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m=

= 0.0582

40

0.0582

Nm

= 1.1212

Fr = 0.14

Therefore, power P = N P N 3D 5A N m

Fr

kg rev3

m5

3

m sec

= 607.24 W

= 0.61 kW (0.81 hp)

Studies on various turbine agitators have shown that geometric

ratios that vary from the standard design can cause different effects

on the Power number NP in the turbulent regions [24].

For the flat, six-blade open turbine, NP (W/DA)1.0.

For the flat, six-blade open turbine, varying DA/DT from 0.25 to

0.5 has no effect on NP.

When two six-blade open turbines are installed on the same shaft

and the spacing between the two impellers (vertical distance

between the bottom edges of the two turbines) is at least equal

to DA, the total power is 1.9 times a single flat-blade impeller.

For two six-blade pitched-blade (45) turbines, the power is about

1.9 times that of a single pitched-blade impeller.

A baffled, vertical square tank or a horizontal cylindrical tank has

the same Power number as a vertical cylindrical tank.

The calculation of power requirements for agitation is only a part

of the mixer design. In any mixing problem, there are several defined

objectives such as the time required for blending two immiscible

liquids, rates of heat transfer from a heated jacket per unit volume of

the agitated liquid, and mass transfer rate from gas bubbles dispersed

by agitation in a liquid. For all these objectives, the process results

are to achieve the optimum mixing and uniform blending.

32

mixing of fluids

namely geometric dimensions, stirrer speed (rpm), agitator power, and

physical properties of the fluid (e.g., density, viscosity, and surface

tension) or their dimensionsless combinations (e.g., the Reynolds

number, Froude number, and Weber number, N2D3A/). Sometimes,

empirical relationships are established to relate process results and

agitation parameters. Often, however, such relationships are nonexistent. Laboratory scales of equipment using the same materials as

on a large scale are then experimented with, and the desired process

result is obtained. The laboratory system can then be scaled-up to

predict the conditions on the larger system.

For some scale-up problems, generalized correlations as shown in

Figures 8-11, 8-12, 8-13, and 8-14 are available for scale-up. However,

there is much diversity in the process to be scaled-up, and as such no

single method can successfully handle all types of scale-up problems.

Various methods of scale-up have been proposed; all based on

geometric similarity between the laboratory equipment and the fullscale plant. It is not always possible to have the large and small vessels

geometrically similar, although it is perhaps the simplest to attain. If

geometric similarity is achievable, dynamic and kinematic similarity

cannot often be predicted at the same time. For these reasons, experience and judgment are relied on with aspects to scale-up.

The main objectives in a fluid agitation process are [25]:

Equivalent liquid motion (e.g., liquid blending where the liquid

motion or corresponding velocities are approximately the same in

both cases).

Equivalent suspension of solids, where the levels of suspension

are identical.

Equivalent rates of mass transfer, where mass transfer is occurring

between a liquid and a solid phase, between liquid-liquid phases,

or between gas and liquid phases, and the rates are identical.

A scale ratio R is used for scale-up from the standard configuration

as shown in Table 8-2. The procedure is:

1. Determine the scale-up ratio R, assuming that the original vessel

is a standard cylinder with DT1 = H1. The volume V1 is

V1 =

D 2T1

D3T1

H1 =

4

4

(8-35)

33

mixing of fluids

V2

D3T 2 4

D3

=

= T3 2

3

V1

D T1 4

D T1

(8-36)

1

R=

DT2

D T1

V 3

= T2

VT1

(8-37)

geometric sizes. That is,

DA2 = RDA1, J2 = RJ1, W2 = RW1

E2 = RE1, L2 = RL1, H2 = RH1

or

R=

D A 2 D T 2 W2 H 2 J 2 E 2

=

=

=

=

=

D A1 D T1 W1 H1

J1

E1

speed N2 from the equation:

D

1 n

N 2 = N1 = N1 T1

R

DT2

(8-38)

n = 3/4 for equal suspension of solids

n = 2/3 for equal rates of mass transfer (corresponding equivalent

power per unit volume, which results in equivalent interfacial

area per unit volume)

The value of n is based on theoretical and empirical considerations and depends on the type of agitation problem.

3. Knowing the value of N2, the required power can be determined

using Equation 8-17 and the generalized Power number correlation.

34

mixing of fluids

and a constant ratio of circulating capacity to head Q/h.

Since P N3D5A and V D3A then

P

N 3D 2A

V

(8-39)

similar tanks and same liquid properties, the following equations can

be applied:

N1DA1 = N2DA2

For a constant tip speed,

N2

D

= A1

N1 D A 2

(8-40)

N13 D 2A1 = N 32 D 2A 2

(8-41)

Example 8-3

Scraper blades set to rotate at 35 rpm are used for a pilot plant

addition of liquid ingredients into a body-wash product. What should

the speed of the blades be in a full-scale plant, if the pilot and the

full-scale plants are geometrically similar in design? Assume scaleup is based on constant tip speed, diameter of the pilot plant scraper

blades is 0.6 m, and diameter of the full-scale plant scraper blades

is 8 ft.

