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Objectives

Student should be able to:


Define fluid
Classify the type of fluid and its physical
behaviors.
Paraphrase examples of fluid system.

CLB 11003
Fluid Mechanics
Chapter 1:
Introduction to Fluid Systems

History

Fluid Mechanics

Faces of Fluid Mechanics

Archimedes

Newton

Bernoulli

Reynolds

(C. 287-212 BC)

(1642-1727)

(1667-1748)

(1842-1912)

Navier

Stokes

(1785-1836)

(1819-1903)

What is fluids?
Substance:
In the liquid or gas phase.
That tends to flow and to conform to the
outline of its container
Which deforms continuously under the
action of shearing forces.

Science that deals with;


behavior of fluids (liquid or gas) at rest
(static) or in motion (dynamics).
Interaction of fluids with solids or other
fluids at the boundaries

Differences between Solid and


Fluid
Fluid

Solid

Shear stress is proportional


to rate of strain.

Shear stress is proportional


to strain, providing that the
elastic limit is not exceeded.

Deforms continuously under Can resist applied shear


action of shearing forces.
stress ( ) by deforming.

Contact area,
A

Shear stress
= F/A

Force in a Fluid
Force, F

Surface force
Force per unit surface area or STRESS

Deformed

rubber

z
x

Shear strain,
(angle of deformation /
angular displacement)

Deformation of rubber eraser placed between two


parallel plates under the influence of shear force.

Differences between Gas and


Liquid
Liquid

x
y

Fluid surface in x-y plane

Stress in z direction above, normal or


perpendicular to surface is called PRESSURE
x and y coordinate stresses, parallel to surface
are SHEAR STRESS

Behavior of a fluid in a container

Gas

Almost incompressible.

Easy to compress - Changes of


gas pressure and volume
accompanied by a change in
temperature

Given mass of liquid occupies


a fixed volume, irrespective of
the size or shape of its
container.

Given mass of gas has no fixed


volume, it changes volume to
expand to fill the containing
vessel.

Free surface is formed if the


volume of the container is
greater than that of the liquid.

Gas will completely fill the vessel,


so no free surface is formed.

Classification of Fluid

Classification of Fluid

Newtonian Fluid all fluids in which shear


stress is directly proportional to the
deformation rate / rate of shear (obey
Newton's law of viscosity)

Non Newtonian Fluid All fluids in which


shear stress is indirectly proportional to
deformation rate / rate of shear.

du
dy

Example: Toothpaste and paint.


Newton's law of viscosity

Example: Water, air and gasoline.

Classification of Fluid

Plastic: Shear stress increases with the rate of


shear according to the relationship
= A + B du
dy

Toothpaste, sludge, paint,


blood, ketchup

latex , paper pulp , clay, milk


Water, air and gasoline
quicksand

Example of Fluid System

Where A, B and n are constant.


If n = 1, material is known as Bingham
plastic
Pseudo-plastic: Dynamic viscosity increases as
the rate of shear increases
Dilatant: Dynamic viscosity increases as the rate
of shear increases

Weather & Climate


Tornadoes

Thunderstorm

Global Climate

Hurricanes

Fluids omnipresent
Weather & climate
Vehicles
Environment
Physiology and medicine
Sports & recreation
Industrial system

Vehicles
Aircraft

High-speed rail

Environment

Surface ships
Air pollution

River hydraulics

Submarines

Physiology and Medicine


Blood pump

Ventricular assist device

Sports & Recreation


Water sports

Auto racing

Cycling

Offshore racing

Surfing

Industrial system

Hydraulic power system


(water jet)

Catalytic crackers