =
L
bn =
ZL
1
L
f (x) cos
 {z }
even
nx
L
2
dx =
L
ZL
f (x) cos
nx
L
dx
nx
f (x) sin
dx = 0.

{z L }
odd
(14.7)
(14.8)
Therefore
nx
a0 X
f (x) =
+
an cos
;
2
L
n=1
2
an =
L
ZL
f (x) cos
nx
L
dx.
(14.9)
ZL
L
1
bn =
L
ZL
L
nx
f (x) cos
dx = 0

{z L }
odd
nx
2
dx =
f (x) sin
L
L

{z
}
even
(14.10)
ZL
f (x) sin
0
nx
L
dx
Therefore
f (x) =
X
n=1
bn sin
nx
L
2
bn =
L
ZL
f (x) sin
0
nx
L
dx.
(III) Since any function can be written as the sum of an even and odd part, we can interpret the cos and sin series
as even/odd:
even
odd
f (x) = 1
1
f (x) + f (x) + f (x) f (x)
2 ) (
)
(2
nx
X
X
a0
nx
+
an cos
+
=
bn sin
2
L
L
n=1
n=1
(14.11)
Fourier Series
where
2
an =
L
2
bn =
L
ZL
0
ZL
0
ZL
nx
1
1
f (x) + f (x) cos
dx =
2
L
L
f (x) cos
nx
L
dx
nx
1
1
f (x) f (x) sin
dx =
2
L
L
ZL
f (x) sin
nx
L
dx.
f (x) =
2
an =
L
ZL
f (x) cos
nx
L
(14.12)
dx.
(14.13)
Sine Series:
f (x) =
bn sin
nx
n=1
2
bn =
L
(14.14)
ZL
f (x) sin
nx
L
dx.
(14.15)
Example 14.1 Expand f (x) = x, 0 < x < 2 in a halfrange (a) Sine Series, (b) Cosine Series.
(a) Sine Series: (L=2)
2
bn =
L
ZL
f (t) sin
0
Z2
t sin
=
0
n
t dt
`
(14.16)
n
t dt
2
(14.17)
2
Z2
t cos n
t
2
n
2
= n +
cos
t dt
n
2
2
0
4
cos(n) +
n
4
= (1)n
n
=
2
n
2
sin
n 2
t
2
0
(14.18)
(14.19)
(14.20)
Therefore
f (t) =
n
4 X (1)n+1
sin
t .
n=1
n
2
(14.21)
f (1) = 1 =
therefore
n
4 X (1)n+1
sin
n=1
n
2
1 1 1
= 1 + +
4
3 5 7
(14.22)
(14.23)
2
a0 =
2
Z2
Z2
an =
0
2
t2
t dt = = 2
2 0
n
t cos
t dt =
2
=+
2
n
(14.24)
2
n
Z2
n 2
2
n
t sin
%
t
sin
t dt
2 0
n
2
2
n
4
cos
t = 2 2 {cos n 1}
2
n
(14.25)
Therefore
f (t) = 1 +
=1
4 X (1)n 1
n
cos
t
2 n=1
n2
2
(14.26)
8 X
(2n + 1)
cos
t/(2n + 1)2 .
2 n=0
2
(14.27)
f (2) = 2 = 1 +
8 X
1
2 n=0 (2n + 1)2
2
1
1
= 1 + 2 + 2 +
8
3
5
Example 14.2 Periodic Extension: Assume that f (x) = x, 0 < x < 2 represents one full period of the function so
that f (x + 2) = f (x). 2L = 2 L = 1.
1
a0 =
L
ZL
Z1
f (x) dx =
Z2
f (x) dx =
2
x2
x dx =
=2
2 0
since f (x + 2) = f (2).
(14.28)
(14.29)
Fourier Series
n 1:
ZL
1
an =
L
f (x) cos
nx
L
Z1
dx =
f (x) cos(nx) dx
L=1
Z2
=
x cos(nx) dx
0
%
Z2
2
x
sin(nx)
1
=
sin(nx) dx
n
n
&
0
0
2
1
1
=
cos(nx) =
cos(2n) 1 = 0
2
2
(n)
(n)
0
L
Z
Z1
nx
1
bn =
f (x) sin
dx = f (x) sin(nx) dx
L
L
L
Z2
=
0
(14.30)
Z2
2
cos(nx)
1
cos(nx) dx
x sin(nx) dx = x
+
n
(n)
&
0
2
2
sin(nx)
2
=
+
=
n
(n)2 &
n
0
(14.31)
Therefore
2
2 X sin(nx)
f (x) =
2 n=1
n
=1
(14.32)
2 X sin(nx)
n=1
n
1
S(x)1
S(x)
(14.33)
1
0
1
4
0
1
0
x
2
4
NP
=20
n=1
NP
=20
n=1
0
x
sin(nx)
n
sin(nx)
n