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Lithology Description

Top Determination Based on Lithology,

Seismic, & Log Characteristic

Age & Depositional


Petroleum System

Drilling Hazard & Mitigation


Interbedded sequence of sands and volcanic tuffs with minor sandstone, siltstone,
claystone, and lignite beds.
Sandstone are generally loose, clear, glassy quartz, medium to coarse grained, noncalcareous, with occasional green tuffaceous matrix, lithic inclusions, silica nodules, and
traces of pyrite. Iron staining is common. There is very good visual porosity and
permeability. Up to 20% of the grains are very coarse, angular, euhedral to subhedral
quartz crystals. Quartz fragments occurred throughout, occasionally concentrated into
discrete thin beds.
Tuffs are generally light green to medium grey-green, soft and waxy, amorphous and
massive. Slight iron staining occurs throughout and there are occasional ferruginous
Siltstone are medium to dark grey brown, occasionally light green, tuffaceous, granular,
and rarely calcareous. The siltstone are friable to firm and commonly contain volcanic

Kasai is outcropping at the surface. Spread

of the formation at the surface already
recorded in regional geology map from

Kasai is Plio-Pleistocene in
age and represents
predominantly terrestrial
deposition with substantial
volcanic influence.

Overburden rock

Mud rings, bit balling, possible

shallow gas.


Interbedded sequence of sandstone, siltstone, and clay with numerous developed coals.
There were also rare thin dolomite stringers within the claystone.
Sandstone are light brown, occasionally light grey, very fine grained, friable to moderately
firm, well sorted, carbonaceous and non-calcareous with occasional trace of pyrite, poor
visual porosity.
Siltstone are brown to dark brown, very carbonaceous with laminations of coaly material
and associated amber, firm, blocky, and gritty.
Claystone are light to medium grey or light to medium brown, firm & blocky but
occasionally soft and plastic. The claystone contain thin dolomite stringers which are buff
to tan to orange brown, micro-crystalline, commonly very silty, occasionally sucrosic, hard
and blocky.
Coals are black to dark brown, lignitic in part, occasionally silty and granular, and contain
sandstone micro-laminations, firm to moderately hard, locally very brittle, and commonly
contain amber. The coal beds range from 1 to 100 ft and there are 5 thickest coal beds
(Mangus, Suban, Petai, Merapi, Kladi Coal).

Top of Muara Enim Formation is marked

with first sandstone which not contain
volcanic material, absence of green tuff
and very coarse glass quartz.
The sandstone are more compacted than
Kasai sandstone and were very fine to
medium grained.
First real coal which did not have brown
woody lignitic appearance. Real coal is 510 ft coal thick.

Muara Enim is late Miocene

to Pliocene in age and
represents shallow marine,
littoral to sub-littoral,
shallow neritic and paralic
deposit of later stages of
regressive cycle.

Overburden rock for

Baturaja reef
carbonate play but
act as reservoir for
Miocene sandstone

Instability and losses due to the

coal bed, and slightly reactive


Interbedded sequence of sandstone and claystone with minor siltstone and occasional thin
dolomite stringers.
Sandstone are white to light grey and light brown, very fine to fine grained, firm to
moderately hard, occasionally loose, well sorted, calcareous cement, silty, carbonaceous,
abundant large inclusions of dark green glauconite and pyrite, good porosity and fair
Claystone are light to medium grey and grey brown, firm to moderately hard, blocky,
occasionally sub-fissile, non to moderately calcareous, commonly silty with carbonaceous
and micaceous inclusions.
Siltstone are not common and were generally gradational from very fine sandstone,
medium to dark brown, firm, very carbonaceous with common laminations and striations,
non to slightly calcareous.
Mainly claystone and shale with minor interbedded sandstone and limestone.
Claystone are light to medium grey, light to medium brown and with depth occasionally
dark grey brown. They are silty, calcareous, argillaceous, locally grading to siltstone or
marl, firm to hard, blocky, rarely sub-fissile, predominantly massive near the top, becoming
very silty with depth, foraminifera are abundant and are locally recrystallized with calcite
or pyrite.
Sandstone are very light grey to medium brown, rarely white, very fina to medium, friable
to hard, with a silty, argillaceous, calcareous, carbonaceous matrix. There are abundant
carbonaceous laminations and traces of pyrite, glauconite, and assorted planktonic
foraminifera, poor visible porosity.
Limestone are light buff to transluscent, medium brown, micro-crystalline mudstone,

Top of Air Benakat is marked with

glauconitic, calcareous, pyritic sandstone
which lies under the last thick coal (Kladi
Coal of Muara Enim).
Rather slow rate of drilling rate.

Air Benakat is Middle to

Upper Miocene in age and
was deposited in various
shallow marine environment
at the beginning of a
regressive depositional cycle.

Overburden rock for

Baturaja reef
carbonate play but
act as reservoir for
Miocene sandstone

Slightly reactive clays.

Hard to pick top of Gumai from logs.