Solution

The diameter of the full scale plant scraper blades = 8.0 0.3048

= 2.4384 m (2.4 m).

Assuming constant tip speed,

N2

D

= A1

N1 D A 2

(9-42)

35

mixing of fluids

where N1

N2

DA1

DA2

N2 =

=

=

=

=

=

scraper speed of full-scale plant

diameter of pilot plant scraper blades

diameter of full-scale plant scraper blades

N1 D A1

DA2

(35) (0.6)

(2.4)

= 8.75 rpm

Example 8-4

identical particle size) are added to the product via a mixer. In the

pilot plant, this mixer runs at 6,700 rpm and has a diameter head of

0.035 m. Full-scale production is geometrically similar and has a mixer

head diameter of 0.12 m. Determine the speed of the full-scale production mixer head. What additional information is required for the motor

to drive this mixer? Assume that power curves are available for this

mixer design, and the scale-up basis is constant power/unit volume.

Solution

For constant power per unit volume, Equation 8-39 is applied: P/V

N3D2A or N13D2A1 = N23D2A2. Therefore,

D

N 2 = N1 A1

DA2

23

DA1 = 0.035 m

DA2 = 0.12 m

0.035

N 2 = 6, 700

0.12

36

23

mixing of fluids

N2 = 2,946.7 rpm

N2 2,950 rpm

The power required for mixing is P = NpN3D5A, where the Power

number (NP) is a function of the Reynolds number [i.e., NP = f(NRe)]:

N Re =

ND 2A

The plant must be provided with the viscosity of the product and its

density after addition of the pigments.

Example 8-5

A turbine agitator with six flat blades and a disk has a diameter of

0.203 m. It is used in a tank with a diameter of 0.61 m and height of

0.61 m. The width is W = 0.0405 m. Four baffles are used with a

width of 0.051 m. The turbine operates at 275 rpm in a liquid having

a density of 909 kg/m3 and viscosity of 0.02 Pas.

Calculate the kW power of the turbine and kW/m3 of volume. Scale

up this system to a vessel whose volume is four times as large, for

the case of equal mass transfer rate.

Solution

The Reynolds number for mixing is NRe. The number of revolutions

per sec, N = 275/60 = 4.58 rev/sec.

N Re =

=

ND 2A

m

3

0.02

sec

kg

= 8, 578.1

NRe 8,600

37

mixing of fluids

590

power of the turbine P = NpN3D5A:

kg rev3

m5

P = (6.0)(909)(4.583)(0.2035) 3

3

m sec

= 0.1806 kW (0.24 hp)

The original tank volume V1 = D3T1/4. The tank diameter DT1 = 0.61:

V1 =

( )(0.61)3

4

V1 = 0.178m3

The power per unit volume is P/V

P

0.1806

=

V

0.178

= 1.014 kW/m 3

R=

V2 D3T 2 4

D3T 2

=

=

D3T1 4

V1

D3T1

1

V 3

D

R = 2 = T2

D T1

V1

where V2 = 4V1

V2 = 4 (0.178)

= 0.712 m 3

1

R = ( 4) 3 = 1.587

38

(8-37)

mixing of fluids

DA2 = RDA1 = 1.587 0.203 = 0.322 m

DT2 = RDT1 = 1.587 0.61 = 0.968 m

For equal mass transfer rate n = 2/3.

2

1 3

N 2 = N1

R

(8-38)

1 3

= 4.58

1.587

= 3.37 rev/sec

The Reynolds number NRe is

N Re =

N 2 D 2A 2

m

3

0.02

sec

kg

= 15,880.9

NRe 16,000

Using curve 6 in Figure 8-14, NP = 6.0. Power required by the

agitator is P2 = NpN23D5A2

P2 = (6.0)(909)(3.37)3 (0.322)5

kg rev3

m5

3

3

sec

m

P2 = 722.57 W

= 0.723 kW (0.97 hp)

39

mixing of fluids

P2

0.723

=

V2

0.712

= 1.015 kW/m3

MIXING TIME SCALE-UP

Predicting the time for obtaining concentration uniformity in a batch

mixing operation can be based on model theory. Using the appropriate

dimensionless groups of the pertinent variables, a relationship can be

developed between mixing times in the model and large-scale systems

for geometrically similar equipment.

