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Jay Phelan

What Is Life? A Guide To Biology


Second Edition
CHAPTER 7

Genes and Inheritance

2012 W. H. Freeman and Company

Mendel figured out the rules of genetics by working with


pea plants. Why were these plants a good tool for Mendel
to use to answer his questions about inheritance?

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21

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ab
o.
..

e.
..

17

Al
l

of
t

he

de
fin
ly

ew
gr
Th
ey

In
di

vid

ua
lp

la.

qu
ic .
..

..

4.

25% 25% 25% 25%

ar

2.
3.

Individual plants could be self-fertilized or


cross-fertilized with other individuals.
They grew quickly (short generation time).
Clearly defined traits (yellow vs. green) were
observed.
All of the above.

Cl
e

1.

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19

20

Three Ideas Mendel Used for


Explaining This Pattern of
Inheritance
1)

Each parent puts into every sperm or egg it makes a


single set of instructions for building the trait.

Three Ideas Mendel


Used for Explaining
This Pattern of
Inheritance
2)

Offspring thus find themselves with two copies of


the instructions for any trait (called alleles).

Three Ideas Mendel


Used for Explaining
This Pattern of
Inheritance
3)

The actual trait produced by an individual depends


on the two copies of the gene that they inherit
from their parents.

homozygous and heterozygous

Which example is the genotype of a truebreeding plant?

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he
of
t

co
p

Al
l

On
e

15

ab
o.
..

nd

yo
ft

20% 20% 20%

h.
..

so
f.
..
ie
co
p

o
Tw

Tw

co
p

ie

so
f.
..

20% 20%

1a

1. Two copies of the purple allele


2. Two copies of the white allele
3. One copy of the purple and one
copy of the white allele.
4. 1 and 2
5. All of the above

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18

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20

If an albino woman marries a man that is


heterozygous for albinism, what is the
probability that they will have an albino child?

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12

13

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15

16

20%

17

20%

10
0%

20%

75
%

20%

25
%

20%

50
%

0%
25%
50%
75%
100%

0%

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

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20

If you are unable to roll your tongue,


what is your genotype?
25%

Rr

25%

25%

1o

r2

25%

rr

RR
Rr
rr
1 or 2

RR

1.
2.
3.
4.

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If you have free earlobes, what is your


genotype?
25%

25%

25%

1o

r2

Ee

ee

EE
Ee
ee
1 or 2

EE

1.
2.
3.
4.

25%

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20

You mate a pigmented male alligator to a female


albino alligator. The clutch of baby alligators
includes both pigmented and albino individuals.
What is the genotype of the father?
25%

25%

...

eq
1

an

ar
e

25%

25%

MM
Mm
mm
1 and 2 are equally
possible.

1.
2.
3.
4.

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What is the genotype of the paternal


grandmother?
1.

Homozygous
recessive
Heterozygous
Homozygous
dominant
Cannot be
determined

2.
3.
4.

..
te
.

...
Ca
n

no
t

be

de

sd
om
oz
yg
ou

Ho
m

Ho
m

He
te
r

oz
yg
ou

sr
ec
..

oz
yg
ou
s

25% 25% 25% 25%

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12

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20

The gene for aldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH) is incompletely


dominant. A woman who is heterozygous for this gene (ADH+/ADH)
marries a man who is homozygous for the normal allele (ADH+/
ADH+). What is the probability that they will have heterozygous
children?

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25%

17

18

25%

25%

2/
3

1/
4

25%

3/
4

1/4
1/2
3/4
2/3

1/
2

1.
2.
3.
4.

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The sickle-cell allele is particularly common


among people of African descent
It increases resistance against malaria

Close match between


distribution of sickle-cell
allele and malaria

If a male is colorblind, from whom did he inherit the condition?

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25

26

27

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11

12

13

14

15

16

er

25%

Au
nt

25%

fa
th

Fa
th
e

25%

25%

Gr
an
d

Mother
Father
Grandfather
Aunt

ot
he
r

1.
2.
3.
4.

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18

19

20

In which example below will there


be a chance of a daughter being
colorblind?

25% 25% 25% 25%

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. ..
an
d

s..
.
ha
Ch
oi
ce

s2

ho
A

al

al

ew

ew

ho

ho

ha

is

s..
.

.. .

4.

ew

3.

al

2.

A male who is colorblind marries a female who is a


carrier for colorblindness.
A male who has normal vision marries a female who is
a carrier for colorblindness.
A male who has normal vision marries a female who is
colorblind.
Choices 2 and 3 are correct.

1.

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20

Color resembles snowy


background in winter

Some alleles are


heat-sensitive
Arctic foxes
make fur
pigment only
when the
Color resembles
weather is
tundra background
warm
in summer