Tops derived from paleo analysis marked
by the first consistent appearance of
planktonic foraminifera which determine
as N9 foram zone. Predominantly
claystone and sandstone become non to
poorly glauconite. Air Benakat to Gumai
is gradational conformity. Paleo boundary
placed just right below the first limestone
or of Air Benakat.
First appearance of orbulina and

Gumai is Early to Middle

Miocene outer neritic marine
deposit, formed during the
time of maximum marine

Effective seal rock

for Baturaja reef
carbonate play and
older formation but
act as reservoir for
Miocene sandstone
reservoir. Possible
source rock for itself
and younger
reservoir rock play
(Gumai, Muara

Moderately reactive clays,

shales, overpressure and high




locally fibrous, dense, soft to hard, brittle and blocky.

Dolomite are usually orange brown, hard, dense, blocky and very silty, planktonic
foraminifera are locally abundant.
Occasionally marly, partially crystalline off-reef limestone with some sandstone and
siltstone beds towards the base.
Limestone are white, buff, light brown to brown, light to medium grey, hard, dense,
microcrystalline, sucrosic, mudstone to wackestone, commonly with trace of calcite veins
and calcite infill. The limestone are occasionally pyritic, rarely carbonaceous, and
commonly glauconitic towards the base. Microfossils and occasional macrofossil remnants
are common.
Sandstone are brown to dark brown, very fine grained, silty, slightly calcareous, well
sorted, well cemented, firm to moderately hard, blocky, very carbonaceous and rarely
Siltstone are medium to dark brown, sandy, non-calcareous to slightly calcareous and
carbonaceous, firm to moderately hard, generally blocky but occasionally subfissile and
have a trace of pyrite.

Interbedded sandstone and siltstone with minor shale interbedded, limestone and coal.
Sandstone are clear to light grey, fine to medium, locally coarse grained, argillaceous,
moderately sorted and subrounded to angular, silty and slight to very calcareous.
Shale are dark brown to brown black, moderately hard to hard, fissile, non to slightly
calcareous and generally very carbonaceous.
Coals are very thin about 1 to 2 ft beds, occurred mainly in the basal section of the
Talangakar, hard, black, brittle, blocky with conchoidal fracture, vitreous, occasionally
moderately hard and lignitic.


Consist of altered fine grained sericitic tuffs and clay with embedded pebble sized volcanic


Metamorphic sequence consisting of mainly phyllite and slate with occasional low grade
schist and quartzite.
The phyllite is silver grey, very micaceous, soft and flaky, occasionally grading into finely
laminated, siliceous, low grade schist with fine to medium grained texture and dark grey
slate with well-developed cleavage. Quartzite occurs and transparent to milky white and
contains very coarse quartz fragment with welded grain boundaries.

globigerina should be noted as top of

Basal Gumai consist of siltstone, shale,
and limestone stringer which extremely
carbonaceous could be marker for Baturaja
top. Top of Baturaja lies directly after the
basal of Gumai. From electric logs this
transition zone was also apparent, it
appeared as a gradational zone that was
tight and limey with increasing
resistivities, when the LDL-CNL zeroed
out on massive limestone, and the sonic
showed a steady line this was taken as top
of Baturaja.
All of the limestone stringers drilled
throughout Gumai displayed fairly
common dull yellow to dull orange
mineral fluorescence. On drilling the top
of Baturaja this fluorescence is totally
absence and reappear 100 ft within BRF.
Baturaja also drilled at slower rate
compare to Gumai.
Top of Talangakar is taken as Pendopo
Shale. This comes in initially as a series of
thin shales interbedded with limestone and
then develops into 50-60 ft thick shale. It
is dark brown with abundant pyrite and
occasional forams. As opposed to the
claystone above the Baturaja, it is non
calcareous. The top of Talangakar is not
placed at the first sign of shale but where
the shale become well developed and

The top of Lahat is marked with the

presence of tuffaceous clay and coarse
quartz fragment.
Top of basement is marked with the
presence of mica flakes in the sample
cutting, and abundant of orthoclase,
plagioclase, biotite, and chlorite.
The boundary is easy to spot on electric
logs, the resistivity showed unusually high
consistent values.

Enim, & Air

Baturaja is Early Miocene
Age. It is deposited in a
shallow marine carbonate
platform environment, with
foraminiferal sand shoals,
near-reef, channel and bar

Reservoir for
Baturaja reef
carbonate play.

Losses, different pressure

regime, rough drilling, high

Talangakar was deposited in

a continental to marine
environment during
Oligocene and Early
Miocene. The Talangakar
can be divided into two
section: the basal part is
indicative of a near shore, at
times swampy environment.
The numerous thin coals and
more carbonaceous shales are
evidence of fresh water
influence. The upper part is
more marinal section which
less coals, more calcareous,
limestone stringers are
Lahat is a Late Eocene to
Early Oligocene terrestrial
Pre-Tertiery basement which
consist of igneous, metamorf,
metasediment, and sediment.

Effective source
rock for Baturaja
reef carbonate play.
Reservoir and seal
rock for Talangakar
and Lahat Play.

Different pressure regime,

rough drilling, and high

Effective source
rock for Baturaja
reef carbonate play.
Underburden rock
for Baturaja reef
carbonate play.

High temperatures & rough

Rough drilling.