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Theatre or theater - is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers,

typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event

before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage. The performers may
communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech,
song, music, and dance. Elements of art, such as painted scenery and stagecraft such
as lighting are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the
experience. The specific place of the performance is also named by the word "theatre"
as derived from the Ancient Greek (thatron, "a place for viewing"), itself from
(theomai, "to see", "to watch", "to observe").


1. DRAMA- is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term
comes from a Greek word meaning "action", which is derived from the verb "to
do" or "to act". The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on
a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production and
a collective form of reception.
2. MUSICAL THEATRE- is a form of theatre that also combines music, spoken
dialogue, and dance. Music and theatre have had a close relationship since
ancient times Athenian tragedy, for example, was a form of dance-drama that
employed a chorus whose parts were sung (to the accompaniment of an aulos
an instrument comparable to the modern clarinet), as were some of the actors'
responses and their 'solo songs' (monodies).
3. DANCE- is another major genre of theater arts, allowing the performers to use
their bodies as the medium to express their art. Dance performance comes in
many different forms, from the re-enactment of famous choreographed ballets to
highly competitive ballroom dance tournaments. Dance performance may include
individual routines by solo dancers, or collaborative dances that require several
or even dozens of dancers sharing the stage at once.

The Basic Elements of Theatre

Script/Text, Scenario, Plan
This is the starting point of the theatrical performance. The element most
often considered as the domain of the playwright in theatre. The playwrights
script is the text by which theatre is created. It can be simplistic, as in the
16th century, with the scenarios used by the acting troupes of the Commedia
dell arte, or it can be elaborate, such as the works of William Shakespeare.
The script, scenario, or plan is what the director uses as a blue print to build a
production from.

The Process
This is the coordination of the creative efforts usually headed up in theatre by
the director. It is the pure process by which the playwrights work is brought to
realization by the director, actors, designers, technicians, dancers, musicians,
and any other collaborators that come together on the script, scenario, or
plan. This is the works in progress stage.
The Product
This is the end result of the process of work involved. The final product that
results from all of the labors coming together to complete the finished work of
script, scenario, and plan, in union with all of the collaborators in the process
to create the final product. This is what the audience will witness as they sit in
the theatre and view the work.
The Audience
Theatre requires an audience. For all of the arts public is essential. The
physical presence of an audience can change a performance, inspire actors,
and create expectations. Theatre is a living breathing art form. The presence
of live actors on the stage in front of live audiences sets it apart from modern
day films and television.

Theatre: a space where a performance takes place, in effect a large machine in the
form of a building that is specialized for presenting performances.
Stage types:
Proscenium stage:
A proscenium theatre is what we usually think of as a "theatre". Its primary
feature is the Proscenium, a "picture frame" placed around the front of the
playing area of an end stage. The frame is the Proscenium; the wings are spaces
on either side, extending off-stage. Scenery can surround the acting area on all
sides except side towards audience, who watch the play through picture frame
opening. "Backstage" is any space around the acting area which is out of sight of
the audience.
Thrust theatre:
A Stage surrounded by audience on three sides. The Fourth side serves as the
background.In a typical modern arrangement: the stage is often a square or
rectangular playing area, usually raised, surrounded by raked seating. Other
shapes are possible; Shakespeare's Globe Theatre was a five-sided thrust stage.

End Stage:
A Thrust stage extended wall to wall, like a thrust stage with audience on just one
side, i.e. the front. "Backstage" is behind the background wall. There is no real
wingspace to the sides, although there may be entrances located there. An
example of a modern end stage is a music hall, where the background walls
surround the playing space on three sides. Like a thrust stage, scenery serves
primarily as background, rather than surrounding the acting space.
Arena Theatre:
A central stage surrounded by audience on all sides. The stage area is often
raised to improve sightlines.
Flexible theatre:
Sometimes called a "Black Box" theatre, these stages are often big empty boxes
painted black inside. Stage and seating not fixed. Instead, each can be altered to
suit the needs of the play or the whim of the director.
Profile Theatres:
Often used in "found space" theatres, i.e. theatres made by converted from other
spaces. The Audience is often placed on risers to either side of the playing
space, with little or no audience on either end of the "stage". Actors are staged in
profile to the audience. It is often the most workable option for long, narrow
spaces like "store fronts". Scenically, a profile theatre is most like an arena stage;
some staging as background is possible at ends, which are essentially sides. A
non-theatrical form of the profile stage is a basketball arena, if no-one is seated
behind the hoops.
Sports Arenas:
Sports arenas often serve as venues for Music Concerts. In form they resemble
very large arena stage (more accurately the arena stage resembles a sports
arena), but with a retangular floorplan. When used for concert, a temporary stage
area often is set up as an end stage at one end of the floor, and the rest of the
floor and the stands become the audience. Arenas have their own terminology;
see below.


Cinema is a short form for cinematograph(er). It is the technique of projecting

photograms in a fast and successive way to create the sense of movement

Types of cinema
Animation film
Is that in which they are used predominantly animation techniques. The actual
film image recorded real images on the move, breaking it down into a discrete
number of frames per second.
Documental film
Is the basing his work on images taken from reality. Usually mistaken for
documentary reportage, the first being eminently one, closely linked to the origins
of cinema film genre, and the second a television genre.
Independent film
Is one that has been produced without the initial support of a studio or production
of commercial cinema. The film industry may be copyright or not, while it is
almost independent film ever.
Experimental film
Is one that uses a means of more artistic expression, forgetting the classic visual
language, breaking the barriers of narrative cinema strictly structured and use the
resources to express and suggest emotions, experiences, feelings, using plastic
or rhythmic effects, linked to image processing or sound.
Environmental film
The film has not only contacted the man with nature in many cases, but has also
been, and still occasionally active militant in the struggle for environmental

The Origin of Cinema

Cinema was made possible thanks to the invention of the cinematograph by the
Lumire Brothers in the end of the 19th century (on December 28, 1895), in the
basement lounge of the Grand Caf on the Boulevard des Capucines in Paris.
cinematographer - 1985 (front and side views)

They accomplished the first public cinema exhibition: a series of ten films, with a
duration from 40 to 50 seconds each, since the film rolls had fifteen meters
Until today, titles like The arrival of the train at the Station", or Leaving the
Lumire factories, which were first presented in this early cinema session by the
Lumire, are still famous.
For 30 years, cinema was made without the use of sound, and it became one of
the biggest arts of the new century.
The exhibitions of the first films in theaters, operas or fairs were invariably
accompanied by live music and captions.