Consider the mixing in both small and large-scale systems to occur

in the turbulent region, designated as S and L respectively. Using the

Norwood and Metzners correlation [26], the mixing time for both

systems is

t S ( N SD 2AS )

23 16

g D1AS2

H1S 2 D3TS2

t L ( N L D 2AL )

23 16

g D1AL2

H1L 2 D3TL2

(8-43)

Equation 8-43, yields

2

N L 3 D TL 2 D AS 3 D AS 2 H L 2

=

NS

D TS D AL D AL H S

(8-44)

HL

D

= AL

HS

D AS

(8-45)

D TL

D

= AL

D TS

D AS

(8-46)

40

mixing of fluids

2

N L 3 D AL 2 D AS 3 D AS 2 D AL 2

=

NS

D AS D AL D AL D AS

2

(8-47)

NL 3

D AL 6

NS

D AS

or

1

NL

D AL 4

NS

D AS

(8-48)

The power P of the agitator for both large and small systems is

PL

3 5

N L D AL

PS

N S3 D 5AS

(8-49)

where

3

PL N L D AL

=

PS N S D AS

(8-50)

PL D AL

=

PS D AS

0.75

PL D AL

=

PS D AS

5.75

D AL

D AS

(8-51)

or

(8-52)

41

mixing of fluids

The power per unit volume P/V for both large- and small-scale

systems is:

PL VL

=

PS VS

PL

PS

P

= L

PS

D3TL

4

D3TS

4

D

TS

D TL

(8-53)

( P V)L

( P V )S

D

= AL

D AS

D

= AL

D AS

5.75

D AS

D AL

2.75

(8-54)

size on the rotational speed needed for the same mixing time by

various investigators.

The relationships in Table 8-7 show that the rotational speed to

obtain the same batch mixing time is changed by a small power of

the increase in linear equipment dimension as equipment size is

changed. Equation 8-49 shows that greater power is required for a

large-scale system compared to a smaller system. Often, the power

required for a larger system may be prohibitive, thus modification

of the scale-up rule is needed (e.g., t L = 10t S or t L = 100t S) to

obtain a lower power requirement. It should be noted that relaxation of mixing time requirements may not pose other problems. For

example, if the mixing is accompanied by a chemical reaction in a

CSTR, assuming that the Norwood-Metzner [26] correlation for mixing

time (t) is still applicable, it must be ensured that the mixing time in

the larger scale (tL = 10tS or tL = 100tS) is less than 5% of the average

residence time of the liquids in the reactor, otherwise the conversion

42

Propellers

Turbines

N D1/5

N D1/4

Zero

Zero

Zero

Not zero

Not zero

N1Re6 ND 2

0.3

0.25

46 16

C1Z1L 2 T

2 2

Q D N

V gZ L

ND 2 p D 2 N 2

V gZ L

Equation

=9

Source: Gray, J. B., Mixing I Theory and Practice, V. W. Uhl and J. B. Gray, Eds. Academic Press Inc., 1966.

N = constant

Paddles, turbines

N D0.1 to

0.2

Propellers, no baffles

Equipment

N D1/6

Relationship

between N and D

van de Vusse(17)

Investigator

Table 8-7

abler

Ef

Effect

fect of equipment size on rotational speed needed for the same mixing time

mixing of fluids

43

mixing of fluids

The power per unit volume P/V for both large- and small-scale

systems is:

PL VL

=

PS VS

PL

PS

P

= L

PS

D3TL

4

D3TS

4

D

TS

D TL

(8-53)

( P V)L

( P V )S

D

= AL

D AS

D

= AL

D AS

5.75

D AS

D AL

2.75

(8-54)

size on the rotational speed needed for the same mixing time by

various investigators.

The relationships in Table 8-7 show that the rotational speed to

obtain the same batch mixing time is changed by a small power of

the increase in linear equipment dimension as equipment size is

changed. Equation 8-49 shows that greater power is required for a

large-scale system compared to a smaller system. Often, the power

required for a larger system may be prohibitive, thus modification

of the scale-up rule is needed (e.g., t L = 10t S or t L = 100t S) to

obtain a lower power requirement. It should be noted that relaxation of mixing time requirements may not pose other problems. For

example, if the mixing is accompanied by a chemical reaction in a

CSTR, assuming that the Norwood-Metzner [26] correlation for mixing

time (t) is still applicable, it must be ensured that the mixing time in

the larger scale (tL = 10tS or tL = 100tS) is less than 5% of the average

residence time of the liquids in the reactor, otherwise the conversion

44

mixing of fluids

the geometry is different, special and specific analyses of the system

are required.

Samant and Ng [28] compared various scale-up rules for agitated

reactors. They suggested that a scale-up rule of power per unit volume

and constant average residence time (where the power per unit volume

and average residence time cannot be increased) is the most suited in

many operations. However, this still may not improve or preserve the

performance of the systems. Therefore, adequate consideration must

be given to a tradeoff between performance and operating constraints.

REFERENCES

2. Levenspiel, O., Chemical Reaction Engineering, 3rd ed., John

Wiley & Sons, New York 1999.

3. Penny, W. R., Guide to trouble free mixers, Chem. Eng., 77 (12),

171, 1970.

4. Holland, F. A. and Chapman, F. S., Liquid Mixing and Processing

in Stirred Tanks, Reinhold, New York, 1966.

5. Myers, K. J., Reeder, M., and Bakker, A., Agitating for success,

The Chemical Engineer, pp. 3942, 1996.

45

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