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# Objectives

## Student should be able to:

Define fluid
Classify the type of fluid and its physical
behaviors.
Paraphrase examples of fluid system.

CLB 11003
Fluid Mechanics
Chapter 1:
Introduction to Fluid Systems

History

Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes

Newton

Bernoulli

Reynolds

## (C. 287-212 BC)

(1642-1727)

(1667-1748)

(1842-1912)

Navier

Stokes

(1785-1836)

(1819-1903)

What is fluids?
Substance:
In the liquid or gas phase.
That tends to flow and to conform to the
outline of its container
Which deforms continuously under the
action of shearing forces.

## Science that deals with;

behavior of fluids (liquid or gas) at rest
(static) or in motion (dynamics).
Interaction of fluids with solids or other
fluids at the boundaries

Fluid
Fluid

Solid

## Shear stress is proportional

to rate of strain.

## Shear stress is proportional

to strain, providing that the
elastic limit is not exceeded.

## Deforms continuously under Can resist applied shear

action of shearing forces.
stress ( ) by deforming.

Contact area,
A

Shear stress
= F/A

Force in a Fluid
Force, F

Surface force
Force per unit surface area or STRESS

Deformed

rubber

z
x

Shear strain,
(angle of deformation /
angular displacement)

## Deformation of rubber eraser placed between two

parallel plates under the influence of shear force.

Liquid
Liquid

x
y

## Stress in z direction above, normal or

perpendicular to surface is called PRESSURE
x and y coordinate stresses, parallel to surface
are SHEAR STRESS

## Behavior of a fluid in a container

Gas

Almost incompressible.

## Easy to compress - Changes of

gas pressure and volume
accompanied by a change in
temperature

## Given mass of liquid occupies

a fixed volume, irrespective of
the size or shape of its
container.

## Given mass of gas has no fixed

volume, it changes volume to
expand to fill the containing
vessel.

## Free surface is formed if the

volume of the container is
greater than that of the liquid.

## Gas will completely fill the vessel,

so no free surface is formed.

Classification of Fluid

Classification of Fluid

## Newtonian Fluid all fluids in which shear

stress is directly proportional to the
deformation rate / rate of shear (obey
Newton's law of viscosity)

## Non Newtonian Fluid All fluids in which

shear stress is indirectly proportional to
deformation rate / rate of shear.

du
dy

## Example: Toothpaste and paint.

Newton's law of viscosity

## Example: Water, air and gasoline.

Classification of Fluid

## Plastic: Shear stress increases with the rate of

shear according to the relationship
= A + B du
dy

blood, ketchup

## latex , paper pulp , clay, milk

Water, air and gasoline
quicksand

## Where A, B and n are constant.

If n = 1, material is known as Bingham
plastic
Pseudo-plastic: Dynamic viscosity increases as
the rate of shear increases
Dilatant: Dynamic viscosity increases as the rate
of shear increases

## Weather & Climate

Thunderstorm

Global Climate

Hurricanes

Fluids omnipresent
Weather & climate
Vehicles
Environment
Physiology and medicine
Sports & recreation
Industrial system

Vehicles
Aircraft

High-speed rail

Environment

Surface ships
Air pollution

River hydraulics

Submarines

Blood pump

## Sports & Recreation

Water sports

Auto racing

Cycling

Offshore racing

Surfing

Industrial system

## Hydraulic power system

(water jet)

Catalytic crackers