Who makes cinema?

In cinema, an actor is the person who creates, interprets and role plays a
dramatic action based on texts, visual, sound and other effects, previously
created by an author or producer.
The cinema Director is considered, in general terms, the creator of the
cinematographic work. Although his role varies from one to another film director,
strategies, method, ), the movies director's work is one of supervision and

1. Story, screenplay and dialogues
It is known to all as the story is the basic plot and a raw story which is a brief
extension of an idea, concept or a single line. Whereas screenplay is a visual writing in
other words it is all about how you run your story and how you showcase it. Remember
beautiful lighting, creative camerawork and smooth editing are pointless if the
story/screenplay isnt compelling. Dialogues are part of screenplay which is the part by
part representation of the story. These are building blocks of the film.
2. Director
He is the mega phone holder of the film. He manages and directs all the
departments. What we see in the film is the visionary of his creativity. The director is the
head of the film unit. He has to know what he wants from all other departments. One
who blends and uses all the elements effectively comes out as a successful director.
The director should visualize the script in the perceptive of a camera keeping the
audience in mind along the usage of all other films, satisfying all of them and finally

getting what he wants. He has to be technically strong as well. Direction is the deciding
factor of the film. The director is the ruler of the film.
3. Production values
The combination of all the above elements comes under production. After all one
needs money to use all these and there has to be someone to invest on it. Producers
are the owners of any films. They bear the expenses and take up the film production.
Many production houses passionately produce films. Hence producer is the money
distributor for all the departments. This is the best quote told by Walt Disney, We dont
make movies to make money; we make money to make more movies.
4. Cinematography
Usage of camera, how one captures the frame is what cinematography is all
about. It is all about composing, framing, focusing and continuity in the film. Good
camera usage will work wonders for your film. The imaginative and creative
camerawork will increase the connection between the audience and your story.
Sometimes wacky camera angles give a displeasure feeling as well. Hence the camera
is the view point of the audience. So it is very important of film making which should
show what audience what to see in sync with what director wants to show. Anything
which is one side/one way will not satisfy neither audience nor film maker. The
cinematography is an aesthetic are which speaks by itself through visuals.
5. Music, dubbing and re-recording
Once the film is shot it is the audio which enhances the visual, dubbing, rerecording takes a film to next level. And music, how can we forget it. Till date titanics
My heart will go on is played in our music systems isnt? Hence the recording is the
backbone of the film. The background music given of Pirates of Caribbean -1 is always
been inspirational and elevated the film to the best. The sound has so much power that
it almost gives an audio form of your expression and feelings. Even the old silent films
had very good sound quality. Just go back and watch Charlie Chaplins films and you
will exactly realize how a film works on music.
6. Editing
Editing the assemblage of shots to form a particular sequence is an art form that is
unique to film making. As a film director one should be completely aware about how film
editing works, if he/she is not aware, the film will be a nightmare to edit and will be full of
inconsistencies, jump cuts and many other distracting mistakes.


VFX, CGI and animation

Is there any film without using VFX, CGI etc? Be it Bollywood, Hollywood or any
other. At present most of the films, especially action films are shot in Green mat
technique. Rest is carried forward by the graphics. The recent academy award winner
Life of Pi was entirely shot in a water pool. The tiger was a Computer Generated
Image (CGI) and it looked so natural too. So that is the power of VFX all films solely
depend on them. Iron Man is also part of it. The 3D effect the mind blowing sfx what
not? Not to forget some of the Indian films like Rajinikanths Robo and Eega (Makki)
gave sheer part of prominence to the VFX. Hence they are part of film making
irrespective of any genre. All they need is green screen.
8. Acting
Because a film can never survive on actor or his acting it needs many other
components as a support. If it is a star film it can just get the openings but not the
complete output of the film. None the less a good acting and good screen chemistry
between the lead cast always give goodies to the makers if we look at the present
scenario. Yet acting is the creation of the visionary director actors part is to follow him.
Hence, many small films with new actors win at the box office as well. Therefore, acting
plays a key role in film making where the entire work of film making and the work of
many departments is seen through the actors and their surroundings.
9. Lighting
Light and shadows create mood, draws our attention to a specific area, modifies the
shape and brings out texture in an object. Shadows also create an effect on depth in
the film. Lighting plays a key role and that is why there are so many light boys working
for a film. There are so many types of lighting: Back lighting, side lighting, shadow, etc.
The film Barfi had a rim light (back light) effect throughout the film which added the
visual pleasure to the eyes. Hence lighting decides the movement in a film set. That is
why they say lights, camera and action!
10. Marketing
Film in one word is selling the ideas. The entire cast and crew works on how you
convey the story, idea, message, entertainment etc. After the film production the
publicity and the advertising is what brings the people to the theaters. Some films being
good fail at box-office due to low key publicity and pale advertising of the film. Even with

minimum guarantee content some films get to become potboilers. Hence there has to
be proper planning, call sheet arrangement, cast and crew schedule and the budget
control throughout the process of film making.